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1

Inclusion Complexation of Phenol Derivatives with a ?-Cyclodextrin Based Polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion of four phenol derivatives into a crosslinked ?-CD polymer was studied at pH 9. Under these conditions guests are partially deprotonated and ?-CD based polymer remains neutral. In order to rationalize the inclusion behavior of these phenolic guests, a theoretical analysis was performed based on weighted global reactivity descriptors and weighted desolvation free energies of the guests. Global reactivity

Jessica Flores; Verónica Jiménez; Julio Belmar; Héctor D. Mansilla; Joel B. Alderete

2005-01-01

2

A ?-cyclodextrin duplex connected with two disulfide bonds: synthesis, structure and inclusion complexes.  

PubMed

Per(2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl)-?-cyclodextrin was debenzylated by DIBAL-H to produce a mixture of C6(I),C6(IV) and C6(I),C6(V) isomeric diols, which were separated and isolated. The C2-symmetrical C6(I),C6(V) diol was transformed into dithiol and dimerized to produce a ?-cyclodextrin duplex structure. A crystal structure revealed tubular cavity whose peripheries are slightly elliptically distorted. The solvent accessible volume of the cavity of the ?-CD duplex is about 740 Å(3). Due to this large inner space the duplex forms very stable inclusion complexes with steroids; bile acids examined in this study show binding affinities to the ?-cyclodextrin duplex in the range of 5.3 × 10(7) M(-1)-1.9 × 10(8) M(-1). PMID:25616110

Volkov, Sergey; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Bud?šínský, Miloš; Lepšík, Martin; Dušek, Michal; Kraus, Tomáš

2015-02-24

3

Synthesis of the novel ?-cyclodextrin-chromophore inclusion compound and research on the electro-optic activity of its systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second order nonlinear (NLO) optics, interchromophore electrostatic interactions have been suggested as a major challenge of the poor efficiency in the poling induced polar order. In this article, we formed a ?-cyclodextrinchromophore inclusion compound by embedding a dumb-bell shape chromophore in a ?-cyclodextrin. Compared to hyperbranched chromophores, this inclusion compound could create a 360° steric hindrance and pull the distance between molecules. Then this inclusion compound could prevent chromophore aggregation and minimize the interactions which hamper higher nonlinear optical activity. The method of the refractive index for electro-optic materials which can determine the degree of chromophore aggregation in polymers was first proposed and confirmed in this work. These properties have provided a great promise in the fabrication of EO materials and devices.

Bo, Shuhui; Chen, Zhuo; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou

2011-10-01

4

[Impact of drug molecules on HP-?-CD compound inclusion].  

PubMed

To study the interaction of drugs of different properties, namely puerarin, borneol and catalpol in the process of in- clusion, in order to explore the inclusion regularity of multi-component and multi-property traditional Chinese medicine compound in- clusions. With HP-?-CD as the inclusion material, the freeze-drying method was used to prepare the inclusion. The inclusion between puerarin, borneol and catalpol was tested by measuring the inclusion concentration, DSC and X-ray diffraction. According to the find- ings, when insoluble drugs puerarin and borneol were included simultaneously, and puerarin was overdosed, puerarin included was almost equal to puerarin included, and borneol was not included. When puerarin was under-dosed, and HP-?-CD was overdosed, borne- ol was included, and the simultaneous inclusion was lower than the separate inclusion of borneol. When water-soluble drug catalpol was jointly included with puerarin or borneol, the simultaneous inclusion was almost the same with their separate inclusion, without charac- teristic peak of catalpol in DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns. There is a competition in the simultaneous inclusion between water-solu- ble drugs puerarin and borneol and a stronger competition in puerarin. The water-soluble drug catalpol could be included with HP-?-CD with no impact on the inclusion of puerarin or borneol. PMID:25423828

Tang, Dan-Dan; Li, Na; Wang, Li-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Fen; Xu, Xiao-Yu

2014-08-01

5

[Impact of drug molecules on HP-?-CD compound inclusion].  

PubMed

To study the interaction of drugs of different properties, namely puerarin, borneol and catalpol in the process of in- clusion, in order to explore the inclusion regularity of multi-component and multi-property traditional Chinese medicine compound in- clusions. With HP-?-CD as the inclusion material, the freeze-drying method was used to prepare the inclusion. The inclusion between puerarin, borneol and catalpol was tested by measuring the inclusion concentration, DSC and X-ray diffraction. According to the find- ings, when insoluble drugs puerarin and borneol were included simultaneously, and puerarin was overdosed, puerarin included was almost equal to puerarin included, and borneol was not included. When puerarin was under-dosed, and HP-?-CD was overdosed, borne- ol was included, and the simultaneous inclusion was lower than the separate inclusion of borneol. When water-soluble drug catalpol was jointly included with puerarin or borneol, the simultaneous inclusion was almost the same with their separate inclusion, without charac- teristic peak of catalpol in DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns. There is a competition in the simultaneous inclusion between water-solu- ble drugs puerarin and borneol and a stronger competition in puerarin. The water-soluble drug catalpol could be included with HP-?-CD with no impact on the inclusion of puerarin or borneol. PMID:25507550

Tang, Dan-Dan; Li, Na; Wang, Li-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Fen; Xu, Xiao-Yu

2014-08-01

6

Twinning, Epitaxy and Domain Switching in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research is in the area of solid-state organic chemistry, which lies at the interface between physical organic chemistry and materials science. We use crystalline solids as models to probe fundamental issues about physical processes, molecular interactions and chemical reactions that are important for fabrication, stabilization and application of technological materials. Much of our most recent work has focused on the phenomena of ferroelastic and ferroelectric domain switching, in which application of an external force or electric field to a crystal causes the molecules inside the crystal to reorient, in tandem, to a new orientational state. To better understand and control the domain switching process, we have designed and synthesized over twenty closely related, ferroelastic organic crystals. Our approach has been to use crystalline inclusion compounds, in which one molecule (the guest) is trapped within the crystalline framework of a second molecule (the host). By keeping the host constant and varying the proportions and kinds of guests, it has been possible to tailor these materials so that domain switching is rapid and reversible (which is desirable for high technology applications). Inclusion compounds therefore serve as powerful systems for understanding the specific molecular mechanisms that control domain switching.

Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Peterson, Matthew L.

2003-01-01

7

[Study on the inclusion compound of avermectin by infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the formation and effect of inclusion complex of Avermectin-beta-cyclodextrin based on the accommodation property of beta-cyclodextrin's molecular cavity. The inclusion complex of Averrnectin-beta-cyclodextrin was prepared using saturated solution method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine its entraping efficiency. The formation of Avermectin-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was also demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy(IR). The change of chemical structure produced by photocatalysis of Abamectin was analyzed and the effect of inclusion complex to strengthen the photolysis stability of Abamectin's chemical structure was studied. The results show that the entraping efficiency of the inclusion complex was 40. 5%. The IR analysis presents that the intermolecular hydrogen bond was formed in the Avermectin-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex, indicating the composition effect was different from physical mixture. The lactones structure of Avermectin Bla can be photodecomposed and disrupted. After decomposition, the infrared stretching vibration peak of C-O-C structure disappeared and the lactone bond was significantly broken. The lactones structure of avermectin Bla was covered by the inclusion molecular loci in beta-cyclodextrin after the formation of avermectin-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex, providing a good photophobic protection for C-O-C structure in the macrocyclic lactone structure of avermectin Bla and improving the photostability of avermectin Bla molecule. The innovation of this study is that the structure and the characters of the prepared avermectin-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex were analyzed using spectrum methods. This inclusion complex is expected to be the ideal intermediate in the construction of protective controlled release formulation of avermectin. PMID:25095407

Shen, Wen; Zhang, Guang-Hua; Guo, Ning; Li, Yun-Tao

2014-05-01

8

High-pressure/low-temperature neutron scattering of gas inclusion compounds: Progress and prospects  

PubMed Central

Alternative energy resources such as hydrogen and methane gases are becoming increasingly important for the future economy. A major challenge for using hydrogen is to develop suitable materials to store it under a variety of conditions, which requires systematic studies of the structures, stability, and kinetics of various hydrogen-storing compounds. Neutron scattering is particularly useful for these studies. We have developed high-pressure/low-temperature gas/fluid cells in conjunction with neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering instruments allowing in situ and real-time examination of gas uptake/release processes. We studied the formation of methane and hydrogen clathrates, a group of inclusion compounds consisting of frameworks of hydrogen-bonded H2O molecules with gas molecules trapped inside the cages. Our results reveal that clathrate can store up to four hydrogen molecules in each of its large cages with an intermolecular H2–H2 distance of only 2.93 ?. This distance is much shorter than that in the solid/metallic hydrogen (3.78 ?), suggesting a strong densification effect of the clathrate framework on the enclosed hydrogen molecules. The framework-pressurizing effect is striking and may exist in other inclusion compounds such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Owing to the enormous variety and flexibility of their frameworks, inclusion compounds may offer superior properties for storage of hydrogen and/or hydrogen-rich molecules, relative to other types of compounds. We have investigated the hydrogen storage properties of two MOFs, Cu3[Co(CN)6]2 and Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = benzenetricarboxylate), and our preliminary results demonstrate that the developed neutron-scattering techniques are equally well suited for studying MOFs and other inclusion compounds. PMID:17389387

Zhao, Yusheng; Xu, Hongwu; Daemen, Luke L.; Lokshin, Konstantin; Tait, Kimberly T.; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Junhua; Currier, Robert P.; Hickmott, Donald D.

2007-01-01

9

Crystal structures of inclusion compounds of 4-aminobenzenesulfamidine (sulfaguanidine) with two dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structures of inclusion compounds of 4-aminobenzenesulfamidine (sulfaguanidine) (L) with two dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH-6) isomers A(cis-syn-cis) and B(cis-anti-cis) have been determined by X-ray methods. The complexes exhibit 1:2 host-guest ratios. In fact the complex of isomer A is formulated as [DCH-6A·[L]H2O]L (complexI), while that of isomerB is DCH-6BL2 (complex I1).

Yurij Simonov; Luigi Pietro Battaglia; Anna Bonamartini Corradi; Sandra Ianelli; Giorgio Pelosi; Edward Ganin; Nicolaj Lukjanenko

1990-01-01

10

High-pressure-induced phase transitions in the ferroelectric bis-thiourea pyridinium iodide inclusion compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of temperature and pressure on physical properties of the ferroelectric bis-thiourea pyridinium iodide inclusion compound has been studied by dielectric spectroscopy, neutron spectroscopy, neutron powder diffractometry, single crystal x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). At ambient pressure two structural phase transitions have been revealed: at T1 = 161 K between phases I and II and at T2 = 141 K between phases II and III. Phase III with increasing pressure splits into two phases, IIIa and IIIb. The temperatures of the phase transitions TI-II, TII-IIIa and TIIIa-IIIb increase with increasing pressure. The p-T phase diagram constructed for this compound shows two triple points of coordinates 150 K, 100 MPa and 115 K, 100 MPa.

Bilski, P.; Bobrowicz-Sarga, L.; Czarnecki, P.; Ma?uszy?ska, H.; Natkaniec, I.; W?sicki, J.

2008-12-01

11

Preferential adhesion of silver nanoparticles onto crystal faces of alpha-cyclodextrin/carboxylic acids inclusion compounds.  

PubMed

Alpha-Cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) inclusion compounds containing the carboxylic acids (octanoic, decanoic, lauric or dodecanoic, myristic or tetradecanoic, palmitic or hexadecanoic and stearic or octadecanoic) as guests were synthesized and applied for preferential adhesion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The binding affinity depends of the chain length of the respective guest and is most efficient for octanoic and decanoic acids. The immobilization of nanoparticles is caused by the spatial replacing of the stabilized shell of the nanoparticles by COOH groups of the guests molecules, located at the entrance of cavity of alpha-CD, corresponding to the {001} crystal plane. Crystalline coating with nanoparticles provides a means of storing of AgNPs on solids state without aggregation. The stabilization of the particles on the surface is valid for a given length and ordering of the guest in the cavities of the alpha-CD being the octanoic and decanoic acid the most appropriated. PMID:23447940

Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Jara, P; Yutronic, N; Noyong, M; Fischler, M; Simon, U

2012-12-01

12

Probing of some compounds as anti-aggregatory additives in the protein refolding process from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.  

PubMed

Five compounds of different chemical structure were tested for aggregation suppression during the refolding of porcine and mink growth hormones as model proteins from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies by the dilution method. Of all compounds tested in this work, 3-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) containing a guanidinium group was the most effective additive for aggregation suppression. Anti-aggregatory properties of GPA were compared with the ones of l-arginine. PMID:21838803

Zilinskas, Albinas; Sereikaite, Jolanta

2011-01-01

13

Structure of and hydrogen bonding in a 3:2 inclusion compound of N-methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride with acetonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride (MMB·HCl) forms a 3:2 inclusion compound with acetonitrile. The crystal structure of the compound has been determined at 100K from a twinned crystal to be trigonal with the space group P3; a=b=16.767(2), c=6.996(1)A?,?=120°. The host framework is constructed from the ionic pairs formed by the chlorine anion and the protonated, at the carboxylate group, betaine cation. The

Z. Dega-Szafran; M. Szafran; A. Antkowiak; M. Grundwald-Wyspianska; E. Nowak; M. Gdaniec; Z. Kosturkiewicz

2002-01-01

14

FT-Raman and FT-IR studies of 1:2.5 piroxicam: ?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of amorphous 1:2.5 piroxicam (P): ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) inclusion compound (P?CD) are presented and discussed in comparison with the spectra of the three main modifications of piroxicam (?,? and monohydrate). In the 1700-1200 cm -1 FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 P?CD inclusion compound the bands of ?CD are weak and covered by those stronger of piroxicam, differently from the FT-IR spectrum where the bands of ?CD are stronger, so covering a large part of the spectrum. Typical FT-Raman marker bands are assigned for the characterization of the three modifications of piroxicam. The FT-Raman spectrum of 1:2.5 P?CD inclusion compound predominantly shows the bands at about 1465 and 1400 cm -1 of the monohydrate, indicating that piroxicam assumes the zwitterionic structure stabilized by interaction with ?CD via electrostatic and hydrogen bonds. The dipolar character of 1:2.5 P?CD inclusion compound improves the solubility and the dissolution rate of piroxicam and thus its rate of absorption.

Bertoluzza, A.; Rossi, M.; Taddei, P.; Redenti, E.; Zanol, M.; Ventura, P.

1999-05-01

15

Synthesis and spectral investigation of Al(III) catechin/beta-cyclodextrin and Al(III) quercetin/beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds.  

PubMed

Al-catechin/beta-cyclodextrin and Al-quercetin/beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR and TG and DTA analyses. Because quercetin is sparingly soluble in water, the stability constants of the Al-quercetin/beta-CD and Al-catechin/beta-CD compounds were determined by phase solubility studies. The AL-type diagrams indicated the formation of 1:1 inclusion compounds and allowed calculation of the stability constants. The thermodynamic parameters were obtained from the dependence of the stability constants on temperature and results indicated that the formation of the inclusion compounds is an enthalpically driven process. The thermal decomposition of the solid Al-quercetin/beta-CD and Al-catechin/beta-CD inclusion compounds took place at different stages, compared with the respective precursors, proving that an inclusion complexation process really occurred. PMID:18054838

Dias, Karina; Nikolaou, Sofia; De Giovani, Wagner F

2008-06-01

16

The Personing of Neutral Inclusivity: Tracing the Spread of person Compounds in Occupational Naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist linguistic reforms provide an example of planned social language change that seeks to ensure inclusivity and equality in the linguistic representation of women and men. Gender-neutralisation has been promoted as the preferred strategy for gender- inclusive representations in English. The strategy has included options such as lexical replacement, e.g., flight attendant instead of hostess; neologisms such as firefighter for

Joanne Winter; Anne Pauwels

17

Study of the inclusion compounds formed between ?-cyclodextrin and high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(?-caprolactone)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the formation of high molecular weight polymer inclusion compounds (ICs) between ?-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (Mn = 100 kg mol?1), and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) (Mn = 40 kg mol?1). Both high molecular weight polymer ICs were successfully made by ultrasonic and heating techniques. Dsc, tga, X-ray diffraction, FT i.r. and solid state 13C n.m.r. were utilized to observe

Lei Huang; Emily Allen; Alan E. Tonelli

1998-01-01

18

Improving ITC studies of cyclodextrin inclusion compounds by global analysis of conventional and non-conventional experiments  

PubMed Central

Summary The study of 1:1 cyclodextrin inclusion compounds by isothermal titration calorimetry was explored in a theoretical and experimental point of view to compare the efficiency of conventional and non-conventional experiments. All direct and competitive protocols were described and evaluated in terms of accuracy on both binding constant and inclusion enthalpy. Significant improvement in the calorimetric characterization may be obtained by means of the global analysis of non-conventional experiments coupled to the standard titration protocol. While the titration-release approach proved to be the most accurate strategy for classical complexations, the valuable contribution of other non-conventional experiments was demonstrated for issues concerning weak stability, enthalpy, or solubility. PMID:25550724

Bertaut, Eléonore

2014-01-01

19

Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds  

PubMed Central

In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

van den Berg, Martin

2013-01-01

20

Inclusion Compounds of NaI with 13-Membered Azo and Azoxycrown Ethers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium iodide complexes of 13-membered azo-(I)and azoxycrown ethers (II) have been synthesized. Compound I[Na(L1 trans)2]·I·H2O is triclinic witha = 11.53(2), b = 15.74(2), c = 19.17(2) Å,a = 98.93(9), ß = 105.51(9),? = 89.20(9) deg.; Z = 4, space groupP1. Compound II [Na(L2)2]·I is orthorhombic witha = 12.451(2), b = 13.796(3), c = 18.667(4)Å; Z = 4, space group P212121.

Yu. A. SIMONOV; E. LUBOCH; J. F. BIERNAT; N. V. BOLOTINA; V. E. ZAVODNIK

1997-01-01

21

Inclusion compounds between ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: iron II lactate: a theoretical and experimental study using diffusion coefficients and molecular mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was ?-CD>?-CD>?-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

2003-01-01

22

An orally active angiotensin-(1-7) inclusion compound and exercise training produce similar cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Low angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) concentration is observed in some cardiovascular diseases and exercise training seems to restore its concentration in the heart. Recently, a novel formulation of an orally active Ang-(1-7) included in hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD) was developed and chronically administered in experimental models of cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined whether chronic administration of HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) produces beneficial cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as to compare the results obtained with those produced by exercise training. Male SHR (15-week old) were divided in control (tap water) or treated with HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) (corresponding to 30?gkg(-1)day(-1) of Ang-(1-7)) by gavage, concomitantly or not to exercise training (treadmill, 10 weeks). After chronic treatment, hemodynamic, morphometric and molecular analysis in the heart were performed. Chronic HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in SHR. The inclusion compound significantly improved left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, restored the maximum and minimum derivatives (dP/dT) and decreased cardiac hypertrophy index in SHR. Chronic treatment improved autonomic control by attenuating sympathetic modulation on heart and vessels and the SAP variability, as well as increasing parasympathetic modulation and HR variability. Overall results were similar to those obtained with exercise training. These results show that chronic treatment with the HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) inclusion compound produced beneficial effects in SHR resembling the ones produced by exercise training. This observation reinforces the potential cardiovascular therapeutic effect of this novel peptide formulation. PMID:24262271

Bertagnolli, Mariane; Casali, Karina R; De Sousa, Frederico B; Rigatto, Katya; Becker, Lenice; Santos, Sergio H S; Dias, Lucinara D; Pinto, Graziela; Dartora, Daniela R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Milan, Ruben Dario Sinisterra; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A S

2014-01-01

23

Urea Inclusion Compound-Based Fractionation for the Eco-Friendly Purification of Ethyl Ferulate in a Bio-Based Sunscreen Product Stream  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Urea inclusion compound (UIC)-based fractionation of free fatty acids (FFA) has been employed for over 50 years on both analytical and preparative scales. This approach, which fractionates lipids, mainly based on their degree of saturation, has potential value as a large-scale and continuous-mode p...

24

N-H...S and C-H...S hydrogen bonds in two tetraalkylammonium dithiobiurea(1-) inclusion compounds.  

PubMed

Two inclusion compounds of dithiobiurea and tetrapropylammonium and tetrabutylammonium are characterized and reported, namely tetrapropylammonium carbamothioyl(carbamothioylamino)azanide, C12H28N(+)·C2H5N4S2(-), (1), and tetrabutylammonium carbamothioyl(carbamothioylamino)azanide, C16H36N(+)·C2H5N4S2(-), (2). The results show that in (1), the dithiobiurea anion forms a dimer via N-H...N hydrogen bonds and the dimers are connected into wide hydrogen-bonded ribbons. The guest tetrapropylammonium cation changes its character to become the host molecule, generating pseudo-channels containing the aforementioned ribbons by C-H...S contacts, yielding the three-dimensional network structure. In comparison, in (2), the dithiobiurea anions are linked via N-H...S interactions, producing one-dimensional chains which pack to generate two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded layers. These layers accommodate the guest tetrabutylammonium cations, resulting in a sandwich-like layer structure with host-guest C-H...S contacts. PMID:25836278

Guo, Hao; Wu, Jinfeng

2015-04-01

25

Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

2015-01-01

26

The Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound ST-669 Restricts Chlamydial Inclusion Development and Bacterial Growth and Localizes to Host Cell Lipid Droplets within Treated Cells  

PubMed Central

Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

Sandoz, Kelsi M.; Valiant, William G.; Eriksen, Steven G.; Hruby, Dennis E.; Allen, Robert D.

2014-01-01

27

Fully quantal calculation of H2 translation-rotation states in the (p-H2)2@51264 clathrate hydrate inclusion compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H2)2@51264 clathrate hydrate inclusion compound have been computed. The ten-dimensional problem (in the rigid-cage and rigid-H2 approximation) is solved by first approximating the H2 moieties as spherically symmetric and solving for their 6D translational eigenstates. These are then combined with H2 free rotational states in a product basis that is used to diagonalize the full TR hamiltonian. The computed low-energy eigenstates have translational components that are essentially identical to the 6D translational eigenstates and rotational components that are 99.9% composed of rotationally unexcited H2 moieties. In other words, TR coupling is minimal for the low-energy states of the species. The low-energy level structure is found to be substantially more congested than that of the more tightly packed (p-H2)4@51264 clathrate species. The level structure is also shown to be understandable in terms of a model of (H2)2 as a semirigid diatomic species consisting of two spherically symmetric H2 pseudo-atoms.

Felker, Peter M.

2014-11-01

28

Homogeneous assay for measuring low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum with triblock copolymer and a-cyclodextrin sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a fully automated method for mea- suring LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in human serum with- out the need for prior separation, using a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolyether (POE-POP), and a sodium salt of sulfated cyclic maltohexaose, a-cyclodextrin sulfate. Of the sur- factants tested, POE-POP with a higher molecular mass of the POP block and a greater hydrophobicity reduced

Hiroyuki Sugiuchi; Tetsumi Irie; Yoshinori Uji; Tomohiro Ueno; Toshiko Chaen; Kaneto Uekama; Hiroaki Okabe

29

Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: i) the prevention of post- operative infections, ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalisation of the PET fibres of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin - citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl -cyclodextrin (HP-CD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1g/L of MB solution for 150 minutes was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg/g of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD. PMID:24115391

Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, Hf; Martel, B

2013-09-30

30

Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: (i) the prevention of postoperative infections, (ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalization of the PET fibers of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin-citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP-?CD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1 g L(-1) of MB solution for 150 min was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg g(-1) of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD. PMID:24123800

Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

2014-09-01

31

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Konstantinos Alexakos

2001-03-01

32

Specific binding of a ?-cyclodextrin dimer to the amyloid ? peptide modulates the peptide aggregation process.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease involves progressive neuronal loss. Linked to the disease is the amyloid ? (A?) peptide, a 38-43-amino acid peptide found in extracellular amyloid plaques in the brain. Cyclodextrins are nontoxic, cone-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic cavity making them suitable hosts for aromatic guest molecules in water. ?-Cyclodextrin consists of seven ?-d-glucopyranoside units and has been shown to reduce the level of fibrillation and neurotoxicity of A?. We have studied the interaction between A? and a ?-cyclodextrin dimer, consisting of two ?-cyclodextrin monomers connected by a flexible linker. The ?-cyclodextrin monomer has been found to interact with A?(1-40) at sites Y10, F19, and/or F20 with a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 3.9 ± 2.0 mM. Here (1)H-(15)N and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single-quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra show that in addition, the ?-cyclodextrin monomer and dimer bind to the histidines. NMR translational diffusion experiments reveal the increased affinity of the ?-cyclodextrin dimer (apparent K(D) of 1.1 ± 0.5 mM) for A?(1-40) compared to that of the ?-cyclodextrin monomer. Kinetic aggregation experiments based on thioflavin T fluorescence indicate that the dimer at 0.05-5 mM decreases the lag time of A? aggregation, while a concentration of 10 mM increases the lag time. The ?-cyclodextrin monomer at a high concentration decreases the lag time of the aggregation. We conclude that cyclodextrin monomers and dimers have specific, modulating effects on the A?(1-40) aggregation process. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the regular fibrillar aggregates formed by A?(1-40) alone are replaced by a major fraction of amorphous aggregates in the presence of the ?-cyclodextrin dimer. PMID:22554145

Wahlström, Anna; Cukalevski, Risto; Danielsson, Jens; Jarvet, Jüri; Onagi, Hideki; Rebek, Julius; Linse, Sara; Gräslund, Astrid

2012-05-29

33

Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complex of ?-cyclodextrin and Azomethine  

PubMed Central

A ?-cyclodextrin (?-Cyd) inclusion complex containing azomethine as a guest was prepared by kneading method with aliquot addition of ethanol. The product was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), which proves the formation of the inclusion complex where the benzyl part of azomethine has been encapsulated by the hydrophobic cavity of ?-Cyd. The interaction of ?-Cyd and azomethine was also analyzed by means of spectrometry by UV-Vis spectrophotometer to determine the formation constant. The formation constant was calculated by using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation at 25 °C. The apparent formation constant obtained was 1.29 × 104 L/mol. Besides that, the stoichiometry ratio was also determined to be 1:1 for the inclusion complex of ?-Cyd with azomethine. PMID:23434664

Sambasevam, Kavirajaa Pandian; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad; Ismail, Nor Atiqah

2013-01-01

34

CALCULATION OF INCLUSION COMPLEX OF A BINAPHTYL  

E-print Network

em- ployed in the enantioselective reactions. The inclusion complex study of this compound is important to offer information about the stable adduct in the catalytic reaction. In this study we present

Entel, P.

35

Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

Yang, Xiaoguang (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-11-13

36

Demystifying Inclusion: Implications for Sustainable Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that in the pursuit of influencing inclusive education development, definitions of inclusion have been promulgated that remain a distant concept in the minds of the most significant partners in this process, i.e. teachers and schools. This is despite best efforts to share ideas for sustainable change based on such definitions.…

Pather, Sulochini

2006-01-01

37

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

2013-01-01

38

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

39

Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, C.; Alexander, C.

1974-01-01

40

Jet inclusive cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

Del Duca, V.

1992-11-01

41

Thinking Theologically About Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the nature of disability is followed by the author's apologia for the development of an inclusive theology rather than a liberation theology. Inclusion of persons with disabilities in communities of faith raises the questions: Who is the person to be included? Who is the community in which the person would be included? Two overarching theological themes, the

Barbara J. Hedges-Goettl

2002-01-01

42

Conclusions on Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inclusion classroom is defined as one that is tasked with mainstreaming special education students into a population of general education students. In this brief article, the author, a high school mathematics teacher, shares his personal experiences in teaching in an inclusion classroom. A primary focus is his relationship with the special…

Fink, John

2004-01-01

43

Resources on Inclusive Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information packet is intended for use by teachers, parents, administrators, therapists, advocates, and others interested in achieving inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Part I provides reprints of selected readings, including: "Sample Case Studies of Inclusive Education" (Janet Duncan); "Public Schools…

Hulgin, Kathy, Ed.

44

Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

Mamas, Christoforos

2013-01-01

45

Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

46

Stochastic evolution inclusions   

E-print Network

This work is concerned with an evolution inclusion of a form, in a triple of spaces \\V -> H -> V*", where U is a continuous non-decreasing process, M is a locally square-integrable martingale and the operators A ...

Bocharov, Boris

2010-01-01

47

Limitations of inclusive fitness  

PubMed Central

Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

2013-01-01

48

Visualization of structural information: automatic drawing of compound digraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic method for drawing compound digraphs that contain both inclusion edges and adjacency edges are presented. In the method vertices are drawn as rectangles (areas for texts, images, etc.), inclusion edges by the geometric inclusion among the rectangles, and adjacency edges by arrows connecting them. Readability elements such as drawing conventions and rules are identified, and a heuristic algorithm

Kozo Sugiyama; Kazuo Misue

1991-01-01

49

Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

2011-01-01

50

Novel inclusion in laser crystals  

SciTech Connect

In growing alexandrite crystals, a novel inclusion has been found. The inclusions are quantitatively analyzed by an electronic probe and the mechanism for forming inclusions is suggested. In our Bridgman MgF/sub 2/ crystals, the inclusions in <001> direction have also been observed.

Ma Xiaoshan; Wang Siting; Jin Zhongru; Shen Yafang; Chen Jiaguang

1986-12-01

51

Adaptation and inclusive fitness.  

PubMed

Inclusive fitness theory captures how individuals can influence the transmission of their genes to future generations by influencing either their own reproductive success or that of related individuals. This framework is frequently used for studying the way in which natural selection leads to organisms being adapted to their environments. A number of recent papers have criticised this approach, suggesting that inclusive fitness is just one of many possible mathematical methods for modelling when traits will be favoured by natural selection, and that it leads to errors, such as overemphasising the role of common ancestry relative to other mechanisms that could lead to individuals being genetically related. Here, we argue that these suggested problems arise from a misunderstanding of two fundamental points: first, inclusive fitness is more than just a mathematical 'accounting method' - it is the answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise; second, there is something special about relatedness caused by common ancestry, in contrast with the other mechanisms that may lead to individuals being genetically related, because it unites the interests of genes across the genome, allowing complex, multigenic adaptations to evolve. The critiques of inclusive fitness theory have provided neither an equally valid answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise, nor an alternative process to unite the interest of genes. Consequently, inclusive fitness remains the most general theory for explaining adaptation. PMID:23845249

West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

2013-07-01

52

Inclusion Body Myositis  

PubMed Central

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

2012-01-01

53

Structure of an inclusive compound of bis(piperidinium-4-carboxylate)hydrogen semi-tartrate with water and methanol studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, FTIR and DFT methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex consisting of two piperidine-4-carboxylic acid, L-tartaric acid, water and methanol molecules has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, 1H, 13C NMR, 13C CP MAS NMR, FTIR spectra and DFT calculations. The title complex is composed of the following units: piperidinium-4-carboxylate (P4C), piperidinium-4-carboxylic acid (P4CH), semi-tartrate anion (TA), water and methanol; it crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1. TA anions form infinite chains through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.503(5) Å. The zwitterionic P4C molecules are linked by the N +H···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.780(5) Å into chains. The P4CH cation is a bridge between the TA and P4C chains. P4CH and P4C form a homoconjugated cation through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.559(5) Å. Water interacts with TA and P4CH, while methanol interacts only with water. In the optimized molecule of the (P4C) 2H·TA·H 2O·HOCH 3 complex, the components form a cyclic oligomer through four O-H···O and four N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra elucidate the structure of the title complex in the aqueous solution. The 13C CP MAS NMR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The FTIR spectrum confirms a very complex structure of the title compound.

Dega-Szafran, Z.; Fojud, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

2009-06-01

54

Building Inclusive Schools. [Videotapes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of four short videocassettes promotes the use of promising practices advocating fully inclusive education for students with diverse learning abilities in their neighborhood schools. The first video, titled "Seven Steps to Problem Solving," presents a problem-solving process that empowers teams to work together to meet diverse students'…

Kansas Univ., Parsons. Schiefelbusch Inst. for Life Span Studies.

55

Inclusion. Inclusive ECCD: A Fair Start for All Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with special needs should be served within inclusive early childhood programs. Quality Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs provide a model to use when developing inclusive programs for children of all ages. This theme issue of "Coordinator's Notebook" focuses on the development of inclusive ECCD programs. The…

Evans, Judith L.; Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

1998-01-01

56

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA  

E-print Network

The H1 and Zeus collaborations have measured the inclusive diffractive DIS cross section ep -> eXp and these measurements are in good agreement within a normalisation uncertainty. Diffractive parton density functions (DPDFs) have been extracted from NLO QCD fits to inclusive measurements of diffractive DIS and the predictions of these DPDFs are compared with measurements of diffractive dijets in DIS, testing the validity of the factorisation approximations used in their extraction. H1 then use these diffractive dijets in DIS data to provide further constraints in a combined QCD fit, resulting in the next generation of DPDFs which have constrained the diffractive gluon at large momentum fractions. Finally, the predictions of DPDFs are compared to diffractive dijets in photoproduction where the issue of survival probability in a hadron-hadron environment can be studied.

Paul Laycock

2008-10-16

57

Alliance for Financial Inclusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI) works to provide "its members with the tools and resources to share and implement their knowledge of policies that increase access to financial services for the poor." This peer-to-peer learning model is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and works closely with many partners around the world. On its website, visitors can look over six different areas, such as the Global Policy Forum, News & Events, and Policy Areas. This last area provides highlights of AFI's work and policy outreach efforts concerning consumer protection, microcredit lending programs, and the metrics behind financial inclusion. The Global Policy Forum, AFI's keystone event, is hosted each year by a different member institution, in a different region of the world. Within this section, visitors will find links to past meetings and information sessions, previously held in such locations as Kuala Lumpur, Cape Town, and Bali. The site's Library is another great addition, including dozens of case studies, policy notes, special reports and video updates on how policymakers in developing countries are working on financial inclusion policy.

58

Inclusive Education in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

Kim, Yong-Wook

2014-01-01

59

Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping. These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels. We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature. Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC-MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed. ?? 1984.

Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K., Jr.; Oro, J.

1984-01-01

60

Singing and social inclusion.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

2014-01-01

61

Singing and social inclusion  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

2014-01-01

62

Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

2011-11-17

63

Asymmetric inclusion process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

2011-10-01

64

Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

Bigby, Christine

2012-01-01

65

Why Program Quality Matters for Early Childhood Inclusion: Recommendations for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only a handful of states address children with disabilities in their early child care quality rating systems. As a result, few states are evaluating the quality of inclusive programs and services. This problem is compounded by a lack of consensus on dimensions that define high quality inclusion and a need for additional measures of quality…

Buysse, Virginia; West, Tracey; Hollingsworth, Heidi

2009-01-01

66

Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

67

Compound Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Albert Einstein called compound interest the 8th wonder of the world. Find out why compound interest and the time value of money are so important. What is Interest Click on the following link to read about the different types of interest. Loans and Interest So why learn about compound interest? Using time and interest to your advantage, you can make more money than you have ever dreamed of. See how the time value of ...

Ms. Riches

2007-10-16

68

Study on the spectral and inclusion properties of a sensitive dye, 3-naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline, in solvents and ?-cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3-Naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (NPFP), a fluorogenic probe and its derivative NPFP-Phenylephrine were synthesized and their absorption and fluorescence properties were recorded in solvents of varying polarity. Spectroscopic studies reveal that, the solvatochromic behavior of the compounds depend not only on the polarity but also on the hydrogen-bonding properties of the solvents. The effects of ?-cyclodextrin on the fluorescence properties of both compounds were studied. It was found that there is an enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of labeled drug (NPFP-Phenylephrine) in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin. In the present study, the molecular motions of NPFP-Phenylephrine embedded in a ?-cyclodextrin cavity have been investigated by fluorescence techniques in steady-state and time resolved modes.

Varghese, Beena; Al-Busafi, Saleh N.; Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Kindy, Salma M. Z.

2015-02-01

69

Study on the spectral and inclusion properties of a sensitive dye, 3-naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline, in solvents and ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

3-Naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (NPFP), a fluorogenic probe and its derivative NPFP-Phenylephrine were synthesized and their absorption and fluorescence properties were recorded in solvents of varying polarity. Spectroscopic studies reveal that, the solvatochromic behavior of the compounds depend not only on the polarity but also on the hydrogen-bonding properties of the solvents. The effects of ?-cyclodextrin on the fluorescence properties of both compounds were studied. It was found that there is an enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of labeled drug (NPFP-Phenylephrine) in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin. In the present study, the molecular motions of NPFP-Phenylephrine embedded in a ?-cyclodextrin cavity have been investigated by fluorescence techniques in steady-state and time resolved modes. PMID:25448966

Varghese, Beena; Al-Busafi, Saleh N; Suliman, FakhrEldin O; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z

2015-02-01

70

Inclusive and Exclusive Quasifree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of the yield when an energetic nucleon interacts with the nucleus arises from quasifree scattering (QFS) collisions between the projectile and one of the constituent nucleons of the target. This has been the tacit assumption in many recent studies of inclusive (p,p ^') and (p,n) reactions, although detailed tests of this hypothesis have not been performed. Differences in the scattering observables between free NN scattering and QFS may provide a probe to help understand how the nuclear medium affects bound nucleon properties. Studies of the (p,p^' ) reaction primarily probe the isoscalar nuclear response whereas the (p,n) reaction is uniquely sensitive to the isovector response. We have measured inclusive (p,p^ ') and (p,n) and exclusive (p,2p) and (p,np) differential cross sections and analyzing powers from ^2H, ^{12 }C, and ^{40}Ca targets. These inclusive and exclusive data, acquired at 200 MeV incident proton energy, were measured concurrently to minimize possible systematic errors in their inter-comparison. In order to make np coincident measurements feasible, a large solid angle/efficiency neutron detector was designed and built. The central angle of the neutron detector, and hence the ejectile nucleon, was 30^circ . This angle was chosen to study the response at a momentum transfer of ~1.5 fm ^{-1}, to be compatible with earlier (p,p^') and (p,2p) QFS experiments. The associated nucleon was detected in a large solid angle array of NaI, enabling studies of the exclusive yields over roughly half the phase space expected for QFS. The missing mass resolution of this two arm detector system was sufficient to allow study of the strongly excited hole states for targets up to A = 40. By comparing inclusive to integrated exclusive cross sections, we can better test the assumptions of simple QFS and to what extent more complicated reaction dynamics such as multinucleon knockout and cluster knockout contribute to the yields. These data can be compared to various reaction models to test our understanding of the strong final state interactions as well as more fundamental predictions such as the QF peak position, width, energy and angle dependence. Exclusive cross section data impose an even stricter requirement on the reaction models. Measurements of the analyzing powers can be utilized to distinguish between various theoretical models. Relativistic dynamics calculations, for instance, predict strong suppression of the analysing powers with respect to free-space NN values. This has been suggested as a clear 'signature' of the importance of relativistic dynamics. Furthermore, these data may also be employed to compare between various reaction models such as the pseudoscalar/pseudovector ambiguity in the pi-N coupling vertex.

Carman, Daniel Scott

1995-01-01

71

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, P.

72

Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

Lim, Levan

2009-01-01

73

Inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin and the cisplatin analogues oxaliplatin, carboplatin and nedaplatin: A theoretical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics theoretical methodology has been applied in order to access and compare the relative stability of inclusion compounds formed by ?-CD and the platinum (II) based drugs carboplatin, oxaliplatin and nedaplatin. The relative stability of the studied inclusion compounds has been discussed based on the number and type of hydrogen bonds identified between host and guest molecules. The evaluated energies at B3LYP/6-31G ? level of theory strongly indicates that ?-CD forms stable supramolecular systems with all studied cisplatin analogues, being the carboplatin@?-CD found as the most favorable inclusion complex among the platinum (II) derivatives studied in the present paper.

Anconi, Cleber P. A.; da Silva Delgado, Luciano; Alves dos Reis, João B.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Costa, Luiz Antônio S.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.

2011-10-01

74

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

2015-01-01

75

Social inclusion and metrolingual practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all too often premised on an understanding of

Emi Otsuji; Alastair Pennycook

2011-01-01

76

"On Campus": Pioneering Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"On Campus" is an inclusive education initiative for persons with developmental disabilities at the University of Alberta. Now celebrating its 20th Anniversary, we pause to reflect on the implementation, structure, function and evolution of the program, the first of its kind globally. Increasing social change has led to more and more inclusive

Brown, Miranda; Fay-Verschurr, Franciess; Logan, Deanna; Rossiter, Lindsay

2007-01-01

77

In Support of Unfinished Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

2014-01-01

78

Inclusion: Who Wins? Who Loses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation paper reviews concerns regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. Misunderstandings of the student placement requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are discussed, as are misunderstandings regarding the difference between mainstreaming and inclusion. The lack of…

LoVette, Otis K.

79

Building Commitment to Responsible Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rationale for implementing a "responsible inclusion" model for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, and discusses critical components for such a program's development. A checklist of supports is presented, along with a process chart for depicting levels of commitment toward responsible inclusion. (CR)

Aiello, Jan; Bullock, Lyndal M.

1999-01-01

80

Serbian Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete "My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire" (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards…

Kalyva, Efrosini; Gojkovic, Dina; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

2007-01-01

81

Organosulfur Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts. This set of questions focuses on organosulfur compounds, with a special emphasis on thiols and sulfides.

Reich, Ieva

82

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

2010-08-10

83

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-22

84

Chemical microsensors  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

85

Multipurpose Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

1983-01-01

86

Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management  

E-print Network

disabilities, including autism, intellectual disability, and traumatic brain injury were of interest in this study. Further, this study was designed to determine how the teachers learned to expertly manage their inclusive classrooms. Eight teachers met criteria...

Montague, Marcia

2011-02-22

87

[Thermodynamically controlled deracemization utilizing inclusion complexation].  

PubMed

Utilizing host-guest inclusion complexation in the solid state, alpha-monosubstituted ketones were deracemized using optically active host compounds such as (-)-trans-2,3-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[5.4]decene (1a) under alkali conditions. This new method afforded optically active alpha-monosubstituted ketones in excellent yields with high enantiomeric excesses. For example, (+/-)-2-benzylcyclohexanone (2a) and (+/-)-3-benzylhexan-2-one (3c) were converted to the R-isomer (74% ee) and the S-isomer (96% ee), respectively, in quantitative yields. An x-ray crystallographic study elucidated the structure of the inclusion complex of 1a and (R)-2a. The study showed that the host molecules 1a ingeniously includes the guest molecule (R)-2a via hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. As an application of deracemization, coenzyme (R)-alpha-lipoic acid and (R)-(-)-epilachnene, the antipode of an defensive droplets from the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, were synthesized in short steps with>99% ee and 87% ee, respectively. PMID:18827463

Kaku, Hiroto

2008-10-01

88

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

Kramer, D.A.

2001-01-01

89

Nickel Compounds  

Cancer.gov

Nickel is a silvery-white metallic element found in the earth’s crust. It can be combined with other elements to form nickel compounds. Because of its unique properties, nickel has many industrial uses. Most nickel is used in metal alloys because it imparts useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

90

Aromatic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These organic chemistry quiz questions from the JCE question bank focus on the topic of aromatic compounds. Included in the quiz are questions on nomenclature, synthesis, electrophilic substitution, and huckel's rule. These questions provide great review and practice material for students.

Reich, Ieva

91

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

Kramer, D.A.

2006-01-01

92

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

Kramer, D.A.

2003-01-01

93

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-print Network

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24

94

Development of a myricetin/hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: preparation, characterization, and evaluation.  

PubMed

Myricetin shows low oral bioavailability (<10%) in rats due to poor aqueous solubility, though it has various pharmacological activities. Complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) is a potent pharmaceutical method to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The myricetin/HP-?-CD inclusion complex was prepared and confirmed by DSC, PXRD, and SEM. Here, the inclusion mode is described in detail with regard to structural and energetic aspects using a phase solubility diagram and 1H NMR, NOESY, and FT-IR spectra. The water solubility and dissolution rate of myricetin were greatly enhanced by forming the myricetin/HP-?-CD inclusion complex. Consequently, the oral bioavailability of the myricetin/HP-?-CD inclusion complex in rats was effectively increased 9.4-fold over free myricetin, and its antioxidant activity was also improved. The present study provides useful information for the potential application of complexation with myricetin, a naturally occurring hydrophobic phenolic compound in herbal medicine. PMID:24906763

Yao, Yashu; Xie, Yan; Hong, Chao; Li, Guowen; Shen, Hongyi; Ji, Guang

2014-09-22

95

Inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method.

Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S.; Stalin, Thambusamy

2014-08-01

96

HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund Inclusion Leadership Award for Exchange Programme  

E-print Network

HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund Inclusion Leadership Award for Exchange Programme of `Social Inclusion Activities Grants of HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund' merit preferential Application Guideline A. Objective The Award is supported by the HKU Class of 84 Inclusion Fund which was set

Tam, Vincent W. L.

97

Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

2004-01-01

98

Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

2014-01-01

99

The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

2010-01-01

100

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

Kramer, D.A.

2002-01-01

101

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2011-01-01

102

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2010-01-01

103

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

Kramer, D.A.

2007-01-01

104

Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine concentrations in the range of one weight percent. Visscher et al. (2004) proposed that chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) may have played a major role in the terrestrial end-Permian extinction. These CFCs are powerful catalysts for the breakdown of ozone, a process which can expose the biosphere to increased ultraviolet radiation. Measurements of elevated chlorine and fluorine from the Siberian Traps may thus provide a concrete source for CFCs that could have triggered this kill mechanism.

Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid

2010-05-01

105

Application of DNA chip scanning technology for automatic detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter; Virok, Dezso P

2014-01-01

106

Application of DNA Chip Scanning Technology for Automatic Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusions  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter

2014-01-01

107

Fun with Compound Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and create compound words We will be studying compound words! First we need to find out what a compound word is, go to this website and read about compound words.What is a compound word Now that you have read about compound words lets do some fun activities to help us review. First go to Compound word flashcards, here you will ...

Ms. Huggins

2012-04-12

108

Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

Rudd, Fern

109

Inclusive Education and School Restructuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on educating persons with disabilities and the move toward inclusive education and school restructuring are considered. Trends in the number of students with disabilities and placement patterns are briefly examined. Four categories of students that represent 95 percent of students served are identified: specific learning disabilities,…

Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

110

Collaboration for Inclusion: Practitioner Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration as a cornerstone of effective school inclusion is an idea that has high theoretical currency among many scholars in the areas of special education and educational leadership. The challenge for educational practitioners is to find ways to implement high-quality special education programs collaboratively amid the public call for school efficiency and accountability. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the qualitative

Rebecca Smith; Pauline Leonard

2005-01-01

111

Inclusive Education and the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

Allan, Julie

2014-01-01

112

Managing Special and Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide to special and inclusive education and provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field. Author Stephen Rayner examines context, policy, and practice, and shows how to successfully navigate the managerial challenges involved, while contributing to the way forward through leadership in a diverse field. The author…

Rayner, Steve G.

2007-01-01

113

Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

2008-02-20

114

Generation of long-lived methylviologen radical cation in the triplet-state mediated electron transfer in a ?-cyclodextrin based supramolecular triad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium-pyrene-methylviologen supramolecular triad was assembled through inclusion complexation of adamantane-linked Ru(II)-Py dyad in MV2+-linked ?-cyclodextrin. Excitation of the Ru(II) chromophore populated its 3MLCT which upon energy transfer gave 3Py, which donates an electron to MV2+ to give Ru(II)-Pyrad +-MVrad +. A second electron transfer then occurs from Ru(II) to Pyrad + to give the supramolecular Ru(III)-Py-MVrad + charge separated state. Laser flash photolysis experiments confirmed formation of MVrad + which exhibited 100 ?s lifetime. Steady state irradiation of the self-assembled system in the presence of sacrificial donor also led to formation of long-lived MVrad +.

Rakhi, Arikkottira M.; Gopidas, Karical R.

2015-01-01

115

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

1986-01-14

116

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

Kramer, D.A.

2012-01-01

117

Unusual intracytoplasmic inclusions in acute myeloblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Unusual intracytoplasmic inclusions within early granulocyte precursor cells from a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) are described. Based upon their staining characteristics and electron- and light-microscopic appearance, the inclusions are distinctly different from any previously described. The inclusions display a variety of shapes, including rectangles, squares, circles, ovals, and irregular, globular forms. Most of the inclusions are refractile and crystal-like. The possible composition of these inclusions is discussed. They are compared with inclusions previously described within leukemic and granulocytic cells. PMID:6163354

Wolf, D J; Fialk, M A; Mouradian, J; Gottfried, E L; Pasmantier, M W

1980-01-01

118

Henry Chan Inclusive Education Award Application Guideline  

E-print Network

Henry Chan Inclusive Education Award Application Guideline 1. Objective To recognize the excellent disorders, autism/autistic spectrum disorders, hearing impairments, mental illnesses, physical handicap, March 15, 2014 #12;Henry Chan Inclusive Education Award Application Guideline 6. Assessment

Tam, Vincent W. L.

119

Isolation and characterization of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate inclusions  

E-print Network

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon reserve found in some bacteria, and under nutrient limiting conditions accumulates intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies. These inclusions contain proteins, and the PHB within ...

Kshetry, Nina

2006-01-01

120

Genetics Home Reference: Microvillus inclusion disease  

MedlinePLUS

... with microvillus inclusion disease do not survive beyond childhood. A variant of microvillus inclusion disease with milder diarrhea often does not require full-time parenteral nutrition. Individuals with the variant type frequently live past ...

121

Social Inclusion through Digital Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the current explosion of digitally available products and services, a societal transformation has occurred in which social\\u000a inclusion demands ability to use current devices and digital media. Those unable to use such products and services are disadvantaged\\u000a in this new landscape. This paper examines key areas in which technological advances have benefited disabled users and older\\u000a members of society:

Vicki L. Hanson

122

Processing artificial set inclusion relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sought to clarify the data base for modeling efforts in 4 experiments with 175 undergraduates. Exps I–II used both yes–no and forced-choice recognition test procedures and found evidence for storage for specific information about which propositions were presented during acquisition. However, definite individual differences in processing were observed. In Exp III, Ss were given practice on real set inclusion information

Richard A. Griggs; Lawrence J. Osterman

1980-01-01

123

Stability of discrete linear inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M = {Ai} be a set of linear operators on Rn. The discrete linear inclusion DLI(M) is the set of possible trajectories (xi: i ? 0) such that xn = AinAin?1 … Ai1x0 where x0 ? Rn and Aij ? M. We study several notions of stability for DLI(M), including absolute asymptotic stability (AAS), which is that all products

Leonid Gurvits

1995-01-01

124

Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way for Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: normalization and inclusion. It reviews the aims, processes, and outcomes of the normalization and social role valorization movement and explores its compatibility with inclusion. Lessons from normalization are applied to the inclusion movement.…

Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

2003-01-01

125

Epizootiology of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were infected artificially with the virus that causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). A specific and consistent time course of infection was demonstrated for inclusion body number and hematocrit values. At 12°C, the inclusions appeared approximately 11 d postinjection and were most common near day 21. Hematocrit values were lowest at day 28. By day 30,

S. C. Piacentini; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

1989-01-01

126

Building Inclusion: Respectful Communication across Difference  

E-print Network

Building Inclusion: Respectful Communication across Difference This document provides some suggestions for communicating across differences in order to create a more inclusive campus community". · Be inclusive of families that are headed by same-sex/queer partners or lesbian, bisexual, gay or transgender

Hitchcock, Adam P.

127

Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions  

SciTech Connect

To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

Sorensen, E.M.B.

1987-01-01

128

Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

2011-01-01

129

Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

Loreman, Tim

2014-01-01

130

Inclusion Dependencies in XML: Extending Relational Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we define a new type of integrity constraint in XML, called an XML inclusion constraint (XIND), and show that it extends the semantics of a relational inclusion dependency. This property is important in areas such as XML publishing and 'data-centric' XML, and is one that is not possessed by other proposals for XML inclusion constraints. We also

Michael Karlinger; Millist W. Vincent; Michael Schrefl

2009-01-01

131

Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

McMaster, Christopher

2014-01-01

132

The analysis of fluid inclusions in halite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed to drill into fluid inclusions in halite, to extract the inclusion fluids, and to determine the concentration of all of the major and some of the minor constituents in these fluids. The minimum diameter of usable fluid inclusions is ca . 250 m. After dilution, the fluids are analyzed by ion chromatography and coulometry. Uncertainties

Boaz Lazar; Heinrich D. Holland

1988-01-01

133

EPS Aachen 2003 Inclusive Diffraction at H1 Paul Thompson 1 Inclusive Diffraction at H1  

E-print Network

EPS Aachen 2003 Inclusive Diffraction at H1 Paul Thompson 1 Inclusive Diffraction at H1 Paul analy si s G S ummar y #12;EPS Aachen 2003 Inclusive Diffraction at H1 Paul Thompson 2 Diffractive DIS Aachen 2003 Inclusive Diffraction at H1 Paul Thompson 3 Diffractive Kinematics tp p' x Q 2 e e' s X W Y

134

COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are under regulatory consideration for inclusion in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Adsorption is a cost-effective treatment technology for control of VOCs. Adsorption capacities were determined for fifteen VOCs in distill...

135

Transverse SSA in inclusive DIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA) in inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS), which requires a two-photon exchange to generate a non-zero effect. We present numerical results for the SSA that allow us to comment on the so-called "sign mismatch" issue invloving the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function TF(x,x). In particular, we discuss how our results indicate a collinear twist-3 Sivers-type effect may not be the main cause of the SSAs seen in proton-proton (pp) collisions.

Pitonyak, Daniel

2013-10-01

136

Gaseous species in fluid inclusions: A tracer of fluids and indicator of fluid processes  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative bulk analysis of fluid inclusion volatiles measures the composition of trapped geothermal liquids and vapor. Fluid-inclusion gas-analyses may identify fluid boiling and mixing, and the analyses can be used as a fluid tracer. Fluid boiling is indicated by excess gaseous species. Linear arrays of data points on gas ratio diagrams indicate fluid mixing. Nitrogen-argon ratios are used to discriminate atmospheric fiom magmatic volatiles. Crustal components in geothermal fluids are best indicated by concentrations of methane and helium. Methane strongly correlates with other organic compounds, and N2-Ar-CH4 plots are similar to N2-Ar-He diagrams. Alkene to alkane ratios of C2-7 organic species indicate the oxidation state of geothermal fluids. The Geysers inclusion analyses are an example of how inclusion fluids may be used to understand the paleo hydrology of a geothermal system.

Norman, David I.; Moore, Joseph N.; Yonaka, Brad; Musgrave, John

1996-01-24

137

Making the case for inclusive design.  

PubMed

This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

2015-01-01

138

Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

2004-01-01

139

The effect of inclusions in brittle material  

E-print Network

This thesis experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of brittle heterogeneous materials. Unconfined, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on prismatic gypsum specimens containing either one, or two, inclusions. ...

Janeiro, Raymond Pinho

2009-01-01

140

Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

Li, Jun

141

Inclusive radiative ?(2S) decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using e+e- collision data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct photon spectrum in the decay ?(2S)??gg. We determine the ratio of the inclusive direct photon decay rate to that of the dominant three-gluon decay rate ?(2S)?ggg (R???(?gg)/?(ggg)) to be R?(z?>0.4)=0.070±0.002±0.019±0.011, with z? defined as the scaled photon energy relative to the beam energy. The errors shown are statistical, systematic, and that due to the uncertainty in the input branching fractions used to extract the ratio, respectively.

Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Hunt, J. M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Tarbert, C. M.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Xavier, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tan, B. J. Y.; Tomaradze, A.

2009-10-01

142

Evaluation of monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds in ambient air around Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus halepensis and Cedrus atlantica trees growing in Algiers city area by chiral and achiral capillary gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in ambient air around either Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus atlantica and Pinus halepensis trees from El- Hamma Botanical Garden (Algiers) or from Pinus halepensis trees field located in Bab-Ezzouar (suburb of Algiers) was qualitatively and semi-quantitatively evaluated. The sampling was carried out in ambient air by adsorption through an activated charcoal cartridge followed by the carbon disulfide extraction. The solution was subjected to high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) analysis in programmed temperature. The identification of the components was established by the means of retention Kovàts indexes. The use of a ?-cyclodextrin chiral capillary column allowed a good separation of monoterpenic enantiomers released in the atmosphere. The enantiomeric ratio provided a good insight into the enantiomeric compound preferentially emitted by plants.

Yassaa, Noureddine; Youcef Meklati, Brahim; Cecinato, Angelo

143

A highly hydrated ?-cyclodextrin/1-undecanol inclusion complex: crystal structure and hydrogen-bond network from high-resolution neutron diffraction at 20 K.  

PubMed

The monoclinic C2 crystal structure of an ?-cyclodextrin/1-undecanol host-guest inclusion complex was solved using single-crystal neutron diffraction. Large high-quality crystals were specially produced by optimizing temperature-controlled growth conditions. The hydrate crystallizes in a channel-type structure formed by head-to-head dimer units of ?-cyclodextrin molecules stacked like coins in a roll. The alkyl chain of the guest lipid is entirely embedded inside the tubular cavity delimited by the ?-cyclodextrin dimer and adopts an all-trans planar zigzag conformation, while the alcohol polar head group is outside close to the ?-cyclodextrin primary hydroxyl groups. The cyclodextrin dimer forms columns, which adopt a quasi-square arrangement much less compact than the quasi-hexagonal close packing already observed in the less hydrated ?-cyclodextrin channel-type structures usually found with similar linear guests. The lack of compactness of this crystal form is related to the high number of interstitial water molecules. The replacement of 1-undecanol by 1-decanol does not modify the overall crystal structure of the hydrate as shown by additional X-ray diffraction investigations comparing the two host-guest assemblies. This is the first study that analyses the entire hydrogen-bonding network involved in the formation of a cyclodextrin dimer surrounded by its shell of water molecules. PMID:23719708

Gallois-Montbrun, Delphine; Le Bas, Geneviève; Mason, Sax A; Prangé, Thierry; Lesieur, Sylviane

2013-04-01

144

Full Inclusion: The Benefits and Disadvantages of Inclusive Schooling. An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of debated issues related to the benefits and disadvantages of inclusive schooling. The beliefs of districts, school personnel and parents are widely differing as related to the placement of students with special needs in inclusive settings. The examples of current federal laws help to shape the debate of full inclusion in schools…

McCarty, Kristine

2006-01-01

145

Sanskrit Compound Processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

146

Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

2005-01-01

147

Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

Bonacuse, Peter J.

2008-01-01

148

Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

2010-01-01

149

School Inclusion and the "Community of Practice"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Inclusion" is not a mechanism for relocating educationally disadvantaged youngsters in mainstream rather than in special schools. Rather, inclusion implies a whole school approach to social relations and production of meaning reached through processes of negotiation between parents, teachers and children. Such an approach places equal value upon…

Laluvein, Jackie

2010-01-01

150

Beyond Political Correctness: Toward the Inclusive University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 essays examines the history of the discourse over political correctness (PC) in Canadian academia, focusing on the neoconservative backlash to affirmative action, inclusive policies, and feminist and anti-racist teaching in the classroom. It includes: (1) "Introduction: Political Correctness and the Inclusive University"…

Richer, Stephen, Ed.; Weir, Lorna, Ed.

151

The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

2006-01-01

152

Full Inclusion: Analysis of a Controversial Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature and analysis looks at the concept of full inclusion of students with disabilities in the context of the regular education initiative (REI). The concept of full inclusion is explained as the use of new methods, techniques, and strategies to teach students with and without disabilities in the same classroom.…

Reganick, Karol A.

153

Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

2013-01-01

154

Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading approach.

Wanda Lyons; Scott Anthony Thompson

2012-01-01

155

What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1) educational…

What's Working, 1994

1994-01-01

156

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan MPI-K, Heidelberg and YerPhI,Yerevan On behalf Diffractive DIS at HERA Measurements of diffractive structure function QCD fits Comparison with hadronic final presented in this talk are based on HERA-I data Armen Bunyatyan, Inclusive Diffraction at HERA LISHEP 2006

157

Inclusive Education: A Servant-Leadership Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of inclusive education is common to the Canadian educational system and involves service to the students. According to Young and Levin, "The provision of appropriate education to meet the needs of each student is increasingly accepted as a right in Canadian education." Bloom, Perlmutter and Burnell define inclusion as "a philosophy…

Crippen, Carolyn

2005-01-01

158

Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

2012-01-01

159

Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

1982-01-01

160

Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

161

Inclusive Education: A Series of Issue Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen brief papers address issues in inclusive education, with special emphasis on concerns and applications in Illinois. The following issues are discussed: (1) the relationship of the inclusive schools concept to that of providing a continuum of alternative placement options; (2) needed changes in current funding of special education to…

Illinois Coalition on School Inclusion, Springfield.

162

Leadership and Inclusion: Reculturing for Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to explore and discover how school administrators perceive the inclusion of children with disabilities into general education classrooms and what administrative processes they perceive are necessary to achieve inclusion in the context of reculturing. Nineteen administrators from four…

Doyle, Lynn H.

163

Finding a Systemized Approach to Music Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the implications of inclusion in education for the study and teaching of music. Regardless of interpretation, inclusion is labor-intensive and must receive administrative support and schoolwide cooperation in order to work, that is, ensuring learning success for all students as well as meeting individual needs.

Nordlund, Moya

2006-01-01

164

The Inclusive Secondary School Teacher in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of the 1992 Disability Discrimination Act in Australia and parental support for inclusion, regular teachers now include students with disabilities in their classes. Inclusion has been more successful in primary than in secondary schools. Secondary schools remain a challenge due to their traditional focus on curriculum, examinations,…

Pearce, Michelle

2009-01-01

165

High School Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the general findings of a survey study designed to extend knowledge about high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Specifically, the study examined the extent to which high school teacher attitudes toward inclusion are affected by classroom experience…

Van Reusen, Anthony K.; Shoho, Alan R.; Barker, Kimberly S.

2001-01-01

166

Faculty Preparedness to Build Cultural Inclusiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty members play a significant role in retaining diverse students, faculty, and staff on a college campus based on how culturally inclusive their behavior is. This research elucidates the development of a faculty inclusiveness survey, and tests it on a national random sample of 637 faculty members to determine how prepared they are to build…

Samuels, Dena Renee

2010-01-01

167

Fluid Inclusions in Ianapera Emerald, Southern Madagasca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ianapera emerald deposit (South Madagascar) formed by metasomatism along the contact of migmatitic gneiss and lenses of serpentinite and amphibolite, initiated by shearing related to a Pan-African tectono-metamorphic event. We report the results of fluid inclusion studies on Ianapera emerald employing microthermometry, Raman spectrometry, and electron microprobe and SEM analysis. Several types of inclusions are present within the same

Ye Vapnik; B. Sabot; I. Moroz

2005-01-01

168

Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

2010-01-01

169

Ultramafic inclusions in basaltic rocks from Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultramafic inclusions and the enclosing basaltic rocks were collected from a number of localities in the Hawaiian Islands; these and other specimens were studied by standard pétrographic techniques and with an electron microprobe. Emphasis was on determination of mineral assemblages, mineral compositions, and variations in composition. Sixty-eight inclusions and thirteen basaltic rocks are described, with partial chemical analyses (Ti, Al,

Richard W. White

1966-01-01

170

A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

2014-01-01

171

Inclusion and Achievement in Mainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the key findings of a DfES-funded study that explored the relationship between achievement and inclusion in mainstream schools in England. The methodology involved a statistical analysis of nationally held data on all pupils at the end of key stages 1-4, together with a series of site visits to "inclusive" mainstream schools.…

Farrell, Peter; Dyson, Alan; Polat, Filiz; Hutcheson, Graeme; Gallannaugh, Frances

2007-01-01

172

EPR of Cu(II)-doped seven-coordinate inclusion compounds, M(stpy) 3(NO 3) 2·1/2stpy (M = Cd(II) and Zn(II), stpy = trans-4-styrylpyridine): low symmetry effects in admixture of ground states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal EPR of Cu(II)-doped low symmetry pentagonal bipyramidal Werner-type clathrate inclusion complexes of Cd(stpy) 3(NO 3) 2·1/2stpy( 1) and Zn(stpy) 3(NO 3) 2·1/2stpy( 2) (stpy = trans-4-styrylpyridine) is reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are found to be orthorhombic with g33 = 2.298, g22 = 2.108, g11 = 2.066, A33 = 107.3, A22 = 54.4 and A11 = 23.1 × 10 -4 cm -1 for 1 and g33 = 2.292, g22 = 2.111, g11 = 2.067, A33 = 107.5, A22 = 54.7 and A11 = 22.9 × 10 -4 cm -1 for 2. Angular variation studies for both 1 and 2 suggest that the Cu(II) ions are substitutionally incorporated in the host lattices. The magnitude of Cu(II) hyperfine coupling constant ( A33) in both 1 and 2 are found to be low, in comparison to those of the pure Cu(II) complex, indicative of low symmetry for the substitutional sites in accordance with the crystal data. Such large reductions in Cu(II) hyperfine coupling are explicable in terms of a mixed dx2- y2/ dz 2 ground state and delocalization of unpaired spin density onto the ligands.

Karunakaran, Chandran; Justin Thomas, K. R.; Shunmugasundaram, Arunachalam; Murugesan, Ramachandran

2001-03-01

173

EPR of Cu(II)-doped seven-coordinate inclusion compounds, M(stpy)3(NO3)2 x 1/2stpy (M = Cd(II) and Zn(II), stpy = trans-4-styrylpyridine): low symmetry effects in admixture of ground states.  

PubMed

Single crystal EPR of Cu(II)-doped low symmetry pentagonal bipyramidal Werner-type clathrate inclusion complexes of Cd(stpy)3(NO3)2 x 1/2stpy(1) and Zn(stpy)3(NO3)2 x 1/2stpy(2) (stpy = trans-4-styrylpyridine) is reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are found to be orthorhombic with g33 = 2.298, g22 = 2.108, g11 = 2.066, A33 = 107.3, A22 = 54.4 and A11 = 23.1 x 10(-4) cm(-1) for 1 and g33 = 2.292, g22 = 2.111, g11 = 2.067, A33 = 107.5, A22 = 54.7 and A11 = 22.9 x 10(-4) cm(-1) for 2. Angular variation studies for both 1 and 2 suggest that the Cu(II) ions are substitutionally incorporated in the host lattices. The magnitude of Cu(II) hyperfine coupling constant (A33) in both 1 and 2 are found to be low, in comparison to those of the pure Cu(II) complex, indicative of low symmetry for the substitutional sites in accordance with the crystal data. Such large reductions in Cu(II) hyperfine coupling are explicable in terms of a mixed d(x2 - y2)/dz2 ground state and delocalization of unpaired spin density onto the ligands. PMID:11300555

Karunakaran, C; Thomas, K R; Shunmugasundaram, A; Murugesan, R

2001-03-01

174

Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept  

PubMed Central

In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

Costa, James T.

2013-01-01

175

A Participatory Action Research Approach to Evaluating Inclusive School Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to evaluate inclusion have frequently focused on the efficacy of inclusive education as a service delivery model. Although this information has greatly enhanced the field's understanding of inclusion, a need exists for a comprehensive process to assist schools that embrace inclusion to evaluate their programs. This article reviews the literature on inclusive school program evaluations and proposes a model

Stacy K. Dymond

2001-01-01

176

Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

1988-01-01

177

Synthesis and Characterization of Pseudocantharidins, Novel Phosphatase Modulators That Promote the Inclusion of Exon 7 into the SMN (Survival of Motoneuron) pre-mRNA*  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a central element of eukaryotic gene expression. Its deregulation can lead to disease, and methods to change splice site selection are developed as potential therapies. Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by the loss of the SMN1 (survival of motoneuron 1) gene. A therapeutic avenue for spinal muscular atrophy treatment is to promote exon 7 inclusion of the almost identical SMN2 (survival of motoneuron 2) gene. The splicing factor tra2-beta1 promotes inclusion of this exon and is antagonized by protein phosphatase (PP) 1. To identify new compounds that promote exon 7 inclusion, we synthesized analogs of cantharidin, an inhibitor of PP1, and PP2A. Three classes of compounds emerged from these studies. The first class blocks PP1 and PP2A activity, blocks constitutive splicing in vitro, and promotes exon 7 inclusion in vivo. The second class has no measurable effect on PP1 activity but activates PP2A. This class represents the first compounds described with these properties. These compounds cause a dephosphorylation of Thr-33 of tra2-beta1, which promotes exon 7 inclusion. The third class had no detectable effect on phosphatase activity and could promote exon 7 via allosteric effects. Our data show that subtle changes in similar compounds can turn a phosphatase inhibitor into an activator. These chemically related compounds influence alternative splicing by distinct mechanisms. PMID:21220421

Zhang, Zhaiyi; Kelemen, Olga; van Santen, Maria A.; Yelton, Sharon M.; Wendlandt, Alison E.; Sviripa, Vitaliy M.; Bollen, Mathieu; Beullens, Monique; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Watt, David S.; Stamm, Stefan

2011-01-01

178

Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds  

PubMed Central

The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

2005-01-01

179

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not ...

180

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

181

Basophilic inclusions and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.  

PubMed

Basophilic inclusions (BIs) and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions (NIFIs) are key structures of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), respectively. BIs are sharply-defined, oval or crescent neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions that appear pale blue-gray in color with HE staining and purple in color with Nissl but are stained poorly with silver impregnation techniques. Immunohistochemically BIs are negative for tau, trans-activation response DNA 43 (TDP-43), ?-synuclein, neurofilament (NF) and ?-internexin, positive for p62, and variably ubiquitinated. Noticeably, BIs are consistently fused in sarcoma (FUS) positive. NIFIs are by definition immuno-positive for class IV IFs including three NF triplet subunit proteins and ?-internexin but negative for tau, TDP-43, and ?-synuclein. In NIFID cases several types of inclusions have been identified. Among them, hyaline conglomerate-like inclusions are the only type that meets the above immunohistochemical features of NIFIs. This type of inclusion appears upon HE staining as multilobulated, faintly eosinophilic or pale amphophilic spherical masses with a glassy appearance. These hyaline conglomerates appear strongly argyrophilic, and robustly and consistently immuno-positive for IFs. In contrast, this type of inclusion shows no or only occasional dot-like FUS immunoreactivity. Therefore, BIs and NIFIs are distinct from each other in terms of morphological, tinctorial and immunohistochemical features. However, basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and NIFID are difficult to differentiate clinically. Moreover, Pick body-like inclusions, the predominant type of inclusions seen in NIFID, are considerably similar to the BIs of BIBD in that this type of inclusion is basophilic, poorly argyrophilic, negative for IFs and intensely immuno-positive for FUS. As BIBD and NIFID share FUS accumulation as the most prominent molecular pathology, whether these two diseases are discrete entities or represent a pathological continuum remains a question to be answered. PMID:24673472

Ito, Hidefumi

2014-12-01

182

Inclusion complex of barbigerone with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin: preparation and in vitro evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to improve the water solubility of barbigerone by complexing it with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD). The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and interactions of barbigerone with HP-?-CD were investigated in both solution and the solid state by means of UV/VIS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, PXRD, SEM. All the characterization information demonstrated the formation of barbigerone-HP-?-CD (bar-HP-?-CD) inclusion complex, and the bar-HP-?-CD inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from barbigerone. The results demonstrated that the water solubility of barbigerone was notably increased in the presence of HP-?-CD. Furthermore, preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that bar-HP-?-CD still maintain the anticancer activity of barbigerone. These results suggest that HP-?-CD will be potentially useful in the delivery of water-insoluble anticancer agents such as barbigerone. PMID:24299819

Qiu, Neng; Cheng, Xia; Wang, Guangcheng; Wang, Wenwen; Wen, Jiaolin; Zhang, Yongkui; Song, Hang; Ma, Liang; Wei, Yuquan; Peng, Aihua; Chen, Lijuan

2014-01-30

183

Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)  

E-print Network

#12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12;Nucleus Electrons Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Fig. 2.5: Simplified model of a Helium (He) Atom He 4.002602 2 Helium Mass Number (~atomic mass) = number of Neutrons + Protons = 4 for Helium Atomic

Frey, Terry

184

Inclusive determinations of Vub and Vcb  

E-print Network

In this talk I review the status of our ability to extract the CKM matrix elements Vub and Vcb from inclusive semileptonic decays. I focus on model independent determinations of these parameters and discuss the expected theoretical uncertainties.

Christian W Bauer

2004-08-07

185

Inclusion problems for one-counter systems   

E-print Network

We study the decidability and complexity of verification problems for infinite-state systems. A fundamental question in formal verification is if the behaviour of one process is reproducible by another. This inclusion ...

Totzke, Patrick

2014-11-27

186

Eshelby's inclusion problem for polygons and polyhedra  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithmic closed-form solution is derived for Eshelby's problem for polygonal and polyhedral inclusions. Illustrative calculations are presented for two- and three-dimensional problems. Also it is proven that polyhedra with constant Eshelby's tensor do not exist.

Gregory J. Rodin

1996-01-01

187

Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA  

SciTech Connect

Recent inclusive charged and neutral current scattering data from HERA are presented. Emphasis is placed on the resulting constraints on the proton parton densities and on the influence of low x proton structure on diffraction.

Newman, Paul [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

188

Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An oxygen isotopic study which demonstrates the Allende inclusion HAL is a FUN object is discussed; the hibonite core, black inner rim and fine-grained outer rim have beem sampled. The oxygen in HAL is found to be heterogeneous, the rim samples having oxygen compositions similar to that of melilites and alteration products in other Allende inclusions including the FUN inclusion EK1-4-1, while the oxygen in the hibonite core shows the most extreme deviation from the AD line so far observed. The oxygen in HAL hibonite, in ED1-4-1 spinel and in spinels of usual Allende inclusions form an approximate linear array with a slope close to 1/2. With regard to the fractionation process, it is noted that the fractionation per amu for various elements does not correlate inversely with mass and that fractionation is elementally selective, probably according to volatility.

Lee, T.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

1980-07-01

189

Analysis of fluid inclusions in halite  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to drill into fluid inclusions in halite, to extract the inclusions fluids, and to determine the concentration of all of the major and some of the minor constituents in these fluids. The minimum diameter of usable fluid inclusions is ca. 250 ..mu..m. After dilution, the fluids are analyzed by ion chromatography and coulometry. Uncertainties in the concentration of the major cations and anions is on the order of 4%. The analytical scheme provides much more precise analyses of inclusion fluids than have been available to date. The analyses are a useful starting point for reconstructing the composition of the sea water from which the evaporite brines evolved.

Lazar, B.; Holland, H.D.

1988-02-01

190

NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory: Inclusion Criteria  

Cancer.gov

NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory: Inclusion Criteria Licensed, board certified, or board eligible in their profession. A member of one of the following professional organizations or special interest groups: American College of Medical Genetics

191

Effective field theories for inclusive B decays  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study inclusive decays of the B meson. These allow one to determine CKM elements precisely and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We use the framework of effective field theories, in ...

Lee, Keith S. M. (Keith Seng Mun)

2006-01-01

192

Duality in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction  

SciTech Connect

We explore quark-hadron duality in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction on proton and neutron targets. Using the spin-flavor symmetric quark model, we compute ratios of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} cross sections for both unpolarized and polarized scattering and discuss realizations of duality in several symmetry-breaking scenarios. The model calculations allow one to understand some of the key features of recent data on semi-inclusive pion production at low energies.

Close, F. E.; Melnitchouk, W. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2009-05-15

193

Duality in Semi-Inclusive Pion Electroproduction  

SciTech Connect

We explore quark-hadron duality in semi-inclusive pion electroproduction on proton and neutron targets. Using the spin-flavor symmetric quark model, we compute ratios of $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ cross sections for both unpolarized and polarized scattering, and discuss realizations of duality in several symmetry breaking scenarios. The model calculations allow one to understand some of the key features of recent data on semi-inclusive pion production at low energies.

F. E. Close, W. Melnitchouk

2009-05-01

194

Direct Elastic Imaging of a Small Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the problem of locating a small three-dimensional elastic inclusion, using arrays of elastic source transmitters and receivers. This procedure yields th e multi-static response matrix that is characteristic of the e lastic inclusion. We show how the eigenvalue structure of this matrix can be employed within the framework of a non-iterative method of MUSIC (standing

Habib Ammari; Pierre Calmon; Ekaterina Iakovleva

2008-01-01

195

Cavity formation from inclusions in ductile fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously proposed conditions for cavity formation from equiaxed inclusions in ductile fracture have been examined. Critical\\u000a local elastic energy conditions are found to be necessary but not sufficient for cavity formation. The interfacial strength\\u000a must also be reached on part of the boundary. For inclusions larger than about 100Å the energy condition is always satisfied\\u000a when the interfacial strength

A. S. Argon; J. Im; R. Safoglu

1975-01-01

196

Unusual inclusions found in a national diamond  

SciTech Connect

Three pale yellow minerals, 100-200 microns in their longest dimension, were extracted from a diamond 2.5 mm in size and examined in an SEM equipped with an X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. These inclusions were found to be two grains of garnet and a coesite, all of which contain a microscopic grain of Ti-rich biotite, a small amount of sanidine and a number of other minerals. (1) Garnet-biotite-apatite-rutile-sanidine-(Fe,Ca) melt. Attached to one end of this garnet inclusion is a crystal of biotite (50 x 30 ..mu..m) in which an apatite and a rutile are embedded. A thin lamella of sanidine occurs in the biotite near the garnet boundary. (2) Garnet-biotite-apatite-sanidine-rutile-pyrrhotite-(Fe,Ca,K) phase (unidentified). This garnet inclusion partially encased a biotite crystal while all other phases occur as minute prismatic needles or irregular and globular masses on the inclusion surface. (3) Coesite-biotite-sanidine-calcite. They are considered primary phases because the diamond host contains neither internal nor external fractures. Garnet, coesite, biotite and apatite are syngenetic inclusions in this diamond based on their relatively large sizes and their intergrown relationships. All other phases may also be primary or derived from biotite which, in the presence of sulfur, may produce phlogopite + sanidine + pyrrhotite + rutile. The droplets of melt and thin lamella of sanidine in inclusion (1) seem to be products of incongruent melting of biotite during the emplacement of kimberlite.

Leung, I.S.

1985-01-01

197

Mass spectrometric identification of boric acid in fluid inclusions in pegmatite minerals  

SciTech Connect

Direct, on-line mass spectrometric analyses were performed on volatiles released from microscopic fluid inclusions in quartz, feldspar, and tourmaline from the miarolitic Belo Horizonte No. 1 pegmatite in the San Jacinto district, and Himalaya pegmatite dike system in the Mesa Grande district of southern California. These analyses are the first inclusion volatile studies to indicate the presence of significant and variable concentrations of B compounds in pegmatite formation fluids. Boron appears as boric acid B(OH){sub 3}, which is found at levels ranging from less than detection limit (<10{sup {minus}7} mole fraction) to as high as 10{sup {minus}4} mole fraction. High B concentrations are seen in inclusion fluids from miarolite filling quartz, cleavelandite variety albite feldspar, and schorl tourmaline from the Belo Horizonte No. 1, while negligible amounts appear in late-stage green/pink-zoned gem elbaite tourmalines from that mine. Fluid inclusions in quartz, as well as grey and pink tourmaline form the miarolites in the Himalaya mine, have undetectable levels of B compounds. In addition to confirming the presence of very high boric acid concentrations in some pegmatite forming solutions, observations of large variations in abundance may provide new constraints on fluid chemical evolution trends during the genesis of these regionally and paragenetically complex gem deposits. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Williams, A.E.; Taylor, M.C. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

198

Huntingtin Acts in the Nucleus to Induce Apoptosis but Death Does Not Correlate with the Formation of Intranuclear Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration were investigated using a cellular model that recapitulates features of neurodegeneration seen in Huntington’s disease. When transfected into cultured striatal neurons, mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration by an apoptotic mechanism. Antiapoptotic compounds or neurotrophic factors protected neurons against mutant huntingtin. Blocking nuclear localization of mutant huntingtin suppressed its ability to form intranuclear inclusions

Frédéric Saudou; Steven Finkbeiner; Didier Devys; Michael E Greenberg

1998-01-01

199

Inclusion of trans-resveratrol in methylated cyclodextrins: synthesis and solid-state structures  

PubMed Central

Summary The phytoalexin trans-resveratrol, 5-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzenediol, is a well-known, potent antioxidant having a variety of possible biomedical applications. However, its adverse physicochemical properties (low stability, poor aqueous solubility) limit such applications and its inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs) has potential for addressing these shortcomings. Here, various methods of the attempted synthesis of inclusion complexes between trans-resveratrol and three methylated cyclodextrins (permethylated ?-CD, permethylated ?-CD and 2,6-dimethylated ?-CD) are described. Isolation of the corresponding crystalline 1:1 inclusion compounds enabled their full structure determination by X-ray analysis for the first time, revealing a variety of guest inclusion modes and unique supramolecular crystal packing motifs. The three crystalline inclusion complexes were also fully characterized by thermal analysis (hot stage microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry). To complement the solid-state data, phase-solubility studies were conducted using a series of CDs (native and variously derivatised) to establish their effect on the aqueous solubility of trans-resveratrol and to estimate association constants for complex formation. PMID:25670983

Trollope, Lee; Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Noonan, Terence; Bourne, Susan A; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura

2014-01-01

200

Absence of Evidence ? Evidence of Absence: Statistical Analysis of Inclusions in Multiferroic Thin Films  

PubMed Central

Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi6Ti2.8Fe1.52Mn0.68O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of ‘new single phase multiferroic materials’. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions. PMID:25026969

Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E.; Holmes, Justin D.; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W.

2014-01-01

201

Spectroscopic investigations and crystal structure from synchrotron powder data of the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin with atenolol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion complexes of atenolol with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) in aqueous solution have been investigated with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of this inclusion complex was established to be equimolar (1:1) and its stability constant was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the ?-CD-atenolol (1:1) inclusion compound has been solved from synchrotron powder diffraction data using direct-space search techniques. The crystal structure model and 1H NMR data are in good agreement and, with support of Hyperchem MM+ molecular dynamics results, suggest which protons are likely to be involved in the inclusion process that leads to the supramolecular architecture of this guest-host complex.

Borodi, Gheorghe; Bratu, Ioan; Dragan, Felicia; Peschar, René; Helmholdt, Robert B.; Hernanz, Antonio

2008-10-01

202

Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3??m, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7??m yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

Conner, Amber J.

2013-01-01

203

Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

2006-12-15

204

Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used…

Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

2014-01-01

205

Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…

Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

2014-01-01

206

Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings  

E-print Network

1 Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson cycle of inclusions during the filling of steel castings. There are two ways that inclusions can the final location and characteristics of reoxidation inclusions in steel castings. Carlson, K

Beckermann, Christoph

207

XAFS Model Compound Library  

DOE Data Explorer

The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

Newville, Matthew

208

Preparation of uranium compounds  

DOEpatents

UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

2013-02-19

209

When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

2011-01-01

210

The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various influences, most…

Le Fanu, Guy

2013-01-01

211

Inclusion and the Law: Two Laws--IDEA and Section 504--Support Inclusion in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As someone charged with ensuring equality in the school environment, teachers have heard the term "inclusion"--the principle that students with special needs, skill sets, and abilities should be integrated in publicly supported activities to the same extent as their nondisabled peers. However, the word inclusion--in and of itself--does not…

Taylor, Kelley R.

2011-01-01

212

Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

2012-01-01

213

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-M.

1998-01-01

214

Inclusion probability with dropout: An operational formula.  

PubMed

In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications. PMID:25559642

Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

2015-05-01

215

Electronic Impact of Inclusions in Diamond  

SciTech Connect

X-ray topography data are compared with photodiode responsivity maps to identify potential candidates for electron trapping in high purity, single crystal diamond. X-ray topography data reveal the defects that exist in the diamond material, which are dominated by non-electrically active linear dislocations. However, many diamonds also contain defects configurations (groups of threading dislocations originating from a secondary phase region or inclusion) in the bulk of the wafer which map well to regions of photoconductive gain, indicating that these inclusions are a source of electron trapping which affect the performance of diamond X-ray detectors. It was determined that photoconductive gain is only possible with the combination of an injecting contact and charge trapping in the near surface region. Typical photoconductive gain regions are 0.2 mm across; away from these near-surface inclusions the device yields the expected diode responsivity.

Muller, E.M.; Smedley, J.; Raghothamachar, B.; Gaowei, M.; Keister, J.W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Dudley, M.; Wu, Q.

2010-04-07

216

Studies of Inclusive Hadron Production at BABAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clean environment of the e+e- collisions provided by the B-factory PEP-II and the high performances of the BABAR detector allow for precise measurements of the properties of inclusive hadron production. We present recent results obtained using the full data sample of nearly 500 fb-1 on measurements of the inclusive light hadrons momentum spectra, and on anti-deuteron production from decays of bottomonium states, and from continuum e+e- annihilation. We also present a measurement of the azimuthal asymmetries induced by the Collins effect in inclusive production of pion pairs in e+e- ? ??X annihilation, where the two pions are produced in opposite hemispheres.

Cowan, Ray F.

2015-02-01

217

Inclusive cultural empathy for successful global leadership.  

PubMed

Empathy is reported in the research literature as a necessary factor in counseling and psychotherapy, but psychologists have historically interpreted empathy through an exclusively individual focus. Most of the research on empathy has been predicated on a definition of empathy as occurring when one person vicariously experiences the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of another. In Western cultures, the study of empathy focuses exclusively on the individual, whereas in traditional non-Western cultures, empathy more typically involves an inclusive perspective focusing on the individual and significant others in the societal context. This article explores the reframing of "empathy," based on an individualistic perspective, into "inclusive cultural empathy," based on a more relationship-centered perspective, as an alternative interpretation of the empathic process. Psychologists are both the problem and the solution to this dilemma, and the authors call upon the field to take leadership in applying this "inclusive cultural empathy" model. PMID:21058803

Pedersen, Paul B; Pope, Mark

2010-11-01

218

Inclusive photon energy spectrum in B decays  

SciTech Connect

We present a theoretical estimate for the inclusive photon energy spectrum in direct decays of [ital B]-mesons taking into account both the charged current (CC) and flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes. It is shown that the various components in the inclusive spectrum can in principle be disentangled. In particular, the high energy part of the photon energy spectrum is dominated by the electromagnetic penguins. Its measurement could provide the first direct determination of the CKM matrix element [vert bar][ital V][sub [ital ts

Greub, C. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Schoenberggasse 9, CH-8001 Zuerich (Switzerland))

1992-02-01

219

Anisotropy of Silicate-Hosted Magnetite Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of magnetic properties is a hallmark of silicate crystals with oriented iron-oxide inclusions. Strongly magnetic magnetite-bearing silicates (10-1 A m-1) are common components of gabbros and layered intrusions, contributing to local and regional magnetic anomalies. Additionally, these iron-oxide silicates hold the promise of being exceptional paleomagnetic recorders owing to their features of: physical/chemical isolation from altering fluids, chemical equilibrium with their silicate host, and long relaxation times (enhanced coercivity). However, anisotropy of remanence must be understood before these advantageous features can be utilized. Measurements of single crystals of clinopyroxene and plagioclase (10-4 g) show anisotropy in direction and intensity that directly reflect the crystallography of the silicate host. The host controls both the crystallographic orientation of the magnetite (magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and the elongation direction of the magnetite inclusion (shape anisotropy). We have found another source of anisotropy that involves an internal exsolution of ulvöspinel within titanomagnetite inclusions. This also reflects a host control as this second exsolution occurs along the magnetite \\{100\\}. This fixed wall shape anisotropy creates an array of interacting single domain magnetite parallelepipeds, parallel to \\{100\\}. Each of these anisotropies contributes to enhanced coercivity of remanence, which significantly exceeds the IRM saturation magnetization for magnetite (300 mT). The anisotropy of IRM (aIRM@ 1.1 T) of magnetite-bearing clinopyroxene and plagioclase shows clustering of directions, reflecting the mixture of variables that include: inclusion elongation direction and abundance, orientation of magnetite easy axes relative to the applied field, inclusion aspect ratio and diameter, and pre-existing magnetic domain structure. For pyroxene (monoclinic) with two arrays of needle-shaped magnetite inclusions, the aIRM is strongly planar, showing two sets of antipodal direction clusters. The total intensity is uniform over ˜60% of the remanence plane. The component of magnetization perpendicular to the applied IRM (transverse remanence) exceeds the parallel remanence in some crystallographic directions. For plagioclase (triclinic) with three to five arrays of needle-shaped magnetite inclusions (see Feinberg, et al. this conference), the aIRM is subspherical with numerous minor clusters of directions. Transverse remanence is less important than parallel remanence in plagioclase. Thus, the greater number of inclusion arrays in plagioclase decreases the severity of the IRM anisotropy relative to the two arrays in pyroxene.

Scott, G. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Renne, P. R.

2004-12-01

220

Inclusive hadron yields from Ds+ decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the inclusive decays of Ds+ mesons, using data collected near the Ds*±Ds? peak production energy Ecm=4170MeV by the CLEO-c detector. We report the inclusive yields of Ds+ decays to K+X, K-X, KS0X, ?+X, ?-X, ?0X, ?X, ?'X, ?X, ?X, and f0(980)X, and also decays into pairs of kaons, Ds+?K Kmacr X. Using these measurements, we obtain an overview of Ds+ decays.

Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tan, B. J. Y.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Hunt, J. M.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Tarbert, C.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Xavier, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Zweber, P.

2009-06-01

221

Inclusion Doesn't Always Mean Included  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children identified for special education services were once denied access to regular education classrooms and their peers regardless of the nature of their disabilities. In recent decades, efforts have been made to integrate more exceptional children into mainstream environments. The term inclusion has manifested itself into modern education…

Grant, Marquis C.

2009-01-01

222

Inclusive Schooling: Is It a Success?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the aims of each Australian States and Territory Departments of Education and Training is to create a world-class inclusive strategy in schools across the nation. They each see the need to raise awareness, support and change societal expectations for students with Special Needs and Disabilities nationally. This paper aims to investigate the…

Nahlous-Ismail, Nada

2010-01-01

223

Inclusive cross section ratios at x > 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections between nuclei and the deuteron, for values of the scaling variable x > 1 and for large momentum transfers. Employing microscopic nuclear spectral functions and describing the recoil-nucleon final state interaction using correlated Glauber theory, we find good agreement with experiment.

Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Sick, I.

1995-02-01

224

Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

Cheung, Chau-kiu

2013-01-01

225

SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

2000-01-01

226

"Shakespeare with Heart": An Inclusive Drama Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Shakespeare with Heart, a two week inclusive summer program for middle and high school students with and without disabilities. The program runs each morning until noon, culminating with a workshop performance of a Shakespeare play with full costume and set with a live audience of parents, friends, and community members. The…

Wilkins, Ilene E.

2008-01-01

227

The Inclusion Classroom. Your Middle School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education students struggle with labels. Other kids can be very cruel with names and attitudes toward anyone who is different. Teachers cannot solve this problem completely, but they can minimize its effects with careful manipulation. The author, a teacher in an inclusion classroom, suggests passing out modified assignments along with all…

Barnes, Peter

2006-01-01

228

The Role of Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative 3-year case study followed three deaf interpreters in an inclusive school. Results of interviews indicated that, in addition to sign interpreting, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress.…

Antia, Shirin D.; Kreimeyer, Kathryn H.

2001-01-01

229

Multiage Instruction and Inclusion: A Collaborative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a multiage classroom led by three co-teachers who facilitate the education of 42 students ages six through nine years. The classroom is located in a public school district that practices inclusion and subscribes to the principles of whole schooling. A literature review defines the concepts of co-teaching, multiage education,…

Stuart, Shannon K.; Connor, Mary; Cady, Karin; Zweifel, Alicia

2007-01-01

230

Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

1997-01-01

231

Naturalistic Language Intervention in Inclusive Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review considers use of natural language instruction by early childhood teachers for children with language disabilities in inclusive environments. The following factors are addressed: child-centered approach, family involvement, classroom strategies, activity-based intervention, environmental influences, the function of play, preliteracy…

Lowenthal, Barbara

1995-01-01

232

Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human rights and…

Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

2010-01-01

233

Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide protests against the perceived lack of economic opportunity and failure of governance have refocused attention on the need for inclusive growth and strong institutions. In developing countries, large informal economies limit state capacity to deliver governance and strong institutions, which in turn discourages participation in and expansion of the formal economy. This paper analyzes the determinants of the underground

Anoop Singh; Sonali Jain-Chandra; Adil Mohommad

2012-01-01

234

Inclusion: Professional Development Needs of Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attitudinal resistance among teachers regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities is well documented in the literature. Studies collectively highlight two specific areas that contribute to this resistance. First, a lack of teacher knowledge or preparedness for meeting the diverse needs of children with disabilities stimulates…

Stocks, Amanda G.

2010-01-01

235

Disabilities and Inclusive Practices within Toronto Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current objective in Canada is a provision of childcare services for all children. This objective has not been achieved as many children, especially those with disabilities, are often denied services from publicly funded daycare centres. The authors argue that policy discussions framed from an inclusive perspective provide a better understanding…

Killoran, Isabel; Tymon, Dorothy; Frempong, George

2007-01-01

236

On the Dirt Road to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

2012-01-01

237

Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

2011-03-01

238

Beyond Prejudice: Thinking toward Genuine Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge of transforming our educational thinking and practices to achieve genuine rather than token inclusion asks that we examine select ideas from the natural and social sciences that have served to colonize the childhood disability field through hegemonic educational discourses. This article examines the colonizing discourses that have…

McPhail, Jean C.; Freeman, John G.

2005-01-01

239

Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

2014-01-01

240

Preschool Inclusion: Navigating through Alphabet Soup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of preschool-aged children with disabilities who spend some part of their day in an inclusive school or child care setting has grown tremendously in the past ten years. Meeting the needs of these children is always challenging. However, Public Law 105-17 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'97) mandates that children…

Lytle, Rebecca; Bordin, Judith

2005-01-01

241

Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education PLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical Educationalists in many western and westernised societies across the globe are facing new challenges as system wide changes take place increasing the role of private bodies (e.g. Academy trusts) in the delivery of school based education. This reflective and rather personal paper considers the place and meaning of "inclusion" and…

Evans, John

2014-01-01

242

Inclusive Assessment at Point-of-Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognising assessment as a driver for learning and a key part of the student learning experience, this case study considers the impact of opening the assessment process to active student engagement as well as placing inclusivity at the heart of the assessment task at point-of-design. This case study presents an approach to assessment that both…

Keating, Neil; Zybutz, Tanya; Rouse, Karl

2012-01-01

243

Usability and Digital Inclusion: Standards and Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims at discussing e-government website usability in relation to concerns about digital inclusion. E-government web design should consider all aspects of usability, including those that make it more accessible to all. Traditional concerns of social exclusion are being superseded by fears that lack of digital competence and information literacy may result in dangerous digital exclusion. Usability is considered

Carlos Aleixo; Miguel Nunes; Pedro Isaias

2012-01-01

244

Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

2010-01-01

245

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan for the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations XXXIX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics Gomel Region, 4-9 September 2009 · Introduction · Diffractive structure functions: comparison of different data · QCD fits and diffractive PDFs · Comparison

246

Into the Workforce: Employers' Perspectives of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment is an important component to community living that allows persons with disabilities the opportunity to form new relationships and learn new skills. Individuals with disabilities have much to contribute to the work place and, if a proper "fit" is achieved, work inclusion can benefit all involved. This project provides and insight into…

Irvine, Angela; Lupart, Judy

2008-01-01

247

Inclusion/Detracking: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, which is designed for practitioners, contains descriptions of 137 resources concerned with strategies, resources, programs, and research on inclusion, detracking, ability grouping, mainstreaming, and cooperative learning. The entries describing each resource are organized into seven sections: publications, newsletters, journals,…

Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn, Comp.; And Others

248

Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

2011-01-01

249

Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in halite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of paleoclimate proxy records allow determination of relative warming or cooling. However, if we are to understand climate change, quantification of past temperature fluctuations is essential. Our research indicates that fluid inclusions in halite can yield homogenization temperatures that record surface brine temperatures at the time of halite precipitation.To avoid problems with stretching, leaking, and initial trapping of

Sheila M. Roberts; Ronald J. Spencer

1995-01-01

250

Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in halite  

SciTech Connect

A variety of paleoclimate proxy records allow determination of relative warming or cooling. However, if we are to understand climate change, quantification of past temperature fluctuations is essential. Our research indicates that fluid inclusions in halite can yield homogenization temperatures that record surface brine temperatures at the time of halite precipitation. To avoid problems with stretching, leaking, and initial trapping of air, samples with primary, single-phase (liquid) fluid inclusions are chilled in a freezer to nucleate vapor bubbles. We tested the reliability of this method of obtaining fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures using modern salts precipitated at Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Homogenization temperatures correlate well with measured brine temperatures. The same method is applied to fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite from a core taken at the same location in Death Valley. Results are at several scales, recording diurnal temperature variations, seasonal temperature fluctuations, and longer-term warming and cooling events that correlate with major changes in the sedimentary environment related to climate. This technique is uniquely instrumental for paleoclimate studies because it offers actual, not just proxy, paleotemperature data. 27 refs., 17 figs.

Roberts, S.M.; Spencer, R.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-10-01

251

Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in halite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of paleoclimate proxy records allow determination of relative warming or cooling. However, if we are to understand climate change, quantification of past temperature fluctuations is essential. Our research indicates that fluid inclusions in halite can yield homogenization temperatures that record surface brine temperatures at the time of halite precipitation. To avoid problems with stretching, leaking, and initial trapping

Sheila M. Roberts; Ronald J. Spencer

1995-01-01

252

Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a former principal at Falk Elementary School in Madison, Wisconsin, describes his school's shift as it sought to create an inclusive school for all students and establish an authentic sense of belonging. Nationwide, schools and districts from Concord, New Hampshire, to Whittier, California, and from Cambridge, Massachusetts, to…

Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

2008-01-01

253

Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

2012-01-01

254

Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

2013-01-01

255

Methodological challenges in researching inclusive school cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the methodological challenges faced in a pilot study of the processes and cultures of inclusion and exclusion in two primary school classrooms. The authors, who were the research team, engaged with a range of practical and ethical challenges, some of which face any researcher entering classroom contexts and some of which were specific to our focus on

Melanie Nind; Shereen Benjamin; Kieron Sheehy; Janet Collins; Kathy Hall

2004-01-01

256

Student Teacher Perspectives on Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to discover Florida International University student teachers' perceptions and experiences about inclusive education during their student teaching internship. A total of 271 student teachers (all those enrolled in Spring 06 and Fall 06 student teaching) participated. A mixed methods design was utilized to analyze the…

Nevin, Ann; Cohen, Judith; Salazar, Liliana; Marshall, Deidre

2007-01-01

257

Essential Features of Methodologically Inclusive Research Syntheses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary educational research is marked by diversity, complexity, and richness of purposes, methods, and perspectives. A framework, the Methodologically Inclusive Research Synthesis (MIRS), has been developed to offer a set of guidelines to facilitate informed choices at the critical decision points of any research synthesis process. The MIRS…

Suri, Harsh

258

Genetics Home Reference: Inclusion body myopathy 2  

MedlinePLUS

... if I still have specific questions about inclusion body myopathy 2? Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language. What does it mean if a disorder seems ...

259

Comprehensive School Reform and Inclusive Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the emphasis in public policy and the professional literature on developing inclusive programs for students with disabilities over the past 30 years, surprisingly little progress has been made in this regard in school districts across the United States. One approach to change that is currently being used with some success in general…

McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

260

Cooperative Oriented Learning in Inclusive Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the implementation of cooperation directed learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three elementary city schools in Sweden was studied. The purpose was to assess the impact of peer tutoring on the interaction behaviours between students with and without disabilities in GPE. A…

Klavina, Aija; Jerlinder, Kajsa; Kristén, Lars; Hammar, Lena; Soulie, Tine

2014-01-01

261

Inclusion and Burnout in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between inclusion and burnout in physical education teaching. Data were collected from a sample of elementary school physical education (PE) teachers from all six districts in Israel. The research questionnaire included three parts: personal and occupational background, Friedman's Burnout index and work…

Fejgin, Naomi; Talmor, Rachel; Erlich, Ilana

2005-01-01

262

Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

2012-01-01

263

Educational Technology for the Inclusive Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and evaluates the development of an educational technology curriculum aimed at pre-service, primary education and undergraduates; the focus is on the incorporation of ICT competences for inclusive education. The framework was the introduction of SEVERI e-learning environment in Slovenian schools. Students were able to monitor…

Starcic, Andreja Istenic

2010-01-01

264

Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

Curcic, Svjetlana

2009-01-01

265

Fluid inclusions with gas bubbles as geothermometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of fluid inclusions can be distinguished. The first is based on the assumption of Sorby (1858) that a homogeneous phase, such as water, salt solution, or CO2, is entrapped, meaning that the bubbles result from the gas of the enclosed fluid. The second type includes foreign gas entrapped with the fluid. \\

C. W. Correns; Geol Rundsch

2002-01-01

266

Afford TWO, Financial Inclusion in Rural Myanmar  

E-print Network

1 Afford TWO, Eat ONE Financial Inclusion in Rural Myanmar #12;2 #12;3 Introduction regulations, regional banking operations and technologies and, most importantly, individual needs. Our like bank loans and credit cards that many of us take for granted. Afford Two, Eat One aims to explain

Brody, James P.

267

Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

268

Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

Ince, Basak

2012-01-01

269

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion Applies to: Any website conducting university of the art digital and web based information delivery of information is increasingly central in carrying out constituencies. This policy establishes minimum standards for the accessibility of web based information

Jones, Michelle

270

Digital inclusion in Chilean in rural schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes conditions for improving digital inclusion in Chilean rural schools, using a multidimensional definition of digital divide. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we focus on teacher's skills, access to communication, Internet connection and expectations regarding the Internet in rural schools. We obtained data from interviews and surveys applied to teachers, students, principals and technology coordinators. Results show that

Jaime Sánchez; Blanco Encalada

2010-01-01

271

Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

Burruss, R.C.

1987-01-01

272

Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of the great diversity found in transgender-inclusive young-adult texts—especially those written in the first

Elsworth I. Rockefeller

2009-01-01

273

Ringed-Carbon Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-02-12

274

MANUFACTURE OF LIMONOID COMPOUNDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present invention relates to methods for manufacturing limonoid compounds. The invention provides methods for isolating limonoid A-ring lactone acid salts, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside dicarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acid salts, and limonoid ...

275

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

1985-01-01

276

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

1983-06-29

277

Chemistry of peroxide compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

Volnov, I. I.

1981-01-01

278

Hydrides of intermetallic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Aspects of the progress over the recent years on hydrides of intermetallic compounds are reviewed with emphasis on structure,\\u000a stability, solid-state properties, catalysis, and kinetics. Some new routes to an understanding of hydride phenomenology are\\u000a indicated. Generally speaking hydrides represent but one special aspect of intermetallic compounds. They are, however, unique\\u000a as model systems for questions concerning the stability of

H. Oesterreicher

1981-01-01

279

Phenolic Molding Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

280

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARASPORAL INCLUSION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KYUSHUENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kyushuensis synthesizes an irregularly shaped parasporal inclusion during sporulation. lectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are composed of a relatively homogeneous appearing center surrounded by a thick, electron dense coating. urified incl...

281

Granulitic and eclogitic inclusions from basic pipes at Delegate, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic breccia-nephelinite pipes at Delegate (N.S.W., Australia) contain abundant two-pyroxene granulite, garnet granulite and fassaite eclogite inclusions and rare spinel pyroxenite, peridotite and charnockite inclusions.

J. F. Lovering; A. J. R. White

1969-01-01

282

Input on NIH Toolbox inclusion criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: The NIH Toolbox is intended to be responsive to the needs of investigators evaluating neurologic and behavioral function in diverse settings. Early phases of the project involved gathering information and input from potential end users. Methods: Information was collected through literature and instrument database reviews, requests for information, consensus meetings, and expert interviews and integrated into the NIH Toolbox development process in an iterative manner. Results: Criteria for instrument inclusion, subdomains to be assessed, and preferences regarding instrument cost and length were obtained. Existing measures suitable for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox and areas requiring new measure development were identified. Conclusion: The NIH Toolbox was developed with explicit input from potential end users regarding many of its key features. PMID:23479548

Victorson, David; Debb, Scott M.; Gershon, Richard C.

2013-01-01

283

Rare and unusual mineral inclusions in diamonds from Mwadui, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syngenetic diamond inclusions from the Mwadui kimberlite reveal that an unusually fertile section of lithospheric mantle\\u000a beneath the Central African Craton was sampled. This is shown by a very high ratio of lherzolitic to harzburgitic garnet inclusions\\u000a (1:2) and low Mg\\/Fe-ratios in olivine and orthopyroxene. Geothermometry applied to the peridotitic inclusions indicates disequilibrium\\u000a between non-touching inclusion pairs to be common.

Thomas Stachel; Jeff W. Harris; Gerhard P. Brey

1998-01-01

284

Adult pulmonary cytomegalic inclusion disease: report of a case.  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of pulmonary cytomegalic inclusion disease in adult. The condition was only diagnosed post mortem. A detailed description of the inclusions and inclusion-bearing cells is given. Histochemical observations which reveal an outer and inner zone to the intranuclear inclusion body are confirmed. Electron microscopy shows the viral basis of the infection. The morphology of the virus particles is compatible with a herpesvirus infection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6244337

Browning, J D; More, I A; Boyd, J F

1980-01-01

285

Myopathy with tubulin-reactive inclusions in two cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of inclusions have been described in human myopathies including but not limited to nemaline rod bodies, cylindrical\\u000a spirals, tubular aggregates, cytoplasmic bodies, reducing bodies, and fingerprint bodies, and hyaline inclusions in myofibrillar\\u000a myopathy and inclusion body myositis. There are very few reports describing inclusions in spontaneously occurring myopathies\\u000a in cats, and these reports are limited to nemaline rod

G. Diane Shelton; Beverly K. Sturges; Leslie A. Lyons; D. Colette Williams; Monica Aleman; Yun Jiang; Andrew P. Mizisin

2007-01-01

286

Conversion errors in processing artificial set inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on processing linguistically-derived, artificial set inclusions have generally found poor performance on true-false verification tests. Results have indicated logical processing errors, mainly conversions (e.g. if told All As are Bs, then responding true to the test statement All Bs are As). The present experiment attempted to reduce the occurrence of these errors by providing repetitive study of and

Richard A. Griggs; Lawrence J. Osterman

1980-01-01

287

Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

2013-12-15

288

Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2006-08-01

289

Nuclear Inclusions in the Liver Cells of the Golden Hamster  

PubMed Central

Intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the liver cells of 21 of 104 hamsters. The cause of these inclusions remains unknown but they probably represent infoldings of the nuclear membrane in which the cytoplasm has become segregated. An account is given of the age incidence, morphology and histo-chemical features of these inclusions. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4234790

Lussier, G.; Pavilanis, V.

1968-01-01

290

Why Inclusion Benefits Everyone--Insights from a Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the experience of a parent of a special needs child attending an early child care center that embraces inclusion. Describes: (1) the search for a center; (2) her child's experience at school; (3) making inclusion possible; and (4) integration of all the parts. Asserts that all the children in the center benefit from inclusion. (SD)

Walton, Terrell

2001-01-01

291

School and Classroom Practices in Inclusive Education in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes practices in inclusive education in Australian schools and classrooms. In discussing the changes that schools have made in order to be inclusive and responsive to student diversity, the author refers to one Australian school and its re-organization and also to recent Australian research on building inclusive school cultures.…

van Kraayenoord, Christina E.

2007-01-01

292

Composition, structure, and sources of exogenous inclusions in steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Exogenous inclusions introduced in steel from adjacent nonmetallic layers may result in loss of fatigue strength and the destruction of parts operating at elevated loads, since such inclusions may be 5?200 times larger than endogenous inclusions of oxides (reduction products) and sulfides. However, the quantity of macroinclusions in metal on chill casting is so small that they may be

L. A. Moiseeva; B. P. Moiseev

2007-01-01

293

Exsolved magnetite inclusions in silicates: Features determining their remanence behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submicroscopic, needle-shaped titanomagnetite inclusions exsolved in silicate minerals commonly occur in mafic intrusive rocks and are protected from alteration by their silicate hosts, making them excellent candidates for paleomagnetic studies. A suite of samples containing clinopyroxene- and plagioclase-hosted magnetite inclusions from five geologically diverse sites was examined using magnetic force microscopy to image the inclusions' magnetic domain state. Alternating field

Joshua M. Feinberg; Gary R. Scott; Paul R. Renne; Hans-Rudolf Wenk

2005-01-01

294

Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

2003-01-01

295

Leadership for All Students: Planning for More Inclusive School Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…

Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.

2014-01-01

296

Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

Vaillant, Denise

2011-01-01

297

Inclusive Education, Exclusion and Difficult Difference: A Call for Humanity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's review of three books: (1) "The irregular school: exclusion, schooling and inclusive education," by Roger Slee; (2) "Confronting obstacles to inclusion: international responses to developing inclusive education," edited by Richard Rose; and (3) ""Hanging in with the kids" in tough times: engagement in contexts of…

Rogers, Chrissie

2012-01-01

298

What Are Schools Looking for in New, Inclusive Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focus groups were conducted in four school divisions in central Canada in order to determine whether inclusive educators in schools could identify the knowledge base, skills set, and attitudes desirable in new inclusive teachers. Participants failed to identify an essential knowledge base for inclusive educators. Findings indicated that a focus on…

Sokal, Laura

2012-01-01

299

Inclusion Body Isolation Maxi Kit Product Insert Product # 17700  

E-print Network

Isolation Maxi Kit facilitates the isolation of recombinant proteins in the form of inclusion bodies from E. coli. The kit includes reagents specially formulated to achieve rapid and high-quality purification of inclusion body proteins using three processes: 1. Lysis of bacterial cells to release inclusion bodies

Lebendiker, Mario

300

Leadership Strategies for Successful Schoolwide Inclusion: The STAR Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective, "schoolwide" inclusion ensures the best outcomes for all students--but how can school teams knock down the barriers to inclusion and make sure it's happening across all classrooms? This concise book gives principals and other school leaders the solution they've been waiting for: a clear framework for leading inclusion efforts,…

Munk, Dennis D.; Dempsey, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

301

Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social…

Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier

2009-01-01

302

Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

Savich, Carl

2008-01-01

303

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

304

Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness  

E-print Network

Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness Alan Grafen* Zoology Department, Oxford arguments, that the model falls squarely within the scope of inclusive fitness theory, which furthermore shows how to calculate inclusive fitness and the relevant relatedness. A distinction is drawn between

Grafen, Alan

305

Inclusion and Guilt: The Emotional Fallout for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of inclusion of children with exceptionalities is accepted by teachers, but the practice of inclusion is problematic, particularly at the secondary level. In a study of inclusion and the impact of budgetary constraints in Nova Scotia, teachers reported that they had difficulty meeting the needs of all students within their classroom…

Macmillan, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J.

2006-01-01

306

Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

2014-01-01

307

International Kimberlite Conference Long Abstract 1 DIAMONDS AND THEIR INCLUSIONS  

E-print Network

8th International Kimberlite Conference Long Abstract 1 DIAMONDS AND THEIR INCLUSIONS axiom that mineral inclusions in diamonds (DIs) are syngenetic with their host diamonds (Ds) is herein in many studies is the requirement for co- crystallization of diamonds with their mineral inclusions

Taylor, Lawrence A.

308

A Conceptual Analysis of Key Concepts in Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of an inclusive classroom, inclusion, co-teaching, and disability have been called poorly defined and in need of fresh conceptual analyses. In Chapter 1, I respond to this call for further analysis and then demonstrate, using current educational headlines, that these concepts of "an inclusive classroom,"…

Boston-Kemple, Thomas Ernest

2012-01-01

309

Gender Inclusive HOUSING, RESIDENTIAL LIFE, DINING & CONFERENCE SERVICES  

E-print Network

Gender Inclusive Housing HOUSING, RESIDENTIAL LIFE, DINING & CONFERENCE SERVICES Frequently Asked Questions Q: What is gender inclusive housing? A: For the first time, academic year 2014-2015, housing will create a gender inclusive unit (GIH). This option will be open to incoming transgender freshmen who

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

310

Stress concentration near stiff inclusions: validation of rigid inclusion model and boundary layers by means of photoelasticity  

E-print Network

Photoelasticity is employed to investigate the stress state near stiff rectangular and rhombohedral inclusions embedded in a 'soft' elastic plate. Results show that the singular stress field predicted by the linear elastic solution for the rigid inclusion model can be generated in reality, with great accuracy, within a material. In particular, experiments: (i.) agree with the fact that the singularity is lower for obtuse than for acute inclusion angles; (ii.) show that the singularity is stronger in Mode II than in Mode I (differently from a notch); (iii.) validate the model of rigid quadrilateral inclusion; (iv.) for thin inclusions, show the presence of boundary layers deeply influencing the stress field, so that the limit case of rigid line inclusion is obtained in strong dependence on the inclusion's shape. The introduced experimental methodology opens the possibility of enhancing the design of thin reinforcements and of analyzing complex situations involving interaction between inclusions and defects.

Diego Misseroni; Francesco Dal Corso; Summer Shahzad; Davide Bigoni

2014-04-03

311

Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3??m, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7??m yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. PMID:23971647

Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

2013-09-01

312

Effect of liquid crystals with cyclodextrin on the bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble compound, diosgenin, after its oral administration to rats.  

PubMed

Diosgenin, found in wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), has been shown to ameliorate diabetes and hyperlipidemia, increase cell proliferation in a human 3D skin model, and inhibits melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. It is also an active element in cosmeceutical and dietary supplements. Although the bioavailability of diosgenin is low due to its poor solubility and intestinal permeability, it was subsequently improved using a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion complex. Recently liquid crystals (LCs) were shown to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose in the present study was to prepare diosgenin LCs and investigate the interaction between LC and ?-CD in order to improve its bioavailability of diosgenin. Crystallinity and particle diameters of LCs in water were determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Zetasizer. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the plasma content of diosgenin after its oral administration to Wistar rats. Regarding the formation of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and phytantriol (PHY) LC, SAXS patterns showed the hexagonal and cubic phases, respectively. Bioavailability was significantly enhanced after oral administration of LCs prepared by GMO than after diosgenin alone. The bioavailability was further improved with the combination of LC and ?-CD than LC and water. PMID:24954725

Okawara, Masaki; Hashimoto, Fumie; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Tokudome, Yoshihiro

2014-09-10

313

Metalloid compounds as drugs  

PubMed Central

The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

Sekhon, B. S.

2013-01-01

314

Determination of NMR lineshape anisotropy of guest molecules within inclusion complexes from molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Nonspherical cages in inclusion compounds can result in non-uniform motion of guest species in these cages and anisotropic lineshapes in NMR spectra of the guest. Herein, we develop a methodology to calculate lineshape anisotropy of guest species in cages based on molecular dynamics simulations of the inclusion compound. The methodology is valid for guest atoms with spin 1/2 nuclei and does not depend on the temperature and type of inclusion compound or guest species studied. As an example, the nonspherical shape of the structure I (sI) clathrate hydrate large cages leads to preferential alignment of linear CO(2) molecules in directions parallel to the two hexagonal faces of the cages. The angular distribution of the CO(2) guests in terms of a polar angle theta and azimuth angle phi and small amplitude vibrational motions in the large cage are characterized by molecular dynamics simulations at different temperatures in the stability range of the CO(2) sI clathrate. The experimental (13)C NMR lineshapes of CO(2) guests in the large cages show a reversal of the skew between the low temperature (77 K) and the high temperature (238 K) limits of the stability of the clathrate. We determine the angular distributions of the guests in the cages by classical MD simulations of the sI clathrate and calculate the (13)C NMR lineshapes over a range of temperatures. Good agreement between experimental lineshapes and calculated lineshapes is obtained. No assumptions regarding the nature of the guest motions in the cages are required. PMID:18386265

Alavi, Saman; Dornan, Peter; Woo, Tom K

2008-04-21

315

Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions. III - Consortium study of relationship to inclusions in Allan Hills 78113 aubrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in large chondritic clasts from the Cumbersand Falls aubrite were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and the results, together with the results of a mineralogical investigation, were compared with respective data obtained for three primitive inclusions from the ALH A78113 aubrite. The results indicated that the clasts from both aubrite sources constitute a single chondritic suite. The analyses data, together with the results of thermoluminescence data for Cumberland Falls chondritic inclusions and achondritic host, indicate that inclusions in Cumberland Falls and in ALH A78113 aubrite represent a primitive chondrite sample suite whose properties were established during primary nebular accretion and condensation over a broad redox range.

Lipschutz, Michael E.; Verkouteren, R. Michael; Sears, Derek W. G.; Hasan, Fouad A.; Prinz, Martin

1988-01-01

316

Study on inclusion interaction of piroxicam with ?-cyclodextrin derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion behavior of piroxicam (PX) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD), and carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin (CM-?-CD) was investigated by using steady-state fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The various factors affecting the inclusion process were examined in detail. The remarkable fluorescence emission enhancement upon addition of CDs suggested that cyclodextrins (CDs) were most suitable for inclusion of the uncharged species of PX. The stoichiometry of the PX-CDs inclusion complexes was 1:1, except for ?-CD where a 1:2 inclusion complex was formed. The formation constants showed the strongest inclusion capacity of ?-CD. NMR showed the inclusion mode of PX with CDs.

Xiliang, Guo; Yu, Yang; Guoyan, Zhao; Guomei, Zhang; Jianbin, Chao; Shaomin, Shuang

2003-12-01

317

An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

Chi, G.; Chou, I.-M.; Lu, H.-Z.

2003-01-01

318

Quantitative analysis of inclusion distributions in hot pressed silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Depth of penetration measurements in hot pressed SiC have exhibited significant variability that may be influenced by microstructural defects. To obtain a better understanding regarding the role of microstructural defects under highly dynamic conditions; fragments of hot pressed SiC plates subjected to impact tests were examined. Two types of inclusion defects were identified, carbonaceous and an aluminum-iron-oxide phase. A disproportionate number of large inclusions were found on the rubble, indicating that the inclusion defects were a part of the fragmentation process. Distribution functions were plotted to compare the inclusion populations. Fragments from the superior performing sample had an inclusion population consisting of more numerous but smaller inclusions. One possible explanation for this result is that the superior sample withstood a greater stress before failure, causing a greater number of smaller inclusions to participate in fragmentation than in the weaker sample.

Michael Paul Bakas

2012-12-01

319

Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

2009-09-01

320

Fun with Ionic Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

2007-01-01

321

Aminopropyl thiophene compounds  

DOEpatents

Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

322

Compound floating pivot micromechanisms  

DOEpatents

A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-04-24

323

8-fluoropurine compounds  

DOEpatents

An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Encino, CA)

2001-01-01

324

Tagging Classical Sanskrit Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper sets out a prima facie case for the claim that the classification of Sanskrit compounds in P??inian tradition can be retrieved from a very slight\\u000a augmentation of the usual enriched context free rules.

Brendan S. Gillon

2009-01-01

325

A compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for solar energy applications is presented in this work. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 /sup 0/C with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed CPC.

Manrique, J.A.

1984-05-01

326

Compound semiconductor radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky

Alan Owens; A. Peacock

2004-01-01

327

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

328

Resultative Verb Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that structure and interpretation of Resultative Verb Compound (RVC) in the field of Chinese linguistics is neither indiosyncratic nor pragmatically determined as suggested in an earlier study. Rather, RCV formation and interpretation is determined by semantic features of verbs, and these features determine the well-formedness and…

Ross, Claudia

1990-01-01

329

Solid state studies of drug–cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in PEG 6000 prepared by a new method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting method was investigated as a possible method for producing drug–cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion compounds in a carrier. Various solid dispersions of ?-, ?- and ?-CD in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 with and without the addition of 5% w\\/w indomethacin or griseofulvin were prepared using the original components. Characterisations of the samples included X-ray powder diffraction, modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry

Marie Wulff; Maggie Aldén

1999-01-01

330

Inclusive jet production using the kt algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Results on inclusive jet production using the k{sub T} algorithm in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented, based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data. The measurements are carried out for jets with p{sub T}{sup jet} > 54 GeV/c in five different jet rapidity regions up to |y{sub jet}| = 2.1. The measured cross sections are corrected to the hadron level and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions (NLO pQCD).

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2006-05-01

331

Inclusion Optimization for Next Generation Steel Products  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to determine the conditions under which the inclusions in liquid steel can act as heterogeneous nucleants for solidification. The experimental approach consisted of measuring the undercooling of a pure iron droplet in contact with different oxides to determine which oxides promote iron solidification by providing a suitable surface for nucleation and which oxides and under which conditions the metal can be deeply undercooled. The conclusions suggest that deep undercoolings are possible at low oxygen content provided the oxygen potential is such that substrate decomposition does not occur. If the oxygen content increases the undercooling decreases.

Dr. Sridar Seetharaman: Dr. Alan Cramb

2006-04-06

332

Inclusive single muons at D0  

SciTech Connect

We report preliminary results on b-quark production in p[bar p] collisions at [radical]s = 1.8 TeV from the current Run la of the Tevatron collider. Using an inclusive muon data sample which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 50--70 nb[sup [minus]1] and by further requiring the muon to be accompanied by a jet we obtain an almost background free sample of muons consistent with b[bar b] [yields] [mu]X decay. A preliminary p[sub T][sup [mu

Bazizi, K.A. (California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States))

1992-11-01

333

What can we learn from inclusive spectra  

SciTech Connect

The present experimental status on single particle inclusive measurements is described. Then, the geometrical aspect of the collision is discussed from the data of total integrated cross sections of nuclear charge or mass. The dynamical aspect of the collision, especially that for the participating region is discussed in connection with proton spectra, composite fragment spectra, pion production, ratios of ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/, n/p and t//sup 3/He, and production of strange particles. The spectator physics is described from the data on projectile fragments. (GHT)

Nagamiya, S.

1981-05-01

334

Inclusive inelastic electron scattering from nuclei  

E-print Network

Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and $Q^2$ is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi--elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark constituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the influence of final state interactions and the approach to $y$-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to $x$- scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

Fomin, Nadia

2007-01-01

335

Inclusive inelastic electron scattering from nuclei  

E-print Network

Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and $Q^2$ is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi--elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark constituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the influence of final state interactions and the approach to $y$-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to $x$- scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

Nadia Fomin

2008-08-19

336

Inclusive B decays from resummed perturbation theory.  

E-print Network

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 07 03 03 6v 1 4 M ar 2 00 7 Inclusive B decays from resummed perturbation theory Einan Gardi Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK and Department of Applied Mathematics... for the experimentally–relevant branching fractions can be derived from resummed perturbation theory and explain the way in which the resummation further provides guidance in parametrizing non-perturbative Fermi–motion effects. Finally I address the comparison between...

Gardi, Einan

337

Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions  

DOEpatents

A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

1981-01-01

338

Microscopic analysis of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain from Malaysia that produces exosporium-enclosed parasporal inclusion.  

PubMed

The current study focused on the microscopic studies of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain isolated from Malaysia, Bt-S84-13a, that produced an unusual crystal type. Primary detection of parasporal inclusions using a phase contrast microscope presented one to two small crystal proteins in the sporulating cells of Bt-S84-13a. Compound light microscopic examination of autolysed Bt-S84-13a cells stained with 0.133% Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed two types of crystal morphology: small crystals independent of spores and spore-associated crystals. Surface structure analysis with a scanning electron microscope revealed spherical-like, coarse and wrinkled-looking crystal in Bt-S84-13a. A close-up observation of the crystal morphology using a transmission electron microscope also demonstrated two parasporal inclusions in Bt-S84-13a. One inclusion was deposited against the forespore and was in a shape of incomplete rectangular. Another smaller inclusion was developed within the exosporium and was rectangular in shape. However, the latter inclusion was found lack in another bacterial cell which was still in the early stages of sporulation. This unique crystal morphology may imply some biological potential in Bt-S84-13a. PMID:24943903

Chai, Pui Fun; Rathinam, Xavier; Solayappan, Maheswaran; Ahmad Ghazali, Amir Hamzah; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

2014-10-01

339

Iron- and 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline-containing periplasmic inclusion bodies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A chemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dark aggregated particles were seen on pellets of iron-rich, mid-logarithmic phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy of these cells showed inclusion bodies in periplasmic vacuoles. Aggregated particles isolated from the spent medium of these cells contained iron as indicated by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy that revealed Fe3+. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis of whole cells revealed the presence of iron-containing particles beneath the surface of the cell, indicating that the isolated aggregates were the intracellular inclusion bodies. Collectively, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the isolated inclusion bodies revealed the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline which is the Pseudomonas quinolone signaling compound (PQS) and an iron chelator; 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (pseudan VII), which is an iron chelator, antibacterial compound and precursor of PQS; 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline (pseudan IX) which is an iron chelator and antibacterial compound; 4-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline (pseudan I), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline N-oxide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Royt, P.W.; Honeychuck, R.V.; Pant, R.R.; Rogers, M.L.; Asher, L.V.; Lloyd, J.R.; Carlos, W.E.; Belkin, H.E.; Patwardhan, S.

2007-01-01

340

Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

1997-10-01

341

Novel therapeutic approaches for inclusion body myositis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review will highlight recent advances in developing strategies to accelerate muscle regeneration and to slow muscle degeneration in myositis, focusing primarily on inclusion body myositis (IBM). Recent findings Therapies for accelerating muscle regeneration, primarily through inhibition of myostatin, have shown promise in the laboratory and are now entering clinical trials. Recent studies have implicated autophagy, a key cellular process involved in clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates, in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). IBM has joined a growing list of diseases known as TDP-43 proteinopathies, in which this protein becomes mislocalized to the cytoplasm; however, it is unclear whether these protein aggregates or others are pathogenic in this disease. Summary New discoveries of biomarkers in sIBM and new insights into the pathogenesis of familial IBM are opening novel therapeutic pathways for these disorders. In particular, drugs that stimulate autophagy, already in development for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, are candidates for clinical trials. These disease-specific therapies combined with novel therapies to accelerate muscle regeneration hold promise for future therapy for this devastating disease. PMID:20827206

Lloyd, Thomas E.

2015-01-01

342

Erythroblastic inclusions in dominantly inherited beta thalassemias.  

PubMed

While the precipitation of unstable variant beta-globin chains has been implicated as a major pathogenic mechanism in dominantly inherited beta thalassemia, their instability and presence in intra-erythroblastic inclusions have not been conclusively shown. We report the investigation of two cases of dominantly inherited beta thalassemia due to heterozygosity for the beta-codon 121 G-T mutation. In one case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of an abnormal beta-globin chain in both peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow erythroblasts, and to assess its stability in relation to the substantial amounts of mutant beta mRNA transcript. The serum transferrin receptor (TfR) level was markedly increased, an indication of increased erythropoietic activity. In both cases, we could show by immunoelectron microscopy that the intra-erythroblastic inclusion bodies, a prominent feature of diseases in this category, contained not only precipitated alpha-globin chains, but also beta chains. The data confirm previous suggestions that the cellular pathology underlying this group of beta thalassemias is related to the synthesis of highly unstable beta-globin chain variants, which fail to form functional tetramers and precipitate intracellularly with the concomitant excess alpha chains, leading to increased ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:8978308

Ho, P J; Wickramasinghe, S N; Rees, D C; Lee, M J; Eden, A; Thein, S L

1997-01-01

343

Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

Cologon, Kathy

2014-01-01

344

Psychology's Role in Inclusive Education: Observations from New Brunswicks's Recent Review of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists are amongst the professionals who assess children to identify and prescribe for those with learning differences. They currently carry out these assessments in the context of the practice of inclusive education that involves providing for all children's educational needs in regular classroom settings. Recently, some psychologists have…

Williams, Robert B.; French, Laurence A.

2007-01-01

345

Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

2009-01-01

346

Leadership to Promote Inclusion: Perceptions of Elementary Principals on Inclusion, Co-Teaching, and Differentiated Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals with Disabilities Act mandates that all students with or without disabilities should be included in the regular education classroom to the greatest extent appropriate. Research shows the importance of the principal's ability to shape programs, policies and school cultures that are supportive of inclusion. Deploying a modified…

Murray, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

347

Valuing Student Teachers' Perspectives: Researching Inclusively in Inclusive Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how engaging with the principles of inclusive research can enhance research studies that set out to understand the experiences of student teachers on initial teacher education programmes. It does so by describing the methodological development of an on-going study of student teachers' perspectives on working with diverse…

Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Amrhein, Bettina

2014-01-01

348

Promoting Inclusion? "Inclusive" and Effective Head Teachers' Descriptions of Their Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6-16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and…

Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

2014-01-01

349

Compounds with mixed and intermediate sulfur valences as precursors of banded sulfides in carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits in Belgium and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounds of Fe, Pb and Zn with mixed and intermediate sulfur valences form ubiquitous inclusions and relics in banded sphalerite, pyrite-melnikovite and galena. Banded sulfides continuously grade into banded compounds with mixed and intermediate sulfur valences, the latter with a fibrous microtexture. A fibrous microtexture is also shown by banded sphalerite and pyrite from Zn-Pb deposits of Belgium and Poland.

H. Kucha; W. Viaene

1993-01-01

350

Compound Chondrules fused Cold  

E-print Network

About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ~ 1100K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025K. In that temperatur...

Hubbard, Alexander

2015-01-01

351

Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially ?-d-glucans. Among them, ?-1,3-glucan with side chain ?-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

2013-01-01

352

Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially ?-d-glucans. Among them, ?-1,3-glucan with side chain ?-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

2013-05-01

353

Compound library management.  

PubMed

The increasing size of the collections used for drug-discovery purposes has demanded both hardware and software automation of compound management in order to cope with the increasing demands of HTS. Splitting the collection into a number of copies in different formats is a desirable approach to keep a balance between rapid response to the demands and best storage conditions. Flexibility to different assay configurations can be provided with the appropriate selection of liquid handlers, and the informatic management systems should be accessible to keep track of the samples and link them to a variety of information that can help interpret HTS data. In this respect, QC data on the compounds and quality checks of the equipment used are highly desirable. It is also prudent for a large organization with different research sites to have a unified database and compatible plate format and concentration in order to be able to exchange samples and share screening results. The accomplishment of all the previous requirements is the only way to ensure an efficient and effective compound library management. PMID:12029818

Chan, James A; Hueso-Rodríguez, Juan A

2002-01-01

354

Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

2015-01-01

355

Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are revolutionizing ultra-sensitive photodetection applications, providing single photon sensitivity, high quantum efficiency and low dark noise at or near room temperature. When aggregated into arrays, these devices have demonstrated the ability to operate as photon number resolving detectors with wide dynamic range, or as single-photon imaging detectors. SPAD array performance has reached a point where replacing vacuum tube based MCP and PMT photodetectors for most applications is inevitable. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays offer the unique proposition to tailor performance to match application specific wavelength, speed and radiation hardness requirements. We present a theoretical framework describing performance limits to compound semiconductor SPAD arrays and our latest experimental results detailing the performance of GaAs SPAD arrays. These devices achieve nanosecond rise and fall times, excellent photon number resolving capability, and low dark count rates. Single photon number resolving is demonstrated with 4% single photon detection efficiency at room temperature with dark count rates below 7 Mcps/mm2. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays have the opportunity to provide orders of magnitude improvement in dark count rate and radiation hardness over silicon SPAD arrays, as well as the ability to detect wavelengths where silicon is blind.

Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Hyland, James T.

2013-06-01

356

Advancing diversity through inclusive excellence in nursing education.  

PubMed

Nurse leaders call for a more diverse nursing workforce, but too few address the concept of inclusion as a recruitment and retention strategy or as part of improving the academic learning milieu. This article addresses organizational considerations of diversity and inclusion as part of the agenda established by the Association of American Colleges and Universities for inclusive excellence, building on the idea that academic environments only become excellent when an inclusive climate is reached. Six organizational strategies to inclusion are presented from the authors' experiences, some structural and others behavioral: admissions processes, invisibility, absence of community, promotion and tenure, exclusion, and tokenism. A call for structural and behavioral adaptions within nursing education to advance an inclusive excellence agenda is presented. PMID:25839947

Bleich, Michael R; MacWilliams, Brent R; Schmidt, Bonnie J

2015-01-01

357

University of Wisconsin-Fluid and Melt Inclusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Madison created this website "for people interested in the properties, behaviors and origins of fluid and melt inclusions in natural and synthetic materials." The website offers downloads of publications in _The Canadian Mineralogist_ journal and other rock and mineral papers. Students and researchers can find out about meetings and work shops. The website fosters discussion of hot topics in the field of fluid inclusion. Users have a chance to join the fluid inclusion electronic mailing list.

Brown, Philip E.

358

Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sputnik kimberlite pipe, Yakutia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sputnik kimberlite pipe is a small “satellite” of the larger Mir pipe in central Yakutia (Sakha), Russia. Study of 38 large diamonds (0.7-4.9 carats) showed that nine contain inclusions of the eclogitic paragenesis, while the remainder contain inclusions of the peridotitic paragenesis, or of uncertain paragenesis. The peridotitic inclusion suite comprises olivine, enstatite, Cr-diopside, chromite, Cr-pyrope garnet (both lherzolitic

N. V. Sobolev; F. V. Kaminsky; W. L. Griffin; E. S. Yefimova; T. T. Win; C. G. Ryan; A. I. Botkunov

1997-01-01

359

Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

2009-09-25

360

System for Detection of Small Inclusions in Large Optics  

SciTech Connect

The presence of defects in optical materials can lead to bulk damage or downstream modulation and subsequent surface damage in high fluence laser systems. An inclusion detection system has been developed by the National Ignition Facility Optics Metrology Group. The system detects small inclusions in optical materials with increased sensitivity and speed over previous methods. The system has detected all known inclusions and defects and has detected previously undetected defects smaller than 5 microns.

Wolfe, J E; Runkel, M J

2008-10-24

361

Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2014-05-28

362

Mechanical and phase equilibria in inclusion-host systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and phase equilibria in inclusion-host systems are investigated in this paper. An inclusion-host system that is initially under lithostatic pressure and in mechanical and phase equilibria may undergo pressure-temperature change. The new elastic and plastic equilibrium, possible viscous relaxation, and phase equilibrium are considered. The new inclusion pressure typically differs from both the initial pressure and the pressure on the outside surface of the host. The inclusion is under isotropic stress (a single pressure) but the host is anisotropically stressed. The relative volume change of the inclusion differs from that of the inclusion-free host by 0.75( Pin- Pout)/ Gh where Pin and Pout are the pressures on the inside and outside surfaces of the host, and Gh is the shear modulus of the host. Different inclusions in a single host may be under different pressures. A simple case of elastic anisotropy is also considered and the result shows that incorporation of elastic anisotropy is necessary for accurate calculations of volume and strain effect. For inclusions with roughly constant bulk modulus, the time scale of viscous relaxation is found to be 4 ?h/(3 Ki) where ?h is the viscosity of the host phase and Ki is the bulk modulus of the inclusion phase. If the host mineral does not relax viscously and does not fracture into pieces, the host mineral partially protects the inclusion and phase transition in the inclusion-host system is partial and spans a large T- P range even for one-component systems, in contrast to sharp phase transitions under isobaric and isothermal conditions. For example, a graphite inclusion in a diamond host does not completely convert to diamond when pressure on the diamond host increases. Using the chemical potential formulation of Kamb, about 1% of graphite would convert to diamond for every 1 GPa increase in host pressure. Because the inclusion pressure may be different from the lithostatic pressure on the host, pressure obtained from thermobarometers using inclusion-host pairs may not have depth significance. Correct `reading' of information stored by inclusion-host pairs requires an understanding of mechanical and phase equilibria involving the inclusion and host.

Zhang, Youxue

1998-04-01

363

Inclusive Hadron Production in p+p Collisions at STAR  

E-print Network

The STAR experiment at RHIC has measured a variety of inclusive hadron cross sections in $p+p$ collisions at Sqrt(s) = 200 GeV. Measurements of the differential cross section for inclusive charged pion production at mid rapidity and for inclusive neutral pion production at forward rapidity (3.0 STAR for the differential cross section for inclusive neutral pion production near mid rapidity are presented. These cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and can provide constraints on the pion fragmentation functions. Good agreement between data and pQCD has been found for all three cross sections.

Frank Simon; for the STAR Collaboration

2006-09-08

364

Petrographic studies of refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Textural and mineral-chemical data on freeze-thaw disaggregated refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite are reported. The data were obtained with neutron activation analysis, SEM, and spectroscopy, the study revealed corundum-bearing inclusions, spinel-hibonite aggregates and spherules, and spinel-pyroxene and elivine-pyroxene inclusions. One of the three spinel-, pyroxene-, forsterite-rich inclusions had an amoeba-shaped spinel-pyroxene core, implying vapor-to-solid condensation and therefore crystallization from a melt. It is concluded that the meteorite formation encompassed diverse nebular materials, and that further studies of the meteorite will enhance the data base on the planetary nebular processes.

Macpherson, G. J.; Grossman, L.; Hashimoto, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Tanaka, T.

1984-01-01

365

Melt inclusions in veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits.  

PubMed

At a porphyry copper-gold deposit in Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina, silicate-melt inclusions coexist with hypersaline liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions in the earliest magmatic-hydrothermal quartz veins. Copper concentrations of the hypersaline liquid and vapor inclusions reached maxima of 10.0 weight % (wt %) and 4.5 wt %, respectively. These unusually copper-rich inclusions are considered to be the most primitive ore fluid found thus far. Their preservation with coexisting melt allows for the direct quantification of important oreforming processes, including determination of bulk partition coefficients of metals from magma into ore-forming magmatic volatile phases. PMID:14684818

Harris, Anthony C; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; White, Noel C; van Achterbergh, Esmé; Ryan, Chris G

2003-12-19

366

Mycotoxin-contaminated diets and deactivating compound in laying hens: 1. effects on performance characteristics and relative organ weight.  

PubMed

The current experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets with aflatoxin (AFLA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and dietary inclusion of deactivation compound on layer hen performance during a 10-wk trial. The experimental design consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial with 4 toxin levels: control, low (0.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.0 mg/kg DON), medium (1.5 mg/kg AFLA + 1.5 mg/kg DON), and high (2.0 mg/kg AFLA + 2.0 mg/kg DON) with or without the inclusion of deactivation compound. Three hundred eighty-four 25-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 1 of the 8 treatment groups. Birds were fed contaminated diets for a 6-wk phase of toxin administration followed by a 4-wk recovery phase, when all birds were fed mycotoxin-free diets. Twelve hens from each treatment were subjected to necropsy following each phase. Relative liver and kidney weights were increased (P < 0.05) at the medium and high toxin levels following the toxin phase, but the deactivation compound reduced (P < 0.05) relative liver and kidney weights following the recovery period. The high toxin level decreased (P < 0.05) feed consumption and egg production during the toxin period, whereas the deactivation compound increased (P < 0.05) egg production during the first 2 wk of the toxin phase. Egg weights were reduced (P < 0.05) in hens fed medium and high levels of toxin. An interaction existed between toxin level and deactivation compound inclusion with regard to feed conversion (g of feed/g of egg). High inclusion level of toxins increased feed conversion compared with the control diet, whereas deactivation compound inclusion reduced feed conversion to a level comparable with the control. These data indicate that deactivation compound can reduce or eliminate adverse effects of mycotoxicoses in peak-performing laying hens. PMID:22912441

Lee, J T; Jessen, K A; Beltran, R; Starkl, V; Schatzmayr, G; Borutova, R; Caldwell, D J

2012-09-01

367

Ongoing developments in sporadic inclusion body myositis.  

PubMed

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an acquired muscle disorder associated with ageing, for which there is no effective treatment. Ongoing developments include: genetic studies that may provide insights regarding the pathogenesis of IBM, improved histopathological markers, the description of a new IBM autoantibody, scrutiny of the diagnostic utility of clinical features and biomarkers, the refinement of diagnostic criteria, the emerging use of MRI as a diagnostic and monitoring tool, and new pathogenic insights that have led to novel therapeutic approaches being trialled for IBM, including treatments with the objective of restoring protein homeostasis and myostatin blockers. The effect of exercise in IBM continues to be investigated. However, despite these ongoing developments, the aetiopathogenesis of IBM remains uncertain. A translational and multidisciplinary collaborative approach is critical to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with IBM. PMID:25399751

Machado, Pedro M; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Brady, Stefen; Gang, Qiang; Healy, Estelle; Morrow, Jasper M; Wallace, Amanda C; Dewar, Liz; Ramdharry, Gita; Parton, Matthew; Holton, Janice L; Houlden, Henry; Greensmith, Linda; Hanna, Michael G

2014-12-01

368

Inclusive $A_{LL}$ Measurements at STAR  

E-print Network

One of the primary goals of the RHIC Spin program is to determine the gluon polarization distribution within the proton. At leading order, $pp$ collisions involve a mixture of quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon scattering. In RHIC, the gluon-gluon and quark-gluon contributions dominate, making the accelerator an ideal tool to explore gluon polarization. The STAR experiment has measured the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for inclusive production of jets and pions, and for charged pion production opposite a jet, at $\\sqrt{s} = 200 GeV$. The results provide valuable new constraints on the gluon polarization in the proton when included in a next-to-leading-order global analysis. The current status of the STAR measurements and the plans for future measurements will be discussed.

Adam Kocoloski; for the STAR Collaboration

2009-06-01

369

Inclusive radiative {psi}(2S) decays  

SciTech Connect

Using e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct photon spectrum in the decay {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}gg. We determine the ratio of the inclusive direct photon decay rate to that of the dominant three-gluon decay rate {psi}(2S){yields}ggg (R{sub {gamma}}{identical_to}{gamma}({gamma}gg)/{gamma}(ggg)) to be R{sub {gamma}}(z{sub {gamma}}>0.4)=0.070{+-}0.002{+-}0.019{+-}0.011, with z{sub {gamma}} defined as the scaled photon energy relative to the beam energy. The errors shown are statistical, systematic, and that due to the uncertainty in the input branching fractions used to extract the ratio, respectively.

Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mendez, H. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ecklund, K. M. [Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)

2009-10-01

370

Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

NONE

1998-01-01

371

Inclusive jet cross section at CDF  

SciTech Connect

This contribution reports on preliminary measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected with CDF corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 385 pb{sup -1}. Two analyzes are presented: one uses the longitudinally invariant k{sub T} algorithm to reconstruct the jets, the other uses the midpoint algorithm. Both are limited to jets with rapidity in the range 0.1 < |y{sup jet}| < 0.7. The measured cross sections are in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions after including the non-perturbative corrections necessary to account for underlying event and hadronization effects.

Lefevre, R.; Martinez, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE

2005-01-01

372

Update on treatment of inclusion body myositis.  

PubMed

Degenerative mechanisms such as protein accumulation and vacuolar transformation in the skeletal muscle distinguish inclusion body myositis (IBM) from other inflammatory myopathies. IBM is particularly common in patients over the age of 50 years and inevitably leads to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Conventional immunotherapies, albeit effective in other forms of myositis, seem to have only a transient or no beneficial effect on disease progression of IBM. So far, no established evidence-based treatment exists and therapy recommendations are based on expert opinion. Recent clinical trials using monoclonal antibodies such as alemtuzumab or etanercept have failed to demonstrate efficacy. Different treatment studies with drugs that aim at degenerative disease mechanisms are planned or ongoing. This review aims to provide an overview of the current treatment options for IBM. PMID:23529584

Breithaupt, Maren; Schmidt, Jens

2013-05-01

373

Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

374

Phenolic compounds in Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides alkaloids Catharanthus roseus produces a wide spectrum of phenolic compounds, this includes C6C1 compounds such as 2,3-dihydoxybenzoic acid, as well as\\u000a phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The occurrence of these compounds in C. roseus is reviewed as well as their biosynthesis and the regulation of the pathways. Both types of compounds compete with the indole

Natali Rianika Mustafa; Robert Verpoorte

2007-01-01

375

Offset Compound Gear Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

2010-01-01

376

Carcinogenic effect of nickel compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel is a widely distributed metal that is industrially applied in many forms. Accumulated epidemiological evidence confirms that exposures to nickel compounds are associated with increased nasal and lung cancer incidence, both in mostly occupational exposures. Although the molecular mechanisms by which nickel compounds cause cancer are still under intense investigation, the carcinogenic actions of nickel compounds are thought to

Haitian Lu; Xianglin Shi; Max Costa; Chuanshu Huang

2005-01-01

377

Titanium alkoxide compound  

DOEpatents

A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-08-14

378

Transition Metal Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Localised and itinerant electrons in solids; 2. Isolated transition metal ions; 3. Transition metal ions in crystals; 4. Mott–Hubbard vc charge-transfer insulators; 5. Exchange interaction and magnetic structures; 6. Cooperative Jahn–Teller effect and orbital ordering; 7. Charge ordering in transition metal compounds; 8. Ferroelectrics, magnetoelectrics and multiferroics; 9. Doping of correlated systems and correlated metals; 10. Metal-insulator transitions; 11. Kondoeffect, mixed valence and heavy fermions; Appendix A. Some historical notes; Appendix B. A layman's guide to second quantization; Appendix C. Phase transitions and free energy expansion: Landau theory in a nutshell.

Khomskii, Daniel I.

2014-10-01

379

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOEpatents

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

1992-01-01

380

Preeruptive gas in rhyolitic magma: melt inclusion evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt inclusions in Bishop quartz phenocrysts are one of three kinds: 1) wholly enclosed melt inclusions; 2) hourglass inclusions; and 3) melt pockets. Virtually all wholly enclosed melt inclusions lack bubbles, if they cooled rapidly during eruption. Hourglass inclusions are characterized by a narrow neck of glass connecting a body of glass in the interior of a phenocryst with glass at the crystal rim. For example a 17 gram relatively crystal- poor and vesicle-rich, early-erupted pumice clast (BC97 - 16F7 -12) yielded about 9000 quartz crystals and fragments in the 200 to 500 micron diameter size range (about half of the total crystal mass). Of these, 175 are whole (more than about 50 % covered with adhering glass). A random selection of 40 crystals out of the 175 whole quartz crystals contains 14 melt inclusions larger than 50 microns diameter, 33 of which are bubble free. The remaining 7 inclusions include 5 with a less than 0.1vol. % bubble (possibly of shrinkage origin), one with an 8 micron diameter bubble (2 vol. %) and one with a 45 micron diameter bubble (75 vol. % bubble). The 45 micron bubble is in a cracked inclusion and the 8 micron bubble is poorly resolved, and its host crystal is partly cracked. The point is this: there are virtually no unquestionable bubbles in wholly enclosed melt inclusions in Bishop plinian quartz phenocrysts. Yet melt inclusions 50 microns in diameter are common and big enough to enclose and trap many visible bubbles. In general the number density of bubbles is expected to increase dramatically as the size decreases. If Bishop melt contained 5 wt. % (20 vol. %) gas (Wallace et al., 1995) then a 50 micron diameter melt inclusion might contain hundreds of 5 micron diameter bubbles, for example. This is not the case. If there is 20 vol. % gas in preeruptive crystallizing magma then the gas must be contained in bubbles bigger than 50 microns. These would be difficult to trap in 50 micron diameter melt inclusions. Bubbles do occur in hourglass inclusions, however. Commonly hourglass bubbles are single bubbles some 10's of microns in diameter. The bubbles comprise 1 to 50 vol. % or so of the hourglass. Hourglass inclusions contain plausibly primary preeruptive bubbles. The size distribution of hourglass inclusions is similar to, but larger than, that of wholly enclosed melt inclusions. The volume fraction of gas in hourglass inclusions plausibly results from random partial entrapment and evolution of preeruptive bubbles. If melt inclusions can neck off because they lack an expandable bubble, then the evolved volume of hourglass bubbles divided by the sum of the volume of hourglass plus volume of melt inclusions in a pumice clast is the preeruptive trappable gas volume fraction in the magma. The low abundance of gas in hourglass inclusions contrasts with the great estimated volume fraction of gas in the magma suggesting that most of the preeruptive gas in the magma was in bubbles greater than 50 microns in diameter. The paucity of small bubbles in melt inclusions and hourglass inclusions testifies to the significance of processes such as coalescence, floatation, and heterogeneous nucleation that promote bubble enlargement.

Anderson, A. T.

2007-12-01

381

Process Dependence and the Sivers Effect in Inclusive and Semi-Inclusive Reactions  

SciTech Connect

We perform an analysis of the the spin asymmetry for single inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions collected by AnDY experiment and the Sivers asymmetry data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments. In particular, we consider the role color gauge invariance plays in determining the process-dependence of the Sivers effect. We find that after carefully taking into account the initial-state and final-state interactions between the active parton and the remnant of the polarized hadron, the calculated jet spin asymmetry based on the Sivers functions extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experiments is consistent with the AnDY experimental data. This provides a first indication for the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in different processes. We also make predictions for both direct photon and Drell-Yan spin asymmetry, to further test the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in future experiments.

Gamberg, Leonard P. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Kang, Zhong-Bo [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01

382

Fluid Inclusions in Extraterrestrial Samples Fact or Fiction?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the years there have been numerous reports of liquid inclusions in meteorites. Roedder reviews the reported occurrences of liquid inclusions in meteorites and states that "silicate-melt inclusions are expectable and apparently ubiquitous, but the presence of actual liquid inclusions (i.e., with moving bubbles at room temperature) would seem almost impossible." The reason for this conclusion is that meteorites (presumably) form in space at high temperatures and very low pressures where liquid water (or carbon dioxide) is not stable. Perhaps the most infamous report of fluid inclusions in meteorites was that of Warner et al. In that study, the authors reported the presence of two-phase, liquid-vapor inclusions in a diogenite from Antarctica. This report of fluid inclusions generated considerable interest in the meteorite community, and caused many to question existing models for the origin of the diogenites. This interest was short-lived however, as later investigations of the same samples showed that the inclusions were most likely artifacts. Rudnick et al. showed that many of the inclusions in meteorites prepared at the Johnson Space Center contained a fluid that fluoresced strongly under the laser beam on the Raman microprobe. They interpreted this to indicate that the inclusions contained Almag oil used in the preparation of thin sections. Presumably, the Almag oil entered empty vesicles along fractures that were opened intermittently during cutting. Here, the occurrence of unambiguous fluid inclusions that could not have been introduced during sample preparation are described in samples from two different extraterrestrial environments. One environment is represented by the SNC (martian) meteorites ALH 84001 and Nakhla. The second environment is represented by the Monahans 1998 meteorite that fell recently in the USA.

Bodnar, R. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gibson, E. K.

2000-01-01

383

Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a group of compounds that includes some  

E-print Network

for years indoors, akin to persistent organic pollutants in the outdoor environment (POPs). Many SVOCs alterSemivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) Background Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs products, and additives to materials such as vinyl flooring, furniture, clothing, cookware, food packaging

Iglesia, Enrique

384

Role for Chlamydial Inclusion Membrane Proteins in Inclusion Membrane Structure and Biogenesis  

PubMed Central

The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties. PMID:23696825

Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J.; Dorward, David W.; Dooley, Cheryl A.; Hackstadt, Ted

2013-01-01

385

Removing Barriers to Achievement: A Strategy for Inclusion or Exclusion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking as its starting point a critique of policy for inclusion which I published 6 years ago after the publication of the Green Paper "Excellence for All Children; Meeting Special Educational Needs" (DfEE, 1997), the present paper presents a critical analysis of subsequent policy relating to the inclusion of children with Special Educational…

Lloyd, Christine

2008-01-01

386

Inclusive Research: Making a Difference to Policy and Legislation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research…

Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

2014-01-01

387

Thinking in Another Way: Ideas for Sustainable Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion implies that someone has been excluded and that some are able to prevent others from participation in significant community, economic and political activities. The processes of inclusion and exclusion reflect ideas about how the world is to be seen and understood, about who is to be attended to and who ignored, and about how institutions…

Ballard, Keith

2013-01-01

388

Democracy, Citizenship Education and Inclusion: A Multi-Dimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both democratic citizenship education and inclusion share a common ethos and language based on concerns for human rights, social justice, and a sense of community. Both aim at the building of democratic relationships. But it is fair to say that for a long time citizenship educators and advocates of inclusion have either spoken past each other, or…

Grossman, David L.

2008-01-01

389

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting  

E-print Network

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate by comparing the simulation results to measurements made on production steel sand castings. Good overall

Beckermann, Christoph

390

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID INCLUSIONS Robert J. Bodnar  

E-print Network

essentially pure water, brines of various salinity, gas or gas- bearing liquids, and silicate, sulfide silicate melt and now contain glass ± crystals (cf. Thomas et al. 2002), or solid carbon dioxide inclusions), or unusual aqueous inclusions that trapped a calcium chloride-rich brine and now contain crystalline

Bodnar, Robert J.

391

Best Practices of Inclusion at the Elementary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having inclusion in a school makes every student feel like they are part of the school. The children with disabilities feel accepted and part of the class like everyone else. Students learn to work well with each other and accept differences. Children learn to accept everyone for who they are. The Philosophy of Inclusion website says, Children…

Wilson, Carolyn H.; Ellerbee, Keisha L.; Christian, Silas H.

2011-01-01

392

Tiny Melt Inclusions from 2009 Redoubt Tephra Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Graduate student Allison Payne (USGS ARRA student appointment) uses a binocular microscope to pick out minerals that contain tiny melt inclusions from 2009 Redoubt tephra samples. Melt inclusions are then analyzed with a SHRIMP - Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe - for their volatile (H2O and...

393

General Education Teachers Resistance to Teaching in Inclusion Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative, narrative, phenomenological interview study explored the reasons general education teachers resist teaching in inclusion classrooms. The problem researched was that general education teachers are unwilling to teach in inclusion classrooms in eastern Virginia elementary schools. Twenty participants were interviewed, textual data…

Sparks, Lisa J.

2009-01-01

394

Setting Sail for that Country: The Utopian Urge behind Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vision for the future embedded in inclusive values has fuelled educational reform. This paper will explore the utopian drive behind inclusion. The contributions of thinkers as diverse as John Dewey, Antonio Gramsci, and Paulo Freire give impetus to efforts to create a better tomorrow. They, and those who have previously struggled for…

McMaster, Christopher

2013-01-01

395

Reducing Prejudice Against Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing numbers of American children are being educated in inclusive settings. Legal mandates for inclusion cannot ensure that children will be accepted and treated equitably. Attitudinal barriers and discriminatory practices continue to prevent the full participation of students with disabilities in the United States. Understanding how children develop prejudice and the roles adults play in establishing equitable opportunities is critical

Susan Bruce Marks

1997-01-01

396

Titanium nitride inclusion removal in an electron beam melting hearth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the Sphlow Java applet to calculate the "neutral density" window for porous titanium nitride inclusions in an electron beam melting hearth, and discuss both the fraction of particles which enter the final product and the complexities of porous inclusion transport.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2005-05-12

397

SEN Inclusion and Pupil Achievement in English Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and discusses the key findings from a study funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) that explored the relationship between achievement and inclusion in mainstream schools in England. Overall the results indicate that, although there is a small statistical relationship between inclusion and academic achievement,…

Farrell, Peter; Dyson, Alan; Polat, Filiz; Hutcheson, Graeme; Gallannaugh, Frances

2007-01-01

398

“Josh Wears Pink Cleats”: Inclusive Masculinity on the Soccer Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this ethnographic research of a college-based soccer team at a large liberal college in Northeast America, I document the existence of more inclusive versions of masculinity that contrast conventional understandings of male teamsport athletes. Using participant observation and 21 in-depth interviews, I show that these men demonstrate metrosexual and inclusive behaviors and attitudes. The styles of masculinity these men

Adi Adams

2011-01-01

399

The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

2014-01-01

400

Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …

Kersten, Fred

2006-01-01

401

Composition and origin of crystalline inclusions in natural diamonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural diamonds from a variety of African localities, Venezuela and Thailand contain abundant monomineralic inclusions with a grain size that is generally in the range 10-200 m. Many of these were incorporated in diamond at the time of crystallization of the host and have been insulated from further reaction with their surroundings. Inclusions of olivine, garnet, chromite, enstatite and Ca-rich

H. O. A. Meyer; F. R. Boyd

1972-01-01

402

Inclusion in Brunei Darussalam: The Role of Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, Brunei Darussalam adopted an inclusive educational policy and began a number of educational reforms to support the implementation of inclusion within the regular mainstream education system. These reforms include teacher education, which has witnessed the establishment and expansion of training and education opportunities for teachers to…

Koay, Teng Leong

2014-01-01

403

Inclusive Diffraction in DIS -H1 Paul Laycock  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction in DIS - H1 Results Paul Laycock University of Liverpool Diffraction 2006, Milos #12;Paul Laycock Inclusive Diffraction in DIS ­ H1 results Diffraction 2006 Page 2 Overview Diffractive DIS at H1 ­ Kinematics and Observables Comparison of Experimental Techniques ­ Rapidity Gap

404

Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A `cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21°C to 50°C and are consistent along individual

Kathleen Counter Benison; Robert H. Goldstein

1999-01-01

405

Interaction of cracks with rigid inclusions in longitudinal shear deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of a crack with rigid circular cylindrical inclusions is considered for the case of longitudinal shear deformation. General representations of the solutions for a radial crack near a single and midway between two inclusions are given. The particular case of uniform shearing stress applied at infinity is discussed in detail.

G. P. Sendeckyj; Wright-Patterson AFB

1974-01-01

406

Inclusion and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a clear national trend toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This trend poses particularly vexing challenges for delivering appropriate programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This chapter describes the complexity of determining appropriate inclusive placements for…

Simpson, Richard; Mundschenk, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

407

Teachers' Perceptions of the Inclusion of Marginalised Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on the concept of inclusion as a process of recognising and minimising the barriers to learning and participation of all children, with teachers as the key players in implementing inclusion in practice. There are two key questions: (1) How do teachers rank different groups of marginalised children? (2) How do teachers see their…

Pecek, Mojca; Cuk, Ivan; Lesar, Irena

2008-01-01

408

Preparing Early Childhood Special Educators for Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe experienced practitioners' beliefs about inclusion and their perceptions of what early childhood special education (ECSE) preservice teachers need to know and be able to do to effectively support early childhood inclusion. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to describe the…

Hooper, Belinda Bourne

2011-01-01

409

Time to End the Bias towards Inclusive Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK coalition Government's call to end the "bias" towards inclusion represents a shift in "policy speak" as the new administration attempts to re-narrate special education by putting forward a "reasonable and sensible" solution to the "problem of inclusion". However, implicit in the call is the assumption that there has, in fact, been a "bias…

Runswick-Cole, Katherine

2011-01-01

410

Questions to Assess Learning as a Communicative Routine for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of rapid policy transformation from segregation to inclusion in the education of children with special educational needs in Ireland, a study was conducted to investigate the interplay between policy and principles of inclusion, resource teachers' and class teachers' interpretations of this and the manner in which policy…

Ní Bhroin, Órla

2013-01-01

411

Assessing Inclusion: Strategies for Success. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 16 readings focuses on the implementation and evaluation of efforts to include students with special needs in general education classrooms. The readings are: (1) "From Segregation to Integration: A Brief History of Special Education and Inclusion" (Katie Blenk and Doris Landau Fine); (2) "National Study on Inclusion: Overview…

Philipsen, Maike, Ed.

412

DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL INCLUSION BODIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

protein. ABSTRACT: Many proteins of industrial or pharmacological interest are produced in recombinant microorganisms, especially in bacteria, as insoluble aggregates called inclusion bodies (IBs). The formation of these inclusion bodies has seriously restricted the spectrum of proteins marketed by the biotechnology industry. However, recent insights into the structure and physiology of bacterial IBs (1), have revealed that a significant fraction

Elena García-Fruitós; Anna Arís; Antonio Villaverde

413

Skaergaard parental magma constrained by melt inclusions of cumulus plagioclase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cumulus plagioclase of the 55 Ma Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland, contains two types melt inclusions. Their form varies from rounded to elongate bodies up to 250 micrometer long often parallel to albite twins. Type-1 inclusions are polycrystalline and composed of plagioclase, augite, magnetite, ilmenite and accessory K-feldspar, biotite, and amphibole. Their abundance varies throughout the intrusion but it is greatest

J. K. Jakobsen; A. J. R. Kent; C. Tegner; C. K. Brooks

2003-01-01

414

Understanding Inclusive Early Childhood Education: A Capability Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the application of current discourse in inclusive education, particularly the capability approach and its utility in early childhood education. The article highlights the tensions between a rights-based discourse that informs inclusive education practice and the right for children to have early intervention. Structural…

Underwood, Kathryn; Valeo, Angela; Wood, Rebecca

2012-01-01

415

Teachers' In-Flight Thinking in Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the thinking of five junior high school teachers as they teach students with learning difficulties in inclusive classrooms. Insights into the ways these teachers think about students in these inclusive secondary school contexts were obtained through triangulating data from semistructured interviews, stimulated recall of…

Paterson, David

2007-01-01

416

Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

2009-01-01

417

Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

2010-01-01

418

Transatlantic Conversations about Inclusive Education: France and Nova Scotia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education has become an international educational priority with the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This article compares and analyses in depth two different educational systems on two continents with regard to their development of inclusive education and their current issues with this…

Schneider, Cornelia; Harkins, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

419

Creating Alliances Against Exclusivity: A Pathway to Inclusive Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Having brought together scholars to consider inclusive education within both their own and others' disciplines, research perspectives, and agendas, the content of this concluding article reflects on what these contributions say--individually and collectively--about inclusive education. Furthermore, the authors critically…

Valle, Jan; Connor, David J.; Broderick, Alicia A.; Bejoian, Lynne M.; Baglieri, Susan

2011-01-01

420

Peer Supports and Inclusive Education: An Underutilized Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms requires a variety of supports. This article demonstrates the role that peers can play in supporting each other. Whole-classroom strategies such as Class-Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) and cross-age tutoring are highlighted as methods of supporting inclusive education.…

Bond, Rebecca; Castagnera, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

421

New-generation Public Spaces - How 'Inclusive' Are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of alluring, distinctive and exclusive public spaces in post-industrial cities raises the question of how far these environments are truly 'inclusive'. Focusing on this question, this paper explores the changing 'inclusivity' of a recently redeveloped public space in the city centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, Britain, by investigating before, during and after the redevelopment scheme regarding the four

Z. Muge Akkar

422

Parental Concerns on Inclusion: The Northern Ireland Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between home and school is an integral feature of how pupils learn and parents have a central role to play in their child's education. Philosophical and practical discourse around inclusion has informed and directed inclusive policy in recent years. In Northern Ireland, it has latterly been conducted under the auspices of emerging…

O'Connor, Una

2007-01-01

423

Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

2014-01-01

424

Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting  

E-print Network

Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting Antonio J. Melendez, Kent D. Carlson the formation of reoxidation inclusions in carbon and low-alloy steel castings. A model is developed are conducted using radiographs of cast steel weld plates. The limit of resolution in the radiographs is about 1

Beckermann, Christoph

425

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel  

E-print Network

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel Liang Wang and Christoph ABSTRACT A model is developed to calculate the composition of reoxidation inclusions in steel casting. It is assumed that oxygen is continually absorbed by the steel during pouring. The software package Thermo

Beckermann, Christoph

426

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel  

E-print Network

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel LIANG WANG and CHRISTOPH pouring of steel castings. The software package Thermo-Calc is used to obtain the inclusion phase fractions and compositions as a function of the temperature and oxygen content of the steel. Oxygen

Beckermann, Christoph

427

CHAPTER 8. REEQUILIBRATION OF FLUID INCLUSIONS Robert J. Bodnar  

E-print Network

Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA rjb@vt.edu INTRODUCTION A fluid inclusion provides microthermo - metric remain a constant volume system after trapping (excluding reversible elastic volume changes) and, thirdly the thermobaric history of the host rocks. If the inclusion volume changes, or if anything is added to or lost

Bodnar, Robert J.

428

The Preparation of Today's Educational Leaders: Inclusivity of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the challenges of the 21st century are to be met successfully, education must transform its orientation from one of exclusion to inclusion. To assist in the transformation of systems, to address specific barriers to inclusion, and to offer exemplary models in educational leadership, the Texas Council of Women School Executives sponsored a pilot…

Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly J.

429

Inclusive Education in Canada: Issues in Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education (IE) is widely adopted in Canadian educational systems. However, few Canadian universities require students in undergraduate teacher preparation programs to complete coursework on the topic of IE, and the few courses on this topic do not adequately prepare future teachers to work in inclusive classrooms with students with…

McCrimmon, Adam W.

2015-01-01

430

Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

2014-01-01

431

Embracing inclusion: the critical role of the library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social inclusion is high on the Government’s agenda but the role of public libraries in this area has not always been clearly defined. This paper first examines the issue of social exclusion, attempting to define the inclusive society. Drawing on recent work by the Library and Information Commission (2000), it then proposes that research conducted by the University of Central

Briony Train; Pete Dalton; Judith Elkin

2000-01-01

432

Inclusion in the Early Years: From Rhetoric to Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion is one of five National Priorities identified by the Scottish Executive Education Department. As a consequence, teachers throughout Scotland are presently confronting the progression from integration to inclusion, along with the many changes that brings. This paper recounts the first stage of an on-going case study into the experiences…

Ross-Watt, Frances

2005-01-01

433

Inclusion of Scatter in HADES: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Covert nuclear attack is one of the foremost threats facing the United States and is a primary focus of the War on Terror. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is chartered to develop, and improve domestic systems to detect and interdict smuggling for the illicit use of a nuclear explosive device, fissile material or radiologica1 material. The CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) program is a major part of the DHS effort to enhance US security by harnessing cutting-edge technologies to detect radiological and nuclear threats at points of entry to the United States. DNDO has selected vendors to develop complete radiographic systems. It is crucial that the initial design and testing concepts for the systems be validated and compared prior to the substantial efforts to build and deploy prototypes and subsequent large-scale production. An important aspect of these systems is the scatter which interferes with imaging. Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP (X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2005 Revision) allow scatter to be calculatied, but these calculations are very time consuming. It would be useful to have a fast scatter estimation algorithm in a fast ray tracing code. We have been extending the HADES ray-tracing radiographic simulation code to model vendor systems in a flexible and quick fashion and to use this tool to study a variety of questions involving system performance and the comparative value of surrogates. To enable this work, HADES has been linked to the BRL-CAD library (BRL-CAD Open Source Project, 2010), in order to enable the inclusion of complex CAD geometries in simulations, scanner geometries have been implemented in HADES, and the novel detector responses have been included in HADES. A major extension of HADES which has been required by this effort is the inclusion of scatter in these radiographic simulations. Ray tracing codes generally do not easily allow the inclusion of scatter, because these codes define a source and a grid of detector pixels and only compute the attenuation along rays between these points. Scatter is an extremely complex set of processes which can involve rays which change directions many times between the source and detector. Scatter from outside the field of view of the imaging system, as well as within the field of view, can have an important role in image formation. In this report, we will describe how we implemented a treatment of scatter in HADES. We begin with a discussion of how we define scatter in Section 2, followed by a description of how single Compton scatter is now included in HADES in Section 3. In Section 4 we report a set of verification tests against MCNP and tests of how the technique scales with image size, number of scatters allowed and number of processors used in the calculations. In Section 5, we describe how we plan to extend this approach to other forms of scatter and conclude in Section 6. It should be emphasized that the purpose of this report is to show that a form of scatter has been implemented in HADES and has been verified against MCNP. Validation, the process of comparing simulation and experiment, is a future task.

Aufderheide, M B

2010-12-20

434

Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.  

PubMed

Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. PMID:21518810

Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

2011-07-01

435

Mixing-induced CP asymmetries in inclusive B decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider CP violating asymmetries that are induced by particle-antiparticle mixing in inclusive channels of neutralB meson decay. Not only are the branching ratios sizable, at the 1% to 50% level, but some of those asymmetries are expected to be large because of substantial CKM phases. The inclusive sum partially dilutes the asymmetries, but the dilution factor is calculable. Assuming local quark-hadron duality, the CKM parameters can be extracted. We discuss in detail the determination of sin 2? from charmless final states in decays of Bd mesons and survey the asymmetries for other inclusive final states. The total inclusive time-dependent asymmetry, where all modes of a weakly decaying neutral meson are summed over, is non-vanishing in general and measures Im(?12/(M12)). While probably not yet sensitive to standard model predictions, meaningful CP violation studies can be conducted with existing data samples of inclusive neutral B decays.

Beneke, M.; Buchalla, G.; Dunietz, I.

1997-02-01

436

Turbo compound engine  

SciTech Connect

A turbo compound engine having a first exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine and a second exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust port of the first exhaust turbine is described comprising: a first generator drivable by the first exhaust turbine; a second generator drivable by the second exhaust turbine; a motor operatively coupled to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine; speed detecting means for detecting the speed of rotation of the internal combustion engine; and control means for controlling the frequency of electric power, which is the sum of electric power outputs from the first and second generators and supplied to the motor, based on a signal from the speed detecting means, in order to control operation of the motor.

Kawamura, H.

1988-05-24

437

Thermodynamics of organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program consisted of an integrated and interrelated effort of basic and applied research in chemical thermodynamics and thermochemistry. Knowledge of variation of physical and thermodynamic properties with molecular structure was used to select compounds for study that because of high ring strain or unusual steric effects may have good energy characteristics per unit volume or per unit mass and thus be useful in the synthesis of high energy fuels. These materials were synthesized, and their thermodynamic properties were evaluated. In cooperation with researcher at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, ramjet fuels currently in use were subjected to careful thermodynamic evaluation by measurements of heat capacity, enthalpy of combustion and vapor pressure. During the last year of this effort, seven kerosene-type fuels produced by British Petroleum and seven jet fuels produced from shale oil were studied.

Gammon, B. E.; Smith, N. K.

1982-11-01

438

Microoptical telescope compound eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

439

Dioxin and Related Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This substantial new site, provided by the Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Environmental Assessment, addresses the mechanism of Dioxin contamination and describes NCEA's Dioxin Reassessment efforts. The site provides full descriptions and molecular graphics of "Dioxins and related compounds" (Furans, PCB's), as well as EPA Summaries on Dioxin exposure, Dioxin risk, and dose response. The Dioxin Exposure Initiative seeks to quantitatively link dioxin sources to general population exposures using "source measurements, environmental media and national food surveys, and fate and transport modeling." Further links to EPA Regulations and EPA Analytical Methods round out the site. Note that many of the documents at the site are available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) or WordPerfect format.

1994-01-01

440

Inclusive transverse response of nuclear matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic inclusive transverse response of nuclear matter at saturation density is studied within the correlated basis function perturbation theory for momentum transfers q from 300 to 550 MeV/c. The correlation operator includes a Jastrow component, accounting for the short range repulsion, as well as longer range spin, tensor, and isospin ones. Up to correlated one-particle-one-hole intermediate states are considered. The spreading due to the decay of particle (hole) states into two-particle-one-hole (two-hole-one-particle) states is considered via a realistic optical potential model. The Schiavilla-Pandharipande-Riska model for the two-body electromagnetic currents, constructed so as to satisfy the continuity equation with realistic v14 potentials, is adopted. Currents due to intermediate ?-isobar excitations are also included. The global contribution of the two-body currents turns out to be positive and provides an enhancement of the one-body transverse response ranging from ~20% for the lower momenta to ~10% for the higher ones. This finding is in agreement with the Green's function Monte Carlo studies of the transverse Euclidean response in A=3,4 nuclei and contradicts previous results obtained within the Fermi gas and shell models. The tensor-isospin component of the correlation is found to be the leading factor responsible for such a behavior. The nuclear matter response is compared to recent experimental data on 40Ca and 56Fe.

Fabrocini, Adelchi

1997-01-01

441

Global analysis of inclusive B decays  

SciTech Connect

In light of the large amount of new experimental data, we revisit the determination of |V{sub cb}| and m{sub b} from inclusive semileptonic and radiative B decays. We study shape variables to order {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 3}/m{sub b}{sup 3} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{beta}{sub 0}, and include the order {alpha}{sub s} {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b} correction to the hadron mass spectrum in semileptonic decay, which improves the agreement with the data. We focus on the 1S and kinetic mass schemes for the b quark, with and without expanding m{sub b}-m{sub c} in HQET. We perform fits to all available data from BABAR, BELLE, CDF, CLEO, and DELPHI, discuss the theoretical uncertainties, and compare with earlier results. We find |V{sub cb}| = (41.9 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.1{sub {tau}{sub B}}) x 10{sup -3} and m{sub b}{sup 1S} = 4.68 {+-} 0.04GeV, including our estimate of the theoretical uncertainty in the fit.

Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh; Trott, Michael

2004-08-13

442

[Sporadic inclusion body myositis and amyloid].  

PubMed

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an intractable and progressive skeletal muscle disease of unknown etiology and without effective treatment. While the etiology is still unknown, however, genetic factors, aging, life style, and environmental factors may be involved. Muscle biopsy typically reveals endomysial inflammation, invasion of mononuclear cells into non-necrotic fibers and rimmed vacuoles, suggesting inflammation and degeneration co-exist as part of the pathomechanism. Recent studies implicate amyloid beta accumulation, defects of proteolysis, and immune system abnormalities. The clinical course is slow with chronic worsening. Diagnosis of sIBM is usually made 5 years after onset. Muscle weakness and atrophy in the quadriceps, wrist flexor and finger flexors are the typical neurological findings of sIBM. Dysphagia and asymmetric weakness are often found. Serum creatine kinase is usually below 2,000 IU/L. sIBM is generally refractory to current therapy, such as steroids or immunosuppressants. Elucidation of the pathomechanism of sIBM is the most important to therapy. PMID:24998819

Aoki, Masashi; Suzuki, Naoki

2014-07-01

443

Inclusive two jet triply differential cross section  

SciTech Connect

We study the inclusive two jet triply differential cross section {ital d}{sup 3}{sigma}/{ital dE}{sub {ital T}}{ital d}{eta}{sub 1}{ital d}{eta}{sub 2} at Fermilab energies. Different {eta}{sub 1} and {eta}{sub 2} pseudorapidity regions are directly related to both the parton level matrix elements and the parton densities at leading order. We present the next-to-leading order [{ital O}({alpha}{sub {ital s}}{sup 3})] corrections and show that the shape of the distribution at fixed transverse energy {ital E}{sub {ital T}} is a particularly powerful tool for constraining the parton distributions at small to moderate {ital x} values. We investigate the renormalization and/or factorization scale uncertainty present in the normalization and shape of the distribution at next-to-leading order. We discuss specific slices of the distribution, the same-side/opposite-side ratio, and the signed pseudorapidity distribution in detail and compare them with preliminary experimental data.

Giele, W.T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)] [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Glover, E.W.N. [Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kosower, D.A. [Service de Physique Theorique, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)] [Service de Physique Theorique, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

1995-08-01

444

Inclusive. eta. production in. tau. decays  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for inclusive eta production in tau decays using a sample of 2553 events of e{sup +}e{sup minus} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup minus} in the one-three topology. The data were taken with the High Resolution Spectrometer at {radical}s = 29 GeV. Our results are based on an analysis of the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup minus} invariant mass spectrum to find the narrow peak resulting from the decay sequence {tau} {yields} {eta}x and {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup minus}{pi}{degree}. No clear peak is observed and a 90% confidence upper limit on the process {tau} {yields} {eta}x of 2.1% is found. For decays {tau} {yields} {eta}{eta}x the 90% confidence upper limit is 1.3%. Our best limit on {tau} {yields} {eta}{eta}x is obtained from tau decay to five charged particles with a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.5%.

Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Baringer, P.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Bylsma, B.G.; Chapman, J.; Cork, B.; De Bonte, R.; Derrick, M.; Errede, D.; Jung, C.; Ken, M.; Koltick, D.S.; Kooijman, P.; Loos, J.S.; Low, E.H.; McIlwain, R.L.; Meyer, D.I.; Miller, D.H.; Musgrave, B.; Neal, H.; Ng, C.R.; Nitz, D.; Ogren, H.; Paik, H.W.; Price, L.E.; Rangan, L.K.; Repond, J.; Rust, D.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Sugano, K.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart,

1987-01-01

445

Inclusion "All Present and Correct?" A Critical Analysis of New Labour's Inclusive Education Policy in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion

Hodkinson, Alan

2013-01-01

446

Social Competence, Sense of Loneliness, and Speech Intelligibility of Young Children with Hearing Loss in Individual Inclusion and Group Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on social competence (SC) and perceived sense of loneliness of preschool children with hearing loss (HL) in group inclusion (GI, a small group of children with HL is integrated in a standard classroom) and individual inclusion (II, each child with HL is individually integrated into a standard classroom). The relations between…

Most, Tova; Ingber, Sara; Heled-Ariam, Einat

2012-01-01

447

Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

2012-01-01

448

Melt inclusion re-equilibration with complex shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile diffusion in melts and most crystals is fast, for example minutes to hours for H2O diffusion through typical volcanic olivines of a few hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. This character of fast diffusion and re-equilibration has been used recently to derive magma ascent rates via volatile concentrations in melt inclusions, channels and crystal phases (i.e., pyroxene and olivine). When assessing the amount of diffusive re-equilibration, previous models have used a spherical framework and melt inclusions located in the center of crystals (e.g., Qin et al., Am. Mineral. 77, 565, 1992; Cottrell et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 3, 2001). However, melt inclusions occur randomly within crystals of different shapes and a spherical model with a melt inclusion in the center can significantly underestimate the degree of re-equilibration. Off-center melt inclusions close to the edge of a crystal may equilibrate up to an order of magnitude faster than centrally located melt inclusions. Furthermore, multiple melt inclusions or melt channels may lead to different re-equilibration rates than isolated melt inclusions. For example, non-equilibrated melt embayments may significantly inhibit re-equilibration of the melt inclusion, due to slower diffusive loss in the direction of the embayment. Thus, to constrain the ascent dynamics of an individual eruption from specific volatile diffusion profiles in crystals and melt inclusions requires taking into account the complex shapes associated with natural melt inclusions and their encompassing crystals. We present a numerical diffusion model that can address complex melt inclusion geometries and crystal shapes with different time-dependent diffusive properties and boundary conditions (e.g., degassing and continuous volatile loss in the surrounding melt as magma ascends). Moreover, we explore the effect of multiple melt inclusions, which can significantly delay re-equilibration, and melt channels that have a more variable affect. In addition to the application to volatile diffusion in magmatic crystals the model also applies to elemental diffusion profiles generated during other magmatic processes and time scales, such as magma mixing or xenocryst entrainment.

Ruprecht, P.; Plank, T.; Lloyd, A. S.

2010-12-01

449

Two forsterite-bearing FUN inclusions in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered two FUN inclusions, CG-14 and TE, among a group of five forsterite-rich inclusions in Allende, two of which are described for the first time herein. All five consist of euhedral forsterite and spinel crystals poikilitically enclosed by fassaite. Forsterite and spinel are usually segregated from one another, sometimes into a spinel-rich mantle and a forsterite-rich core. Some inclusions contain vesicles, indicating that they were once molten. The crystallization sequence inferred from textures is: spinel, forsterite, fassaite and, finally, Mg-rich melilite. One concentrically-zoned inclusion contains melilite in its mantle whose composition lies on the opposite side of the liquidus minimum in the melilite binary from that in its core. This suggests that segregation of forsterite from spinel in all of these inclusions could be due to volatilization of MgO and SiO 2 relative to Al 2O 3 and CaO from the outsides of droplets. CG-14 is relatively uniformly enriched in refractory elements relative to Cl chondrites by a factor similar to that for Ca-, Al-rich coarse-grained inclusions except for Ca, Al and Hf which are unusually low. No Ce anomaly such as found in FUN inclusions Cl and HAL is present in CG-14. Whole-rock samples of CG-14 and TE are more strongly mass-fractionated in oxygen relative to "normal" Allende inclusions than the FUN inclusion EK 1-4-1 and less so than Cl. Relative to bulk Allende, both inclusions have strongly massfractionated magnesium and silicon and 25Mg excesses or deficits of 24Mg or 26Mg. CG-14 has a 29Si excess or a deficit of 28Si or 30Si. Volatilization loss cannot be responsible for the magnesium and silicon isotope fractionations, as this would require prohibitively large mass loss from these magnesium-rich inclusions. The remarkable similarity in textures between FUN and non-FUN inclusions implies similar thermal histories, arguing against different rates of evaporative loss of major elements. Sputtering alone may be insufficient to account for the magnitude and direction of oxygen isotope fractionation in FUN inclusions.

Clayton, Robert N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Davis, Andrew M.; Grossman, Lawrence; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Molini-Velsko, Carol; Allen, John M.; Goresy, Ahmed El

1984-03-01

450

SAMPL4, a blind challenge for computational solvation free energies: the compounds considered.  

PubMed

For the fifth time I have provided a set of solvation energies (1 M gas to 1 M aqueous) for a SAMPL challenge. In this set there are 23 blind compounds and 30 supplementary compounds of related structure to one of the blind sets, but for which the solvation energy is readily available. The best current values of each compound are presented along with complete documentation of the experimental origins of the solvation energies. The calculations needed to go from reported data to solvation energies are presented, with particular attention to aspects which are new to this set. For some compounds the vapor pressures (VP) were reported for the liquid compound, which is solid at room temperature. To correct from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation requires ?Sfusion, which is only known for mannitol. Estimated values were used for the others, all but one of which were benzene derivatives and expected to have very similar values. The final compound for which ?Sfusion was estimated was menthol, which melts at 42 °C so that modest errors in ?Sfusion will have little effect. It was also necessary to look into the effects of including estimated values of ?Cp on this correction. The approximate sizes of the effects of inclusion of ?Cp in the correction from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation were estimated and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp invariably makes ?GS more positive. To extend the set of compounds for which the solvation energy could be calculated we explored the use of boiling point (b.p.) data from Reaxys/Beilstein as a substitute for studies of the VP as a function of temperature. B.p. data are not always reliable so it was necessary to develop a criterion for rejecting outliers. For two compounds (chlorinated guaiacols) it became clear that inclusion represented overreach; for each there were only two independent pressure, temperature points, which is too little for a trustworthy extrapolation. For a number of compounds the extrapolation from lowest temperature at which the VP was reported to 25 °C was long (sometimes over 100°) so that it was necessary to consider whether ?Cp might have significant effects. The problem is that there are no experimental values and possible intramolecular hydrogen bonds make estimation uncertain in some cases. The approximate sizes of the effects of ?Cp were estimated, and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp in the extrapolation of VP down to room temperature invariably makes ?Gs more negative. PMID:24706106

Guthrie, J Peter

2014-03-01

451

Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE and RBS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 ?m in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intra-crystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam ( Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z + e). The parameter Z of an inclusion in a mineral can be measured with a precision of around 1 ?m using a motorized microscope. However, this value may significantly depart from Z if the analyzed inclusion has a complex shape. The parameter e can hardly be measured optically. By using combined RBS and PIXE measurements, it is possible to obtain the geometrical information needed for quantitative elemental analysis. This paper will present measurements on synthetic samples to investigate the advantages of the technique, and also on natural solid and fluid inclusions in quartz. The influence of the geometrical parameters will be discussed with regard to the concentration determination by PIXE. In particular, accuracy of monazite micro-inclusion dating by coupled PIXE-RBS will be presented.

Strivay, D.; Ramboz, C.; Gallien, J.-P.; Grambole, D.; Sauvage, T.; Kouzmanov, K.

2008-05-01

452

Bioactive compounds from Rumex plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new naphthalene acylglucosides, rumexneposides A (1) and B (2), together with 12 known compounds (3-14), were isolated from the roots of Rumex nepalensis. Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The biological activities of compounds 1-14 as well as an additional 11 compounds previously isolated from R. nepalensis and Rumex hastatus (15–25) were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis,

Heng-Xing Liang; Huan-Qin Dai; Hai-An Fu; Xiao-Ping Dong; Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo; Li-Xin Zhang; Yong-Xian Cheng

2010-01-01

453

Method of preparing metallocene compounds  

DOEpatents

This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

Rosenblum, Myron (Lexington, MA); Matchett, Stephen A. (Lisle, IL)

1992-01-01

454

The eukaryotic signal sequence, YGRL, targets the chlamydial inclusion  

PubMed Central

Understanding how host proteins are targeted to pathogen-specified organelles, like the chlamydial inclusion, is fundamentally important to understanding the biogenesis of these unique subcellular compartments and how they maintain autonomy within the cell. Syntaxin 6, which localizes to the chlamydial inclusion, contains an YGRL signal sequence. The YGRL functions to return syntaxin 6 to the trans-Golgi from the plasma membrane, and deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 also prevents the protein from localizing to the chlamydial inclusion. YGRL is one of three YXXL (YGRL, YQRL, and YKGL) signal sequences which target proteins to the trans-Golgi. We designed various constructs of eukaryotic proteins to test the specificity and propensity of YXXL sequences to target the inclusion. The YGRL signal sequence redirects proteins (e.g., Tgn38, furin, syntaxin 4) that normally do not localize to the chlamydial inclusion. Further, the requirement of the YGRL signal sequence for syntaxin 6 localization to inclusions formed by different species of Chlamydia is conserved. These data indicate that there is an inherent property of the chlamydial inclusion, which allows it to recognize the YGRL signal sequence. To examine whether this “inherent property” was protein or lipid in nature, we asked if deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 altered the ability of the protein to interact with proteins or lipids. Deletion or alteration of the YGRL from syntaxin 6 does not appreciably impact syntaxin 6-protein interactions, but does decrease syntaxin 6-lipid interactions. Intriguingly, data also demonstrate that YKGL or YQRL can successfully substitute for YGRL in localization of syntaxin 6 to the chlamydial inclusion. Importantly and for the first time, we are establishing that a eukaryotic signal sequence targets the chlamydial inclusion. PMID:25309881

Kabeiseman, Emily J.; Cichos, Kyle H.; Moore, Elizabeth R.

2014-01-01

455

Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

2004-01-01

456

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN FISSION REACTORS. II. THORIO-ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of the use of organic liquids in fission reactors to ; minmize corrosion and pressure problems were studied relative to the solution of ; thorium in such fluids. Thorio-organic compounds were prepared from organic ; acids, diketones, and other chelating compounds. Salts of carboxylic and phospho-; organic acids were insoluble. The chelate with dibenzoylmethane was soluble in ;

1960-01-01

457

Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots  

DOEpatents

A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Schmitt, Roman A. (Corvallis, OR)

1992-01-01

458

Inclusive jet production in two-photon collisions at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive jet production, e+e- ?e+e- jet X, is studied using 560 pb-1 of data collected at LEP with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The inclusive differential cross section is measured using a kt jet algorithm as a function of the jet transverse momentum, pt, in the range 3 inclusive ?± and ?0 production.

Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J. A.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Käfer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, S. C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S. C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G. Y.

2004-11-01

459

Nature and interpretation of fluid inclusions in granulites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many granulites contain CO2 rich high density fluid inclusions (carbonic fluids). This observation has led to the concept of carbonic metamorphism, the dry character of granulites being less explained by the absence of water (vapor absent metamorphism) than by the presence of a CO2-rich fluid phase which dilutes the water and lowers considerably its partial pressure. Recent observations have indicated that the situation is much more complicated than initially assumed and that any interpretation must be carefully evaluated and discussed against other, independent evidence. The nature of fluid inclusions and the interpretation of fluid inclusion densities are discussed.

Touret, Jacques L. R.

1988-01-01

460

The challenge of inclusive design in the US context.  

PubMed

The paper considers the evolution of thinking and practice of inclusive design in the United States since 1993, the year of the first special edition of Applied Ergonomics on inclusive design. It frames the examination initially in terms of the US social mores that substantially influence behavior and attitudes from a defining individualism to legal mandates for accessibility to the nation's ingrained obsession with youth and delusional attitudes about aging. The authors explore the disparate patterns across the design disciplines and identify promising linkages and patterns that may be harbingers of a more expansive embrace of inclusive design in the years ahead. PMID:24529531

Fletcher, Valerie; Bonome-Sims, Gabriela; Knecht, Barbara; Ostroff, Elaine; Otitigbe, Jennifer; Parente, Maura; Safdie, Joshua

2015-01-01

461

Compound power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a compound motor for a vehicle. It comprises: an engine defining therein a chamber for the combustion of fuel, an intake passage leading to the combustion chamber and an exhaust passage leading from the combustion chamber; a drive shaft extending from the engine; means in the engine for rotating the drive shaft in response to the combustion of fuel in the chamber; a rotary compressor at the entry end of the intake passage; a turbine at the exit end of the exhaust passage, the turbine being drivable by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; means for selectively transferring rotational motion of the turbine to the compressor, the transferring means including a clutch for mechanically connecting or disconnecting the compressor from the turbine; a planetary gear set having a sun gear member, a ring gear member surrounding the sun gear member, a planet gear member rotatable about its own axis and meshed between the sun gear member and the ring gear member, and a planet carrier member upon which the planet gear member is mounted for revolution about the sun gear member; a gear train between one of the members of the planetary gear set and the turbine; another one of the members of the planetary gear set being driven by the shaft extending from the engine; and a final output shaft driven by a third member of the planetary gear set.

Smith, R.R.

1991-02-05

462

Perceptions Of Texas Agricultural Education Teachers Regarding Diversity Inclusion In Secondary Agricultural Education Programs  

E-print Network

teachers' perceptions of the benefits of diversity inclusion, perceptions of the barriers of diversity inclusion, and perceptions of proposed solutions to increase diversity inclusion in Texas secondary agricultural education programs. The sample consisted...

Lavergne, Douglas D.

2010-01-14

463

48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section...agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101...Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a)...

2010-10-01

464

Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

2013-12-01

465

Self-consistent analysis of waves in a matrix-inclusion composite—II. Randomly oriented spheroidal inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T HIS PAPER APPLIES the formulation presented in Part I to the case of a composite containing a single population of inclusions, distributed at random orientations. Formally, each orientation is regarded as having its own label, r, but the elastic moduli and density of every inclusion are the same. Since all orientations are allowed, the self-consistent equations proposed in Part I are applied in the limit as the number n of inclusion types tends to infinity. The implementation of the scheme is described and example problems are solved. As in Part I, the cases for which results are presented include cavities, either empty or fluid-filled.

Smyshlyaev, V. P.; Willis, J. R.; Sabina, F. J.

1993-10-01

466

ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

467

Bilingual Reading of Compound Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

2011-01-01

468

What School Administrators Should Know about Inclusion and Its Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cost-effectiveness of school inclusion for special-needs students. Includes cost analysis of instructional personnel, impact on general education spending, transportation, and school space. Draws policy implications. (Contains 34 references.) (PKP)

Pruslow, John T.

2003-01-01

469

Volatile compositions of melt inclusions in Coso Range Rhyolite  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved water and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite domes and lava flows in the Coso volcanic field to determine pre-eruptive volatile content of the magma. Inclusions roughly 50--100 microns in diameter were analyzed for dissolved water and carbon dioxide using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glasses have a total water concentration ranging from four to six weight percent and no detectable carbon dioxide. Vapor bubbles in the inclusions about 10--40 microns in diameter were also analyzed for their volatile composition. The spectra show no evidence for carbon dioxide, although significant water is observed. If the melt inclusions were saturated at the time of entrapment, then crystallization occurred between 1,200 and 2,100 bars pressure or greater than 4 kilometers depth.

Blouke, K.J. (Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

470

Beyond Blindfolds: Creating an Inclusive Classroom through Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the inclusion of a student with blindness in a general education classroom. Disability awareness activities that encouraged students without blindness to understand blindness are described, including reading materials, a blindfold lunch, and a Braille Day. (CR)

Krebs, Cathryn S.

2000-01-01

471

Measurement of semi-inclusive pi(+) electroproduction off the proton  

E-print Network

Semi-inclusive ?+ [pi superscript +] electroproduction on protons has been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The measurement was performed on a liquid-hydrogen target using a 5.75 GeV electron beam. The ...

Skabelin, Alexander V.

472

Automated Inclusive Design Heuristics Generation with Graph Mining  

E-print Network

from existing inclusive products. Formalization results show that, the rate of rule generation decreases as more products are added to the dataset. The automated method is particularly helpful in the developmental stages of graph mining applications...

Sangelkar, Shraddha Chandrakant

2013-08-01

473

On fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative are studied. We discuss the existence and uniqueness of a solution to such problems. Our study relies on standard variational methods.

Kamocki, Rafa?, E-mail: rafkam@math.uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Differential Equations and Computer Science, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Differential Equations and Computer Science, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland); Obczy?ski, Cezary, E-mail: czacza@math.uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Nonlinear Analysis, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Nonlinear Analysis, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)

2014-02-15

474

Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

1987-04-01

475

Using Performance Feedback to Support Paraprofessionals in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraprofessionals (also referred to as paraeducators or instructional assistants) who work in inclusive early childhood classrooms are facing increasing responsibilities in supporting teachers and children with diverse learning needs (Deardorff, Glasenapp, Schalock, & Udell, 2007; Downing, Ryndak, & Clark, 2000; Giangreco, Broer, &…

Brown, Teresa L.; Gatmaitan, Michelle; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna M.

2014-01-01

476

Equity,Inclusion,andDiversityat OregonStateUniversity  

E-print Network

) · Brenda McComb (Dean, Graduate School) · Brian Bay (Associate Professor, School of Mechanical, Industrial of Agricultural & Resource Economics) · Angelo Gomez, cochair (Interim Executive Director of Equity and Inclusion

Escher, Christine

477

Survey of Large, Igneous-Textured Inclusions in Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary (O) chondrites are a class of primitive stony meteorites, and as a group comprise our most abundant samples of early solar system materials. Unique to O chondrites are igneous-textured inclusions up to 4 cm in diameter; about an order of magnitude larger than the much more abundant chondrules. These inclusions are almost always highly depleted in metal and sulfide relative to their host meteorite, but but otherwise have diverse characteristics. They exhibit a large range of textures, mineralogies, and bulk compositions, suggesting a variety of formation processes. They all crystallized from large melt volumes, the origins of which are poorly understood. Models proposed for their formation include (1) shock melting of ordinary chondrites with an associated loss of metal and sulfide; (2) melting of vapor-fractionated condensate mixture; (3) chondrule formation involving a larger melt production volume than typical for chondrules; and (4) igneous differentiation occurring within planetesimals sampled by ordinary chondrite parent bodies. Polished thin sections of inclusions from several O-chondrites have been examined with optical light microscopy (OLM) using a Leica DM 2500 petrographic microscope. Petrographic data such as texture, grain sizes and shapes were collected for the inclusions and their hosts in order to facilitate comparisons. Texturally, the inclusions were determined to fall into one of three distinct textural categories: porphyritic, fine granular, and skeletal. Mean grain sizes are on the order of 100 um for both microporphyritic and fine granular inclusions, with microporphyritic inclusions showing a much wider range of grain sizes. The largest grains in the microporphyritic inclusions are on average ~0.25 mm, with the grains of the mesostasis <100 microns. Skeletal olivine textures are defined as being dominated by crystals that are an order of magnitude longer across one direction than the other (e.g., 1 mm x 100 um). Five inclusions have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on a Zeiss Sigma FE-VP SEM at Portland State University. Backscatter electron micrographs were obtained in order to provide additional petrographic data, and olivine composition was determined using a silicon-drift energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector integrated with an Oxford Instruments AZtec X-ray analytical system. Olivine crystals of six inclusions were investigated with electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), performed with a Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe located at Oregon State University, and remotely operated from Portland State. The instrument will be operated at 15 kV accelerating voltage, with a 10-50 nA sample current and a beam diameter of approximately 1 um. Chemically, some inclusions were found to have equilibrated olivine, while others were uneqilibrated. This was also unrelated to host classification, as well as unrelated to host petrographic type. Of the two unequilibrated hosts studied, one had two unequilibrated inclusions, while the other had one equilibrated inclusion. Several eqilibrated hosts had equilibrated inclusion, while one equilibrated host had an unequilibrated inclusion. Neither texture nor chemistry was determined to be related to host type or related to whether the inclusion is a drop-formed mass or a clast.

Armstrong, K.; Ruzicka, A. M.

2013-12-01

478

26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2642-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-5 Finality of inclusion ratio....

2010-04-01

479

Evolution and conservation of predicted inclusion membrane proteins in chlamydiae.  

PubMed

Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular pathogens that replicate within a vacuole termed the inclusion. Chlamydiae extensively modify the inclusion membrane via the insertion of chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) which decorate the cytosolic face of the inclusion. We have assessed the overall relatedness and phylogeny of Incs in order to identify potential evolutionary trends. Despite a high degree of conservation among Incs within C. trachomatis serovars, phylogenetic analysis showed that some Incs cluster according to clinical groupings suggesting that certain Incs may contribute to tissue tropism. Bioinformatic predictions identified Incs in five chlamydial species: 55 in C. trachomatis, 68 in C. felis, 92 in C. pneumoniae, 79 in C. caviae, and 54 in C. muridarum. Inc homologues were compared between chlamydial species and 23 core Incs were identified as shared among all species. Genomic expansion of Incs was identified in C. pneumoniae, C. caviae, and C. felis but not C. trachomatis or C. muridarum. PMID:22454599

Lutter, Erika I; Martens, Craig; Hackstadt, Ted

2012-01-01

480

Macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature, and concentrations of the acid solutions. The addition of iodide ions (I{sup {minus}}) increased IE of all the tested compounds as a result of the synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that macrocyclic compounds acted as mixed inhibitors in 1 M HCl to 5 M HCl. Adsorption on the metal surface obeyed Temkin`s adsorption isotherm. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the polished MS surface, exposed with tetraphenyldithia-octaazacyclotetradeca-hexaene (PTAT) proved adsorption of this compound on the surface through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.

Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India)

1998-12-01

481

Devices for collecting chemical compounds  

DOEpatents

A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

2013-12-24

482

Antiparasitic Compounds That Target DNA  

PubMed Central

Designed, synthetic heterocyclic diamidines have excellent activity against eukaryotic parasites that cause diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmania and adversely affect millions of people each year. The most active compounds bind specifically and strongly in the DNA minor groove at AT sequences. The compounds enter parasite cells rapidly and appear first in the kinetoplast that contains the mitochondrial DNA of the parasite. With time the compounds are also generally seen in the cell nucleus but are not significantly observed in the cytoplasm. The kinetoplast decays over time and disappears from the mitochondria of treated cells. At this point the compounds begin to be observed in other regions of the cell, such as the acidocalcisomes. The cells typically die in 24–48 hours after treatment. Active compounds appear to selectively target extended AT sequences and induce changes in kinetoplast DNA minicircles that cause a synergistic destruction of the catenated kinetoplast DNA network and cell death. PMID:18343228

Wilson, W. David; Tanious, Farial A.; Mathis, Amanda; Tevis, Denise; Hall, James Edwin; Boykin, David W.

2008-01-01

483

Novel 7-substituted coumarin compounds and an improved method for their synthesis. [Patent application  

SciTech Connect

Novel substituted coumarin compounds and an improved method for their synthesis are disclosed. The preferred class of compounds are substituted at the 7-position. The method of synthesis comprises reacting a polyhydroxy benzene or a substituted phenol, with a ..beta..-alkoxy acrylic acid or nitrile, in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst. By the inclusion of the catalyst in the reaction mixture, the reaction can be carried out under much milder experimental conditions and in increased yields. The method is also applicable to the preparation of substituted amino phenols.

Bissell, E.R.

1982-01-20

484

Progressive Construction of Compound Behavior Controllers for Autonomous Robots Using Temporal Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a methodology for the progressive construction of compound behavior controllers for real autonomous\\u000a robots. Some of these behaviors require temporal processing which is achieved through the inclusion of temporal delays in\\u000a the synapses of the artificial neural networks used for their implementation. Starting from a set of simple behaviors implemented\\u000a by means of evolved monolithic

J. A. Becerra; José Santos Reyes; Richard J. Duro

1999-01-01

485

n-layered inclusion-based micromechanical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive the elastic strain and stress fields in an infinite medium constituted of an n-layered isotropic spherical inclusion, embedded in a matrix subjected to uniform stress or strain conditions at infinity.Thanks to the separation of the isotropic and the deviatoric parts, the average strain and stress are calculated in each phase and in the n-layered inclusion, and are used

Eveline Herve; Andre Zaoui

1993-01-01

486

Trace elements in sulfide inclusions from Yakutian diamonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfide inclusions in diamonds may provide the only pristine samples of mantle sulfides, and they carry important information\\u000a on the distribution and abundances of chalcophile elements in the deep lithosphere. Trace-element abundances were measured\\u000a by proton microprobe in >50 sulfide inclusions (SDI) from Yakutian diamonds; about half of these were measured in situ in polished plates of diamonds, providing information

G. P. Bulanova; W. L. Griffin; C. G. Ryan; O. Y. Shestakova; S.-J. Barnes

1996-01-01

487

Devolution, School/Community/Family Partnerships, and Inclusive Education  

E-print Network

Devolution and Partnerships 7 CHAPTER 1 Devolution, School/Community/Family Partnerships, and Inclusive Education Wayne Sailor 7 Whole-School Success and Inclusive Education. Copyright © 2002 by Teachers College, Columbia University. All rights... Jackson (c. 1820) has federal policy so clearly advanced an agenda favoring the rights and powers of the individual states. As with “Jacksonian democracy,” the rhetoric of the New Federalism implies a ringing endorsement of the principles of democracy and...

Sailor, Wayne

2002-01-01

488

Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data  

SciTech Connect

A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

1986-04-01

489

Salinity of multivolatile fluid inclusions determined from clathrate hydrate stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the final dissociation temperature of gas-clathrate hydrates ( TmCLA) are routinely used to determine the salinity of fluid inclusions which contain a volatile component in addition to water. Traditionally, experimental data are used to quantitatively relate TmCLA to the inclusion electrolyte concentration. Because of limitations in the experimental database, however, this method has hitherto not been applicable to the multivolatile fluid inclusions that are common in crustal rocks. A general solution to this problem is provided by statistical thermodynamics predictions of multivolatile clathrate stability. Published theoretical models explicitly account for the effect of aqueous NaCl in depressing the stability of clathrates composed of any mixture of CO 2, N 2, H 2S, CH 4 and higher-order hydrocarbons. Analysis of phase relations in complex clathrate systems shows that such theoretical predictions yield model salinities if the following fluid inclusion data are available: (1) the identity of the phase assemblage at TmCLA, (2) the relative concentrations of the volatile species, and (3) either the homogenization temperature of the volatile fluid fraction (bubble point or dew point, either stable or metastable), or an independent estimate of internal pressure at TmCLA. Additional data on fluid inclusion cation ratios can be incorporated in the calculations to recast equivalent weight percent aqueous NaCl in terms of effective electrolyte concentrations. New experimental data on mixed N 2-CO 2 clathrates, obtained from synthetic fluid inclusions, provide a test of both the model predictions and of the analytical procedure proposed for natural fluid inclusions. While the accuracy of the predictions varies between volatile compositions, the uncertainties in the salinities derived from the statistical thermodynamics method are generally of the order acceptable for geochemical applications. Applications to multivolatile, multi-electrolyte fluid inclusions from gold-quartz deposits illustrate the practical operations involved in determining salinity.

Diamond, Larryn W.

1994-01-01

490

Measurement of inclusive production of neutral hadrons from Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the inclusive production of pi0, eta, Ks0 and Lambda based on 929,000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured inclusive momentum distributions have been compared with predictions from parton shower models as well as an analytical Quantum Chromodynamics calculation. Comparing to low energy e+e- data, we find that QCD describes

M. Acciarri; A. Adam; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; G. Alkhazov; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; J. J. Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; C. Burgos; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; A. Bykov; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; R. Castello; N. Cavallo; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de La Cruz; X. T. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; L. Malgeri; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; M. Redaelli; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; A. Robohm; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen

1994-01-01

491

Number Density of Liquid Inclusions Formed in Frozen Aqueous Electrolyte.  

PubMed

Frozen aqueous chlorides (?50?mM) are characterized by using confocal fluorescence microscopy and small angel X-ray scattering (SAXS). The former method allows us to determine the size of a liquid inclusion formed in the ice matrix at temperatures above the eutectic point of the system (teu ). Isolated liquid inclusions of a uniform size are formed when the temperature of a frozen electrolyte increases past teu . The size of the liquid inclusions depends on the observation temperature as well as on the concentration (csalt ) and type of salt dissolved in the original unfrozen solution. However, the number density of liquid inclusions is almost constant and independent of these experimental parameters, particularly when an electrolyte is frozen in liquid nitrogen. Salt accumulation can then occur at the imperfections of the ice crystals. The occurrence probability of the imperfections is independent of the nature of an incorporated salt. The amount of a salt confined in each inclusion ranges from 7 to 240?fmol, depending on csalt . SAXS measurements provide information on the size of individual salt crystals formed at temperatures below teu . The radius of gyration of a salt crystal ranges from 2 to 2.8?nm, and does not depend significantly on csalt . Thus, each inclusion is formed from 10(6) -10(9) nanocrystals, which can act as seeds. When doped ice is prepared at higher temperatures, for example -16?°C, the isolation of liquid inclusions is not sufficient and coalescence occurs more easily upon an increase in temperature or csalt . However, when csalt is lower than 10?mM, the number density of liquid inclusions is almost constant, irrespective of the freezing temperature. PMID:23943310

Hashimoto, Takuya; Harada, Makoto; Nojima, Shuichi; Okada, Tetsuo

2013-08-13

492

Studies on Inclusion Complexes of Felodipine with ?-Cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion behaviour of ß-cyclodextrin(ß-CD) with felodipine (FL) as a guest moleculewas studied. Inclusion complexes were obtained by thekneading method in a binary or ternary system with anaddition of polyethylene glycol 6000. Formation ofinclusion complexes was studied by IR spectroscopy,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and13C-NMR. It has been shown that an aromaticphenyl ring was involved in the process ofcomplexation, and that

Jadwiga Mielcarek

1998-01-01

493

Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions from Izu-Hakone Region, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions, angular to rounded and up to 20 cm in size, have been found as accidental fragments in\\u000a a mud flow of the Okata basalt group, O-shima Island and in a tuff breccia, Hakone. New analyses are represented for seventeen\\u000a inclusions and three pyroxenes.\\u000a \\u000a It is reasonable to conclude from petrographic and chemical features that the

K. Aoki; H. Kuno

1972-01-01

494

Mantle-derived fluids in diamond micro-inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microinclusions in diamonds from Zaire and Botswana differ in composition from the more common large inclusions of the peridotitic or eclogitic assemblages. These sub-micrometer inclusions resemble potassic magmas in their composition, but are enriched in H2O, CO2(3-), and K2O and depleted in MgO. This composition represents a volatile-rich fluid or melt from the upper mantle, which was trapped in the diamonds as they grew.

Navon, O.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Rossman, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1988-01-01

495

Silicon and oxygen isotopes in selected Allende inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon and oxygen data are presented for a number of Allende samples. It is found that based on oxygen and silicon isotopes, Allende samples EGG-1, EGG-6, BG1a, and 3529Yc are typical, unfractionated Allende inclusions. Where magnesium data are available, they indicate the same thing. EGG-3 is fractionated in both oxygen and silicon, as it is in magnesium. Sample D7 melilite is fractionated in oxygen by several per mil along the C2-matrix line, away from typical Allende melilites. Inclusion BG10a is a FUN inclusion with an inferred original oxygen isotopic fractionation of 8-9 per mille/amu relative to the Allende line. Silicon data for two density fractions of inclusion 3A with different mineralogies show a difference of about 2 per mille, which indicates that silicon, like oxygen, has been added to at least some mineral phases in Allende inclusions from a reservoir other than the one in which the inclusion first began to form.

Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

496

N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is generally considered a trace component in the Earth's mantle. Mantle volatiles sampled from mid-ocean ridge basalts or preserved as fluid inclusions in xenoliths are dominated by CO2, with only traces of nitrogen. Here we describe CO2-N2 fluid inclusions with 40 mol% N2 and silicate melt inclusions with ?0.1 wt% dissolved N2 in mantle-derived diamonds from 3 different cratons. The diamonds are octahedrally-grown, which is the most common growth habit and rarely reported to contain fluid inclusions. The inclusions have C/N ratios <1, more than two orders of magnitude below typical mantle values. We propose that nitrogen can become concentrated to high degrees by processes related to diamond growth. A growing diamond does not readily consume the nitrogen available, suggesting incompatible behaviour. Residual N2 from this process represents a concentrated nitrogen flux escaping the convecting mantle. Hidden nitrogen fluxes like this might be significant in counteracting the large apparent net influx by subduction. Based on nitrogen and carbon speciation in the inclusions, we propose that redox processes control the liberation of nitrogen from the convecting mantle, by the oxidation of NH+4 in silicates to mobile N2, concurrent with a parallel oxidation process releasing carbonate melt from the asthenosphere. Isotopic fractionation accompanying changes in nitrogen speciation could help account for the apparent isotopic mismatch between surficial and mantle nitrogen.

Smith, Evan M.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Afanasiev, Valentin P.

2014-05-01

497

Genesis of melilitolite from Colle Fabbri: inferences from melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melilite and wollastonite from the Colle Fabbri stock contain silicate melt and silicate-carbonate inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of silicate inclusions are within the magmatic temperature range of mantle ultrabasic melts: about 1,320 ± 15 °?. Their composition is melilititic and evolves to the composition of leucite tephrite and phonolite. The composition of silicate-carbonate inclusions are high SiO2, Ca-rich, enriched in alkalies and are similar to that of inclusions of carbonatite melts in the minerals of melilitolites of other intrusive ultramafic complexes. They are also similar to the compositions of metasomatized travertine covering the melilitolite stock. The presence of primary silicate and silicate-carbonate inclusions evidences that the melilitite magma from which melilitolites of Colle Fabbri crystallized was associated with carbonatite liquid. This liquid was highly fluidized, mobile and aggressive. Actively interacting with overlying travertine, the liquid enriched them with alkalies, aluminosilicates and incompatible elements, which resulted in the equalization of their compositions. Heterogeneous compositional dominions were formed at the contact between melilitolite and wall pelites. In the minerals of these contact facies high-Si melt inclusions of varying composition have been observed. Their occurrence is related to the local assimilation by the high-temperature melilitite magma of pelitic country rocks. The content of incompatible elements in melilitite melts and melilitolites is higher than the mantle norm and they have peculiar indicator ratios, spectra, Eu/Eu* ratio, which suggest a peculiar mantle source.

Panina, L. I.; Nikolaeva, A. T.; Stoppa, F.

2013-12-01

498

Development of inclusion complex of brinzolamide with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

Glaucoma is an accumulative optic neuropathy resulted from increasing intraocular pressure. Brinzolamide (BRZ) is a kind of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for glaucoma treatment. In this study, brinzolamide-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (BRZ-HP-?-CD) inclusion complex was prepared by solvent evaporation method to improve the solubility of BRZ and enhance the therapeutic effect of BRZ. The formation of the inclusion complex was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solubility of BRZ increased about 10-fold after the formation of the BRZ-HP-?-CD inclusion complex. The in vitro corneal accumulative permeability of the inclusion complex increased 2.91-fold compared to the commercial available formulation (AZOPT(®)). In addition, BRZ-HP-?-CD inclusion complex (0.5% BRZ) had an equivalent efficiency of lowering intraocular pressure with AZOPT(®) (1% BRZ) in vivo. These results identified the BRZ-HP-?-CD inclusion complex might have a promising future as a novel formulation of BRZ for glaucoma treatment. PMID:23987393

Zhang, Ying; Ren, Ke; He, Zhiyao; Li, Huili; Chen, Tong; Lei, Yi; Xia, Shan; He, Gu; Xie, Yongmei; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiangrong

2013-10-15

499

Initiation of corrosion pits at inclusions on 304 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Onset of pitting corrosion on 304 stainless steel in 0.1 M NaCl was investigated at the site of approximately 200 inclusions. A photolithography technique was used to locate individual sites repeatedly in order to characterize them by a combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Auger electron spectroscopy methods. Growth of pits to significant size was found to occur only at MnS and mixed MnS/oxide inclusions which had sizes above 0.7 {micro}m. In early stages of initiation, the inclusion dissolved, the Mn and Cl surface concentrations were found to be high within the pit cavity, and the S concentrations were high in the cavity as well as the surrounding area. Smaller sulfide inclusions and all multielement oxide inclusions either did not initiate pits or initiated only small trenches before becoming repassivated. Under conditions of severe corrosion, Cu was detected on MnS inclusions, and was traced to the appearance of flower-like deposits which formed prior to significant pit growth.

Ke, R.; Alkire, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

500

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The mobility of micron-size powders of refractory and noble metals in UO{sub 2} was investigated under isothermal and temperature gradient conditions, The metal particles were initially placed between two polished surfaces of UO{sub 2} and any movement which occurred during high temperature annealing was determined microscopically. Tungsten and molybdenum particles 1 to 10 {micro}m in diameter were immobile in UO{sub 2} at 2500°C in a temperature gradient of 1400°C/cm. Ruthenium, however, dissolved into and spread through hypostoichiometric, polycrystalline urania and was found after isothermal annealing as the U-Ru intermetallic compound in the grain boundaries of the oxide. The mechanism does not involve bodily motion of the metal particles. Rather, ruthenium dissolves in the grain bmmdaries of the oxide, migrates as atoms via the same pathway, and reacts while migrating to form URu{sub 3}, This product grows as layers in the grain boundaries. Isothermal ruthenium spreading followed simple diffusion theory, and apparent solubilities and effective diffusivities were obtained from the data for the temperature nmge 2000 to 2300°C. In a temperature gradient, ruthenium moves to the hot zones of UO{sub 2}; the mechanism appears to be the same as found for isothermal spreading, but the extent of movement up the temperature gradient cannot be explained by simple diffusion theory, even with an appreciable Soret effect.

Yang, Rosa L.; Olander, D.R.

1981-03-01