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1

Twinning, Epitaxy and Domain Switching in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our research is in the area of solid-state organic chemistry, which lies at the interface between physical organic chemistry and materials science. We use crystalline solids as models to probe fundamental issues about physical processes, molecular interactions and chemical reactions that are important for fabrication, stabilization and application of technological materials. Much of our most recent work has focused on the phenomena of ferroelastic and ferroelectric domain switching, in which application of an external force or electric field to a crystal causes the molecules inside the crystal to reorient, in tandem, to a new orientational state. To better understand and control the domain switching process, we have designed and synthesized over twenty closely related, ferroelastic organic crystals. Our approach has been to use crystalline inclusion compounds, in which one molecule (the guest) is trapped within the crystalline framework of a second molecule (the host). By keeping the host constant and varying the proportions and kinds of guests, it has been possible to tailor these materials so that domain switching is rapid and reversible (which is desirable for high technology applications). Inclusion compounds therefore serve as powerful systems for understanding the specific molecular mechanisms that control domain switching.

Hollingsworth, Mark D.; Peterson, Matthew L.

2003-01-01

2

Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing support for inclusion, there are still many misconceptions and concerns. Is it a philosophy, a program, or a placement? A clear definition seems to be part of the problem since nowhere in the federal legislation is it defined. Can a school be considered inclusive and still have some of its students in resource rooms or special classes?

Thomas Lombardi; Diane Woodruma

2000-01-01

3

High-pressure/low-temperature neutron scattering of gas inclusion compounds: Progress and prospects  

PubMed Central

Alternative energy resources such as hydrogen and methane gases are becoming increasingly important for the future economy. A major challenge for using hydrogen is to develop suitable materials to store it under a variety of conditions, which requires systematic studies of the structures, stability, and kinetics of various hydrogen-storing compounds. Neutron scattering is particularly useful for these studies. We have developed high-pressure/low-temperature gas/fluid cells in conjunction with neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering instruments allowing in situ and real-time examination of gas uptake/release processes. We studied the formation of methane and hydrogen clathrates, a group of inclusion compounds consisting of frameworks of hydrogen-bonded H2O molecules with gas molecules trapped inside the cages. Our results reveal that clathrate can store up to four hydrogen molecules in each of its large cages with an intermolecular H2–H2 distance of only 2.93 ?. This distance is much shorter than that in the solid/metallic hydrogen (3.78 ?), suggesting a strong densification effect of the clathrate framework on the enclosed hydrogen molecules. The framework-pressurizing effect is striking and may exist in other inclusion compounds such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Owing to the enormous variety and flexibility of their frameworks, inclusion compounds may offer superior properties for storage of hydrogen and/or hydrogen-rich molecules, relative to other types of compounds. We have investigated the hydrogen storage properties of two MOFs, Cu3[Co(CN)6]2 and Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = benzenetricarboxylate), and our preliminary results demonstrate that the developed neutron-scattering techniques are equally well suited for studying MOFs and other inclusion compounds. PMID:17389387

Zhao, Yusheng; Xu, Hongwu; Daemen, Luke L.; Lokshin, Konstantin; Tait, Kimberly T.; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Junhua; Currier, Robert P.; Hickmott, Donald D.

2007-01-01

4

Inclusion compound of vitamin B6 in ?-CD. Physico-chemical and structural investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural and physico-chemical characterization of supramolecular assembly of vitamin B6 with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) prepared by different methods (kneading, co-precipitation and freeze-drying) has been performed by using several spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction and DSC in order to evidence the inclusion compound formation. An analysis of the chemical shifts observed in the 1H-NMR spectra and of the vibrational frequency shifts led to the tentative conclusion that the vitamin B6 probably enters the cyclodextrin torus when forming the ?-CD-vitamin B6 inclusion complex.

Borodi, Gheorghe; Kacso, Irina; Farca?, Sorin I.; Bratu, Ioan

2009-08-01

5

Investigation of cyclodextrin inclusion compounds using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy of several cyclodextrin inclusion complexes reveals structural features not readily accessible by other spectroscopic methods. Thus, the cis conformation of terephthalaldehyde dominates within the ?-cyclodextrin cavity. The locked and unlocked acetate group of hydroquinone diacetate in ?-cyclodextrin can be easily distinguished, while p-benzenedimethanol diacetate displays the features of a "solid solution". Finally, the detection of hydrogen bonding in the ?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound of butanediol diacetate brings to light even more complex supramolecular structures.

Lamcharfi, Elhadi; Kunesch, Gerhard; Meyer, Claude; Robert, Bruno

1995-10-01

6

Structure of and hydrogen bonding in a 3:2 inclusion compound of N-methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride with acetonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride (MMB·HCl) forms a 3:2 inclusion compound with acetonitrile. The crystal structure of the compound has been determined at 100K from a twinned crystal to be trigonal with the space group P3; a=b=16.767(2), c=6.996(1)A?,?=120°. The host framework is constructed from the ionic pairs formed by the chlorine anion and the protonated, at the carboxylate group, betaine cation. The

Z. Dega-Szafran; M. Szafran; A. Antkowiak; M. Grundwald-Wyspianska; E. Nowak; M. Gdaniec; Z. Kosturkiewicz

2002-01-01

7

Preparation and study on the inclusion complexes of two tanshinone compounds with ?-cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid inclusion complexes of two tanshinones (Tans): tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), tanshinone I (Tan I) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by using several analytical techniques: 1H NMR spectra, IR spectra and thermal analysis. Stoichiometry of the inclusion complexes of Tans with ?-CD or HP-?-CD is 1:1 which was investigated in solution. The formation constants of the complexes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. For same kind of CD, the stability was in the order: Tan IIA > Tan I; for same guest, the stability was in the order: HP-?-CD > ?-CD. The effect of temperature on the inclusion interaction was examined and the thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process, ? G, ? H, ? S were determined as well. The experimental results indicate that the inclusion process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process accompanied with a negative entropic contribution. The inclusion interaction between CD and Tans satisfied the law of enthalpy-entropy compensation.

Yuexian, Fan; Junfen, Li; Chuan, Dong

2005-01-01

8

1H NMR study of inclusion compounds of phenylurea derivatives in ?-cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR), which has become an important tool for the study "in situ" of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) complexes, was used to study and structurally characterize the inclusion complexes formed between ?-CD and isoproturon, fenuron, monuron and diuron. The high variation of the chemical shifts from the proton located inside the cavity (H-3, H-5 and H-6) coupled with the non variation of the one located outer sphere of the ?-CD (H-1, H-2 and H-4) provided clear evidence of the inclusion phenomena. Two-dimensional rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were carried out to further support the proposed inclusion mode.

Dupuy, N.; Barbry, D.; Bria, M.; Marquis, S.; Vrielynck, L.; Kister, J.

2005-04-01

9

Molecular Mechanics Study of the Inclusion of Trimethylbenzene Isomers in ?-Cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular mechanics calculations were employed to study the inclusion of triethylbenzene isomers in a-cyclodextrin and their solvation energy in aqueous solution. Trimethylbenzene penetrates partially into the cavity of a-cyclodextrin to form 1 : 1 or 2: 1 host–'guest complexes. The interaction energy between host and guest is dominated by van der Waals energy. The inclusion complexes have higher solvationenergies than

Danhong Zhou; Yu Wu; Qingmin Xu; Linjing Yang; Chunli Bai; Zhongyen Tan

2000-01-01

10

Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds  

PubMed Central

In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

van den Berg, Martin

2013-01-01

11

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.  

PubMed

In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

2013-06-01

12

A new controlled release system of chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine:?cd inclusion compounds based on porous silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize a controlled release system based on porous silica loaded with chlorhexidine\\u000a (Cx) and its inclusion compounds in ?-cyclodextrin (?cd), and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. Acetate chlorhexidine\\u000a (CxA), gluconate chlorhexidine (CxG), ?cd:chlorhexidine acetate 2:1 (?cd:CxA) and ?cd:chlorhexidine gluconate 2:1 (?cd:CxG)\\u000a were incorporated into porous silica. Drug loading was characterized by

Eliete Marçal Guimarães Raso; Maria Esperanza Cortes; Karina Imaculada Teixeira; Milton Batista Franco; Nelcy Della Santina Mohallem; Ruben Dario Sinisterra

2010-01-01

13

Inclusion of multi-ring compounds by p-tert -butylcalix[5]arene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion complex ofp-tert-butylcalix[5]arene with tetralin has been characterized in the solid state by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study and by13C CP\\/MAS NMR experiments. A crystallographic mirror plane bisects the calix[5]arene and contains the tetralin molecule (which is dynamically disordered). The guest penetrates the upper rim of the calixarene and the experimental results indicate the saturated ring is imbedded

Ravindra K. Juneja; Kerry D. Robinson; G. William Orr; Raymond H. Dubois; Kenneth A. Belmore; Jerry L. Atwood; John A. Ripmeester; Christopher I. Ratcliffe

1992-01-01

14

Host-guest chemistry. 2. Amine inclusion compounds of 2-[ o -(triphenylphosphoranylidenamino)benzyliden]amino-1 H -2,3-dihydroindazol-3-one. X-ray structure of its 1?1?1 inclusion complex with isopropylamine and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal and molecular structure is reported for the inclusion compound 2-[o-(triphenylphosphoranylidenamino)benzyliden]amino-1H-2,3-dihydroindazol-3-one\\/isopropylamine\\/water3b. The crystal structure consists of discrete dimeric salt-like aggregates joined together by strong N+-H...-O-C hydrogen bonds between pairs of centrosymmetrically-related indazolonate anions and isopropylammonium cations. Six other inclusion compounds have been prepared and characterized by NMR [with propylamine (3a), withtert-butylamine (3c), withsec-butylamine (3d), withtert-pentylamine (3e), with 1-methylbutylamine (3f)

Concepcion Foces-Foces; Antonio L. Llamas-Saiz; Rosa M. Claramunt; Jose Elguero; Pedro Molina; Antonio Arques; Rosario Obon

1993-01-01

15

Inclusion compounds between ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: iron II lactate: a theoretical and experimental study using diffusion coefficients and molecular mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was ?-CD>?-CD>?-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

2003-01-01

16

An orally active angiotensin-(1-7) inclusion compound and exercise training produce similar cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Low angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) concentration is observed in some cardiovascular diseases and exercise training seems to restore its concentration in the heart. Recently, a novel formulation of an orally active Ang-(1-7) included in hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD) was developed and chronically administered in experimental models of cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined whether chronic administration of HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) produces beneficial cardiovascular effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as to compare the results obtained with those produced by exercise training. Male SHR (15-week old) were divided in control (tap water) or treated with HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) (corresponding to 30?gkg(-1)day(-1) of Ang-(1-7)) by gavage, concomitantly or not to exercise training (treadmill, 10 weeks). After chronic treatment, hemodynamic, morphometric and molecular analysis in the heart were performed. Chronic HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in SHR. The inclusion compound significantly improved left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, restored the maximum and minimum derivatives (dP/dT) and decreased cardiac hypertrophy index in SHR. Chronic treatment improved autonomic control by attenuating sympathetic modulation on heart and vessels and the SAP variability, as well as increasing parasympathetic modulation and HR variability. Overall results were similar to those obtained with exercise training. These results show that chronic treatment with the HPB-CD/Ang-(1-7) inclusion compound produced beneficial effects in SHR resembling the ones produced by exercise training. This observation reinforces the potential cardiovascular therapeutic effect of this novel peptide formulation. PMID:24262271

Bertagnolli, Mariane; Casali, Karina R; De Sousa, Frederico B; Rigatto, Katya; Becker, Lenice; Santos, Sergio H S; Dias, Lucinara D; Pinto, Graziela; Dartora, Daniela R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Milan, Ruben Dario Sinisterra; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A S

2014-01-01

17

Structure of and hydrogen bonding in a 3:2 inclusion compound of N-methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride with acetonitrile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-Methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride (MMB·HCl) forms a 3:2 inclusion compound with acetonitrile. The crystal structure of the compound has been determined at 100 K from a twinned crystal to be trigonal with the space group Poverline3; a= b=16.767(2), c=6.996(1) Å, ?=120°. The host framework is constructed from the ionic pairs formed by the chlorine anion and the protonated, at the carboxylate group, betaine cation. The cation and anion are joined by the O-H⋯Cl - hydrogen bond of the length 2.974(2) Å and angle 173(3)°. The guest molecules are included in two kinds of channels formed in the host matrix. The narrow channel runs parallel to the z axis at x=2/3, y=1/3 and is filled with acetonitrile molecules situated at the three-fold axis. The second channel, also parallel to the z axis, joins large cavities with the center at 0,0,1/2 of overline3 symmetry. The cavity accommodates two guest molecules which exhibit disorder in the crystal. There are only van der Waals interactions between the host and the guest. FTIR spectra of MMB·HCl and its deuterated analog have been discussed.

Dega-Szafran, Z.; Szafran, M.; Antkowiak, A.; Grundwald-Wyspianska, M.; Nowak, E.; Gdaniec, M.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.

2002-03-01

18

Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25 C. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was examined by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXD and was found to be much more homogeneosly organized, with much less segregation and crystallinity of the PCL and PLLA microphases. The morpholgy, crystallization kinetics, thermal behavior, and biodegradability of the coalesced PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was studied by comparison to similar observations made on as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA, PCL and PLLA homopolymers, and their solution-cast blend. The PCL and PLLA blocks are found to be more intimately mixed, with less phase segregation, in the coalesced diblock copolymer, and this leads to homogeneous bulk crystallization, which is not observed for the as-synthesized diblock copolymer. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was also found to be more quickly biodegraded (lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus)than the as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA or the physical blend of PCL and PLLA homopolymers. Overall, the coalescence of the inherently phase segregated diblock copolymer PCL-b-PLLA results in a small amount of compact, chain-extended PCL and PLLA crystals embedded in an amorphous phase, largely consisting of well-mixed PCL and PLLA blocks. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to control the morpholgy of a biodegradable diblock copolymer, thereby significantly modifying it's properties, by coalescence from it's CD-IC crystals.

Shuai, Xintao; Wei, Min; Probeni, Francis; Bullions, Todd A.; Shin, I. Daniel; Tonelli, Alan E.

2002-03-01

19

Post monitoring of a cyclodextrin remeditated chlorinated solvent contaminated aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin (HPâCD) has been tested successfully in the laboratory and in the field for enhanced flushing of low-polarity contaminants from aquifers. The cyclodextrin molecule forms a toroidal structure, which has a hydrophobic cavity. Within this cavity, organic compounds of appropriate shape and size can form inclusion complexes, which is the basis for the use of cyclodextrin in groundwater remediation. The hydrophilic exterior of the molecule makes cyclodextrin highly water-soluble. The solubility of cyclodextrins can be further enhanced by adding functional groups, such as hydroxypropyl groups, to the cyclodextrin core. The aqueous solubility of HPâCD exceeds 950 g/L. These high solubilities are advantageous for field applications because they permit relatively high concentrations of the flushing agent. In order for cyclodextrin to become a feasible remediative alternative, it must be demonstrate a short term resistance to biodegradation during field application, but ultimately biodegrade so as not to pose a long term presence in the aquifer. The potential for degradation of cyclodextrin as well as changes in the chlorinated solvents and groundwater geochemistry were examined during the post monitoring of a field demonstration in a shallow aquifer at Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base in Virginia. It was found that a portion of the cyclodextrin remaining in the aquifer after the cessation of field activities biodegraded during the 425 days of post monitoring. This degradation also led to the degradation of the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and 1,1-trichloroethane through both biological and chemical processes. The aquifer remained anaerobic with average dissolved oxygen levels below 0.5 mg/L. Dissolved nitrate and sulfate concentrations within the cyclodextrin plume decreased due their being used as terminal electron acceptors during the degradation of the cyclodextrin. The concentrations of total iron at the field site showed no change over time. It can be concluded from this research that cyclodextrin remaining in the subsurface after cessation of active remediation will degrade due to microbial processes. The chlorinated solvents will also degrade through both chemical and biological processes to their daughter products. The terminal electron acceptors present within the cyclodextrin plume will also be used for energy during the degradation processes.

Blanford, W. J.

2006-12-01

20

Probing Vibrational Dynamics of Hydrogen-Bonded Inclusion Compounds with Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Ab Initio Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanidinium organodisulfonates form lamellar host lattices in which adjacent two-dimensional hydrogen- bonded sheets consisting of topologically complementary guanidinium cations (G) and sulfonate moieties (S) are connected by the organodisulfonates, which serve as pillars that support inclusion cavities, between the sheets, which are occupied by guest molecules. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) at low energies (35 - 120 meV or 280-970 cm

A. M. Pivovar; M. D. Ward; C. M. Brown; D. A. Neumann

2002-01-01

21

Release characteristics of the non-toxic insect repellant 2-undecanone from its crystalline inclusion compound with ?-cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-Undecanone (methyl nonyl ketone), a natural non-toxic insect repellant compound, was recently isolated from the trichomes\\u000a of wild tomatoes, and is currently being introduced as a replacement for insect repellants containing N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide or DEET, which are permitted for use on children older than 2 months. In an effort to improve the\\u000a delivery of the somewhat volatile 2-undecanone, we have successfully formed

Hyun Suk Whang; Alan Tonelli

2008-01-01

22

Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared Ce-doped polycrystalline AgSbTe2.01 compounds from high-purity elements by a melt-quench technique followed by spark plasma sintering, and their thermoelectric transport properties have been investigated in the temperature range of 300 K to 625 K. The actual concentration of Ce was much less than the initial composition, but roughly proportional to it. Small additions of Ce shifted the composition of the homogeneity range from the nearly ideal atomic ratio Ag:Sb:Te = 0.98:1.02:2.01 toward Sb rich (Ag poor), and led to the reemergence of Ag2Te impurity in AgSbTe2 compound. The Ce-doped samples possessed lower electrical conductivity compared with the undoped AgSbTe2.01 compound at room temperature, but the carrier mobility and effective mass were essentially constant, indicating intact band structure near the covalent band maximum upon Ce substitution for Sb. Due to the decrease of lattice vibration anharmonicity resulting from Ce substitution for Sb, the lattice conductivity of the Ce-doped samples was about 0.1 W m-1 K-1 higher than that of the AgSbTe2.01 sample, and the magnitude spanned the range from 0.30 W m-1 K-1 to 0.55 W m-1 K-1. A ZT of 1.20 was achieved at about 615 K for the AgSb0.99Ce0.01Te2.01 sample.

Du, B.; Li, H.; Tang, X.

2014-06-01

23

Fully quantal calculation of H2 translation-rotation states in the (p-H2)2@5(12)6(4) clathrate hydrate inclusion compound.  

PubMed

The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H2)2@5(12)6(4) clathrate hydrate inclusion compound have been computed. The ten-dimensional problem (in the rigid-cage and rigid-H2 approximation) is solved by first approximating the H2 moieties as spherically symmetric and solving for their 6D translational eigenstates. These are then combined with H2 free rotational states in a product basis that is used to diagonalize the full TR hamiltonian. The computed low-energy eigenstates have translational components that are essentially identical to the 6D translational eigenstates and rotational components that are 99.9% composed of rotationally unexcited H2 moieties. In other words, TR coupling is minimal for the low-energy states of the species. The low-energy level structure is found to be substantially more congested than that of the more tightly packed (p-H2)4@5(12)6(4) clathrate species. The level structure is also shown to be understandable in terms of a model of (H2)2 as a semirigid diatomic species consisting of two spherically symmetric H2 pseudo-atoms. PMID:25399145

Felker, Peter M

2014-11-14

24

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

25

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Alexakos, Konstantinos

2001-03-01

26

Elucidation of inclusion compounds between ?-cyclodextrin\\/local anaesthetics structure: a theoretical and experimental study using differential scanning calorimetry and molecular mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two local anaesthetics, Bupivacaine (BVC) and Lidocaine (LDC), were studied by experimental as well as theoretical methods. These compounds were associated with a drug delivery system of cyclodextrins (CDs). We used Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for experimental measurements. We calculated enthalpy change for the process of association between drug and CD. Calculations were performed using Molecular Mechanics (MM) with MM+

Luciana M. A. Pinto; Marcelo B. de Jesus; Eneida de Paula; Antonio C. S. Lino; Joel B. Alderete; Helio A. Duarte; Yuji Takahata

2004-01-01

27

Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.  

PubMed

The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet. PMID:23911930

Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

2014-01-01

28

Enhanced analysis of triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris L. by capillary zone electrophoresis with the addition of running buffer modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclodextrin-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of three isomeric compounds (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid), caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Without the addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and methanol, the separation of these analytes was poorly resolved. These eight compounds, however, were well separated from each other within

Hon-Yeung Cheung; Qing-Feng Zhang

2008-01-01

29

Solid-state structures of base-free ytterbocenes and inclusion compounds of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium with neutral carboranes and toluene: The role of intermolecular contacts  

SciTech Connect

The base-free ytterbocenes (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb, (Me{sub 4}C{sub 5}H){sub 2}Yb, and [1,3-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Yb have been prepared from their diethyl ether adducts, synthesized by reaction of YbI{sub 2} and the sodium salt of the substituted cyclopentadiene anion in diethyl ether. The structures of the base-free molecules have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The molecule (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb has been found to crystallize in two different morphologies; the complex also forms inclusion complexes with toluene, ortho-carborane, meta-carborane, and 1,2-dimethyl-ortho-carborane. The ytterbocene molecule in all of the derivatives examined is bent in the solid state with centroid-metal-centroid angles ranging from 132{degree} to 147{degree}. A detailed examination of the structures and comparison with the reported structures of (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Eu, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Sm, [1,3-(Me{sub 3}Si){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Yb, and [1,3-(Me{sub 3}Si){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Eu reveal that bending is the general structural preference. Close inter- or intramolecular contacts are observed in every case between the ytterbium atom and one or more carbon atoms other than those of the two cyclopentadienide rings of that ytterbocene fragment. The packing geometry is dictated by the substituents on the cyclopentadienide rings, the molecules arranging so as to minimize crowding in the solid state. The net result is a coordination polymer, dimer, or monomer, depending on the ring substituents.

Schultz, M.; Burns, C.J.; Schwartz, D.J.; Andersen, R.A.

2000-03-06

30

Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complex of ?-cyclodextrin and Azomethine  

PubMed Central

A ?-cyclodextrin (?-Cyd) inclusion complex containing azomethine as a guest was prepared by kneading method with aliquot addition of ethanol. The product was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), which proves the formation of the inclusion complex where the benzyl part of azomethine has been encapsulated by the hydrophobic cavity of ?-Cyd. The interaction of ?-Cyd and azomethine was also analyzed by means of spectrometry by UV-Vis spectrophotometer to determine the formation constant. The formation constant was calculated by using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation at 25 °C. The apparent formation constant obtained was 1.29 × 104 L/mol. Besides that, the stoichiometry ratio was also determined to be 1:1 for the inclusion complex of ?-Cyd with azomethine. PMID:23434664

Sambasevam, Kavirajaa Pandian; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad; Ismail, Nor Atiqah

2013-01-01

31

Demystifying inclusion: implications for sustainable inclusive practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that in the pursuit of influencing inclusive education development, definitions of inclusion have been promulgated that remain a distant concept in the minds of the most significant partners in this process, i.e. teachers and schools. This is despite best efforts to share ideas for sustainable change based on such definitions. Based on the author’s experience of being

Sulochini Pather

2007-01-01

32

Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

2002-01-01

33

Rethinking Inclusion: Schoolwide Applications  

E-print Network

Efforts to bring about a unified system of educational supports and services from the standpoint of special education have focused primarily on the concept of inclusion. Various models of inclusion have suffered from a ...

Sailor, Wayne; Roger, Blair

2005-03-01

34

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Lorie Dilley

2013-01-01

35

[Inclusive Recreation and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies…

Heyne, Linda A., Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

36

Creating an Inclusive School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of readings in support of inclusive education for students with disabilities offers rationales for inclusion, personal accounts of individuals involved, and strategies for facilitating change. Stressed throughout is the idea that inclusion is an attitude or belief system, not an action or set of actions. The readings identify…

Villa, Richard A., Ed.; Thousand, Jacqueline S., Ed.

37

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

38

Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, C.; Alexander, C.

1974-01-01

39

Formation, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Solution Stability of an [Fe4S4]2+ Cluster Derived from a ?-Cyclodextrin Dithiolate  

PubMed Central

The formation and solution properties, including stability in mixed aqueous-Me2SO media, have been investigated for an [Fe4S4]2+ cluster derived from a ?-cyclodextrin (CD) dithiolate. Clusters of the type [Fe4S4(SAr)4]2? (Ar = Ph, C6H4-3-F) are generated in Me2SO by redox reactions of [Fe4S4(SEt)4]2? with 2 equiv of ArSSAr. An analogous reaction with the intramolecular disulfide of 6A,6D-(3-NHCOC6H4-1-SH)2-6A,6D-dideoxy-?-cyclodextrin (14), whose synthesis is described, affords a completely substituted cluster formulated as [Fe4S4{?-CD-(3-NHCOC6H4-1-S)2}2]2? (15). Ligand binding is indicated by a circular dichroism spectrum and also by UV/visible and isotropically shifted 1H NMR spectra and redox behavior convincingly similar to [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2?. One formulation of 15 is a single cluster to which two dithiolates are bound, each in bidentate coordination. There being no proven precedent for this binding mode, we show that the cluster [Fe4S4(S2-m-xyl)2]2? is a single cubane whose m-xylyldithiolate ligands are bound in a bidentate arrangement. This same structure type was proposed for a cluster formulated as [Fe4S4{?-CD-(1,3-SC6H4-S)2}2]2? (16; Kuroda et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 4049–4050) and reported to be water-stable. Clusters 15 and 16 are derived from a similar ligands differing only in the spacer group between the thiolate binding site and the CD platform. In our search for clusters stable in aqueous or organic-aqueous mixed solvents that are potential candidates for reconstitution of scaffold proteins implicated in cluster biogenesis, 15 is the most stable cluster we have thus far encountered under anaerobic conditions in the absence of added ligand. PMID:22934734

Lo, Wayne; Zhang, Ping; Ling, Chang-Chun; Huang, Shaw; Holm, R. H.

2012-01-01

40

Planning for Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the 1992-93 school year, the Indiana Department of Education awarded planning grants to 10 school corporations and special education cooperatives which applied to be Inclusion School Pilot Sites. Funding was provided for activities related to planning and becoming more inclusive. Visits and interviews at the sites led to conclusions about…

Miller, Maurice; And Others

41

Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

Mamas, Christoforos

2013-01-01

42

Jet inclusive cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

Del Duca, V.

1992-11-01

43

Resources on Inclusive Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information packet is intended for use by teachers, parents, administrators, therapists, advocates, and others interested in achieving inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Part I provides reprints of selected readings, including: "Sample Case Studies of Inclusive Education" (Janet Duncan); "Public Schools…

Hulgin, Kathy, Ed.

44

The Challenge of Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration or inclusion of young children with disabilities into public school and community-based educational and child care programs is a topic of importance to the range of personnel working in early intervention\\/early childhood special education. This paper takes the position that many of these personnel embrace inclusion at the conceptual level but ignore or discount its implications at the

DIANE BRICKER

1995-01-01

45

?-Cyclodextrin-bonded silica particles as the solid-phase extraction medium for the determination of phenol compounds in water samples followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new absorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was prepared by a ?-cyclodextrin bonded silica stationary phase (CDS) has been applied to determine the concentrations of phenol compounds in water samples. SPE of selected phenolic compounds from aqueous samples were performed using 250mg CDS. The determination was subsequently carried out by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS).

Hakim Faraji

2005-01-01

46

Fluid inclusion geothermometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

Cunningham, C.G., Jr.

1977-01-01

47

School and Inclusive Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past 20 years, there has been an imperative in most Western countries to accommodate students with special learning\\u000a needs in regular education settings. Inclusion has become the catchword that epitomizes the notion of equality and opportunity\\u000a in social and scholarly domains. It would seem logical that the adoption of inclusion as a systemic policy would lead to significant

Adrian F. Ashman

48

Limitations of inclusive fitness  

PubMed Central

Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

2013-01-01

49

Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

2011-01-01

50

Inclusion polymerization of isoprene in deoxycholic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation-induced polymerization of isoprene was made on its inclusion (or clathrate) complex with deoxycholic acid (DOCA) at 150 and 300 kGy. The microstructure of the resulting polyisoprene (PIP) was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and found fully comparable to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator. Thus, the 1,4-trans content was found to be 48% and that of 1,4-cis units was 28% of the polymer structure; the remaining are being 1,2 and 3,4 units. The PIP irregular microstructure was justified in terms of monomer dynamics inside the DOCA channels. PIP from inclusion polymerization is fully amorphous as studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA) in comparison to an authentic sample of trans-1,4-polyisoprene, which instead has a crystalline melting point of 71.5 °C. The inclusion complex of PIP with DOCA (PIP@DOCA) shows a DTA melting point of 194.4 °C, 12.4 °C higher than the melting point of pure DOCA. PIP isolated from inclusion polymerization from DOCA and its complex PIP@DOCA was studied also by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Isoprene does not form inclusion complexes with urea and thiourea. When irradiated with these two compounds it produces an oily PIP oligomer whose microstructure was found by FTIR spectroscopy analogous to that of PIP prepared by emulsion polymerization by a free radical initiator.

Cataldo, Franco; Ragni, Pietro; Rosati, Aldo; Ursini, Ornella

2009-05-01

51

Synthesis of Chemical Modified ?-cyclodextrin and its Inclusion Behavior in Alcohol\\/Water Mixed Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical modified ?-cyclodextrin(CD), which bears a fluorophore group — N,N-dimethylamino-chalcone (DMAC), was synthesized. The self-inclusion behavior of this compound in aqueous solution and in alcohol\\/water mixed solvents was investigated in detail, and compared with the inclusion system of non-modified CD with free DMAC molecule. The results showed that a deep self-inclusion complex was formed for this compound in aqueous

Hongzhi Xie; Shikang Wu

2001-01-01

52

Myopathy with mitochondrial inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a case of atypic myopathy which was poorly defineable by clinical examination and light microscopy, crystalline mitochondrial\\u000a inclusion bodies were revealed electron-microscopically. In accordance with literary data and their own observation the authors\\u000a consider it doubtful that these findings should be related to the pathological process of the muscle.

B. Benke; M. Szende’oi

1971-01-01

53

Inclusion on the Bookshelf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

Jackson, Camille

2009-01-01

54

Education for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poverty can be both a consequence of, and contributory factor to, educational exclusion. This paper argues that poverty and exclusion are multidimensional. They require a multisectoral and multilevel approach in education if the most vulnerable sectors of society are to benefit from initiatives to turn exclusion into inclusion. This paper also…

Preece, Julia

2006-01-01

55

Diversity & Inclusion Executive Summary  

E-print Network

to celebrate our successes while identifying challenges and opportunities moving forward. When we issue to celebrate that will build on our past accomplishments. Because this is the first report of this kind of the diversity and inclusion highlights from the 2011-2012 academic year: As a result of the endorsement

Napier, Terrence

56

Inclusion. Inclusive ECCD: A Fair Start for All Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with special needs should be served within inclusive early childhood programs. Quality Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs provide a model to use when developing inclusive programs for children of all ages. This theme issue of "Coordinator's Notebook" focuses on the development of inclusive ECCD programs. The…

Evans, Judith L.; Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

1998-01-01

57

Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion

Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

2012-01-01

58

High temperature behavior of metallic inclusions in uranium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The object of this thesis was to construct a temperature gradient furnace to simulate the thermal conditions in the reactor fuel and to study the migration of metallic inclusions in uranium oxide under the influence of temperature gradient. No thermal migration of molybdenum and tungsten inclusions was observed under the experimental conditions. Ruthenium inclusions, however, dissolved and diffused atomically through grain boundaries in slightly reduced uranium oxide. An intermetallic compound (probably URu/sub 3/) was formed by reaction of Ru and UO/sub 2-x/. The diffusivity and solubility of ruthenium in uranium oxide were measured.

Yang, R.L.

1980-08-01

59

Mobility and Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Individuals and families relocate from one region of the world to another for many reasons (e.g., financial opportunity, work\\u000a or military assignment, family reunion, or escape from war, political unrest or natural disaster). All globally mobile new\\u000a settlers, however, must negotiate the often daunting challenge of integrating into that new home region. Inclusion occurs\\u000a when all members of a social

Douglas C. Maynard; Bernardo M. Ferdman; Tabitha R. Holmes

60

Alliance for Financial Inclusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI) works to provide "its members with the tools and resources to share and implement their knowledge of policies that increase access to financial services for the poor." This peer-to-peer learning model is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and works closely with many partners around the world. On its website, visitors can look over six different areas, such as the Global Policy Forum, News & Events, and Policy Areas. This last area provides highlights of AFI's work and policy outreach efforts concerning consumer protection, microcredit lending programs, and the metrics behind financial inclusion. The Global Policy Forum, AFI's keystone event, is hosted each year by a different member institution, in a different region of the world. Within this section, visitors will find links to past meetings and information sessions, previously held in such locations as Kuala Lumpur, Cape Town, and Bali. The site's Library is another great addition, including dozens of case studies, policy notes, special reports and video updates on how policymakers in developing countries are working on financial inclusion policy.

61

Full Inclusion: Dream or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a major debate has arisen between full-inclusion advocates and their critics. Morse maintains that full inclusion is the only way to ensure that mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are carried out. Santos argues that inclusion must be tempered by alternative arrangements that best serve an individual child's…

Morse, Timothy E.; Santos, Karen

1995-01-01

62

Inclusive Education in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

Kim, Yong-Wook

2014-01-01

63

Policies of Inclusion  

PubMed Central

The racial politics of immigration have punctuated national discussions about immigration at different periods in US history, particularly when concerns about losing an American way of life or American population have coincided with concerns about infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the main theme running through American immigration policy is one of inclusion. The United States has historically been a nation reliant on immigrant labor and, accordingly, the most consequential public policies regarding immigration have responded to disease and its economic burdens by seeking to control the behavior of immigrants within our borders rather than excluding immigrants at our borders. PMID:15053996

Fairchild, Amy L.

2004-01-01

64

Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

2011-11-17

65

Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping. These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels. We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature. Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC-MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed. ?? 1984.

Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K., Jr.; Oro, J.

1984-01-01

66

Practical application of thermodynamics to inclusions engineering in steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work briefly outlines thermodynamic databases of oxide solutions relevant to slags and inclusions in steelmaking processes and steel products, and reviews their application particularly to inclusions engineering. This paper then presents recent work on control of inclusions chemistry and phases in liquid steel, during solidification, and in solid steel by employing a computational thermodynamic technique and practical experiments. The system of the present study consists of metallic steel (Fe C Si Mn Al Ti Mg O S), non-metallic oxides (Fe Si Mn Al Ti Ca Mg O S), and various compounds. It is demonstrated that theoretical predictions are in a striking agreement with experimental results on change in composition and phase of inclusions subjected to a number of different thermal and chemical conditions.

Kang, Youn-Bae; Kim, Han S.; Zhang, Jian; Lee, Hae-Geon

2005-02-01

67

Area method analysis and thermodynamic behavior of nonmetallic micro-inclusions in casting slab of GCr15 bearing steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and characteristics of nonmetallic micro-inclusions of GCr15 bearing steel were explored through metallographic\\u000a area method in virtue of tracer method and electronic microscope. The results show that the micro-inclusions, of which the\\u000a average value is 0.032%, are mainly the compounds formed via the adsorption\\/aggregation of multielement deoxidized compounds\\u000a and secondarily deoxidized products on tundish liquid level. The micro-inclusions

Hongli Wang; Yitai Ma; Shuoming Wang

2009-01-01

68

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

E-print Network

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, Philipp

2013-01-01

69

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

E-print Network

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Philipp Roloff

2013-10-23

70

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, P.

71

Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

Lim, Levan

2009-01-01

72

Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

Bigby, Christine

2012-01-01

73

Inclusive practice: a biographical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decades, inclusive educational practice has developed to be a guiding political vision in Norway as in several other Western countries. In this article, we are concerned with how the ideal of inclusive practice is realized in one particular classroom. Ann is the homeroom teacher for a third-grade class and in her class she has two boys with

Torill Moen; Sigrun Gudmundsdottir; Annlaug Flem

2003-01-01

74

Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Quality of care for preschool children in inclusive and noninclusive classrooms was examined in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons across a large sample of classrooms (N = 1, 313) showed that inclusive classrooms were higher than noninclusive classrooms in global quality as well as on two dimensions of quality…

Hestenes, Linda L.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Shim, Jonghee; Hegde, Archana V.

2008-01-01

75

Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

2011-01-01

76

In Support of Unfinished Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

2014-01-01

77

Building Inclusive Cities and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

Freiler, Christa

2008-01-01

78

Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

2009-01-01

79

Compound Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Albert Einstein called compound interest the 8th wonder of the world. Find out why compound interest and the time value of money are so important. What is Interest Click on the following link to read about the different types of interest. Loans and Interest So why learn about compound interest? Using time and interest to your advantage, you can make more money than you have ever dreamed of. See how the time value of ...

Riches, Ms.

2007-10-16

80

Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... MDA Search form Search Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses ... biopsy can enable the physician to pinpoint the diagnosis to a type of myositis. The biopsy sample ...

81

Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management  

E-print Network

disabilities, including autism, intellectual disability, and traumatic brain injury were of interest in this study. Further, this study was designed to determine how the teachers learned to expertly manage their inclusive classrooms. Eight teachers met criteria...

Montague, Marcia

2011-02-22

82

Citrus food containing a cyclodextrin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A citrus food, which is prepared by incorporating 0.005 to 1.0 weight percent of cyclodextrin into natural citrus fruit in the course of the production of said food, thereby removing or reducing the bitterness as well as in preventing the formation of cloudiness in the citrus food.

1982-06-01

83

[Thermodynamically controlled deracemization utilizing inclusion complexation].  

PubMed

Utilizing host-guest inclusion complexation in the solid state, alpha-monosubstituted ketones were deracemized using optically active host compounds such as (-)-trans-2,3-bis(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1,4-dioxaspiro[5.4]decene (1a) under alkali conditions. This new method afforded optically active alpha-monosubstituted ketones in excellent yields with high enantiomeric excesses. For example, (+/-)-2-benzylcyclohexanone (2a) and (+/-)-3-benzylhexan-2-one (3c) were converted to the R-isomer (74% ee) and the S-isomer (96% ee), respectively, in quantitative yields. An x-ray crystallographic study elucidated the structure of the inclusion complex of 1a and (R)-2a. The study showed that the host molecules 1a ingeniously includes the guest molecule (R)-2a via hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. As an application of deracemization, coenzyme (R)-alpha-lipoic acid and (R)-(-)-epilachnene, the antipode of an defensive droplets from the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, were synthesized in short steps with>99% ee and 87% ee, respectively. PMID:18827463

Kaku, Hiroto

2008-10-01

84

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-print Network

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24

85

Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

2012-01-01

86

The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

Lubet, Alex

2009-01-01

87

Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

2014-01-01

88

Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

2004-01-01

89

[Inclusion membrane proteins of Chlamydiaceae].  

PubMed

Inclusion membrane proteins belong to the family of unique chlamydial proteins. Members of this family attract attention of scientists because of the following characteristics: Inc-proteins are localized in the inclusion membrane, these proteins have been found in all chlamydial species, expression of the most part of its genes begins during first hours from the infection of cell culture. Biological functions of Inc-proteins remain unknown, but these proteins are suggested to play a key role in process of the development the chlamydial infection. PMID:18421910

Kostriukova, E S; Lazarev, V N; Govorun, V M

2008-01-01

90

HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund Inclusion Leadership Award for Exchange Programme  

E-print Network

HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund Inclusion Leadership Award for Exchange Programme of `Social Inclusion Activities Grants of HKU Class of '84 Social Inclusion Fund' merit preferential Application Guideline A. Objective The Award is supported by the HKU Class of 84 Inclusion Fund which was set

Tam, Vincent W. L.

91

Aromatic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These organic chemistry quiz questions from the JCE question bank focus on the topic of aromatic compounds. Included in the quiz are questions on nomenclature, synthesis, electrophilic substitution, and huckel's rule. These questions provide great review and practice material for students.

Reich, Ieva

2007-12-03

92

Treasures: A Celebration of Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents photographs and quotations illustrating the effective inclusion of children with disabilities in New Hampshire's public schools. The booklet was created to acknowledge and celebrate families, educators, and communities who have welcomed all students into neighborhood schools and classrooms; to energize dedicated people who…

Dillon, Ann Donoghue, Ed.; And Others

93

Inclusive decay B??X  

E-print Network

Using data samples taken at the ?(4S) resonance and nearby continuum e(+)e(?) annihilation with the CLEO-II detector at CESR, we have measured the inclusive branching fraction B(B??X)=(17.6±1.1±1.2)%, and the momentum distribution of the ? mesons...

Baringer, Philip S.

1996-06-01

94

Four Inclusion Models that Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four models that have been shown to be effective in including students with disabilities in regular school programs: consultation, team teaching, aide services, and limited pullout service. Advantages and challenges of inclusion at the middle-school level are addressed. (DB)

Elliott, Dori; McKenney, Merry

1998-01-01

95

Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

Neary, Tom; And Others

96

Beyond Inclusive Legal Positivism &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this essay, I characterize the original intervention that became Inclusive Legal Positivism, defend it against a range of powerful objections, explain its contribution to jurisprudence, and display its limitations and its modest jurisprudential significance. I also show how in its original formulations ILP depends on three notions that are either mistaken or inessential to law: the separability thesis, the

JULES L. COLEMAN

2009-01-01

97

Primordial compositions of refractory inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk chemical and O-, Mg- and Si-isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg- and Si-isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates, but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10 -6 to 10 -1 bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in dust of ordinary chondrite composition relative to gas by a factor of 10 compared to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al 2O 3 relative to more volatile MgO + SiO 2 is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Types A and B inclusions.

Grossman, L.; Simon, S. B.; Rai, V. K.; Thiemens, M. H.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Williams, R. W.; Galy, A.; Ding, T.; Fedkin, A. V.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

2008-06-01

98

Inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink.  

PubMed

2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method. PMID:24813164

Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S; Stalin, Thambusamy

2014-08-14

99

Inclusion of a Protonated Amine in Thiourea-Chloride and Bromide Matrix. Expected Ionic Conducting Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of thiourea with 1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (quinuclidine) and quinuclidine hydrochloride or quinuclidine hydrobromide in ethanol\\/acetone mixture leads to the formation of the inclusion compounds (thiourea) 2 [(quinuclidine) 2 H] + Cl ? and (thiourea) 2 [(quinuclidine) 2 H] + Br ? , respectively. The crystal structure of the ternary proton-amine-thiourea complex may be described as the inclusion of the hydrogen-diquinuclidine

Nicolas Yutronic; Juan Merchán; Victor Manríquez; Guillermo Gonzalez; Paul Jara; Oscar Wittke; Maria Teresa Garland

2002-01-01

100

Application of DNA chip scanning technology for automatic detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter; Virok, Dezso P

2014-01-01

101

Application of DNA Chip Scanning Technology for Automatic Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusions  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endresz, Valeria; Urban, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildiko; Deak, Judit; Burian, Katalin; Onder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balazs, Peter

2014-01-01

102

Inclusive decay B-->?X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data samples taken at the ?(4S) resonance and nearby continuum e+e- annihilation with the CLEO-II detector at CESR, we have measured the inclusive branching fraction B(B-->?X)=(17.6+/-1.1+/-1.2)%, and the momentum distribution of the ? mesons from B meson decay. The ? yield cannot be explained as arising solely from the decay of intermediate charmed mesons.

Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J. K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M. S.; Kim, I. J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A. H.; O'neill, J. J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C. R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmier, C. M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W. R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J. W.; McIlwain, R. L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D. H.; Modesitt, M.; Payne, D.; Shibata, E. I.; Shipsey, I. P.; Wang, P. N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Gibbons, L.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Wang, C. H.; Dominick, J.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Zadorozhny, P.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Horwitz, N.; Moneti, G. C.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Stone, S.; Xing, X.; Zhu, G.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S. E.; Egyed, Z.; Jain, V.; Gibaut, D.; Kinoshita, K.; Pomianowski, P.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J. S.; O'grady, C.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Athanas, M.; Brower, W.; Masek, G.; Paar, H. P.; Gronberg, J.; Korte, C. M.; Kutschke, R.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R. J.; Nakanishi, S.; Nelson, H. N.; Nelson, T. K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J. D.; Ryd, A.; Sperka, D.; Tajima, H.; Witherell, M. S.; Balest, R.; Cho, K.; Ford, W. T.; Johnson, D. R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J. G.; Alexander, J. P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T. E.; Cassel, D. G.; Cho, H. A.; Coffman, D. M.; Crowcroft, D. S.; Drell, P. S.; Dumas, D. J.; Ehrlich, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C. D.; Jones, S. L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P. C.; Kreinick, D. L.; Ludwig, G. S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N. B.; Ng, C. R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Würthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J. J.; Edwards, K. W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D. I.; Hyatt, E. R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A. J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.

1996-06-01

103

Isolation and characterization of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate inclusions  

E-print Network

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon reserve found in some bacteria, and under nutrient limiting conditions accumulates intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies. These inclusions contain proteins, and the PHB within ...

Kshetry, Nina

2006-01-01

104

Preferential water loss from synthetic fluid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question in most fluid inclusion studies is whether inclusions behave as compositionally closed systems after trapping, and, thus, represent samples of the fluid phase(s) present in the system at the time of their formation. This question was addressed in high-temperature laboratory experiments with synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz and it was found that at 825°C the inclusions exhibited

Donald L. Hall; S. Michael Sterner

1993-01-01

105

Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Educational Inclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation for inclusion in Canadian schools for this Special Issue on Inclusive Education. In response to the need for an interdisciplinary framework, this paper uses an interpretive literature review methodology to construct a framework for educational inclusivity based on four disciplinary…

DeLuca, Christopher

2013-01-01

106

Epizootiology of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were infected artificially with the virus that causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). A specific and consistent time course of infection was demonstrated for inclusion body number and hematocrit values. At 12°C, the inclusions appeared approximately 11 d postinjection and were most common near day 21. Hematocrit values were lowest at day 28. By day 30,

S. C. Piacentini; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

1989-01-01

107

Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

McMaster, Christopher

2012-01-01

108

Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

Hill, Linda D.

2010-01-01

109

75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance...promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The...to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or designate an office,...

2010-12-28

110

75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PART 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance...this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing...promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities....

2010-01-11

111

75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance...comment on this proposed rule on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing...promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities....

2010-03-08

112

Inclusive Attitudes: A Pre-Service Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This enquiry has shown that pre-service teachers in Ontario, Canada (n = 141), believe they have the prerequisite training and knowledge to be inclusive educators. They believe inclusion is effective and produces required results for both identified and non-identified students. Inclusion was viewed as a difficult proposition dependent upon several…

Ryan, Thomas G.

2009-01-01

113

Inclusion Body Myositis: Atypical Clinical Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion body myositis affects primarily the proximal muscles but distal limb muscles are involved too in this chronic myopathy. Characteristic histopathologic findings include ‘rimmed vacuoles’, inflammation and typical cytoplasmic and nuclear filamentous inclusions. The patients are usually unresponsive to steroids. We present four inclusion body myositis patients with atypical clinical presentations: one with scapuloperoneal syndrome, one with post-polio-like syndrome and

I. Schlesinger; D. Soffer; A. Lossos; Z. Meiner; Z. Argov

1996-01-01

114

Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the Research Say?" (Margaret J.…

Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

1996-01-01

115

Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

McMaster, Christopher

2014-01-01

116

Inclusion: By Choice or by Chance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the development internationally of the inclusive education perspective. Inclusive education as a late modernity reform project is exemplified in the call for "Education for All". Despite the simplicity of its message, inclusion is highly contestable. We argue in this paper that the key questions raised by the concept of…

Armstrong, Derrick; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl; Spandagou, Ilektra

2011-01-01

117

Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions  

SciTech Connect

To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

Sorensen, E.M.B.

1987-01-01

118

Intermetallic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- ?V-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 ?.

Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

2014-06-01

119

Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

Soukakou, Elena P.

2012-01-01

120

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

1986-01-14

121

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1986-01-14

122

Dynamic Crack Growth Past a Stiff Inclusion: Optical Investigation of Inclusion Eccentricity and Inclusion-matrix Adhesion Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between a dynamically growing matrix crack and a stationary stiff cylindrical inclusion are studied optically.\\u000a Test specimens with two different bond strengths (weak and strong) and three crack-inclusion eccentricities (e?=?0, d\\/2 and 3d\\/4, d being inclusion diameter) are studied using reflection mode Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) and high-speed photography. These\\u000a variants produce distinct dynamic crack trajectories and failure behaviors.

R. Kitey; H. V. Tippur

2008-01-01

123

Encapsulation of ethylene gas into ?-cyclodextrin and characterisation of the inclusion complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular encapsulation of various apolar compounds with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is becoming a widely applied technique to produce food, pharmaceutical and agricultural materials. Encapsulated ethylene in the form of inclusion complexes (ICs) with cyclodextrin, which is in powder form, could be used in fruit ripening and other aspect of plant growth regulation. In this research, ethylene was complexed with an ?-CD

Binh T. Ho; Daryl C. Joyce; Bhesh R. Bhandari

2011-01-01

124

Inclusion bodies: not that bad...  

PubMed Central

The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

Ramon, Ana; Senorale-Pose, Mario; Marin, Monica

2014-01-01

125

Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

Li, Jun

126

The effect of inclusions in brittle material  

E-print Network

This thesis experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of brittle heterogeneous materials. Unconfined, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on prismatic gypsum specimens containing either one, or two, inclusions. ...

Janeiro, Raymond Pinho

2009-01-01

127

Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

2004-01-01

128

ASC-Inclusion: Interactive Emotion Games for Social Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions  

E-print Network

ASC-Inclusion: Interactive Emotion Games for Social Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum-based game platform, directed for children with ASC and those interested in their inclusion. The platform games, text com- munication with peers and smart agents, animation, video and audio clips. We present

Subramanian, Sriram

129

More policies, greater inclusion? Exploring the contradictions of New Labour inclusive education policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children’s inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education take their cues from wider neo?liberal constructions of social exclusion; ideas that point

Alan Roulstone; Simon Prideaux

2008-01-01

130

Leadership for inclusion: conceptualising and enacting inclusion in integrated schools in a troubled society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion is increasingly understood as an educational reform that responds to the diversity of all learners, challenging the marginalisation, exclusion and underachievement which may result from all forms of ‘difference’. Leadership for inclusion is conceptualised here as driving a constant struggle to create shared meanings of inclusion and to build collaborative practice, an effort that needs to be rooted in

Claire McGlynn; Tim London

2011-01-01

131

More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

2008-01-01

132

Supporting the Development of More Inclusive Practices Using the Index for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion is a central issue for educational psychologists (EPs) today, yet they have often been portrayed as gatekeepers to special provision. One approach for EPs to promote more inclusive practices in schools is through the Index for Inclusion as a vehicle for consultation. This paper reports a study of EPs acting as "critical friends" to…

Hick, Peter

2005-01-01

133

Teaching inclusively: are secondary physical education student teachers sufficiently prepared to teach in inclusive environments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has attempted to examine PE teacher's perceptions of inclusion. However, it is evident that

Janine Kim Coates

2012-01-01

134

Teaching inclusively: are secondary physical education student teachers sufficiently prepared to teach in inclusive environments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has attempted to examine PE teacher's perceptions of inclusion. However, it is evident that

Janine Kim Coates

2011-01-01

135

Thermoelectroelastic solution for elliptic inclusions and application to crack–inclusion problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoelectroelastic solution for an elliptic piezoelectric inclusion embedded in an infinite matrix and its application to crack–inclusion problems are investigated in this paper. By combining the method of Stroh's formalism, the technique of conformal mapping, the concept of perturbation and the method of analytical continuation, a general analytical thermoelectroelastic solution for an elliptic piezoelectric inclusion embedded in an infinite

Qing-Hua Qin

2000-01-01

136

COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are under regulatory consideration for inclusion in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Adsorption is a cost-effective treatment technology for control of VOCs. Adsorption capacities were determined for fifteen VOCs in distill...

137

Understanding the Development of Inclusive Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now almost ten years since the Salamanca Conference on Special Needs Education endorsed the idea of inclusive education. Arguably the most significant international document that has ever appeared in the special needs field, the Salamanca Statement argues that regular schools with an inclusive orientation are "the most effective means of…

Ainscow, Mel

2005-01-01

138

Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

1982-01-01

139

Inclusive Child Care: An Ethical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inclusive childcare program is a program that is committed to individually appropriate practice, accepting children regardless of their developmental profiles, strengths, or competencies. This conference paper addresses the problem that although inclusive programs are now commonplace, professional childcare providers are still unsure about the…

Mulligan, Vicki

140

Refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the coarse-grained inclusions of the Allende meteorite is reviewed, with attention given to petrography and major minerals, micromineralogy and microtextures, bulk chemical composition, and isotopic composition. It is concluded that the coarse-grained inclusions provide evidence for a supernova explosion that occurred just before condensation, for incompletely homogenized material from several nucleosynthetic sources, and for solar nebular regions

L. Grossman

1980-01-01

141

Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive Learning in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting an inclusive learning environment that caters for all learners and their individual needs and meeting challenging targets set in this area is a huge under taking for providers across the learning and skills sector. This booklet provides an overview that illustrates the breadth and variety that the broad banner of inclusive learning…

Smith, Vikki; Armstrong, Anne

2005-01-01

142

The Sustainable Development of Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advent of inclusive education has quietly changed the ecology of Hong Kong's educational system. Inclusive education is a product of education in the developed Western nations and has spread at the instigation of international organizations. It is a plan for educational development that is based on the concepts of human rights and peace and…

Lo, Leslie Nai-kwai

2007-01-01

143

Inclusive Education: Is This Horse a Trojan?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Canada and elsewhere, governments are expending considerable effort in the production of inclusive education policy texts, resources allocation models, and programs. The author notes that despite of the analytic power and the political intent of inclusive education as a counterpoint to special education, its appropriation is imminent if not…

Slee, Roger

2006-01-01

144

Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

1999-01-01

145

Teaching Queer-Inclusive English Language Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue for teaching queer-inclusive English language arts (ELA). They report on a study that surveyed high school personnel across the United States, revealing that very few people in charge of ELA curricula value such inclusion. In response to these findings, the authors offer "images of the possible" in which texts and methods that…

Blackburn, Mollie V.; Buckley, J. F.

2005-01-01

146

What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1) educational…

What's Working, 1994

1994-01-01

147

Inclusion: A Legal Mandate, an Educational Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The courts are clear in their preference for inclusion, the legal and educational mandate to educate handicapped students in the least restrictive environment. However, the implementation of inclusion programs is often unclear. In this publication, the superintendent of Baltimore County, Maryland, describes the school district's experiences in…

Berger, Stuart

1995-01-01

148

Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

2010-01-01

149

Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

2010-01-01

150

Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

2014-01-01

151

Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

Allan, Julie

2010-01-01

152

Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

2014-01-01

153

Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

154

Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

Tienda, Marta

2013-01-01

155

Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after?school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on ‘initiatives by governments’, this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education.

2011-01-01

156

The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

2006-01-01

157

Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.

Bonacuse, Peter J.

2008-01-01

158

Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie

2010-01-01

159

Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

Kang, Sang-gu

2011-01-01

160

Update in inclusion body myositis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to review recent scientific advances relating to the natural history, cause, treatment and serum and imaging biomarkers of inclusion body myositis (IBM). Recent findings Several theories regarding the aetiopathogenesis of IBM are being explored and new therapeutic approaches are being investigated. New diagnostic criteria have been proposed, reflecting the knowledge that the diagnostic pathological findings may be absent in patients with clinically typical IBM. The role of MRI in IBM is expanding and knowledge about pathological biomarkers is increasing. The recent description of autoantibodies to cytosolic 5? nucleotidase 1A in patients with IBM is a potentially important advance that may aid early diagnosis and provides new evidence regarding the role of autoimmunity in IBM. Summary IBM remains an enigmatic and often misdiagnosed disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is still not fully understood. To date, pharmacological treatment trials have failed to show clear efficacy. Future research should continue to focus on improving understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and on the identification of reliable and sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials. IBM is a rare disease and international multicentre collaboration for trials is important to translate research advances into improved patient outcomes. PMID:24067381

Machado, Pedro; Brady, Stefen; Hanna, Michael G.

2013-01-01

161

Characterization of Nonmetallic Inclusions in High-Manganese and Aluminum-Alloyed Austenitic Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Al and Mn contents on the size, composition, and three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions formed in Fe- xMn- yAl ( x = 10 and 20 mass pct, y = 1, 3, and 6 mass pct) steels were investigated to enhance our understanding of the inclusion formation behavior in high Mn-Al-alloyed steels. By assuming that the alumina is a dominant oxide compound, the volume fraction of inclusions estimated from the chemical analysis, i.e., insoluble Al, in the Fe-Mn-3Al steels was larger than the inclusion volume fractions in the Fe-Mn-1Al and Fe-Mn-6Al steels. A similar tendency was found in the analysis of inclusions from a potentiostatic electrolytic extraction method. This finding could be explained from the terminal velocities of the compounds, which was affected by the thermophysical properties of Fe-Mn-Al steels. The inclusions formed in the Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels are classified into seven types according to chemistry and morphology: (1) single Al2O3 particle, (2) single AlN or AlON particle, (3) MnAl2O4 single galaxite spinel particle, (4) Al2O3(-Al(O)N) agglomerate, (5) single Mn(S,Se) particle, (6) oxide core with Mn(S,Se) skin (wrap), and (7) Mn(S,Se) core with Al2O3(-Al(O)N) aggregate (or bump). The Mn(S,Se) compounds were formed by the contamination of the steels by Se from the electrolytic Mn. Therefore, the raw materials (Mn) should be used carefully in the melting and casting processes of Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels.

Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Min, Dong Joon

2012-07-01

162

Detecting and Correcting Melt Inclusion Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post entrapment diffusive modification of melt inclusions may mute or erase primary signatures. Corrections for post-entrapment crystallization (PEC) and Fe-loss are routinely applied and, because recent experimental studies suggest rapid diffusion of trace components into and out of olivine-hosted inclusions, the ability to discriminate between primary and secondary signatures is now even more critical. Two tools may assist in this endeavor. XANES measurements of Fe3+/?Fe ratios in undegassed ol-hosted basaltic melt inclusions from global arcs are 16-36% (n=16), significantly higher than the 7-10% commonly assumed, and higher than in MORB or BABB lavas (Kelley and Cottrell, this mtg). The Fe3+/?Fe ratios indicate melt-host equilibrium, with significantly less PEC or Fe-loss than would have been otherwise assumed. We conclude that Fe2+ diffusion has been minimal; therefore the residence time of these primitive inclusions in an evolved magma must have been short. Fe3+/?Fe correlates positively with water concentration, but not with CO2 and S concentrations or Mg#. The oxidized nature of arc lavas and melt inclusions may therefore indicate an oxidized source rather than late-stage degassing or fractionation. Trace element concentrations evolve with time if an inclusion is out of equilibrium with its host. The numerical model of Cottrell et al., 2002, makes specific predictions about how suites of melt inclusions evolve, creating a tool to detect post-entrapment modification. Recent laboratory measurements of REE diffusion in olivine greatly diverge (at 1300°C, 1015 vs 1019m2/s). If REE diffusivity is extremely fast, melt inclusion HREE diversity shouldn't survive more than a few years in a magma chamber; but if slow, HREE variance could be preserved for >104 yrs. Model analysis of published suites of ol-hosted inclusions indicates that either REE diffusion is quite slow, or the residence time of melt inclusions at high temperature is very short. Loss of variance in suites of pl-hosted inclusions is consistent with long (>103 yrs) residence times. Suites of ol- and pl-hosted inclusions from the same magmatic system can therefore bracket residence times if diffusivities are known, or put reasonable bounds on diffusion rates.

Cottrell, E.; Kelley, K. A.

2008-12-01

163

[Mullerian "inclusions" within an intramammary lymph node].  

PubMed

We report a case of mullerian "inclusions" within an intra-mammary lymph node. Discovered on a routine mammography, the inclusions appeared in the right breast as a focus of microcalcifications. The 63-year-old patient was asymptomatic. Microcalcifications were associated with benign appearing epithelial formations which were positive for estrogen receptor antibodies and negative for thyroglobulin, calretinin and smooth muscle actin antibodies. Three years later, the patient developed a peritoneal low-grade serous carcinoma. Mullerian inclusions within lymph nodes are rather frequent below the diaphragm but exceptional above. Even in a supra-diaphragmatic localization, they can be associated with a pelvic serous tumor. PMID:17127851

Rousselot, Cécilia; Chapiron, Céline; Blechet, Claire; Arbion, Flavie; Fetissof, Franck

2006-06-01

164

Inclusive decays of B mesons to charmonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the CLEO-II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ringe (CESR) to study the inclusive production of charmonium mesons in a sample of 2.15 million BB¯ events. We find inclusive branching fractions of (1.12+\\/-0.04+\\/-0.06)% for B-->J\\/psiX, (0.34+\\/-0.04+\\/-0.03)% for B-->psi'X, and (0.40+\\/-0.06+\\/-0.04)% for B-->chic1X. We also find some evidence for the inclusive production of chic2, and set an upper

R. Balest; K. Cho; W. T. Ford; D. R. Johnson; K. Lingel; M. Lohner; P. Rankin; J. G. Smith; J. P. Alexander; C. Bebek; K. Berkelman; K. Bloom; T. E. Browder; D. G. Cassel; H. A. Cho; D. M. Coffman; D. S. Crowcroft; P. S. Drell; D. J. Dumas; R. Ehrlich; P. Gaidarev; M. Garcia-Sciveres; B. Geiser; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; S. Henderson; C. D. Jones; S. L. Jones; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; S. Salman; M. Sapper; F. Würthwein; P. Avery; A. Freyberger; J. Rodriguez; S. Yang; J. Yelton; D. Cinabro; T. Liu; M. Saulnier; R. Wilson; H. Yamamoto; T. Bergfeld; B. I. Eisenstein; G. Gollin; B. Ong; M. Palmer; M. Selen; J. J. Thaler; K. W. Edwards; M. Ogg; A. Bellerive; D. I. Britton; E. R. Hyatt; D. B. Macfarlane; P. M. Patel; B. Spaan; A. J. Sadoff; R. Ammar; P. Baringer; A. Bean; D. Besson; D. Coppage; N. Copty; R. Davis; N. Hancock; M. Kelly; S. Kotov; I. Kravchenko; N. Kwak; H. Lam; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; M. Momayezi; J. K. Nelson; S. Patton; R. Poling; V. Savinov; S. Schrenk; R. Wang; M. S. Alam; I. J. Kim; Z. Ling; A. H. Mahmood; J. J. O'neill; H. Severini; C. R. Sun; F. Wappler; G. Crawford; C. M. Daubenmier; R. Fulton; D. Fujino; K. K. Gan; K. Honscheid; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; M. Sung; C. White; A. Wolf; M. M. Zoeller; F. Butler; X. Fu; B. Nemati; W. R. Ross; P. Skubic; M. Wood; M. Bishai; J. Fast; E. Gerndt; J. W. Hinson; R. L. McIlwain; T. Miao; D. H. Miller; M. Modesitt; D. Payne; E. I. Shibata; I. P. Shipsey; P. N. Wang; M. Battle; J. Ernst; L. Gibbons; Y. Kwon; S. Roberts; E. H. Thorndike; C. H. Wang; J. Dominick; M. Lambrecht; S. Sanghera; V. Shelkov; T. Skwarnicki; R. Stroynowski; I. Volobouev; G. Wei; M. Artuso; M. Gao; M. Goldberg; D. He; N. Horwitz; G. C. Moneti; F. Muheim; Y. Mukhin; S. Playfer; Y. Rozen; S. Stone; X. Xing; G. Zhu; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; Z. Egyed; V. Jain; D. Gibaut; K. Kinoshita; P. Pomianowski; B. Barish; M. Chadha; S. Chan; D. F. Cowen; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; C. O'grady; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; M. Athanas; W. Brower; G. Masek; H. P. Paar; J. Gronberg; C. M. Korte; R. Kutschke; S. Menary; R. J. Morrison; S. Nakanishi; H. N. Nelson; T. K. Nelson; C. Qiao; J. D. Richman; A. Ryd; D. Sperka; H. Tajima; M. S. Witherell

1995-01-01

165

Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

1988-01-01

166

The interaction between inclusions and cracks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some current fracture theories are reviewed and a group of mechanics problems of practical interest relating to the elastic interaction between cracks and inclusions are identified and results summarized.

Erdogan, F.

1973-01-01

167

NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory: Inclusion Criteria  

Cancer.gov

NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory: Inclusion Criteria Licensed, board certified, or board eligible in their profession. A member of one of the following professional organizations or special interest groups: American College of Medical Genetics

168

Genetics Home Reference: Microvillus inclusion disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of nutrients from food during digestion, resulting in malnutrition and dehydration. Affected infants often have difficulty gaining ... and fluids during digestion leads to recurrent diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in individuals with microvillus inclusion disease. ...

169

Water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water content in melt inclusions has long been used as an important index for the water content of the hosting magma. However, many studies have shown that post-entrapment diffusive re-equilibration can affect the water content of melt inclusions. This process must be considered when using melt inclusions to infer water content of the hosting magma. Theoretical model on the diffusive re-equilibration between melt inclusions and external melts showed that the re-equilibration rate depends on the diffusivity of the re-equilibrating species in the host mineral, the partition coefficient of this species between the host mineral and melt, and the geometry of the melt inclusion and host mineral. The water diffusivity in olivine and water partition coefficient between melt and olivine have been measured by recent studies, therefore the diffusive re-equilibration model can be tested by experiments. In this study, we carried out in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements on the water content of olivine hosted melt inclusions at high temperatures. Initial water content of the melt inclusions is about 4 wt%. A heating stage system is combined with a microscope FTIR and the absorption spectrum through the olivine and melt inclusion is repeatedly measured. Although the absorption band at around 3540 cm-1 has not be calibrated at high temperatures, it is assumed that the absorbance is linearly related to the total water concentration in the melt inclusion, and the relative water content can be inferred. Cautions have been exercised to maintain a consistent measurement spot such that the thickness of the melt inclusion within the beam path did not change significantly during each experiment. Oxygen fugacity in the heating stage is controlled by Zr purified Ar gas to be about 7 logarithm units below the QFM buffer and about 1 logarithm unit above the QIF buffer at 1473 K. Preliminary results showed that at 1430 and 1581 K, the total water content of the melt inclusion decreased by 80% within about 7 and 1 hours, respectively. This rapid decrease of water content agrees with previous observations. Applying the model and water partition coefficient between olivine and melt by a previous study yields water diffusivities in olivine as 5E-12 and 3E-11 m2/s at 1430 and 1581 K, respectively. These numbers are consistent with the diffusivities measured by a previous study. Due to some experimental difficulties, it is unclear whether bubble existed during the experiments and affected the apparent water content change. Oxygen fugacity may also play a role in water re-equilibration. Further efforts will be made to investigate these aspects and better understand the water re-equilibration process.

Chen, Y.; Provost, A.; Schiano, P.; Cluzel, N.

2009-12-01

170

Processing of text containing artificial inclusion relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were based on the hypothesis that the majority of college students have available to them the appropriate\\u000a schema for understanding set inclusion relations, but that various factors influence the likelihood that the schema is used\\u000a in the processing of text containing artificial inclusion relations. Although group data did not support this hypothesis,\\u000a the data of individual subjects

Barbee T. Mynatt; Kirk H. Smith

1979-01-01

171

Compounding in Ukraine.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice. PMID:23696172

Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

2013-01-01

172

Sanskrit Compound Processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

173

Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of their experiments, geologically relevant diffusion rates are notoriously difficult to determine and may depend on factors not incorporated in the laboratory experiments. More recent diffusion experiments by Remmert et al. (2008) and by Cherniak (2009) have yielded diffusion coefficients three order of magnitude lower than those measured by Spandler. The heavy REE represent a possible exception to the above conclusions. We present data from olivine melt inclusions from Iceland basalts, which show unusual HREE patterns possibly caused by diffusional exchange with the host lava. Sobolev, A.V. & Shimizu, N. (1993) Nature 363, 151-154. Danyushevskii, L.V. et al. (2004) J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553. Spandler, G., O’Neill, H.St.C., Kamenetsky, V.S. (2007) Nature, 447, 303-306. Remmert, P. Dohmen, R., Chakraborty, S. (2008) EOS Trans. AGU abs. MR331-1844. Cherniak, D.J. (2009) Am. Mineral. Ms. subm.

Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

2009-12-01

174

Mass spectrometric identification of boric acid in fluid inclusions in pegmatite minerals  

SciTech Connect

Direct, on-line mass spectrometric analyses were performed on volatiles released from microscopic fluid inclusions in quartz, feldspar, and tourmaline from the miarolitic Belo Horizonte No. 1 pegmatite in the San Jacinto district, and Himalaya pegmatite dike system in the Mesa Grande district of southern California. These analyses are the first inclusion volatile studies to indicate the presence of significant and variable concentrations of B compounds in pegmatite formation fluids. Boron appears as boric acid B(OH){sub 3}, which is found at levels ranging from less than detection limit (<10{sup {minus}7} mole fraction) to as high as 10{sup {minus}4} mole fraction. High B concentrations are seen in inclusion fluids from miarolite filling quartz, cleavelandite variety albite feldspar, and schorl tourmaline from the Belo Horizonte No. 1, while negligible amounts appear in late-stage green/pink-zoned gem elbaite tourmalines from that mine. Fluid inclusions in quartz, as well as grey and pink tourmaline form the miarolites in the Himalaya mine, have undetectable levels of B compounds. In addition to confirming the presence of very high boric acid concentrations in some pegmatite forming solutions, observations of large variations in abundance may provide new constraints on fluid chemical evolution trends during the genesis of these regionally and paragenetically complex gem deposits. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Williams, A.E.; Taylor, M.C. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

175

Inclusion of molecular iodine into channels of the organic zeolite-like gossypol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gossypol has been obtained in the zeolite-like form by desolvation of the 1:1 unstable solvate with dichloromethane. It demonstrates\\u000a a high potential for an uptake of molecular iodine from the environment. In a case of single crystals a stable inclusion compound\\u000a (gossypol)8?I2, preserving the crystal structure of the zeolite-like form, has been prepared. The iodine molecules occupy large cavities\\u000a of

Samat A. Talipov; Bakhtiyar T. Ibragimov; Fatkhulla Kh. Tadjimukhamedov; Zavkibek G. Tiljakov; Alexander J. Blake; Tino Hertzsch; Jürg Hulliger

2007-01-01

176

Leadership for Inclusion: Conceptualising and Enacting Inclusion in Integrated Schools in a Troubled Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion is increasingly understood as an educational reform that responds to the diversity of all learners, challenging the marginalisation, exclusion and underachievement which may result from all forms of "difference". Leadership for inclusion is conceptualised here as driving a constant struggle to create shared meanings of…

McGlynn, Claire; London, Tim

2013-01-01

177

When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

2011-01-01

178

Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Strategies for Coping with Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine…

Brackenreed, Darlene

2011-01-01

179

Ponderomotive forces in liquid conductors with macroscopic solid inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studies the ponderomotive forces occurring in liquid conductors with macroscopic inclusions. It is shown that if the electric conductivity of inclusions is higher than the electric conductivity of the host medium then the inclusions are attracted to the axis of a conductor. In the opposite case the ponderomotive forces repel the inclusions towards the surface of a conductor.

Yu. Dolinsky; T. Elperin

1994-01-01

180

Development of the Inclusion Attitude Scale for High School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved the development of a new scale to measure high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. A second aim was to examine the relationship of teachers’ professional development regarding inclusion, their years of experience with inclusion, access to instructional supports and resources, and gender to their attitudes toward inclusion. A

Catherine Ernst; Margaret R. Rogers

2009-01-01

181

Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used…

Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

2014-01-01

182

Empirical convergence speed of inclusion functions for facility location problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key points in interval global optimization is the selection of a suitable inclusion function which allows to solve the problem efficiently. Usually, the tighter the inclusions provided by the inclusion function, the better, because this will make the accelerating devices used in the algorithm more effective at discarding boxes. On the other hand, whereas more sophisticated inclusion

B. Toth; J. Fernandez; T. Csendes

2007-01-01

183

Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings  

E-print Network

1 Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson cycle of inclusions during the filling of steel castings. There are two ways that inclusions can be introduced into the casting: inclusions can be released at the inlet to model tiny deoxidation or other

Beckermann, Christoph

184

Absence of evidence ? evidence of absence: statistical analysis of inclusions in multiferroic thin films.  

PubMed

Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi(6)Ti(2.8)Fe(1.52)Mn(0.68)O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of 'new single phase multiferroic materials'. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions. PMID:25026969

Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E; Holmes, Justin D; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W

2014-01-01

185

Absence of Evidence ? Evidence of Absence: Statistical Analysis of Inclusions in Multiferroic Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi6Ti2.8Fe1.52Mn0.68O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of `new single phase multiferroic materials'. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions.

Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E.; Holmes, Justin D.; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W.

2014-07-01

186

Inclusion of Paracetamol into ?-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): ?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- ?-CD (HP- ?-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- ?-CD (Me- ?-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- ?-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- ?-CD > HP- ?-CD > ?-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- ?-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

2011-09-01

187

Spectroscopic investigations and crystal structure from synchrotron powder data of the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin with atenolol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion complexes of atenolol with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) in aqueous solution have been investigated with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of this inclusion complex was established to be equimolar (1:1) and its stability constant was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the ?-CD-atenolol (1:1) inclusion compound has been solved from synchrotron powder diffraction data using direct-space search techniques. The crystal structure model and 1H NMR data are in good agreement and, with support of Hyperchem MM+ molecular dynamics results, suggest which protons are likely to be involved in the inclusion process that leads to the supramolecular architecture of this guest-host complex.

Borodi, Gheorghe; Bratu, Ioan; Dragan, Felicia; Peschar, René; Helmholdt, Robert B.; Hernanz, Antonio

2008-10-01

188

Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds  

PubMed Central

The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

2005-01-01

189

Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

190

Huntingtin Acts in the Nucleus to Induce Apoptosis but Death Does Not Correlate with the Formation of Intranuclear Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration were investigated using a cellular model that recapitulates features of neurodegeneration seen in Huntington’s disease. When transfected into cultured striatal neurons, mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration by an apoptotic mechanism. Antiapoptotic compounds or neurotrophic factors protected neurons against mutant huntingtin. Blocking nuclear localization of mutant huntingtin suppressed its ability to form intranuclear inclusions

Frédéric Saudou; Steven Finkbeiner; Didier Devys; Michael E Greenberg

1998-01-01

191

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J. D.; Chou, I. -M.

1998-01-01

192

Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

2010-01-01

193

Negotiating the Path: Towards Diversity and Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global survival hinges on an appreciation that the solutions to problems reside within the collective strength of diversity. However, achieving inclusion is often relegated to periodic infusions of multiculturalism into the mainstream of organizational culture. And "diversity" is quickly becoming the latest buzzword for an idea that, though…

Mason, Letita R.

2009-01-01

194

Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

Beemyn, Brett Genny

2005-01-01

195

Inclusion in the USA: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classes in the United States, focusing on physical education and examining relevant legislation and applications to physical education. A rebuttal asserts that physical educators must "let go of historical rhetoric," suggesting that guidelines and legislation are…

Lienert, Christoph; Grosse, Susan

2003-01-01

196

Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education PLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical Educationalists in many western and westernised societies across the globe are facing new challenges as system wide changes take place increasing the role of private bodies (e.g. Academy trusts) in the delivery of school based education. This reflective and rather personal paper considers the place and meaning of "inclusion" and…

Evans, John

2014-01-01

197

"Coming out Crip" in Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The author argues that within inclusive education's almost obsessive focus on space, there is a tendency to ignore the ideological assumptions that undergird the curricular and extracurricular practices in schools that serve to construct certain student subjectivities as deviant, disturbing, and dangerous, thereby justifying…

Erevelles, Nirmala

2011-01-01

198

Bullying and the inclusive school environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Australian education departments and teacher education institutions become aware of international trends, they are keen to implement quickly pedagogical and curriculum changes that are being promoted as best practice for schools of the twenty-first century. One such recent change has been the inclusivity movement. There remain, however, many unresolved issues for teachers that fall outside these new paradigm shifts

Christine Forlin; Dianne J Chambers

2003-01-01

199

The Project Approach in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program for a project approach in inclusive classrooms which balances the needs of children with and without developmental delays and provides effective and efficient learning. Provides guidance in choosing the project topic, introducing ideas, implementing project activities, completing the project, and evaluating the experience. (SD)

Greenwald, Carol; Hand, Jennifer

1997-01-01

200

Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

Ince, Basak

2012-01-01

201

Improving Education: The Promise of Inclusive Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion is an effort to make sure that all students benefit by becoming important and contributing members of their school communities. It is the attempt to make sure that students with disabilities go to school along with their friends and neighbors while also receiving the "specially designed instruction and support" they need to succeed as…

Ferguson, Dianne L.; Desjarlais, Audrey; Meyer, Gwen

202

Developing inclusive schools: a systemic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emerges from an ongoing study which involved, firstly, key informant interviews with strategic personnel within the Irish education system, such personnel representing both service providers and service users. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of the findings of that aspect of the study in relation to the key characteristics of an inclusive school. A

William Kinsella; Joyce Senior

2008-01-01

203

Academic Freedom and the Inclusive University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection explore issues related to academic freedom and the inclusive university. The first section, Clarifying Concepts in Ideology, Language, and Law, contains these chapters: (1) Whats Sauce for One Goose: The Logic of Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish); (2) Academic Freedom: Rights as Immunities and Privileges (Frederick…

Kahn, Sharon E., Ed.; Pavlich, Dennis, Ed.

204

Equality and diversity for academics Inclusive practice  

E-print Network

;Equality and diversity for academics Why does inclusive practice matter? = Higher education institutions students have a legal right to reasonable adjustments to ensure that their needs to access education barriers to learning that might need to be addressed. Meeting disabled students' access requirements

Mottram, Nigel

205

Comprehensive School Reform and Inclusive Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the emphasis in public policy and the professional literature on developing inclusive programs for students with disabilities over the past 30 years, surprisingly little progress has been made in this regard in school districts across the United States. One approach to change that is currently being used with some success in general…

McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

206

Methodological Challenges in Researching Inclusive School Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the methodological challenges faced in a pilot study of the processes and cultures of inclusion and exclusion in two primary school classrooms. The authors, who were the research team, engaged with a range of practical and ethical challenges, some of which face any researcher entering classroom contexts and some of which…

Nind, Melanie; Benjamin, Shereen; Sheehy, Kieron; Collins, Janet; Hall, Kathy

2004-01-01

207

SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

2000-01-01

208

Disabilities and Inclusive Practices within Toronto Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A current objective in Canada is a provision of childcare services for all children. This objective has not been achieved as many children, especially those with disabilities, are often denied services from publicly funded daycare centres. The authors argue that policy discussions framed from an inclusive perspective provide a better understanding…

Killoran, Isabel; Tymon, Dorothy; Frempong, George

2007-01-01

209

Inclusive Assessment at Point-of-Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognising assessment as a driver for learning and a key part of the student learning experience, this case study considers the impact of opening the assessment process to active student engagement as well as placing inclusivity at the heart of the assessment task at point-of-design. This case study presents an approach to assessment that both…

Keating, Neil; Zybutz, Tanya; Rouse, Karl

2012-01-01

210

Testing Accommodations and Inclusive Assessment Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of students with disabilities in large-scale assessments, typically by using testing accommodations, for statewide accountability systems became a legal reality with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, and the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. These legal mandates and best…

Niebling, Bradley C.; Elliott, Stephen N.

2005-01-01

211

Tomographic Imaging Of Low-Density Inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computed neutron tomography reveals structure of volume containing material of lesser density surrounded by material of greater density. Technique used, for example, to examine and measure flaws or other inclusions containing equally dense or less-dense material hidden in complicated structure made of denser material.

Roy, Jagatjit; Nguyen, Trung; Willenberg, James D.

1993-01-01

212

On the Dirt Road to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

2012-01-01

213

Inclusion, Signing, Socialization, and Language Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

21st-century education finds schools challenged to increase the inclusion of students with widely varying learning abilities, language backgrounds, social diversity, and skills. Educators and administrators acknowledge a need for interactive learning that engages visual, auditory, linear, spatial, tactile, and kinetic learning styles. Students’ styles for learning vary in combinations and intensity and teachers need to combine flexibility and creativity to

Heslinga Virginia Ed. D; Erica Nevenglosky

2012-01-01

214

A nonlinear elasticity phantom containing spherical inclusions  

PubMed Central

The strain image contrast of some in vivo breast lesions changes with increasing applied load. This change is attributed to differences in the nonlinear elastic properties of the constituent tissues suggesting some potential to help classify breast diseases by their nonlinear elastic properties. A phantom with inclusions and long-term stability is desired to serve as a test bed for nonlinear elasticity imaging method development, testing, etc. This study reports a phantom designed to investigate nonlinear elastic properties with ultrasound elastographic techniques. The phantom contains four spherical inclusions and was manufactured from a mixture of gelatin, agar and oil. The phantom background and each of the inclusions has distinct Young’s modulus and nonlinear mechanical behavior. This phantom was subjected to large deformations (up to 20%) while scanning with ultrasound, and changes in strain image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between inclusion and background, as a function of applied deformation, were investigated. The changes in contrast over a large deformation range predicted by the finite element analysis (FEA) were consistent with those experimentally observed. Therefore, the paper reports a procedure for making phantoms with predictable nonlinear behavior, based on independent measurements of the constituent materials, and shows that the resulting strain images (e.g., strain contrast) agrees with that predicted with nonlinear FEA. PMID:22772074

Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

215

Inclusive B decays from resummed perturbation theory.  

E-print Network

. Gardi, Nucl. Phys. B664 (2003) 299 [hep-ph/0301047]. [23] E. Gardi and J. R. Andersen, “A new approach to inclusive decay spectra,” Presented at 40th Rencontres de Moriond on QCD and High Energy Hadronic Interactions, La Thuile, Aosta Valley, Italy, 12-19...

Gardi, Einan

216

Final state interactions and inclusive nuclear collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scattering formalism is developed in a multiple scattering model to describe inclusive momentum distributions for high-energy projectiles. The effects of final state interactions on response functions and momentum distributions are investigated. Calculations for high-energy protons that include shell model response functions are compared with experiments.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Dubey, Rajendra R.

1993-01-01

217

Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

Cheung, Chau-kiu

2013-01-01

218

Educational Technology for the Inclusive Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and evaluates the development of an educational technology curriculum aimed at pre-service, primary education and undergraduates; the focus is on the incorporation of ICT competences for inclusive education. The framework was the introduction of SEVERI e-learning environment in Slovenian schools. Students were able to monitor…

Starcic, Andreja Istenic

2010-01-01

219

Semi-Inclusive DIS and Transversity  

E-print Network

A review is presented of some aspects of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering and transversity. In particular, the role of $k_T$-dependent and higher-twist (or multi-parton) distributions in generating single-spin asymmetries is discussed.

Ratcliffe, P G

2004-01-01

220

Semi-Inclusive DIS and Transversity  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of some aspects of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering and transversity. In particular, the role of kT-dependent and higher-twist (or multi-parton) distributions in generating single-spin asymmetries is discussed.

Ratcliffe, Philip G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita degli Studi dell Insubria, Istituto Navonale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy)

2005-02-10

221

Semi-Inclusive DIS and Transversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of some aspects of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering and transversity. In particular, the role of kT-dependent and higher-twist (or multi-parton) distributions in generating single-spin asymmetries is discussed.

Ratcliffe, Philip G.

2005-02-01

222

Dilemmas in the Quest for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, on the occasion of his "retirement", Professor Klaus Wedell wrote a leading article for BJSE entitled "Making inclusive education ordinary". Last October, Professor Wedell, also known to BJSE's readers as the author of the regular "Points from the SENCo-Forum "column, delivered the Gulliford Lecture at Birmingham University. Here he makes…

Wedell, Klaus

2005-01-01

223

Capacity to be inclusive: Secondary teachers' perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the need for schools to provide quality educational experiences to all children is evident in Australian legislation, policies, government reports and reviews. This paper explores inclusion in Australian secondary schools from the perspective of the teachers. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups with thirty-one practising secondary teachers. Key themes to emerge from data analysis were knowledge

Michelle Pearce; Glenda Campbell-Evans; Jan Gray

2010-01-01

224

Communities of practice in inclusive education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data in this paper represent the experiences and perspectives of parents and teachers who worked as communities of practice, designing support plans for the inclusion of three students with intellectual disabilities in general education classrooms. Their reflections, obtained through interviews and questionnaires, show how they constructed relevant knowledge to support these children with special educational needs in their class.

Kathleen Mortier; Pam Hunt; Mieke Leroy; Inge Van de Putte; Geert Van Hove

2010-01-01

225

Communities of Practice in Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data in this paper represent the experiences and perspectives of parents and teachers who worked as communities of practice, designing support plans for the inclusion of three students with intellectual disabilities in general education classrooms. Their reflections, obtained through interviews and questionnaires, show how they constructed…

Mortier, Kathleen; Hunt, Pam; Leroy, Mieke; Van de Putte, Inge; Van Hove, Geert

2010-01-01

226

Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

1997-01-01

227

Commentary: Inclusion to the Point of Dilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is primarily a behaviorally defined syndrome. At present, a diagnosis of Autistic Disorder can be given for any individual fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria in the areas of social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Diagnosis based almost exclusively on behavioral phenotype allows for inclusion of individuals with differing etiologic factors under the

Lisa D. Benaron

2003-01-01

228

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion Applies to: Any website conducting university of the art digital and web based information delivery of information is increasingly central in carrying out constituencies. This policy establishes minimum standards for the accessibility of web based information

Jones, Michelle

229

Preschool Inclusion: Navigating through Alphabet Soup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of preschool-aged children with disabilities who spend some part of their day in an inclusive school or child care setting has grown tremendously in the past ten years. Meeting the needs of these children is always challenging. However, Public Law 105-17 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'97) mandates that children…

Lytle, Rebecca; Bordin, Judith

2005-01-01

230

Supporting Struggling Readers in an Inclusive Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's special education movement towards inclusion has created an urgent need toward providing struggling readers with remedial skills as well as ways to access the general education curriculum. In order to help these struggling readers acquire the skills to read and continue to progress in all academic areas, teachers need to have the…

Stuart, Melinda

2008-01-01

231

"Shakespeare with Heart": An Inclusive Drama Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Shakespeare with Heart, a two week inclusive summer program for middle and high school students with and without disabilities. The program runs each morning until noon, culminating with a workshop performance of a Shakespeare play with full costume and set with a live audience of parents, friends, and community members. The…

Wilkins, Ilene E.

2008-01-01

232

Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

2013-01-01

233

Bilingualism and Inclusion: More than Just Rhetoric?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within education policy in England the principle of inclusion has been established as a goal and a factor on which improvements in overall standards are seen to depend. Prominent within the drive to raise standards has been a demonstrable need to improve the National Curriculum attainment of members of certain minority ethnic groups, some of which…

Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian; Collins, Janet

2006-01-01

234

Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above. The natures of the macromolecular carbon in the solid inclusions observed by C-XANES are consistent with the previous studies showing that the carbonaceous solid inclusions have not originated from Monahans parent body [1-3], and have various origins, including various chondritic meteorite parent bodies as well as other unknown source(s).

Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.

2014-01-01

235

Addition of Titanium Oxide Inclusions into Liquid Steel to Control Nonmetallic Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium oxide inclusions in steel are well known to inhibit grain growth and act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite because of absorbing manganese from the surrounding steel resulting in a manganese depleted zone around the inclusion. In this article, the inclusions resulting from TiO2 additions to low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr steel were studied. Different types of TiO2 containing materials were added to liquid steel before or during casting to get small titanium-oxide-rich inclusions in steel. The main goals were to find out what happens to TiO2 in liquid steel after addition and during cooling and to study further what type of inclusions are formed in the steel as a result of the TiO2 addition. Based on the thermodynamic calculations and the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and SEM-electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, TiO2 is first reduced to Ti3O5 in liquid steel at high temperatures and then to Ti2O3 during cooling at around 1573 K (1300 °C). Both reactions liberate oxygen, which reacts with Ti, Mn, and Al forming complex Ti2O3-rich inclusions. The results also show that TiO2 additions result in more TiOx + MnO inclusions compared with experiments with Ti addition and that the absolute amount of manganese present in the inclusions is much higher in experiments with TiO2 addition than in experiments with Ti additions.

Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri

2012-04-01

236

XAFS Model Compound Library  

DOE Data Explorer

The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

Newville, Matthew

237

Compound cryopump for fusion reactors  

E-print Network

We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

Kovari, M; Shephard, T

2013-01-01

238

Preparation of uranium compounds  

DOEpatents

UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

2013-02-19

239

Input on NIH Toolbox inclusion criteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: The NIH Toolbox is intended to be responsive to the needs of investigators evaluating neurologic and behavioral function in diverse settings. Early phases of the project involved gathering information and input from potential end users. Methods: Information was collected through literature and instrument database reviews, requests for information, consensus meetings, and expert interviews and integrated into the NIH Toolbox development process in an iterative manner. Results: Criteria for instrument inclusion, subdomains to be assessed, and preferences regarding instrument cost and length were obtained. Existing measures suitable for inclusion in the NIH Toolbox and areas requiring new measure development were identified. Conclusion: The NIH Toolbox was developed with explicit input from potential end users regarding many of its key features. PMID:23479548

Victorson, David; Debb, Scott M.; Gershon, Richard C.

2013-01-01

240

Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM2)  

PubMed Central

Hereditary inclusion body myopathy type 2 (HIBM2) is a myopathy characterized by progressive muscle weakness with early adult onset. The disease is the result of a recessive mutation in the Glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase gene (GNE), which results in reduced enzyme function and sialic acid levels. A majority of individuals with HIBM2 are from Iranian-Jewish or Japanese decent, but isolated cases have been identified world wide. This article reviews the diagnostic criteria for HIBM2. Current research with a highlight on the biology of the disease and the role of GNE in the sialic acid pathway are assessed. Finally, therapeutic investigations and animal models are discussed with a focus on future studies to better understand the pathology of Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy and move therapeutic agents towards clinical trials. PMID:20054407

Jay, Chris M.; Levonyak, Nick; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Maples, Phillip B.; Nemunaitis, John

2009-01-01

241

Inclusive jet cross section at D0  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

1996-09-01

242

Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2006-08-01

243

Epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can be severe when these cysts occur in the breast\\u000a parenchyma. Here, we report two such cases. The patient in case 1 was an 85-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass in the\\u000a right breast. Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, which indicated a benign tumor, and

Naruto Taira; Kenjiro Aogi; Shozo Ohsumi; Shigemitsu Takashima; Susumu Kawamura; Rieko Nishimura

2007-01-01

244

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1996-08-01

245

Empirical convergence speed of inclusion functions for facility location problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key points in interval global optimization is the selection of a suitable inclusion function which allows to solve the problem efficiently. Usually, the tighter the inclusions provided by the inclusion function, the better, because this will make the accelerating devices used in the algorithm more effective at discarding boxes. On the other hand, whereas more sophisticated inclusion functions may give tighter inclusions, they require more computational effort than others providing larger overestimations. In an earlier paper, the empirical convergence speed of inclusion functions was defined and studied, and it was shown to be a good indicator of the inclusion precision. If the empirical convergence speed is analyzed for a given type of functions, then one can select the appropriate inclusion function to be used when dealing with those type of functions. In this paper we present such a study, dealing with functions used in competitive facility location problems.

Toth, B.; Fernandez, J.; Csendes, T.

2007-02-01

246

Inclusion of English language learners in conversion small schools  

E-print Network

of Essential Schools (CES). The Coalition of Essential Schools is a network of small schools that adhere to similar educational ideologies such as the desirability to provide inclusive educational environments. CES promotes inclusion as a means to equitable...

Plett, Bethany Joy

2009-05-15

247

Enhanced thermal stability of eugenol by cyclodextrin inclusion complex encapsulated in electrospun polymeric nanofibers.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers encapsulating eugenol (EG)/cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes (IC) (EG/CD-IC) were produced via electrospinning technique in order to achieve high thermal stability and slow release of EG. In order to find out the most favorable CD type for the stabilization of EG, three types of native cyclodextrins (?-CD, ?-CD, and ?-CD) were used for the formation of EG/CD-IC. In the case of PVA/EG/?-CD nanofibers, uncomplexed EG was detected indicating that ?-CD is not a proper host for EG/CD-IC formation. However, for PVA/EG/?-CD-IC and PVA/EG/?-CD-IC nanofibers, enhanced durability and high thermal stability for EG were achieved due to the inclusion complexation. The electrospun nanofibers encapsulating CD-IC of active compounds such as eugenol may be quite useful in the food industry due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with specific functionality, enhanced thermal stability, and slow release of the active compounds by CD inclusion complexation. PMID:23898890

Kayaci, Fatma; Ertas, Yelda; Uyar, Tamer

2013-08-28

248

Solvent-induced deuterium isotope effects on 19F chemical shifts of some substituted fluorobenzenes. Formation of inclusion complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium solvent-induced isotope effects on 19F NMR chemical shifts of a number of fluorophenols, fluorobenzenes, and fluorubenzoic acid derivatives have been determined along with their 19F chemical shifts in water. Solvent-induced isotope effects of fluorine compounds complexed with ?- and ?-cyclodextrin and deoxycholate have also been investigated. Binding constants and bound chemical shifts of the inclusion complexes with ?-cyclodextrins are determined. These model studies demonstrate that the SIIS decrease with increased inclusion and that the degree of exposure may be determined using SIIS.

Hansen, Poul E.; Dettman, Heather D.; Sykes, Brian D.

249

Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies  

PubMed Central

We report on a new familial neurodegenerative disease with associated dementia that has presented clinically in the fifth decade, in both genders, and in each of several generations of a large family from New York State—a pattern of inheritance consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of transmission. A key pathological finding is the presence of neuronal inclusion bodies distributed throughout the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and in certain subcortical nuclei. These inclusions are distinct from any described previously and henceforth are identified as Collins bodies. The Collins bodies can be isolated by simple biochemical procedures and have a surprisingly simple composition; neuroserpin (a serine protease inhibitor) is their predominant component. An affinity-purified antibody against neuroserpin specifically labels the Collins bodies, confirming their chemical composition. Therefore, we propose a new disease entity—familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB). The conclusion that FENIB is a previously unrecognized neurodegenerative disease is supported by finding Collins bodies in a small kindred from Oregon with familial dementia who are unrelated to the New York family. The autosomal dominant inheritance strongly suggests that FENIB is caused by mutations in the neuroserpin gene, resulting in intracellular accumulation of the mutant protein. PMID:10595921

Davis, Richard L.; Holohan, Peter D.; Shrimpton, Antony E.; Tatum, Arthur H.; Daucher, John; Collins, George H.; Todd, Robert; Bradshaw, Charles; Kent, Paul; Feiglin, David; Rosenbaum, Arthur; Yerby, Mark S.; Shaw, Cheng-Mei; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Lawrence, Daniel A.

1999-01-01

250

Inclusive photoproduction of ? mesons on complex nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic model for the inclusive photoproduction of ? mesons on complex nuclei is introduced. The elementary production process is described using an effective Lagrangian approach. Contributions from several nucleon resonances in the second resonance region, as well as the Born and vector meson terms, are taken into account. The dynamics of nucleon motion are based on the relativistic mean field theory of Walecka. The ? mesons are described by solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation. It is assumed that the inclusive process results from quasifree photoproduction on individual nucleons; the inclusive cross sections are obtained by integrating a set of exclusive quasifree cross sections. Distortion effects due to final state interactions of the outgoing ? are taken into account. The calculated cross sections are compared with the available experimental data on 12C and 40Ca, for photon energies from near threshold to about 800 MeV. The plane wave calculations are found to lie consistently above the data. Distortion effects lead to a strong suppression of the cross sections. Agreement with experiment is lacking when a set of parameters obtained from older data for the elementary process is used. The level of agreement is much improved when parameters based on recent elementary cross section data are used.

Hedayati-Poor, M.; Sherif, H. S.

1998-07-01

251

Reproductive toxicity testing of pharmaceutical compounds to support the inclusion of women in clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The potential for toxicity to reproduction and the developing fetus is an important concern requiring attention during the development of new medicines. However, there are differences in the opinions of the regulatory authorities in Europe, Japan and the USA regarding the nature and amount of data from reproductive toxicity tests that should be available at the various stages of

Chris Parkinson; Kate E Thomas; Cyndy E Lumley

1997-01-01

252

Optineurin immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial intranuclear inclusions in adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease  

PubMed Central

Optineurin (OPTN) is a multifunctional protein involved in cellular morphogenesis, vesicle trafficking, maintenance of the Golgi complex, and transcription activation through its interactions with the Rab8, myosin 6 (MYO6), huntingtin. Recently, OPTN immunoreactivity has been reported in intranuclear inclusions in patients with neuronal intranuclear inclusions disease (NIID). Other studies have shown that the RNA-binding protein, fused in sarcoma (FUS), is a component of intranuclear inclusions in NIID. We aimed to investigate the relationship between OPTN, its binding protein MYO6 and FUS in this study. In control subjects, OPTN (C-terminal) (OPTN-C) and MYO6 immunoreactivity was mainly demonstrated in the cytoplasm of neurons. In NIID patients, both neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII) and glial intranuclear inclusions (GII) were immunopositive for MYO6 as well as OPTN-C. However, the intensity of OPTN-C immunostaining of the neuronal cytoplasm with and without NII was less than that of the control subjects. Double immunofluorescence staining for OPTN-C, ubiquitin (Ub), p62 and FUS revealed co-localization of these proteins within NII. Moreover, Ub positive inclusions were co-localized with MYO6. The percentage of co-localization of Ub with OPTN-C, FUS or MYO6 in NII was 100%, 52% and 92%, respectively. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions consisted of thin and thick filaments. Both filaments were immunopositive for Ub and OPTN-C. These findings suggest that OPTN plays a central role in the disease pathogenesis, and that OPTN may be a major component of NII.

Nakamura, Masataka; Murray, Melissa E; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Dickson, Dennis W

2014-01-01

253

Analyzing Cranberry Bioactive Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit—the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a

J. Côté; S. Caillet; G. Doyon; J.-F Sylvain; M. Lacroix

2010-01-01

254

Toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book include: Sex, Strain, and Species Differences in the Response of Rodents to Nitrobenzene Vapors; The Hepatocarcinogenicity of Dinitrotoluenes; Free Radical Mechanism of Nitroreductase; Use of an In Vivo DNA Repair Assay in the Study of Genotoxicity of Nitroaromatic Compounds; and Possible Models for Risk Assessment of Nitroaromatic Compounds.

Rickert, D.E.

1985-01-01

255

Equivalent inclusion method for steady state heat conduction in composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equivalent inclusion method is proposed to solve the steady state heat conduction problems in composites. This method is analogous to Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method in elasticity. Thus, the solution procedure by this method is very simple, involving only algebraic operations. The equivalent inclusion method developed here is also applicable to the case of high concentrations of ellipsoidal inhomogeneities. As

H Hiroshi; M. Taya

1986-01-01

256

Gender Inclusive HOUSING, RESIDENTIAL LIFE, DINING & CONFERENCE SERVICES  

E-print Network

Gender Inclusive Housing HOUSING, RESIDENTIAL LIFE, DINING & CONFERENCE SERVICES Frequently Asked Questions Q: What is gender inclusive housing? A: For the first time, academic year 2014-2015, housing will create a gender inclusive unit (GIH). This option will be open to incoming transgender freshmen who

Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

257

Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

Savich, Carl

2008-01-01

258

Teacher Leadership: Agency, Enquiry and Inclusion in School Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical frameworks and practical strategies for inclusion, e.g. from the 'Index for Inclusion' (Booth and Ainscow, 2002) are already well established in supporting schools in identifying and tacking barriers to learning and participation. These ideas can also offer a fresh perspective in exploring leadership and agency in relation to school improvement. What do principles of inclusion have to offer to

Judy Durrant

259

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel  

E-print Network

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel Liang Wang and Christoph ABSTRACT A model is developed to calculate the composition of reoxidation inclusions in steel casting of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel," in Proceedings of the 59th SFSA Technical

Beckermann, Christoph

260

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel  

E-print Network

Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel LIANG WANG and CHRISTOPH pouring of steel castings. The software package Thermo-Calc is used to obtain the inclusion phase in the production of steel castings. Removing inclusions and refilling the defect areas with the weld metal account

Beckermann, Christoph

261

What Are Schools Looking for in New, Inclusive Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focus groups were conducted in four school divisions in central Canada in order to determine whether inclusive educators in schools could identify the knowledge base, skills set, and attitudes desirable in new inclusive teachers. Participants failed to identify an essential knowledge base for inclusive educators. Findings indicated that a focus on…

Sokal, Laura

2012-01-01

262

Does Inclusion Cost More? The Cost of Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether inclusion will produce resource economies for school districts is difficult to determine. Districts that have developed inclusive models have reported mixed results. There appear to be no savings in personnel costs, although some overall reduction in transportation expenditure has occurred. Inclusion demands a more fluid approach to…

Mawdsley, Ralph D.

1995-01-01

263

The origin of cratonic diamonds — Constraints from mineral inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of cratonic diamonds is reviewed on the basis of nearly 5000 analyses of silicate, oxide and sulphide inclusions in diamonds. Compositional fields are defined for common minerals of the peridotitic, eclogitic and websteritic inclusion suites and used to establish the characteristics of diamond source rocks in the subcratonic lithospheric mantle. Peridotitic inclusion compositions overlap with the record established

T. Stachel; J. W. Harris

2008-01-01

264

Inclusive Education, Exclusion and Difficult Difference: A Call for Humanity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's review of three books: (1) "The irregular school: exclusion, schooling and inclusive education," by Roger Slee; (2) "Confronting obstacles to inclusion: international responses to developing inclusive education," edited by Richard Rose; and (3) ""Hanging in with the kids" in tough times: engagement in contexts of…

Rogers, Chrissie

2012-01-01

265

Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social…

Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier

2009-01-01

266

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

! Charles F. Bolden, Jr. Administrator Page 2 #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation PlanNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation Plan FY 2012 ­ FY 2015 March 16, 2012 Enclosure #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic

Waliser, Duane E.

267

Preparing Teachers for Inclusion: Jordanian Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about inclusion in early childhood settings in Jordan. A qualitative interpretive methodology was

Merfat Fayez; Kholoud Dababneh; Ibrahim Jumiaan

2011-01-01

268

Thermal Expansions of Heterogeneous Solids Containing Aligned Ellipsoidal Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study has been made to predict overall thermal expansion characteristics of a two-phase material consisting of a matrix and aligned ellipsoidal inclusions. The calculation is based on Eshelby's theory on the transformation problem; an approximate method is Introduced to account for the effect of finite concentrations of the inclusions. The following two cases are treated: elastic matrix-elastic inclusions

K. Wakashima; M. Otsuka; S. Umekawa

1974-01-01

269

Anelastic instability in composites with negative stiffness inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites with VO2 particulate inclusions as a negative stiffness phase were fabricated through powder metallurgy. The composites are predicted to exhibit enhanced anelastic damping by virtue of the partially constrained negative stiffness of the inclusions in the vicinity of a ferroelastic phase transformation, and are predicted to become unstable for sufficiently high concentration (5?vol%) of inclusions. Composite specimens with 5?vol%

T. Jaglinski; R. S. Lakes

2004-01-01

270

The Strategy of Social Inclusion in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the new EU member states had accepted the Joint Memorandum on Social Inclusion in 2003 they elaborated National Action Plans on Social Inclusion for the period 2004-2006 and recently for the period 2006-2008. At the theoretical level, the paper assesses the possibilities of the agenda of social inclusion implemented into national social policies through the Open Method of Coordination

Miroslava Rákoczyová

271

Challenges of the Secondary School Context for Inclusive Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate and State Government reviews into inclusion in Australian schools during the last two decades have revealed that the inclusion of students with disabilities in schools has proved challenging. A qualitative study involving interviews with 50 leaders in inclusive education suggest that currently the secondary school context is a barrier to…

Pearce, Michelle; Gray, Jan; Campbell-Evans, Glenda

2010-01-01

272

Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate inclusion

Kibria, Gholam

2005-01-01

273

Composition, structure, and sources of exogenous inclusions in steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Exogenous inclusions introduced in steel from adjacent nonmetallic layers may result in loss of fatigue strength and the destruction of parts operating at elevated loads, since such inclusions may be 5?200 times larger than endogenous inclusions of oxides (reduction products) and sulfides. However, the quantity of macroinclusions in metal on chill casting is so small that they may be

L. A. Moiseeva; B. P. Moiseev

2007-01-01

274

Inclusive Education and Students without Special Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In the debate on inclusive education, students without special educational needs (SEN) are an important topic. However, there is a lot unknown about differences between these typical students in inclusive and non-inclusive classes. For example, the neutral results that are often found in earlier research could be caused by positive…

Ruijs, Nienke M.; Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea T. D.

2010-01-01

275

School and Classroom Practices in Inclusive Education in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes practices in inclusive education in Australian schools and classrooms. In discussing the changes that schools have made in order to be inclusive and responsive to student diversity, the author refers to one Australian school and its re-organization and also to recent Australian research on building inclusive school cultures.…

van Kraayenoord, Christina E.

2007-01-01

276

Development of the Inclusion Attitude Scale for High School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involved the development of a new scale to measure high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. A second aim was to examine the relationship of teachers' professional development regarding inclusion, their years of experience with inclusion, access to instructional…

Ernst, Catherine; Rogers, Margaret R.

2009-01-01

277

Inclusive Education: Practical Implementation of the Least Restrictive Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 chapters of this book address theoretical and practical aspects of the development and implementation of inclusive education programs. Chapter titles and authors are: (1) "Inclusive Education: The Past, Preset, and Future" (Lissa A. Power-deFur and Fred P. Orelove); (2) "Inclusion and School Restructuring: Meeting the Needs of All Children"…

Power-deFur, Lissa A.; Orelove, Fred P.

278

Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

2003-01-01

279

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

280

Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

Vaillant, Denise

2011-01-01

281

Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting  

E-print Network

Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting Antonio J. Melendez, Kent D. Carlson the formation of reoxidation inclusions in carbon and low-alloy steel castings. A model is developed in the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft. Measurements of total inclusion number density and volume fraction

Beckermann, Christoph

282

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting  

E-print Network

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate. The inclusion model is implemented in a general-purpose casting simulation code. The model is validated

Beckermann, Christoph

283

The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek

2009-01-01

284

Building Inclusion from the Ground up: A Review of Whole School Re-Culturing Programmes for Sustaining Inclusive Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that whole school re-culturing programmes can potentially assist in the creation of more inclusive value orientated schools. The relationship between school culture and successful inclusion has been demonstrated in the literature. Furthermore, the structure of whole school programmes in inculcating inclusive values and…

McMaster, Christopher

2013-01-01

285

Inclusion complexes of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives with ?-cyclodextrin: Preparation and inclusion behavior study.  

PubMed

In the present work the feasibility of ?-cyclodextrin in complexation was explored, as a tool for improving the solubility and biological ability of daidzein derivatives. A series of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives featuring different chain lengths were synthesized through a modified Atherton-Todd reaction and their inclusion complexes with ?CD were prepared by coprecipitation method. The inclusion complexation behavior was studied by fluorescence, UV, FT-IR, MS and (1)H NMR. The results showed that only phosphorylated daidzein derivative carrying small substituent group ((C(2)H(5)O)(2)PO) entered the cavity of ?CD and formed 1:1 inclusion complex. The formation constant was 175(mol/L)(-1). PMID:22041503

Xiao, Yongmei; Yang, Liangru; Mao, Pu; Yuan, Jinwei; Deng, Yuxia; Qu, Lingbo

2012-01-01

286

Inclusion complexes of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives with ?-cyclodextrin: Preparation and inclusion behavior study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the feasibility of ?-cyclodextrin in complexation was explored, as a tool for improving the solubility and biological ability of daidzein derivatives. A series of phosphorylated daidzein derivatives featuring different chain lengths were synthesized through a modified Atherton-Todd reaction and their inclusion complexes with ?CD were prepared by coprecipitation method. The inclusion complexation behavior was studied by fluorescence, UV, FT-IR, MS and 1H NMR. The results showed that only phosphorylated daidzein derivative carrying small substituent group ((C 2H 5O) 2P dbnd O) entered the cavity of ?CD and formed 1:1 inclusion complex. The formation constant was 175 (mol/L) -1.

Xiao, Yongmei; Yang, Liangru; Mao, Pu; Yuan, Jinwei; Deng, Yuxia; Qu, Lingbo

2012-01-01

287

Inclusion complex of GA-13315 with cyclodextrins: preparation, characterization, inclusion mode and properties.  

PubMed

GA-13315 (13-chlorine-3,15-dioxy-gibberllic acid methyl ester) was semi-synthesized by GA3 (gibberellic acid) as a potential anticancer drug. To pursue its promising application, cyclodextrin was used for forming complexes to overcome its drawbacks such as poor water solubility and stability. So, GA-13315/CD complexes were prepared with native ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives (hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD)) and their inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability in both solution and the solid state was studied by means of UV, XRD, DSC, SEM, (1)H and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the complexes still maintain antitumor activities, compared with GA-13315 or adriamycin (ADM, positive control) as the positive control. The results showed that the water solubility and stability of GA-13315 were obviously improved in the inclusion complex with cyclodextrins, suggesting the inclusion complexes as promising future therapeutic agents. PMID:24750608

Yang, Rui; Chen, Jing-Bo; Dai, Xiao-Yang; Huang, Rong; Xiao, Chuan-Fan; Gao, Zhan-Yong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Li-Juan; Yan, Sheng-Jiao; Hong-Bin Zhang; Qing, Chen; Lin, Jun

2012-06-01

288

Edheads: The Compound Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of interactive animations designed to help kids learn how forces and simple machines can work together to create the compound machine. Child-centered animated activities enhance understanding of how compound machines function and how they are differentiated from simple machines. Additionally the site includes a glossary of important terms, lesson plans, a teacher's guide and information about professionals who work with compound machines. This page is part of a larger collection of animated education resources for the elementary level.

2007-09-18

289

Understanding EGS Fluid Injection in Light of Fluid Inclusion Gas Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some EGS wells loose porosity in a few years severely limiting fluid injection. (Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs created to produce energy from geothermal resources deficient in economical amounts of water.) We are studying this problem by comparing cuttings from abandon injection wells with cuttings from adjacent redrilled boreholes. Here we report on fluid inclusion gas analyses done on cuttings collected at 20 ft (6.1m) intervals from Coso geothermal system wells 68-20 and 68-20RD. Fluid Inclusion Technologies performed the analyses by crushing 1g or less chips in vacuum and analyzing the volatiles released by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Masses from 2 to 200 were measured. Injection waters are from a flash plant and devoid of condensable gas. The time between drilling 68-20 and 68-20RD is 7 years. Wall rock temperatures were about 180 C at 878 m and 222C at 1710 m. Fluid was injected below 5610 ft (1710 m) at 111.7 C and at 109 C and 2880 ft (878 m) where a well boot failed. Analyses plotted on mud-log diagrams show that: 1) that redrill fluid inclusion mass peaks for gaseous species are noticeable lower in the redrilled chips; 2) the largest change in gas/water ratios occur at depths of fluid injection where petrography study of redrill cuttings show abundant secondary minerals, however changes are observable in the entire core; 3) overall CO2/ H2O ratios, estimated by dividing mass peak 18 by mass peak 44, are on about 60% lower in 68-20DR analyses; 4) redrill inclusions produced a higher water signal than 68-20 chips; and 5) 68-20RD analyses show > concentrations of organic species at depths of 2880 ft ; and 6) changes in water/gas ratios are most pronounced on fractures that exhibit peaks in 68-20 analyses. The analyses show that fluid inclusion contents are different in the redrill chips. Differences between the two sets of analyses require the opening and loss of gaseous species from over 50% of the wallrock fluid inclusions. Plotting the change in analyses down from the 2880 ft injection depth shows that wallrock effects decrease linearly. Our data show that geothermal fluid inclusion assemblages can change chemical compositions in a few years and that the changes in inclusion contents are most pronounced in areas of high fluid flux and on fractures. Our data show that injection fluids occupy many fractures, even when injection occurs at a limited range in depth. The data indicate it is possible for bulk fluid inclusion gas analyses on drill cuttings to show the chemistry of recent fluids. An implication is that all types of geothermal-system bulk- geochemical analyses will be biased towards the most recent event. Fluid inclusions may be opened by thermal shock, but mostly likely incisions are opened by the high local strain. Addition of organic species may record surfactants added to productions waters, but we expect those would show a mass spectrometer spectrum of these compounds. The occurrence of numerous organic compounds in 68-20RD chips at 2880 ft can be explained by biological activity near the injection site. Fluid temperatures of ~ 109 C at this depth suggest that this is possible.

Norman, D. I.; Dilley, L.; McLin, K.; Moore, J. N.

2006-12-01

290

Improvement of tetracaine antinociceptive effect by inclusion in cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

Local anesthetics (LA) are among the most important pharmacological compounds used to attenuate or eliminate pain. However, systemic toxicity is still a limitation for LA application, especially for ester-type drugs, such as tetracaine (TTC) that presents poor chemical stability (due to hydrolysis by plasma esterases). Several approaches have been used to improve LA pharmaceutical properties, including the employment of drug-delivery systems. Here we used beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) or hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) to develop two new TTC formulations (TTC:?-CD and TTC:HP-?-CD). The inclusion complexes formation, in a 1:1 stoichiometry, was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS absorption and fluorescence. Nuclear magnetic resonance (DOSY experiments) revealed that TTC association with HP-?-CD is stronger (Ka=1200?mol/L(-1)) than with ?-CD (Ka=845?mol/L(-1)). Moreover, nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments provided information on the topology of the complexes, where TTC aromatic ring is buried inside the CD hydrophobic cavity. In vitro tests with 3T3 fibroblast cells culture revealed that complexation decreased TTC cytotoxicity. In addition, the total analgesic effect of TTC, tested in rats through the infraorbital nerve test, was improved in 36% with TTC:?-CD and TTC:HP-?-CD. In conclusion, these formulations presented potential for future clinical use, by reducing the toxicity and increasing the antinociceptive effect of tetracaine. PMID:22047178

Franco de Lima, Roberta Aline; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Saia Cereda, Cíntia Maria; Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Cabeça, Luis Fernando; Mazzaro, Irineu; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; de Paula, Eneida

2012-01-01

291

Study on inclusion interaction of piroxicam with ?-cyclodextrin derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion behavior of piroxicam (PX) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD), and carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin (CM-?-CD) was investigated by using steady-state fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. The various factors affecting the inclusion process were examined in detail. The remarkable fluorescence emission enhancement upon addition of CDs suggested that cyclodextrins (CDs) were most suitable for inclusion of the uncharged species of PX. The stoichiometry of the PX-CDs inclusion complexes was 1:1, except for ?-CD where a 1:2 inclusion complex was formed. The formation constants showed the strongest inclusion capacity of ?-CD. NMR showed the inclusion mode of PX with CDs.

Xiliang, Guo; Yu, Yang; Guoyan, Zhao; Guomei, Zhang; Jianbin, Chao; Shaomin, Shuang

2003-12-01

292

An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

Chi, G.; Chou, I.-M.; Lu, H.-Z.

2003-01-01

293

Inclusive jet production using the kt algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Results on inclusive jet production using the k{sub T} algorithm in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented, based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data. The measurements are carried out for jets with p{sub T}{sup jet} > 54 GeV/c in five different jet rapidity regions up to |y{sub jet}| = 2.1. The measured cross sections are corrected to the hadron level and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions (NLO pQCD).

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2006-05-01

294

Search for Inclusive b-->sl+l-  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched for the effective flavor changing neutral-current decays b-->sl+l- using an inclusive method. We set upper limits on the branching ratios B\\(b-->se+e-\\)<5.7×10-5, B\\(b-->s?+?-\\)<5.8×10-5, and B\\(b-->se+/-?-/+\\)<2.2×10-5 [at 90% confidence level (C.L.)]. Combing the dielectron and dimuon decay modes we find B\\(b-->sl+l-\\)<4.2×10-5 (at 90% C.L.).

Glenn, S.; Johnson, S. D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Jessop, C. P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M. L.; Savinov, V.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X.; Coan, T. E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G. C.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S. E.; Jain, V.; McLean, K. W.; Marka, S.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I. C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L. P.; Zhou, G. J.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J. S.; O'Grady, C.; Schmidtler, M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Würthwein, F.; Blis, D. W.; Masek, G.; Paar, H. P.; Prell, S.; Sharma, V.; Asner, D. M.; Gronberg, J.; Hill, T. S.; Lange, D. J.; Menary, S.; Morrison, R. J.; Nelson, H. N.; Nelson, T. K.; Qiao, C.; Richman, J. D.; Roberts, D.; Ryd, A.; Witherell, M. S.; Balest, R.; Behrens, B. H.; Ford, W. T.; Park, H.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; Alexander, J. P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B. E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Cho, H. A.; Crowcroft, D. S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P. S.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Foland, A. D.; Gaidarev, P.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hopman, P. I.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kim, P. C.; Kreinick, D. L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Mistry, N. B.; Ng, C. R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C. D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R. A.; Ershov, A.; Gao, Y. S.; Kim, D. Y.-J.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Browder, T. E.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G. E.; Gollin, G. D.; Hans, R. M.; Johnson, E.; Karliner, I.; Marsh, M. A.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J. J.; Edwards, K. W.; Bellerive, A.; Janicek, R.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Patel, P. M.; Sadoff, A. J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Darling, C.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, S. J.; O'Neill, J. J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Smith, A.; Alam, M. S.; Athar, S. B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A. H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F.; Anastassov, A.; Duboscq, J. E.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K. K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M. B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Nemati, B.; Richichi, S. J.; Ross, W. R.; Skubic, P.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Hinson, J. W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D. H.; Shibata, E. I.; Shipsey, I. P.; Yurko, M.

1998-03-01

295

Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions  

DOEpatents

A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

1981-01-01

296

A New approach to inclusive decay spectra.  

E-print Network

of the Standard Model, we must have a quantitative understanding of the spectra. Most of the rate of these decays is associated with jet–like kinematics, where the invariant mass of the hadronic system is small. It is well known that this important region... strategy has been to parametrize the spectrum based on available data, rather than to compute it. On the other hand, since total inclusive rates, as well as their first few moments, are theoretically described by the OPE [4,5] — and in particular, if O(?2/m...

Gardi, Einan; Andersen, Jeppe R

297

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

1985-01-01

298

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

1983-06-29

299

Ringed-Carbon Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-02-12

300

Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson and Christoph Beckermann  

E-print Network

Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson, IA 52242, USA Keywords: Reoxidation inclusion, steel casting, simulation, inclusion modeling Abstract of steel castings and predicts their final location in the casting. Inclusions can be released

Beckermann, Christoph

301

Psychology's Role in Inclusive Education: Observations from New Brunswicks's Recent Review of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists are amongst the professionals who assess children to identify and prescribe for those with learning differences. They currently carry out these assessments in the context of the practice of inclusive education that involves providing for all children's educational needs in regular classroom settings. Recently, some psychologists have…

Williams, Robert B.; French, Laurence A.

2007-01-01

302

Inclusive/Exclusive? Contradictory Perspectives on Autism and Inclusion: The Case for an Integrative Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores some of the tensions that frequently arise in debates about inclusion and the education of children and young people on the autism spectrum. This debate is often characterised by bipolar thinking and moral posturing, and is obscured by misunderstandings and omissions. This can create confusion for practitioners trying their…

Ravet, Jackie

2011-01-01

303

Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

2009-01-01

304

Nonpost mold cure compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

Hirata, Akihiro

1997-08-01

305

Inclusion of Two PhP(O)(OH) 2 Guest Molecules into the Cavity of Macrocyclic Cavidand Cucurbit[8]uril  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new inclusion compound which is a supramolecular adduct of cucurbit[8]uril with two guest molecules of phenylphosphonic acid, PhP(O)(OH)2, included into the cavity as ``two guests in host'' is reported. The guests match both size and hydrophilicity\\/hydrophobicity requirements. Two phenyl groups of molecules of PhP(O)(OH)2 are directed toward the center of the large hydrophobic cavity whereas the PO(OH)2 groups are

ELENA V. CHUBAROVA; Denis G. Samsonenko; Maxim N. Sokolov; Olga A. Gerasko; Vladimir P. Fedin; Javier G. Platas

2004-01-01

306

Microscopic analysis of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain from Malaysia that produces exosporium-enclosed parasporal inclusion.  

PubMed

The current study focused on the microscopic studies of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain isolated from Malaysia, Bt-S84-13a, that produced an unusual crystal type. Primary detection of parasporal inclusions using a phase contrast microscope presented one to two small crystal proteins in the sporulating cells of Bt-S84-13a. Compound light microscopic examination of autolysed Bt-S84-13a cells stained with 0.133% Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed two types of crystal morphology: small crystals independent of spores and spore-associated crystals. Surface structure analysis with a scanning electron microscope revealed spherical-like, coarse and wrinkled-looking crystal in Bt-S84-13a. A close-up observation of the crystal morphology using a transmission electron microscope also demonstrated two parasporal inclusions in Bt-S84-13a. One inclusion was deposited against the forespore and was in a shape of incomplete rectangular. Another smaller inclusion was developed within the exosporium and was rectangular in shape. However, the latter inclusion was found lack in another bacterial cell which was still in the early stages of sporulation. This unique crystal morphology may imply some biological potential in Bt-S84-13a. PMID:24943903

Chai, Pui Fun; Rathinam, Xavier; Solayappan, Maheswaran; Ahmad Ghazali, Amir Hamzah; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

2014-10-01

307

The oxidation resistance, hardness and constitution of some intermetallic compounds containing zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the binary compounds of zinc with the metals from titanium to copper inclusive has been prepared, hardness\\u000a tested and oxidized in air at successively higher temperatures. A zinc-ruthenium and some zinc-gadolinium compounds have also\\u000a been tested. From the oxidation results, the temperature corresponding to a weight change of 1 mg cm?2 over 4h was determined by interpolation.

H. E. N. Stone

1976-01-01

308

The oxidation resistance, hardness and constitution of some intermetallic compounds containing zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the binary compounds of zinc with the metals from titanium to copper inclusive has been prepared, hardness tested and oxidized in air at successively higher temperatures. A zinc-ruthenium and some zinc-gadolinium compounds have also been tested. From the oxidation results, the temperature corresponding to a weight change of 1 mg cm-2 over 4h was determined by interpolation.

H. E. N. Stone

1976-01-01

309

Compound management beyond efficiency.  

PubMed

Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback. PMID:19502566

Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

2009-06-01

310

Metalloid compounds as drugs  

PubMed Central

The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

Sekhon, B. S.

2013-01-01

311

Sulfur compounds in coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

1977-01-01

312

The inclusion process: duality and correlation inequalities  

E-print Network

We prove a comparison inequality between a system of independent random walkers and a system of random walkers which either interact by attracting each other -- a process which we call here the symmetric inclusion process (SIP) -- or repel each other -- a generalized version of the well-known symmetric exclusion process. As an application, new correlation inequalities are obtained for the SIP, as well as for some interacting diffusions which are used as models of heat conduction, -- the so-called Brownian momentum process, and the Brownian energy process. These inequalities are counterparts of the inequalities (in the opposite direction) for the symmetric exclusion process, showing that the SIP is a natural bosonic analogue of the symmetric exclusion process, which is fermionic. Finally, we consider a boundary driven version of the SIP for which we prove duality and then obtain correlation inequalities.

C. Giardina; F. Redig; K. Vafayi

2009-06-25

313

Inclusive decays of B mesons to charmonium  

E-print Network

, as was done for the @'-+J/$7r+7i search. 50— A. Selection of photon candidates 00.50 I I I I I I I I I I I 0.55 0.60 0.65 M+ + -M+ (Gev]c')e+s ~'~ e+e 0.70 FIG. 8. Distributions of the diBerence between the Ir+II and 8+X masses for (a) dielectrons, (b) dimuons...'X, Q' —+J/vPm+vr and B +y, X, y, m J/Qp —subtracted. 52 INCLUSIVE DECAYS OF 8 MESONS TO CHARMONIUM 2669 0.100 CJ Q 0.075 CV CI 0.050 0.025 o+0 Kj O t ] I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0.4 0.8 1.2 g' Momentum (GeV/c) 1.6 FIG. 15. Momentum spectrum...

Baringer, Philip S.

1995-09-01

314

Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

2009-09-25

315

Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sputnik kimberlite pipe, Yakutia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sputnik kimberlite pipe is a small “satellite” of the larger Mir pipe in central Yakutia (Sakha), Russia. Study of 38 large diamonds (0.7-4.9 carats) showed that nine contain inclusions of the eclogitic paragenesis, while the remainder contain inclusions of the peridotitic paragenesis, or of uncertain paragenesis. The peridotitic inclusion suite comprises olivine, enstatite, Cr-diopside, chromite, Cr-pyrope garnet (both lherzolitic

N. V. Sobolev; F. V. Kaminsky; W. L. Griffin; E. S. Yefimova; T. T. Win; C. G. Ryan; A. I. Botkunov

1997-01-01

316

Child Wellness and Social Inclusion: Values for Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion.\\u000a Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness.\\u000a Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth\\u000a of methodologies and lessons for fostering

Isaac Prilleltensky

2010-01-01

317

System for Detection of Small Inclusions in Large Optics  

SciTech Connect

The presence of defects in optical materials can lead to bulk damage or downstream modulation and subsequent surface damage in high fluence laser systems. An inclusion detection system has been developed by the National Ignition Facility Optics Metrology Group. The system detects small inclusions in optical materials with increased sensitivity and speed over previous methods. The system has detected all known inclusions and defects and has detected previously undetected defects smaller than 5 microns.

Wolfe, J E; Runkel, M J

2008-10-24

318

Microoptical compound lens  

DOEpatents

An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-23

319

Compounding practices in Iran.  

PubMed

This article has been presented by pharmacists of the Razi Hospital Pharmacy, which is located within the Dermatology Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, and by members of the staff at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Discussed within this article are the legalization and regulation of pharmaceutical compounding in Iran, the restrictions on pharmaceutical compounding, the general equipment used in Iran pharmacies, beyond-use dating/expiration dating, the required pharmacy education, as well as information related specifically to Razi Hospital Pharmacy. PMID:24881113

Goodarzi, Navid; Niknam, Somayeh; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Gholami, Kheirollah

2014-01-01

320

Mechanical and phase equilibria in inclusion-host systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and phase equilibria in inclusion-host systems are investigated in this paper. An inclusion-host system that is initially under lithostatic pressure and in mechanical and phase equilibria may undergo pressure-temperature change. The new elastic and plastic equilibrium, possible viscous relaxation, and phase equilibrium are considered. The new inclusion pressure typically differs from both the initial pressure and the pressure on the outside surface of the host. The inclusion is under isotropic stress (a single pressure) but the host is anisotropically stressed. The relative volume change of the inclusion differs from that of the inclusion-free host by 0.75( Pin- Pout)/ Gh where Pin and Pout are the pressures on the inside and outside surfaces of the host, and Gh is the shear modulus of the host. Different inclusions in a single host may be under different pressures. A simple case of elastic anisotropy is also considered and the result shows that incorporation of elastic anisotropy is necessary for accurate calculations of volume and strain effect. For inclusions with roughly constant bulk modulus, the time scale of viscous relaxation is found to be 4 ?h/(3 Ki) where ?h is the viscosity of the host phase and Ki is the bulk modulus of the inclusion phase. If the host mineral does not relax viscously and does not fracture into pieces, the host mineral partially protects the inclusion and phase transition in the inclusion-host system is partial and spans a large T- P range even for one-component systems, in contrast to sharp phase transitions under isobaric and isothermal conditions. For example, a graphite inclusion in a diamond host does not completely convert to diamond when pressure on the diamond host increases. Using the chemical potential formulation of Kamb, about 1% of graphite would convert to diamond for every 1 GPa increase in host pressure. Because the inclusion pressure may be different from the lithostatic pressure on the host, pressure obtained from thermobarometers using inclusion-host pairs may not have depth significance. Correct `reading' of information stored by inclusion-host pairs requires an understanding of mechanical and phase equilibria involving the inclusion and host.

Zhang, Youxue

1998-04-01

321

40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Performance Partnership Grants...section, the environmental programs eligible...inclusion in a Performance Partnership...Water Quality Management Planning...

2010-07-01

322

Refractory inclusions in the Ornans C30 chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several types of metedorites contain unusual objects 10 micrometers to 2 centimeters across that are enriched in refractory elements such as calcium, aluminum and titanium. These objects, commonly known as refractory inclusions, are most abundant in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. The refractory inclusions that have been found in the Ornans metedorite, a member of a little-studied group of carbonaceous chondrites are described. Some refractory inclusions in Ornans resemble those found in other meteorites, while others are unlike any seen before. The unusual inclusions in Ornans contain minerals with extraordinary enrichments in highly refractory elements.

Davis, A. M.

1985-01-01

323

Co-existing fluid and silicate inclusions in mantle diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document the compositions of co-existing silicate macro-inclusions and fluid micro-inclusions in the fibrous coats of eight coated diamonds from the Panda kimberlite (Canada). The mineral inclusions in the diamond coats come from either the peridotite suite (Cr-pyrope, orthopyroxene, olivine and Cr-diopside) or the eclogite suite (omphacite). Therefore, fibrous diamonds grow in the same paragenetic environments as octahedral diamonds. The inclusions document a more fertile source composition (lower Mg# and higher CaO) than for equivalent phases in octahedral diamonds from Panda and worldwide. However, moderate to high Cr 2O 3 contents in garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions suggest that this apparent fertility is due to a secondary process. Geothermometry of the silicate inclusions yields low equilibration temperatures of 930 to 1010 °C. The co-existing fluid micro-inclusions are dominated by H 2O, carbonate and KCl. Fluid inclusions in both the peridotitic and eclogitic samples fall along linear arrays between Fe-Ca-Mg carbonate and KCl. Inclusions in the one eclogitic sample also contain quartz. We suggest that the diamonds have trapped both metasomatised minerals and the metasomatic fluid, and so provide a snap shot of a metasomatic event in the mantle.

Tomlinson, E. L.; Jones, A. P.; Harris, J. W.

2006-10-01

324

Caulking compound poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If ...

325

Compound Poisson process approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound Poisson processes are often useful as approximate models, when describing the occurrence of rare events. In this paper, we develop a method for showing how close such approximations are. Our approach is to use Stein's method directly, rather than by way of declumping and a marked Poisson process; this has conceptual advantages, but entails technical difficulties. Several applications are

A. D. Barbour; Marianne Månsson

2002-01-01

326

The Onium Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

1997-06-01

327

8-fluoropurine compounds  

DOEpatents

An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Encino, CA)

2001-01-01

328

Compound floating pivot micromechanisms  

DOEpatents

A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-04-24

329

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

330

Tagging Classical Sanskrit Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper sets out a prima facie case for the claim that the classification of Sanskrit compounds in P??inian tradition can be retrieved from a very slight\\u000a augmentation of the usual enriched context free rules.

Brendan S. Gillon

2009-01-01

331

Ceramic Inclusions In Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially as the material chosen for turbine disks. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that arise from the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they usually don't reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where a known population of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the 'natural' inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life, therefore the volume of ceramic 'seeds' added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will occur on the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface and embedded cross-sectional areas were needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macro slices from extrusions and forgings. The ultimate goal of this study will be to use probabilistic methods to determine the reliability detriment that can be attributed to these ceramic inclusions.

Bonacuse, Pete; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

2002-01-01

332

Study on beta-cyclodextrin inclusion of Zn(II) aromatic complex and its analytical application.  

PubMed

A new beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion compound Zn(2H1NA)(2)x 2beta-CD (2H1NA=2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid) was prepared. The structure was characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, the fluorescence spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and elementary analysis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the formation of the supramolecular system (2H1NA:Zn(II):beta-CD) was studied and discussed by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that the naphthalene rings of the Zn(II) aromatic complex Zn(2H1NA)(2) were encapsulated within the beta-CD's cavity to form a 2:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The inclusion constant calculated was 1.27 x 10(4)(L/mol)(2). A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of 2H1NA in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of beta-CD was developed based on the great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of 2H1NA. The linear relationship was obtained in the range of 9.00 x 10(-7) to 2.50 x 10(-5)mol/L and the detection limit was 8.00 x 10(-7)mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine 2H1NA in waste water with recoveries of 97-104%. PMID:19969502

Ding, Lixiu; He, Jiang; Fu, Junkai; Zhang, Jinlong

2010-02-01

333

Study on ?-cyclodextrin inclusion of Zn(II) aromatic complex and its analytical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion compound Zn(2H1NA) 2·2?-CD (2H1NA = 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid) was prepared. The structure was characterized by 1H NMR, IR, the fluorescence spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and elementary analysis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the formation of the supramolecular system (2H1NA:Zn(II):?-CD) was studied and discussed by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that the naphthalene rings of the Zn(II) aromatic complex Zn(2H1NA) 2 were encapsulated within the ?-CD's cavity to form a 2:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The inclusion constant calculated was 1.27 × 10 4 (L/mol) 2. A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of 2H1NA in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of ?-CD was developed based on the great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of 2H1NA. The linear relationship was obtained in the range of 9.00 × 10 -7 to 2.50 × 10 -5 mol/L and the detection limit was 8.00 × 10 -7 mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine 2H1NA in waste water with recoveries of 97-104%.

Ding, Lixiu; He, Jiang; Fu, Junkai; Zhang, Jinlong

2010-02-01

334

Inclusion of Scatter in HADES: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Covert nuclear attack is one of the foremost threats facing the United States and is a primary focus of the War on Terror. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is chartered to develop, and improve domestic systems to detect and interdict smuggling for the illicit use of a nuclear explosive device, fissile material or radiologica1 material. The CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) program is a major part of the DHS effort to enhance US security by harnessing cutting-edge technologies to detect radiological and nuclear threats at points of entry to the United States. DNDO has selected vendors to develop complete radiographic systems. It is crucial that the initial design and testing concepts for the systems be validated and compared prior to the substantial efforts to build and deploy prototypes and subsequent large-scale production. An important aspect of these systems is the scatter which interferes with imaging. Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP (X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2005 Revision) allow scatter to be calculatied, but these calculations are very time consuming. It would be useful to have a fast scatter estimation algorithm in a fast ray tracing code. We have been extending the HADES ray-tracing radiographic simulation code to model vendor systems in a flexible and quick fashion and to use this tool to study a variety of questions involving system performance and the comparative value of surrogates. To enable this work, HADES has been linked to the BRL-CAD library (BRL-CAD Open Source Project, 2010), in order to enable the inclusion of complex CAD geometries in simulations, scanner geometries have been implemented in HADES, and the novel detector responses have been included in HADES. A major extension of HADES which has been required by this effort is the inclusion of scatter in these radiographic simulations. Ray tracing codes generally do not easily allow the inclusion of scatter, because these codes define a source and a grid of detector pixels and only compute the attenuation along rays between these points. Scatter is an extremely complex set of processes which can involve rays which change directions many times between the source and detector. Scatter from outside the field of view of the imaging system, as well as within the field of view, can have an important role in image formation. In this report, we will describe how we implemented a treatment of scatter in HADES. We begin with a discussion of how we define scatter in Section 2, followed by a description of how single Compton scatter is now included in HADES in Section 3. In Section 4 we report a set of verification tests against MCNP and tests of how the technique scales with image size, number of scatters allowed and number of processors used in the calculations. In Section 5, we describe how we plan to extend this approach to other forms of scatter and conclude in Section 6. It should be emphasized that the purpose of this report is to show that a form of scatter has been implemented in HADES and has been verified against MCNP. Validation, the process of comparing simulation and experiment, is a future task.

Aufderheide, M B

2010-12-20

335

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

336

Metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds.  

PubMed

There appear to be two major pathways for the metabolism of nitrobenzene and substituted nitrobenzenes. The first of these is reduction of the nitro group to yield aniline or substituted anilines. For nitrobenzene and perhaps for pentachloronitrobenzene, reduction of the nitro group to the amine is accomplished by bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Addition of a second nitro group results in easier reduction of one of the nitro groups on dinitrobenzenes, since they can be reduced under aerobic conditions by hepatic and erythrocyte enzymes. Bacterial reduction of the dinitrobenzenes is probably not quantitatively important in vivo. The second pathway is replacement of a nitro group by glutathione. The relative importance of this pathway compared to nitro group reduction depends upon the compound. It has not been demonstrated to occur for nitrobenzene. It is the major route of metabolism for 1,2-dinitrobenzene but is not an important route for 1,3- or 1,4-dinitrobenzene in hepatocytes. Tetrachloronitrobenzene isomers in which the nitro group is flanked by chlorines and pentachloronitrobenzene undergo nitro group replacement, but 2,3,4,5-tetrachloronitrobenzene does not. The most important pathway for the metabolism of mononitrotoluenes is methyl group oxidation. All quantitatively important metabolites are apparently formed from the nitrobenzyl alcohols. The mono- and dinitrotoluenes are not significantly reduced to isolatable metabolites by mammalian enzymes in vivo; intestinal microflora reduce these compounds after biliary excretion of the nitrobenzyl glucuronides. The little available evidence suggests that this is not the case for trinitrotoluenes. Urinary metabolites retain the methyl group and bear one or two amino groups. This suggests either that mammalian enzymes are capable of reducing the nitro groups of trinitrotoluenes in vivo or that intestinal microflora gain access to unmodified trinitrotoluene. The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are apparently metabolized by both nitro reduction and ring oxidation. There is good evidence, at least for 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene, that nitro reduction occurs in intestinal microflora. the complexities of foreign compound metabolism are well illustrated by the biotransformation of the nitroaromatic compounds. Positional isomers are preferentially metabolized by markedly different pathways. Substitution to different degrees or with different functional groups greatly affects the types of metabolites formed. Yet these compounds also offer opportunities for understanding the mechanisms of foreign compound metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3311683

Rickert, D E

1987-01-01

337

Recombinant protein production by in vivo polymer inclusion display.  

PubMed

A novel approach to produce purified recombinant proteins was established. The target protein is produced as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase fusion protein, which mediates intracellular formation of PHA inclusions displaying the target protein. After isolation of the PHA inclusions, the pure target protein was released by simple enterokinase digestion. PMID:21803888

Grage, Katrin; Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H A

2011-09-01

338

Social inclusion of Young Marginalised People through online mobile communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth exclusion is widespread and increasing across Europe. Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to serve as a gateway to social inclusion. However, computer and internet access of marginalised young people are limited. Alternative methods to approach them through ICT are needed. The interdisciplinary project ComeIn (Online Mobile Communities to facilitate the Social Inclusion of Young Marginalised People

Ilse Marschalek; Elisabeth Unterfrauner; Claudia Magdalena Fabian

2009-01-01

339

The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

2014-01-01

340

Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

341

Forms of Leadership that Promote Inclusive Education in Cypriot Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary goal of many educational systems in different countries of the world is the offering of equal opportunities in education. My engagement with the literature that relates to inclusive education as well as the literature that relates to educational leadership leads to the conclusion that if we are interested in moving towards more inclusive

Angelides, Panayiotis

2012-01-01

342

Best Practices of Inclusion at the Elementary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having inclusion in a school makes every student feel like they are part of the school. The children with disabilities feel accepted and part of the class like everyone else. Students learn to work well with each other and accept differences. Children learn to accept everyone for who they are. The Philosophy of Inclusion website says, Children…

Wilson, Carolyn H.; Ellerbee, Keisha L.; Christian, Silas H.

2011-01-01

343

Powerful Partnerships: Parents & Professionals Building Inclusive Recreation Programs Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of readings is intended to help parents of children with disabilities join together or with professionals to advocate for inclusive recreational programs for their children. The following 15 readings are included: "To Play or Not To Play? A History of Recreation in America" (Carla E. S. Tabourne et al.); "Why Is Inclusive

Schleien, Stuart J., Ed.; And Others

344

Pedagogic Voicing: The Struggle for Participation in an Inclusive Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within inclusive education research, the call to foster participation stems from a generalized vision for promoting democratic practices within classrooms, prompting the concern for eliciting student "voices." In this ethnographic study, I explore the utility of "voice" as a workable construct in securing participation within inclusive classrooms.…

Naraian, Srikala

2011-01-01

345

Tiny Melt Inclusions from 2009 Redoubt Tephra Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Graduate student Allison Payne (USGS ARRA student appointment) uses a binocular microscope to pick out minerals that contain tiny melt inclusions from 2009 Redoubt tephra samples. Melt inclusions are then analyzed with a SHRIMP - Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe - for their volatile (H2O and...

2010-05-20

346

Confusion about Inclusion: Patching up or System Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Klaus Wedell, Emeritus Professor at the Institute of Education, University of London, looks back over 35 years of developments in the worlds of special and inclusive education. He engages directly with the complexities--for example, the tensions between the standards agenda and policy on inclusion--that have led some commentators…

Wedell, Klaus

2008-01-01

347

Questions to Assess Learning as a Communicative Routine for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of rapid policy transformation from segregation to inclusion in the education of children with special educational needs in Ireland, a study was conducted to investigate the interplay between policy and principles of inclusion, resource teachers' and class teachers' interpretations of this and the manner in which policy…

Ní Bhroin, Órla

2013-01-01

348

A crosslinked inclusion body process for sialic acid synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity of a recombinant protein produced in bacteria to aggregate has been assumed to be unpredictable, and inclusion bodies have been thought of as wasted cell material. However, a target protein can be purposely driven to inclusion bodies, which demonstrate full cell tolerable activity. Sialic acid aldolase, N-terminally fused with the cellulose-binding module of Clostridium cellulovorans, was almost quantitatively

Jozef Nahálka; Alica Vikartovská; Eva Hrabárová

2008-01-01

349

Family and Professional Priorities for Inclusive Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide information about what characteristics from the variety of inclusive early childhood programs are most valued and least valued by families and professionals. Participants were 10 family members of young children with disabilities being served in inclusive programs and 10 early childhood professionals…

Hurley, Jennifer J.; Horn, Eva M.

2010-01-01

350

Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

2014-01-01

351

Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

2010-01-01

352

Attitudes of Teachers and Headteachers towards Inclusion in Lebanon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Arabic region, the drive towards inclusive practices in mainstream schools is at a relatively early stage, although, in Lebanon, the recent initiative of the National Inclusion Project (NIP), a project managed by a consortium of four organisations aimed at addressing the exclusion experienced by people with a disability, has the potential…

Khochen, Maha; Radford, Julie

2012-01-01

353

Time to End the Bias towards Inclusive Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The UK coalition Government's call to end the "bias" towards inclusion represents a shift in "policy speak" as the new administration attempts to re-narrate special education by putting forward a "reasonable and sensible" solution to the "problem of inclusion". However, implicit in the call is the assumption that there has, in fact, been a "bias…

Runswick-Cole, Katherine

2011-01-01

354

Fostering inclusive education: principals' perspectives in Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shares elementary school principals' perspectives from one urban school district in Trinidad and Tobago, regarding factors that might enhance or limit their and\\/or their faculty's readiness for inclusion in their schools. Qualitative data collection comprised a self-administered questionnaire and focus group interviewing. Respondents comprise 18 school principals. Findings revealed a philosophical readiness to embrace inclusive practice, but resistance

Dennis A. Conrad; Launcelot I. Brown

2011-01-01

355

Schools as Agents of Social Exclusion and Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although schools are usually regarded as important agents for social inclusion, research has shown that they may also function as agents of exclusion itself. The goal of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how schools function as agents of exclusion and how they can become more effective agents of inclusion. It is based on action research…

Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.; Warshofsky, Boaz

2013-01-01

356

"That's Definite Discrimination": Practice under the Umbrella of Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive practice is well embedded across society and has developed over time. However, although policy and public view have moved forward, the way organisations address the agenda for inclusion often represents a superficial interpretation of this concept. Qualitative data were gathered using new ethnography to explore the experiences of a…

Hyder, Eileen; Tissot, Cathy

2013-01-01

357

Inclusion Removal by Bubble Flotation in a Continuous Casting Mold  

E-print Network

the removal of inclusions by bubbles during the continuous casting of steel. First, the attachment probability to quantify the removal of inclusions by bubbles in molten steel and applies them to the continuous casting elements. Bubbles injected into the SEN and continuous casting mold affect steel quality in several ways

Thomas, Brian G.

358

Embracing inclusion: the critical role of the library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social inclusion is high on the Government’s agenda but the role of public libraries in this area has not always been clearly defined. This paper first examines the issue of social exclusion, attempting to define the inclusive society. Drawing on recent work by the Library and Information Commission (2000), it then proposes that research conducted by the University of Central

Briony Train; Pete Dalton; Judith Elkin

2000-01-01

359

Teacher Preparation for Inclusive and Critical (Special) Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's preservice program prepares both single and dual certification master's students to teach in inclusive classrooms. This article provides an overview of the context in which, and for which, the program was designed, a description of the program, including what the author means by inclusive education and critical special education,…

Oyler, Celia

2011-01-01

360

Developing Inclusive Practices among Educational Psychologists: Problems and Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses some of the problems and possibilities facing educational psychologists (EPs) as they strive to take a proactive role in promoting inclusion in their daily work. It begins by commenting on recent evidence which suggests that, despite exhortations to the contrary, many EPs continue to promote non-inclusive ways of working. …

Farrell, Peter

2006-01-01

361

On the micromechanics of composites containing spherical inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact solutions for the stress distribution inside a spherical inclusion embedded in an other-wise homogeneous matrix are obtained. Such expressions provide a framework for discussing the load carrying capacity of rubber inclusions and the effect of interfacial bonding on the toughness of such filled systems. Parametric studies of the influence of constituent stiffness ratios on the resultant stress patterns in

Shiann H. Liu; E. Bruce Nauman

1990-01-01

362

Teacher Attitudes toward an Interdisciplinary Approach to Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study designed to assess teacher attitudes about an interdisciplinary approach to the inclusion of students with behavior disorders. The interdisciplinary approach involved four components: responsible inclusion, language intervention strategies, self-management programs, and pragmatic skills for classroom…

Spann-Hite, Tracy; Picklesimer, Billie K.; Hamilton, Gloria J.

363

Inclusion and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a clear national trend toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This trend poses particularly vexing challenges for delivering appropriate programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This chapter describes the complexity of determining appropriate inclusive placements for…

Simpson, Richard; Mundschenk, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

364

Novel Method for Growing Te-Inclusion-Free CZT  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a new method for growth of detector-grade CdZnTe (CZT) with reduced concentration and sizes of Te inclusions. The method is designed to impede the formation of Te-rich inclusions in crystals due to the use of new CZT growth method and a unique ampoule design.

Bolotnikov,A.

2008-06-17

365

Titanium nitride inclusion removal in an electron beam melting hearth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the Sphlow Java applet to calculate the "neutral density" window for porous titanium nitride inclusions in an electron beam melting hearth, and discuss both the fraction of particles which enter the final product and the complexities of porous inclusion transport.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2005-05-12

366

Child Care and ADA: A Handbook for Inclusive Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explains federal guidelines for program directors and child care personnel for daily practices and procedures when children with disabilities are admitted to child care programs. The handbook addresses inclusion issues to raise the importance of involving all staff in preparation for efforts to become an inclusive program. Part I begins…

Rab, Victoria Youcha; And Others

367

Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of secondary teachers to inclusion in schools. Three hundred and ninety-one teaching and management-level staff from 19 mainstream and 6 special schools in one local authority in Scotland completed a survey. Overall, teaching staff were pro-inclusion, conditional on adequate support and resources. There was a…

Boyle, Christopher; Topping, Keith; Jindal-Snape, Divya

2013-01-01

368

Definition of AN and Motivation Inclusive Hadron Production (IH)  

E-print Network

Hermes Definition of AN and Motivation Inclusive Hadron Production (IH) Results and Discussion Single Spin Asymmetry AN 1 / 13 #12;Hermes Definition of AN and Motivation Inclusive Hadron Production (IH) Results and Discussion Overview 1 Hermes The Spectrometer 2 Definition of AN and Motivation

369

Creating Alliances Against Exclusivity: A Pathway to Inclusive Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Having brought together scholars to consider inclusive education within both their own and others' disciplines, research perspectives, and agendas, the content of this concluding article reflects on what these contributions say--individually and collectively--about inclusive education. Furthermore, the authors critically…

Valle, Jan; Connor, David J.; Broderick, Alicia A.; Bejoian, Lynne M.; Baglieri, Susan

2011-01-01

370

Peer-Collaboration: An Effective Teaching Strategy for Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing need to make the curriculum accessible to students with special needs, there has been an increase in the inclusion of special education students with learning disabilities in general education classroom. The major challenge that has faced teachers in inclusive classrooms is using instructional strategies that will accommodate the…

Ncube, Sitembiso

2011-01-01

371

Altering the Model: The Challenge of Achieving Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides "inclusion" meaning incorporation within the education system, there is also "inclusion" signifying the incorporation of knowledge, two distinct processes which went hand-in-hand to start with but which, as education systems expanded, have begun to drift apart. While the population as a whole, including the more deprived sectors, has…

Aguerrondo, Ines

2008-01-01

372

Inclusion body myositis: an underdiagnosed myopathy of older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion body myositis (IBM), a condition characterised by progressive muscle weakness and inclusion bodies visible on muscle biopsy, is the most common type of myopathy in patients over 50 years of age. However, it is not only under diag- nosed but frequently misdiagnosed as polymyositis and hence wrongly treated with steroids. In the evaluation of progressive weakness in older Caucasian

SUNIL K. MUNSHI; BHOMRAJ THANVI; S. J. JONNALAGADDA; PHILIP DA FORNO; ASHISH PATEL; SAROO SHARMA

373

CFE/SPE/RED 600 Literacy, Disability, & Inclusion  

E-print Network

1 CFE/SPE/RED 600 Literacy, Disability, & Inclusion May Semester, 2005 Instructor: Chris Kliewer Course, we will examine the Cultural Context of Literacy, Disability, and Inclusion. Again, this does. To struggle with #12;2 aspects of literacy often results in segregation from the literate community. In turn

Mather, Patrick T.

374

Secondary Inclusion Programs for Students with Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses barriers to the development of inclusive school programs for secondary students with mild disabilities, and the implementation of an inclusive program in a 9th-grade general math class and an 11th-grade English class. Describes the development of partnerships between general and special education teachers. (CR)

Cole, Cassandra McCrory; McLeskey, James

1997-01-01

375

Transatlantic Conversations about Inclusive Education: France and Nova Scotia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education has become an international educational priority with the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This article compares and analyses in depth two different educational systems on two continents with regard to their development of inclusive education and their current issues with this…

Schneider, Cornelia; Harkins, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

376

Thinking in another way: ideas for sustainable inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion implies that someone has been excluded and that some are able to prevent others from participation in significant community, economic and political activities. The processes of inclusion and exclusion reflect ideas about how the world is to be seen and understood, about who is to be attended to and who ignored, and about how institutions are to be organised.

Keith Ballard

2011-01-01

377

Thinking in Another Way: Ideas for Sustainable Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion implies that someone has been excluded and that some are able to prevent others from participation in significant community, economic and political activities. The processes of inclusion and exclusion reflect ideas about how the world is to be seen and understood, about who is to be attended to and who ignored, and about how institutions…

Ballard, Keith

2013-01-01

378

Inclusion in Brunei Darussalam: The Role of Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, Brunei Darussalam adopted an inclusive educational policy and began a number of educational reforms to support the implementation of inclusion within the regular mainstream education system. These reforms include teacher education, which has witnessed the establishment and expansion of training and education opportunities for teachers to…

Koay, Teng Leong

2014-01-01

379

Assessing Inclusion: Strategies for Success. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 16 readings focuses on the implementation and evaluation of efforts to include students with special needs in general education classrooms. The readings are: (1) "From Segregation to Integration: A Brief History of Special Education and Inclusion" (Katie Blenk and Doris Landau Fine); (2) "National Study on Inclusion: Overview…

Philipsen, Maike, Ed.

380

Local Special Education Administrators' Understanding of Inclusive Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's inclusive education initiative began in mid-1980s under the name of "Learning in Regular Classrooms". The purpose of this research is to examine how Chinese Local Special Education Administrators understand the ideology of inclusive education and LRC model by using a qualitative investigation. The results indicate that the Chinese…

Deng, Meng; Guo, Ling

2007-01-01

381

Local fracture of a composite with linear rigid inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the conditions of the plane problem, we propose a new interpretation of boundary conditions in the model problem of elastoplastic equilibrium of a body with linear rigid inclusion whose rupture strength is finite. Stresses in the composite material do not exceed their ultimate values for the materials of the matrix, inclusion, and intermediate contact layer. We studied the two

L. T. Berezhnyts'kyi; M. M. Kundrat

1996-01-01

382

Asymptotic models of dilute composites with imperfectly bonded inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymptotic scheme for the analysis of dilute elastic composites, which includes circular inclusions with imperfect bonding at the interface is presented. Interface is characterized by a discontinuous displacement field across it, linearly related to the tractions. The problem of a linear-elastic, circular inclusion with generic loading condition at infinity is solved, and used to analyze effective elastic moduli of

A. B. Movchan

1998-01-01

383

The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2007 ­ September 30, 2008) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

384

The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2008 ­ September 30, 2009) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

385

The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2009 ­ September 30, 2010) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

386

Teachers’ voices concerning collaborative teams within an inclusive elementary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined aspects of the inclusive program in an elementary school in a rural section of the upper Midwest of the United States. This article describes a university and elementary school research partnership to study collaboration among the general education teachers and the special education staff (teachers and assistants) in the inclusive elementary school. Interviews, focus groups, and

Jane Leatherman

2009-01-01

387

Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

2009-01-01

388

Inclusive Education: A Framework for Change. National and International Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reports on the philosophy and demands of the growing international movement for inclusive schools which welcome all children, including those with disabilities or those who have learning difficulties. It maintains that inclusion is not primarily an educational or professional issue but, rather, an issue of basic human rights. It sees…

Wertheimer, Alison

389

Inclusive Research: Making a Difference to Policy and Legislation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research…

Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

2014-01-01

390

Strategies for Teaching Exceptional Children in Inclusive Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 chapters of this book on teaching students with disabilities in inclusive settings are arranged into four parts on curriculum and instruction, assessment, classroom management, and collaboration. Individual chapters and their authors are: (1) "Curriculum Considerations in an Inclusive Environment" (Cynthia D. Warger and Marleen C. Pugach);…

Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

391

SEN Inclusion and Pupil Achievement in English Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents and discusses the key findings from a study funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) that explored the relationship between achievement and inclusion in mainstream schools in England. Overall the results indicate that, although there is a small statistical relationship between inclusion and academic achievement,…

Farrell, Peter; Dyson, Alan; Polat, Filiz; Hutcheson, Graeme; Gallannaugh, Frances

2007-01-01

392

On the electron diffraction contrast caused by large inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffraction contrast caused by large inclusions (of inclusion diameter greater or equal to one extinction distance) is investigated using the modified Bloch wave theory. Analytical equations are derived for the bright- and dark-field intensities in the two-beam case. These equations describe the dependence of the contrast on the phase and amplitude difference between the modified Bloch waves as well

W. Mader

1987-01-01

393

Inclusion of dengue in TDR's disease portfolio.  

PubMed

This article reports the outcome of the informal consultation of the WHO in-house expert scientists on the proposed inclusion of dengue and tuberculosis in the Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) portfolio to be reviewed during the 22nd session of the Joint Coordinating Board. The purpose of the meeting was to identify research gaps, pinpoint research needed, and proposed a potential agenda for TDR activities regarding dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). During the meeting, WHO staff presented an analysis of the global situation for dengue and an outline of WHO activities in dengue control and vaccine development. Three discussion groups proposed a list of priority subjects where TDR could initiate activities: 1) in social, economic and behavioral research; 2) in vector research; 3) in diagnosis; 4) in pathophysiology; and 5) in vaccine discovery and development. At present, the only method for controlling or preventing dengue and DHF rely on controlling the mosquito vector. Therefore, developing appropriate and efficient vector control methods, improving laboratory diagnosis and case management of patients, and developing an effective vaccine were the primary objectives of research and capability strengthening. PMID:12322389

1999-08-01

394

Organic compounds in meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

Lawless, J. G.

1980-01-01

395

Oral compound nevus.  

PubMed

The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

2014-02-01

396

Compound in Cubic Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, electronic band structure, total density of states, and optical, lattice dynamic and thermo-dynamic properties of BaCeO3 compound in cubic phase were investigated using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice constant is consistent with the experimental result. In cubic phase, BaCeO3 has a semiconductor character with 2.17 eV band gap.

Aycibin, Murat; Erdinc, Bahattin; Akkus, Harun

2014-11-01

397

Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially ?-d-glucans. Among them, ?-1,3-glucan with side chain ?-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

2013-01-01

398

Inclusion Bodies Are a Site of Ebolavirus Replication  

PubMed Central

Inclusion bodies are a characteristic feature of ebolavirus infections in cells. They contain large numbers of preformed nucleocapsids, but their biological significance has been debated, and they have been suggested to be aggregates of viral proteins without any further biological function. However, recent data for other viruses that produce similar structures have suggested that inclusion bodies might be involved in genome replication and transcription. In order to study filovirus inclusion bodies, we fused mCherry to the ebolavirus polymerase L, which is found in inclusion bodies. The resulting L-mCherry fusion protein was functional in minigenome assays and incorporated into virus-like particles. Importantly, L-mCherry fluorescence in transfected cells was readily detectable and distributed in a punctate pattern characteristic for inclusion bodies. A recombinant ebolavirus encoding L-mCherry instead of L was rescued and showed virtually identical growth kinetics and endpoint titers to those for wild-type virus. Using this virus, we showed that the onset of inclusion body formation corresponds to the onset of viral genome replication, but that viral transcription occurs prior to inclusion body formation. Live-cell imaging further showed that inclusion bodies are highly dynamic structures and that they can undergo dramatic reorganization during cell division. Finally, by labeling nascent RNAs using click technology we showed that inclusion bodies are indeed the site of viral RNA synthesis. Based on these data we conclude that, rather than being inert aggregates of nucleocapsids, ebolavirus inclusion bodies are in fact complex and dynamic structures and an important site at which viral RNA replication takes place. PMID:22915810

Hoenen, Thomas; Shabman, Reed S.; Groseth, Allison; Herwig, Astrid; Weber, Michaela; Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Basler, Christopher F.; Becker, Stephan

2012-01-01

399

Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are revolutionizing ultra-sensitive photodetection applications, providing single photon sensitivity, high quantum efficiency and low dark noise at or near room temperature. When aggregated into arrays, these devices have demonstrated the ability to operate as photon number resolving detectors with wide dynamic range, or as single-photon imaging detectors. SPAD array performance has reached a point where replacing vacuum tube based MCP and PMT photodetectors for most applications is inevitable. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays offer the unique proposition to tailor performance to match application specific wavelength, speed and radiation hardness requirements. We present a theoretical framework describing performance limits to compound semiconductor SPAD arrays and our latest experimental results detailing the performance of GaAs SPAD arrays. These devices achieve nanosecond rise and fall times, excellent photon number resolving capability, and low dark count rates. Single photon number resolving is demonstrated with 4% single photon detection efficiency at room temperature with dark count rates below 7 Mcps/mm2. Compound semiconductor SPAD arrays have the opportunity to provide orders of magnitude improvement in dark count rate and radiation hardness over silicon SPAD arrays, as well as the ability to detect wavelengths where silicon is blind.

Harmon, Eric S.; Naydenkov, Mikhail; Hyland, James T.

2013-06-01

400

Toxic compounds in honey.  

PubMed

There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-07-01

401

Isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis That Occupy Nonfusogenic Inclusions Lack IncA, a Protein Localized to the Inclusion Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that occupy a nonacidified vacuole, termed an inclusion, throughout their developmenal cycle. When an epithelial cell is infected with multiple Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, they are internalized by endocytosis into individual phagosomal vacuoles that eventually fuse to form a single inclusion. In the course of large-scale serotyping studies in which fluorescent antibody staining of

ROBERT J. SUCHLAND; DANIEL D. ROCKEY; JOHN P. BANNANTINE; WALTER E. STAMM

2000-01-01

402

Social Competence, Sense of Loneliness, and Speech Intelligibility of Young Children with Hearing Loss in Individual Inclusion and Group Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on social competence (SC) and perceived sense of loneliness of preschool children with hearing loss (HL) in group inclusion (GI, a small group of children with HL is integrated in a standard classroom) and individual inclusion (II, each child with HL is individually integrated into a standard classroom). The relations between…

Most, Tova; Ingber, Sara; Heled-Ariam, Einat

2012-01-01

403

Modification of fluid inclusions in quartz by deviatoric stress. II: experimentally induced changes in inclusion volume and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid inclusions in quartz are known to modify their densities during shear deformation. Modifications of chemical composition are also suspected. However, such changes have not been experimentally demonstrated, their mechanisms remain unexplained, and no criteria are available to assess whether deformed inclusions preserve information on paleofluid properties. To address these issues, quartz crystals containing natural CO2-H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions have been experimentally subjected to compressive deviatoric stresses of 90-250 MPa at 700°C and ~600 MPa confining pressure. The resulting microcracking of the inclusions leads to expansion by up to 20%, producing low fluid densities that bear no relation to physical conditions outside the sample. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the precursor inclusions is preserved. With time the microcracks heal and form swarms of tiny satellite inclusions with a wide range of densities, the highest reflecting the value of the maximum principle stress, ? 1. These new inclusions lose H2O via diffusion, thereby passively increasing their salt and gas contents, and triggering plastic deformation of the surrounding quartz via H2O-weakening. Using microstructural criteria to identify the characteristic types of modified inclusions, both the pre-deformation fluid composition and syn-deformation maximum stress on the host mineral can be derived from microthermometric analysis and thermodynamic modelling.

Diamond, Larryn W.; Tarantola, Alexandre; Stünitz, Holger

2010-12-01

404

Inclusion "All Present and Correct?" A Critical Analysis of New Labour's Inclusive Education Policy in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion

Hodkinson, Alan

2013-01-01

405

Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

2012-01-01

406

Inclusion and Control in Resort Family Businesses: A Developmental Approach to Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between inclusion tension and business and family conflict intensity for 183 couples in resort family businesses. Using path analysis, age, education, role, and decision involvement discrepancy predicted husbands' inclusion tension, and inclusion tension predicted their business and family conflict intensity. Age, locus of control, and gross sales predicted inclusion tension for wives; inclusion tension predicted

CiloueCheng Stewart; Sharon M. Danes

2001-01-01

407

Inclusion of Binaries in Evolutionary Population Synthesis  

E-print Network

Using evolutionary population synthesis we present integrated colours, integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst binary stellar populations with and without binary interactions. The ages of the populations are in the range $1-15 $Gyr and the metallicities are in the range $0.0001-0.03$. By comparing the results for populations with and without binary interactions we show that the inclusion of binary interactions makes the integrated $\\rm U-B$, $\\rm B-V$, $\\rm V-R$ and $\\rm R-I$ colours and all Lick/IDS spectral absorption indices (except for $\\rm H_\\beta$) substantially smaller. In other words binary evolution makes a population appear bluer. This effect raises the derived age and metallicity of the population. We calculate several sets of additional solar-metallicity binary stellar populations to explore the influence of input parameters to the binary evolution algorithm (the common-envelope ejection efficiency and the stellar wind mass-loss rate) on the resulting integrated colours. We also look at the dependence on the choice of distribution functions used to generate the initial binary population. The results show that variations in the choice of input model parameters and distributions can significantly affect the results. However, comparing the discrepancies that exist between the colours of various models, we find that the differences are less than those produced between the models with and those without binary interactions. Therefore it is very necessary to consider binary interactions in order to draw accurate conclusions from evolutionary population synthesis work.

Fenghui Zhang; Zhanwen Han; Lifang Li; Jarrod R. Hurley

2004-12-01

408

in the Inclusions in Si-Mn-killed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equilibria between CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO(-MnO) slag and Fe-1.5 mass pct Mn-0.5 mass pct Si-0.5 mass pct Cr melt was investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) in order to understand the effect of slag composition on the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steels. The composition of the inclusions were mainly equal to (mol pct MnO)/(mol pct SiO2) = 0.8(±0.06) with Al2O3 content that was increased from about 10 to 40 mol pct by increasing the basicity of slag (CaO/SiO2 ratio) from about 0.7 to 2.1. The concentration ratio of the inclusion components, , and the activity ratio of the steel components, , showed a good linear relationship on a logarithmic scale, indicating that the activity coefficient ratio of the inclusion components, , was not significantly changed. From the slag-steel-inclusion multiphase equilibria, the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions was expressed as a linear function of the activity ratio of the slag components, on a logarithmic scale. Consequently, a compositional window of the slag for obtaining inclusions with a low liquidus temperature in the Si-Mn-killed steel treated in an alumina ladle is recommended.

Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun

2014-06-01

409

Reversible aggregation of PABPN1 pre-inclusion structures.  

PubMed

Increased aggregation of misfolded proteins is associated with aging, and characterizes a number of neurodegenerative disorders caused by homopolymeric amino acid expansion mutations. PABPN1 is an aggregation-prone nuclear protein. Natural aggregation of wild-type (WT) PABPN1 is not known to be disease-associated, but alanine-expanded PABPN1 (expPABPN1) accumulates in insoluble intranuclear inclusions in muscle of patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). We applied microscopic image quantification to study PABPN1 aggregation process in living cells. We identified transitional pre-inclusion foci and demonstrate that these structures significantly differ between WT- and expPABPN1-expressing cells, while inclusions of these proteins are indistinguishable. In addition to the immobile PABPN1 in inclusions, in the nucleoplasm of expPABPN1 expressing cells we also found a fraction of immobile proteins, representing pre-aggregated species. We found that pre-aggregated and pre-inclusion structures are reverted by a PABPN1 specific affinity binder while inclusion structures are not. Together our results demonstrate that the aggregation process of WT- and expPABPN1 differs in steps preceding inclusion formation, suggesting that pre-aggregated protein species could represent the cytotoxic structures. PMID:21818414

Raz, Vered; Abraham, Tsion; van Zwet, Erik W; Dirks, Roeland W; Tanke, Hans J; van der Maarel, Silvère M

2011-01-01

410

Nonlinear behavior of heterogeneous materials containing snapping acoustic metamaterial inclusions.  

PubMed

This work studies the forced dynamical behavior of a heterogeneous material containing metamaterial inclusions undergoing large deformations. The inclusions exhibit non-monotonic stress-strain behavior, modeled with an expansion to third order in volume strain, where the coefficients of the expansion depend on the metamaterial structure. The resulting constitutive behavior of interest displays regimes of both positive and negative stiffness and the inclusion therefore exhibits hysteretic snapping when forced by an acoustic pressure. Two cases are explored using a generalized Rayleigh-Plesset analysis to model the large-deformation dynamics of the metamaterial inclusion following an approach similar to Emelianov et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115, 581 (2004)]. The first case focuses on the forced dynamics of a single inclusion embedded in a weakly compressible elastic medium. The second case broadens the model to analyze the behavior of a heterogeneous material comprised of a low volume fraction of non-interacting metamaterial inclusions embedded in a weakly compressible material. Finally, estimates of the effective bulk modulus and loss factor of the heterogeneous medium are presented for instances of the forcing pressure inducing either large or small inclusion deformation. [Work supported by the ARL:UT McKinney Fellowship in Acoustics and the Office of Naval Research.]. PMID:25235447

Konarski, Stephanie G; Spratt, Kyle S; Haberman, Michael R; Hamilton, Mark F

2014-04-01

411

Inclusion Behavior During the Electron Beam Button Melting Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high mechanical performance of alloys developed for the manufacture of turbine disks depend upon the size and the number density of the inclusions. The electron beam button method has been practiced since the 1980s as a technique to quantify the cleanliness of the superalloys as well as to identify the nature and the size of the inclusions. The technique involves melting the sample into a hemispherical water-cooled crucible and the low density inclusions (mainly oxides) are concentrated by a combination of Marangoni and buoyancy forces into an area at the top surface of the button referred to as the raft. We have experimentally studied the behavior of oxide inclusions in special steels using both high definition video and infrared cameras. We have observed the inversion of the Marangoni effect due to the presence of sulfur, which leads to a positive temperature coefficient of the surface tension. A mathematical modeling has been carried out to simulate the turbulent fluid flow associated with the temperature field in the metallic pool of the button. The surface temperature profile has been successfully compared with the measured data. A post-processor numerical tool calculates the inclusion trajectories taking into account the turbulent fluctuation velocity by a stochastic approach. Hence, the behavior of a population of inclusions has been statistically studied, and the dependence of the capture efficiency on the inclusion size has been analyzed.

Bellot, J. P.; Defay, B.; Jourdan, J.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

2012-10-01

412

Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends do exist. Inclusion mineralogy progresses from graphite-troilite nodules in low Ni IAB's, to silicate-dominated inclusions in high Ni IAB's. With increasing Ni abundance in the metal, systematic variations are found in several properties. Two groups are delineated on a Ni vs Fa content plot and both are positively correlated with Ni content. Graphite abundance noticeably decreases with increasing Ni content [7]. Graphite location also varies with Ni: graphite is primarily found interstitial to the silicates in low Ni IAB's, but is located at metal-silicate boundaries in those with higher Ni abundances. With increasing Ni, daubreelite disappears. Inclusion shape also varies [7]: more angular inclusions are associated with low Ni, while more rounded inclusions exist at high Ni contents. These systematic changes suggest interaction between the silicate inclusions and an evolving metallic magma. Troilite and graphite abundances may be related to early nucleation on silicates, hence their depletion in high Ni (later crystallizing) irons. The presence of abundant graphite creates reducing conditions which would result in the formation of daubreelite. Conditions become more oxidizing with loss of graphite, evidenced by lack of daubreelite and more FeO-rich silicates in high Ni irons. Although an overall trend exists, the story is complicated by heterogeneities. Significant variations are found between paired samples (e.g., Toluca and Tacubaya), as well as within individual inclusions (daubreelite and chromite in same inclusion). Local oxidation conditions may be controlled by graphite abundance. Heterogeneities within specific meteorites need documentation. Most of the inclusions exhibit similar textural (metamorphic) features, but a few show evidence of partial melting and melt migration, further complicating the parent body history. While a variety of processes (oxidation-reduction, metamorphism, partial melting) affected the inclusions during formation, systematic changes observed here indicate that the silicates were interacting with a single evolving metallic ma

Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

1995-09-01

413

Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps  

E-print Network

Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

414

Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

1987-01-01

415

Bilingual reading of compound words.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words. PMID:20623255

Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

2011-02-01

416

The eukaryotic signal sequence, YGRL, targets the chlamydial inclusion  

PubMed Central

Understanding how host proteins are targeted to pathogen-specified organelles, like the chlamydial inclusion, is fundamentally important to understanding the biogenesis of these unique subcellular compartments and how they maintain autonomy within the cell. Syntaxin 6, which localizes to the chlamydial inclusion, contains an YGRL signal sequence. The YGRL functions to return syntaxin 6 to the trans-Golgi from the plasma membrane, and deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 also prevents the protein from localizing to the chlamydial inclusion. YGRL is one of three YXXL (YGRL, YQRL, and YKGL) signal sequences which target proteins to the trans-Golgi. We designed various constructs of eukaryotic proteins to test the specificity and propensity of YXXL sequences to target the inclusion. The YGRL signal sequence redirects proteins (e.g., Tgn38, furin, syntaxin 4) that normally do not localize to the chlamydial inclusion. Further, the requirement of the YGRL signal sequence for syntaxin 6 localization to inclusions formed by different species of Chlamydia is conserved. These data indicate that there is an inherent property of the chlamydial inclusion, which allows it to recognize the YGRL signal sequence. To examine whether this “inherent property” was protein or lipid in nature, we asked if deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 altered the ability of the protein to interact with proteins or lipids. Deletion or alteration of the YGRL from syntaxin 6 does not appreciably impact syntaxin 6-protein interactions, but does decrease syntaxin 6-lipid interactions. Intriguingly, data also demonstrate that YKGL or YQRL can successfully substitute for YGRL in localization of syntaxin 6 to the chlamydial inclusion. Importantly and for the first time, we are establishing that a eukaryotic signal sequence targets the chlamydial inclusion.

Kabeiseman, Emily J.; Cichos, Kyle H.; Moore, Elizabeth R.

2014-01-01

417

Offset Compound Gear Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

2010-01-01

418

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOEpatents

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

1992-09-22

419

Titanium alkoxide compound  

DOEpatents

A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-08-14

420

Terahertz plastic compound lenses.  

PubMed

We present terahertz (THz) lenses made of highly refracting polymeric compounds which provide a better focusing performance and an increased functionality in comparison to conventional THz lenses. Using mixtures consisting of polypropylene (PP) and alumina as well as PP and zinc sulfide allows a significant increase of the refractive index while simultaneously keeping a low extinction and dispersion. With these new material combinations, lenses with an increased focusing capability are realized. This is evaluated by focal plane measurements using a fiber coupled THz time-domain spectrometer. PMID:23842159

Wichmann, M; Mondol, A S; Kocic, N; Lippert, S; Probst, T; Schwerdtfeger, M; Schumann, S; Hochrein, T; Heidemeyer, P; Bastian, M; Bastian, G; Koch, M

2013-06-20

421

Phenolic compounds in Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides alkaloids Catharanthus roseus produces a wide spectrum of phenolic compounds, this includes C6C1 compounds such as 2,3-dihydoxybenzoic acid, as well as\\u000a phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The occurrence of these compounds in C. roseus is reviewed as well as their biosynthesis and the regulation of the pathways. Both types of compounds compete with the indole

Natali Rianika Mustafa; Robert Verpoorte

2007-01-01

422

Nature and interpretation of fluid inclusions in granulites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many granulites contain CO2 rich high density fluid inclusions (carbonic fluids). This observation has led to the concept of carbonic metamorphism, the dry character of granulites being less explained by the absence of water (vapor absent metamorphism) than by the presence of a CO2-rich fluid phase which dilutes the water and lowers considerably its partial pressure. Recent observations have indicated that the situation is much more complicated than initially assumed and that any interpretation must be carefully evaluated and discussed against other, independent evidence. The nature of fluid inclusions and the interpretation of fluid inclusion densities are discussed.

Touret, Jacques L. R.

1988-01-01

423

Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS  

SciTech Connect

In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist $\\sin(2\\phi)$ contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

Schlegel, Marc; Metz, Andreas

2009-01-01

424

Two-Photon Exchange in (Semi-)Inclusive DIS  

SciTech Connect

In this note we consider effects of a Two-Photon Exchange (TPE) in inclusive DIS and semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS). In particular, transverse single spin asymmetries are generated in inclusive DIS if more than one photon is exchanged between the lepton and the hadron. We briefly summarize the TPE in DIS in the parton model and extend our approach to SIDIS, where a new leading twist sin(2{phi}) contribution to the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry shows up. Possible TPE effects for the Sivers and the Collins asymmetries in SIDIS are power-suppressed.

Schlegel, M. [Theory Center, Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Metz, A. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

2009-08-04

425

Ceramic Inclusions in Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially in turbine disk applications. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that are inherent to the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have a potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they typically do not reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where known populations of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the "natural" inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface-connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life; therefore, the quantity of ceramic "seeds" added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will intersect the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface area was needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macroscopic slices from extrusions and forgings. Fatigue specimens have been machined from Udimet 720 (a powder metallurgy superalloy) forgings, to determine the effects of the inclusions on fatigue life. The ultimate goal of this study will be to use probabilistic methods to determine the reliability detriment that can be attributed to these ceramic inclusions. This work has been supported by the Ultra Safe and Ultra- Efficient Engine Technologies programs.

Bonacuse, Peter J.

2001-01-01

426

Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots  

DOEpatents

A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Schmitt, Roman A. (Corvallis, OR)

1992-01-01

427

Prescribing flexibility through prescription compounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounding pharmacists can assist the patients of phy- sicians and other licensed prescribers by providing them with access to unique medications and dosage forms. Phar- macists trained in the art and science of compounding are opening specialty compounding pharmacies to aid those who require individualized medication. A patient in need of a preservative-free medication, a medication that is no longer

Scott Brown

2008-01-01

428

Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

2013-12-01

429

Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.  

PubMed

Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk of microbial contamination to patients. In the last 11 years, three separate meningitis outbreaks have been traced to purportedly 'sterile' steroid injections contaminated with fungus or bacteria, which were made by compounding pharmacies. The most recent 2012 outbreak has resulted in intense scrutiny of pharmacy compounding practices and increased recognition of the need to ensure that compounding is limited to appropriate circumstances. Patients and healthcare practitioners need to be aware that compounded drugs are not the same as generic drugs, which are approved by the FDA. The risk-benefit ratio of using traditionally compounded medicines is favorable for patients who require specialized medications that are not commercially available, as they would otherwise not have access to suitable treatment. However, if an FDA-approved drug is commercially available, the use of an unapproved compounded drug confers additional risk with no commensurate benefit. PMID:23526368

Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

2013-03-01

430

Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols. However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

431

12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207...ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION (Eff. Jan. 27, 2011) Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated...

2011-01-01

432

12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities...

2013-01-01

433

12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities...

2012-01-01

434

12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.  

... 2014-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section 1207.20 Banks...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity at Regulated Entities...

2014-01-01

435

Preschoolers with Special Needs May Gain from 'Inclusion' Classrooms  

MedlinePLUS

... With Special Needs May Gain From 'Inclusion' Classrooms Peers with stronger language abilities have positive effect, study ... school year when considering those with less-skilled peers and highly skilled peers," said the study's lead ...

436

Complex polysaccharide inclusions in the skeletal muscle of stranded cetaceans.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle samples were examined post-mortem in 148 cetaceans over a 12-year period. Histological analysis included haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining with and without diastase digestion. In addition, histological muscle sections were immunostained for ubiquitin and fast and slow heavy-chain myosin isoforms. PAS-positive, diastase-resistant inclusions were detected in 26 animals from 11 different species. Older cetaceans were preferentially affected. These intrafibre inclusions varied from large aggregates to multiple coarse granules and were typically associated with type II fibres. All diastase-resistant inclusions were positive for ubiquitin. These features resembled those inclusions described as complex polysaccharide in horses. Based on these histological findings and the ubiquitin staining pattern, a morphological diagnosis of complex polysaccharide storage myopathy is proposed. PMID:22079146

Sierra, E; Fernández, A; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Jaber, J R; Andrada, M; Herráez, P

2012-07-01

437

Survey of Large, Igneous-Textured Inclusions in Ordinary Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordinary (O) chondrites are a class of primitive stony meteorites, and as a group comprise our most abundant samples of early solar system materials. Unique to O chondrites are igneous-textured inclusions up to 4 cm in diameter; about an order of magnitude larger than the much more abundant chondrules. These inclusions are almost always highly depleted in metal and sulfide relative to their host meteorite, but but otherwise have diverse characteristics. They exhibit a large range of textures, mineralogies, and bulk compositions, suggesting a variety of formation processes. They all crystallized from large melt volumes, the origins of which are poorly understood. Models proposed for their formation include (1) shock melting of ordinary chondrites with an associated loss of metal and sulfide; (2) melting of vapor-fractionated condensate mixture; (3) chondrule formation involving a larger melt production volume than typical for chondrules; and (4) igneous differentiation occurring within planetesimals sampled by ordinary chondrite parent bodies. Polished thin sections of inclusions from several O-chondrites have been examined with optical light microscopy (OLM) using a Leica DM 2500 petrographic microscope. Petrographic data such as texture, grain sizes and shapes were collected for the inclusions and their hosts in order to facilitate comparisons. Texturally, the inclusions were determined to fall into one of three distinct textural categories: porphyritic, fine granular, and skeletal. Mean grain sizes are on the order of 100 um for both microporphyritic and fine granular inclusions, with microporphyritic inclusions showing a much wider range of grain sizes. The largest grains in the microporphyritic inclusions are on average ~0.25 mm, with the grains of the mesostasis <100 microns. Skeletal olivine textures are defined as being dominated by crystals that are an order of magnitude longer across one direction than the other (e.g., 1 mm x 100 um). Five inclusions have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on a Zeiss Sigma FE-VP SEM at Portland State University. Backscatter electron micrographs were obtained in order to provide additional petrographic data, and olivine composition was determined using a silicon-drift energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector integrated with an Oxford Instruments AZtec X-ray analytical system. Olivine crystals of six inclusions were investigated with electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), performed with a Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe located at Oregon State University, and remotely operated from Portland State. The instrument will be operated at 15 kV accelerating voltage, with a 10-50 nA sample current and a beam diameter of approximately 1 um. Chemically, some inclusions were found to have equilibrated olivine, while others were uneqilibrated. This was also unrelated to host classification, as well as unrelated to host petrographic type. Of the two unequilibrated hosts studied, one had two unequilibrated inclusions, while the other had one equilibrated inclusion. Several eqilibrated hosts had equilibrated inclusion, while one equilibrated host had an unequilibrated inclusion. Neither texture nor chemistry was determined to be related to host type or related to whether the inclusion is a drop-formed mass or a clast.

Armstrong, K.; Ruzicka, A. M.

2013-12-01

438

Perceptual binding of sensory events: the inclusive characteristics model.  

PubMed

A conceptual model of a perceptual system is proposed, in which each neural level forms characteristics inclusive of the data held in the underlying level. As a result, the stimulus field can be expressed as a hierarchically ordered set of overlying sensory characteristics: from sensory features to higher inclusive characteristics binding sensory data to form whole images and scenes. Specific patterns of electrical activity reflecting inclusive characteristics are transmitted via reverse projections from the upper neural levels to the lower. This forms a downward excitation transmission cascade, stimulating those neural structures whose signals correspond to the higher inclusive characteristics of the given perceptual act. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from psychological and neurophysiological studies and may support the binding of sensory events at all perceptual levels. PMID:14635989

Sergin, V Ya

2003-10-01

439

Automated Inclusive Design Heuristics Generation with Graph Mining  

E-print Network

relations, and graph data mining to extract the design heuristics. The goal of this research is to formalize and automate the inclusive-design heuristics generation process. The rule generation allows statistical mining of the design guidelines...

Sangelkar, Shraddha Chandrakant

2013-08-01

440

Refractory-element-rich inclusions in CM meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Refractory-element-rich inclusions of a variety of types occur in CM meteorites. Based on detailed study of Murchison and more limited investigations of Murray, Nogoya, Cold Bokkeveld and Mighei, the most common of these inclusions are small spinel-hibonite bodies rimmed with diopside. Bulk chemical compositions are estimated to be approximately 67% Al2O3, 21% MgO, 5.5% CaO, 5.5% TiO2, and 1% SiO2. Although this chemical composition does not agree closely with current theoretically predicted compositions of early condensate assemblages, the inclusions have many features which suggest that they are indeed early condensates. These include texture, mineralogical composition, sequence of minerals and magnesium isotopic composition of hibonite. The CM refractory inclusions exhibit several differences from those observed in Allende and other CV meteorites. These probably record variations in time, place or physical conditions of origin for the two cases.

Macdougall, J. D.

1979-01-01

441

Inclusive Physical Activity Programming for Girls and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, women's recreation and leisure programs have been inferior to men's. The article reviews the history of recreation programming for females, examines the effect of contemporary feminism, then discusses current and future inclusive programming. Includes references. (SM)

Henderson, Karla A.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

1995-01-01

442

Volume bounds of inclusions from physical EIT measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive estimates on the volume of an unknown inclusion in an electrically conducting body from current and voltage measurements at the boundary. We adopt the so-called complete model of electrical impedance tomography.

Alessandrini, Giovanni; Rosset, Edi

2004-04-01

443

26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2642-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In...

2011-04-01

444

Compaction around a rigid, circular inclusion in partially molten rock  

E-print Network

around a circular inclusion in a configuration that mirrors the experiments. Simulations indicate that the evolution of porosity is predominantly controlled by the porosity-weakening exponent of the shear viscosity and the poorly known bulk viscosity...

Alisic, Laura; Rudge, John F.; Katz, Richard F.; Wells, Garth N.; Rhebergen, Sander

2013-12-11

445

On fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative are studied. We discuss the existence and uniqueness of a solution to such problems. Our study relies on standard variational methods.

Kamocki, Rafa?; Obczy?ski, Cezary

2014-02-01

446

Measurement of semi-inclusive pi(+) electroproduction off the proton  

E-print Network

Semi-inclusive ?+ [pi superscript +] electroproduction on protons has been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The measurement was performed on a liquid-hydrogen target using a 5.75 GeV electron beam. The ...

Skabelin, Alexander V.

447

XFEM with equivalent eigenstrain for matrix-inclusion interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several engineering applications rely on particulate composite materials, and numerical modelling of the matrix-inclusion interface is therefore a crucial part of the design process. The focus of this work is on an original use of the equivalent eigenstrain concept in the development of a simplified eXtended Finite Element Method. Key points are: the replacement of the matrix-inclusion interface by a coating layer with small but finite thickness, and its simulation as an inclusion with an equivalent eigenstrain. For vanishing thickness, the model is consistent with a spring-like interface model. The problem of a spherical inclusion within a cylinder is solved. The results show that the proposed approach is effective and accurate.

Benvenuti, Elena

2014-05-01

448

Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data  

SciTech Connect

A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

1986-04-01

449

Intramitochondrial inclusions in various cells of a snake ( Elaphae quadrivirgata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of inclusion bodies occur in the mitochondria of several cell types of the snake, Elaphae quadrivirgata. These lie in the mitochondrial matrix or within the space of the cristae. The inclusions in the matrix are as follows: dense homogeneous and fine granular materials, structures with finger-print appearance and with filamentous and\\/or crystalloid pattern and fine ring-shaped and\\/or microtubular

Torao Yamamoto; Tatsuo Ebe; Shigeru Kobayashi

1969-01-01

450

Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch kimberlite, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 99% of mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch pipe in the Late Archean Limpopo Mobile Belt (Zimbabwe), are phases of harzburgitic paragenesis, namely olivine (Fo92-93), orthopyroxene (Mg#=93), G10 garnets and chromites. The diamond inclusion (DI) chemistry demonstrates a limited overlap with River Ranch kimberlite macrocrysts: the DI garnets are more Ca-undersaturated, and DI spinel and garnet

Maya G. Kopylova; John J. Gurney; Leon R. M. Daniels

1997-01-01

451

Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch kimberlite, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 99% of mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch pipe in the Late Archean Limpopo Mobile Belt (Zimbabwe),\\u000a are phases of harzburgitic paragenesis, namely olivine (Fo92–93), orthopyroxene (Mg#?=?93), G10 garnets and chromites. The diamond inclusion (DI) chemistry demonstrates a limited overlap\\u000a with River Ranch kimberlite macrocrysts: the DI garnets are more Ca-undersaturated, and DI spinel and garnet

Maya G. Kopylova; John J. Gurney; Leon R. M. Daniels

1997-01-01

452

Mantle-derived fluids in diamond micro-inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microinclusions in diamonds from Zaire and Botswana differ in composition from the more common large inclusions of the peridotitic or eclogitic assemblages. These sub-micrometer inclusions resemble potassic magmas in their composition, but are enriched in H2O, CO2(3-), and K2O and depleted in MgO. This composition represents a volatile-rich fluid or melt from the upper mantle, which was trapped in the diamonds as they grew.

Navon, O.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Rossman, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1988-01-01

453

Fostering inclusive education: principals’ perspectives in Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shares elementary school principals’ perspectives from one urban school district in Trinidad and Tobago, regarding factors that might enhance or limit their and\\/or their faculty’s readiness for inclusion in their schools. Qualitative data collection comprised a self?administered questionnaire and focus group interviewing. Respondents comprise 18 school principals. Findings revealed a philosophical readiness to embrace inclusive practice, but resistance

Dennis A. Conrad; Launcelot I. Brown

2011-01-01

454

Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

Sheehy, Kieron

455

Measurement of inclusive production of neutral hadrons from Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the inclusive production of pi0, eta, Ks0 and Lambda based on 929,000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured inclusive momentum distributions have been compared with predictions from parton shower models as well as an analytical Quantum Chromodynamics calculation. Comparing to low energy e+e- data, we find that QCD describes

M. Acciarri; A. Adam; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; G. Alkhazov; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; J. J. Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; C. Burgos; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; A. Bykov; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; R. Castello; N. Cavallo; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de La Cruz; X. T. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; L. Malgeri; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; M. Redaelli; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; A. Robohm; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen

1994-01-01

456

Altering the model: the challenge of achieving inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides “inclusion” meaning incorporation within the education system, there is also “inclusion” signifying the incorporation\\u000a of knowledge, two distinct processes which went hand-in-hand to start with but which, as education systems expanded, have\\u000a begun to drift apart. While the population as a whole, including the more deprived sectors, has improved its educational level\\u000a over past decades, in more recent times

Inés Aguerrondo; UNESCO IBE

2008-01-01

457

Stress field of a coated arbitrary shape inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method for the plane problem of a coated inclusion of arbitrary shape embedded in an isotropic\\u000a matrix subjected to uniform stresses at infinity. Based on the complex variable method combined with the expansion of Faber\\u000a series and Laurent series, the complex potentials in the matrix, the coating and the arbitrary shape inclusion are given in

Jia-Cheng Luo; Cun-Fa Gao

458

Intracytoplasmic chromophobe inclusion bodies in an anaplastic meningioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are rarely found in meningiomas. A 74-year-old woman had an anaplastic meningioma with\\u000a intracytoplasmic chromophobe inclusion bodies (CIB) histologically. These CIB were various shapes, e.g. round, teardrop-like,\\u000a fusiform, horseshoe-like, crescentic and perinuclear. The size of CIB ranged from 7 to 14 ?m and the nuclei of the tumor cells\\u000a with CIB were often eccentric. Most CIB were

Atsushi Saito; Yoichi Nakazato; Junko Hirato; Atsushi Sasaki; Hideaki Yokoo; Junichi Yamaguchi; Tsuneo Shimizu

1997-01-01

459

Petrography of refractory inclusions in CM2.6 QUE 97990 and the origin of melilite-free spinel inclusions in CM chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 97990 (CM2.6) is among the least-altered CM chondrites known. It contains 1.8 vol% refractory inclusions; 40 were studied from a single thin section. Inclusion varieties include simple, banded and nodular structures as well as simple and complex distended objects. The inclusions range in mean size from 30 to 530 ?m and average 130 ± 90 ?m. Many inclusions contain 25 ± 15 vol% phyllosilicate (predominantly Mg-Fe serpentine); several contain small grains of perovskite. In addition to phyllosilicate, the most abundant inclusions in QUE 97990 consist mainly of spinel-pyroxene (35%), followed by spinel (20%), spinel-pyroxene-olivine (18%), pyroxene (12%), pyroxene-olivine (8%) and hibonite ± spinel (8%). Four pyroxene phases occur: diopside, Al-rich diopside (with ?8.0 wt% Al2O3), Al-Ti diopside (i.e., fassaite), and (in two inclusions) enstatite. No inclusions contain melilite. Aqueous alteration of refractory inclusions transforms some phases (particularly melilite) into phyllosilicate; some inclusions broke apart during alteration. Melilite-free, phyllosilicate-bearing, spinel inclusions probably formed from pristine, phyllosilicate-free inclusions containing both melilite and spinel. Sixty-five percent of the refractory inclusions in QUE 97990 appear to be largely intact; the major exception is the group of spinel inclusions, all of which are fragments. Whereas QUE 97990 contains about 50 largely intact refractory inclusions/cm2, estimates from literature data imply that more-altered CM chondrites have lower modal abundances (and lower number densities) of refractory inclusions: Mighei (CM ˜ 2.3) contains roughly 0.3-0.6 vol% inclusions (˜10 largely intact inclusions/cm2); Cold Bokkeveld (CM2.2) contains ˜0.01 vol% inclusions (on the order of 6 largely intact inclusions/cm2).

Rubin, Alan E.

460

40 CFR 89.102 - Effective dates, optional inclusion, flexibility for equipment manufacturers.  

...Effective dates, optional inclusion, flexibility for equipment manufacturers. 89...Effective dates, optional inclusion, flexibility for equipment manufacturers. ...model year. (d) Implementation flexibility for equipment and vehicle...

2014-07-01

461

N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is generally considered a trace component in the Earth's mantle. Mantle volatiles sampled from mid-ocean ridge basalts or preserved as fluid inclusions in xenoliths are dominated by CO2, with only traces of nitrogen. Here we describe CO2-N2 fluid inclusions with 40 mol% N2 and silicate melt inclusions with ?0.1 wt% dissolved N2 in mantle-derived diamonds from 3 different cratons. The diamonds are octahedrally-grown, which is the most common growth habit and rarely reported to contain fluid inclusions. The inclusions have C/N ratios <1, more than two orders of magnitude below typical mantle values. We propose that nitrogen can become concentrated to high degrees by processes related to diamond growth. A growing diamond does not readily consume the nitrogen available, suggesting incompatible behaviour. Residual N2 from this process represents a concentrated nitrogen flux escaping the convecting mantle. Hidden nitrogen fluxes like this might be significant in counteracting the large apparent net influx by subduction. Based on nitrogen and carbon speciation in the inclusions, we propose that redox processes control the liberation of nitrogen from the convecting mantle, by the oxidation of NH+4 in silicates to mobile N2, concurrent with a parallel oxidation process releasing carbonate melt from the asthenosphere. Isotopic fractionation accompanying changes in nitrogen speciation could help account for the apparent isotopic mismatch between surficial and mantle nitrogen.

Smith, Evan M.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Afanasiev, Valentin P.

2014-05-01

462

Genesis of melilitolite from Colle Fabbri: inferences from melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melilite and wollastonite from the Colle Fabbri stock contain silicate melt and silicate-carbonate inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of silicate inclusions are within the magmatic temperature range of mantle ultrabasic melts: about 1,320 ± 15 °?. Their composition is melilititic and evolves to the composition of leucite tephrite and phonolite. The composition of silicate-carbonate inclusions are high SiO2, Ca-rich, enriched in alkalies and are similar to that of inclusions of carbonatite melts in the minerals of melilitolites of other intrusive ultramafic complexes. They are also similar to the compositions of metasomatized travertine covering the melilitolite stock. The presence of primary silicate and silicate-carbonate inclusions evidences that the melilitite magma from which melilitolites of Colle Fabbri crystallized was associated with carbonatite liquid. This liquid was highly fluidized, mobile and aggressive. Actively interacting with overlying travertine, the liquid enriched them with alkalies, aluminosilicates and incompatible elements, which resulted in the equalization of their compositions. Heterogeneous compositional dominions were formed at the contact between melilitolite and wall pelites. In the minerals of these contact facies high-Si melt inclusions of varying composition have been observed. Their occurrence is related to the local assimilation by the high-temperature melilitite magma of pelitic country rocks. The content of incompatible elements in melilitite melts and melilitolites is higher than the mantle norm and they have peculiar indicator ratios, spectra, Eu/Eu* ratio, which suggest a peculiar mantle source.

Panina, L. I.; Nikolaeva, A. T.; Stoppa, F.

2013-12-01

463

Study of inclusion re-entrainment in a filter bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filtration is widely used in various processes such as water treatment and aluminum casting for the removal of unwanted impurities called inclusions. The deposited inclusions can re-enter the flow as a result of the unfavorable hydrodynamic conditions within the system or flow instabilities, such as flow stop/start periods during casting cycles in the aluminum industry. In this project, the re-entrainment of inclusions was studied as a function of filter-bed length, particle size, inlet inclusion concentration, and inlet velocity. A physical model using water containing PVC particles as inclusions was built. Experiments were carried out under continuous-flow as well as interrupted-flow conditions in this pilot-scale filter. It was found that the smaller bed particles and longer bed length enhance the deposition and reduce the re-entrainment of inclusions. Increasing the inlet velocity has a negative effect on the deposition and increases the re-entrainment. A one-dimensional mathematical filtration model has also been developed, and its predictions were compared with the experimental data from the pilot filter and the plant. This article presents the experimental study, its results, and the comparison between model predictions and experimental data. Applicability of the model to aluminum filtration is also illustrated.

Kocaefe, D.; Murray-Chiasson, A.; Kocaefe, Y.; Waite, P.

2004-10-01

464

Biomimetic microfabricated compound eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, compound eyes in nature have been one of the most studied and intriguing topics in physiological optics due to their unique optical scheme for imaging. Hundreds to ten thousands of integrated optical units called ommatidia are spherically arranged along a curvilinear surface and point in different directions. Each ommatidium collects light within a small angular acceptance and collectively they construct a full image with a wide field-of-view. In this work, artificial compound eye lenses with three-dimensional configuration, which are anatomically and functionally similar to those in nature, have been synthesized using a photosensitive polymer resin by utilizing microlens technology, self-written waveguide process, and soft lithography. Replicated honeycomb packed polymer microlenses as substitute for facet lenses in a natural compound eye was microfabricated with a photoresist melting process for microlens templates and a soft lithographic process for polymer replication. The microtemplate of photoresist microlens arrays (F/1 ˜ F/3, DL = 20 ˜ 50 mum) with low Fresnel number (NF < 10) and high packing density was replicated with different polymers such as UV curable epoxy resin, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, and a negative tone photoresist. Related to ommatidial optics, the diffraction of a low Fresnel number microlens, the light guiding of a waveguide, and the angular acceptance function of a microlens-waveguide system were theoretically studied with numerical analysis. First, as a prototype microfabricated microlens-waveguide system ( DL = 300 mum), a small angular acceptance (rho A = 1.5°) comparable to that of natural ommatidia was experimentally achieved and compared with the numerical analysis. The system is based on self-written waveguides in a photosensitive polymer resin and replicated elastomer microlens arrays. However, due to the technical difficulties in handling the elastomer membrane with microlenses, it is limited in scaling down to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidium. Second, as an advanced development, self-aligned microlens-waveguide systems comparable to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidia have been developed and integrated in a photosensitive resin. The individual microlens-waveguide systems of about 8,370 were spherically arranged along the circumference of a polymer dome of 2.5 mm in diameter and each points in different directions. The spherical configuration was realized using a replication process of reconfigurable microtemplates, i.e. the polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns under small pressure (5 kPa ˜ 20 kPa). The characterizations of the small scale microlenses (F/1.8 ˜ F/2.9, DL = 25 mum) and waveguides were also carried out with a modified reflection/transmission confocal microscope. The comparative discussion between natural and artificial compound eyes is described and several future directions based on this work are also proposed.

Jeong, Ki-Hun

465

Dioxin and Related Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This substantial new site, provided by the Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Environmental Assessment, addresses the mechanism of Dioxin contamination and describes NCEA's Dioxin Reassessment efforts. The site provides full descriptions and molecular graphics of "Dioxins and related compounds" (Furans, PCB's), as well as EPA Summaries on Dioxin exposure, Dioxin risk, and dose response. The Dioxin Exposure Initiative seeks to quantitatively link dioxin sources to general population exposures using "source measurements, environmental media and national food surveys, and fate and transport modeling." Further links to EPA Regulations and EPA Analytical Methods round out the site. Note that many of the documents at the site are available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) or WordPerfect format.

1994-01-01

466

Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low salinities (less than half that of seawater) have been found only in one dioritic sample from the Gorringe Bank. Mineralogical and petrological data from the Semail Ophiolite shows the absence of Cl-rich minerals. Furthermore, hydration of the crust, although very important, cannot account for the large salinity variations. Thus the large salinity variations measured are interpreted as resulting from phase separation and generation of brine-rich fluids at the top of the magma chamber. This phase separation and subsequent phase segregation and brine accumulation may result in a double-diffusive convection of the fluids in the hydrothermal system.

Nehlig, Pierre

1991-03-01

467

A 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone/Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex with Anti-Butyrylcholinesterase Activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to improve the water solubility of 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) isolated from Kaempferia parviflora by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?-CD). The phase solubility profile of 5,7-DMF in the presence of HP?-CD was classified as AL-type and indicated a 1:1 mole ratio. Differential scanning colorimetry, X-ray diffraction, NMR and SEM analyses supported the formation of a 5,7-DMF/HP?-CD inclusion complex involving the A ring of 5,7-DMF inside the HP?-CD cavity. This is the first example of CD inclusion with the A ring of non-hydroxyl flavones. The stability and binding constants of the complexes were determined using the phase solubility and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The water solubility of 5,7-DMF was increased 361.8-fold by complexation with HP?-CD and overcame the precipitation problem observed in aqueous buffers, such as during in vitro anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity assays. The 1:1 mole ratio of the 5,7-DMF/HP?-CD complex showed a 2.7-fold higher butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (in terms of the IC50 value) compared to the non-complexed compound. PMID:24879292

Songngam, Supachai; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Sawasdee, Pattara

2014-10-01

468

Using melt inclusions and fluid inclusions to track ore-metal behavior in magma-hydrothermal systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt and fluid inclusions yield important clues to the history of igneous melts and their related hydrothermal ore deposits (1). Under ideal conditions, melt inclusions in volcanic rocks yield data on the actual concentrations of ore metals and volatiles during instantaneous snapshots of crystallization and degassing. Their varying compositions can directly reflect sequestration of ore-metals in fractionating minerals and/or exsolving brines and vapors. Frequently, scientists compare the concentration of volatile elements in melt inclusions with their abundance in devolatilized matrix glass. Though this provides an informative qualitative overview of volatility, it is essentially impossible to use such data to calculate thermodynamically relevant partition coefficients. The resulting partitioning ratio instead represents fractionation over a wide range of pressures, and compositions (for both exsolved fluid and silicate melt). Ideally, workers should identify co-entrapped fluid and glass inclusions to provide more thermodynamically meaningful partitioning ratios for volatile metals and gases (2,3). Unfortunately, the occurrence of fluid inclusions co-entrapped with silicate melt is relatively rare, and studies of synthetic fluid and melt inclusions may be the most practical means of exploring the effect of crystallization and degassing in 'natural' systems. As with melt inclusions, under ideal conditions, fluid inclusions in intrusive rocks represent the compositions of fluids generated within associated magmatic-hydrothermal fluid systems. Multiple generations of cross-cutting fractures may be generated, resulting in trails of secondary and pseudosecondary inclusions in igneous minerals, and primary and secondary inclusions in hydrothermal assemblages. Chemistry of the fluids preserved within different inclusion generations will change markedly due to changes in magmatic temperature and pressure and mixing of diverse external fluids from meteoric and metamorphic sources. For example, ore elements sequestered by magmatic crystallization at high temperature may be liberated and re-transported by fluids upon magma cooling due to breakdown and dissolution of oxides and sulfides at low temperature. Both fluid and melt inclusions can be open to modification between initial formation and ultimate petrographic inspection. In melt inclusions, bubbles separate from glass and variably re-hydrate the glass during cooling. In addition, crystals can form and elements can diffuse between glass and host mineral. These problems are yet more exaggerated in intrusive rocks, but workers are still able to obtain useful information through meticulous inspection, categorization and analysis through diverse techniques. This presentation will review a variety of recent studies that illustrate these concepts and demonstrate how to extract useful information from inclusions from a variety of deposit types. (1) Audétat, A. & Lowenstern, J.B. (in press) Melt Inclusions. In Scott. S. (ed.) Geochemistry of Mineral Resources: Treatise of Geochemistry, 2nd edition. (2) Zajacz Z, et al. (2008) Geochim et Cosmochim.Acta, 72: 2169-2197. (3) Lerchbaumer, L. & Audétat, A., (2013) Econ. Geol. v. 108, p. 987-1013.

Lowenstern, J. B.; Audétat, A.

2013-12-01

469

Winged inclusions under high-strain simple shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate pinch-and-swell objects, which have been subjected to layer parallel shear deformation. We use a high-resolution mechanical numerical model, which allows to model finite strains up to ? = 40. The developing structures have been called winged inclusions, which have geometrically similarities with ?-clast systems and rolling structures. However, our model results suggest markedly different mechanical evolution for winged inclusions, which has to be considered when these structures are used as shear sense indicator or finite strain gauge. During the early stages of formation winged inclusions may resemble mirror images of sigmoidal objects and miss-interpretations will lead to a wrong interpretation of the shear sense. During high-shear strain, the structures may be approximately described as consisting of a pulsating faster rotating core and thinning tails that experience differential slower rotation. The viscosity ratio and the shape of the winged inclusion have a significant influence on the rotation rate. The tails are subject to ptygmatic folding when they rotate through the field of instantaneous shortening and may unfold again in the field of instantaneous stretching. During on-going shearing the trailing wing may become the leading wing and finally unfold after rotation of 180° resulting again in a pinch and swell shaped objects. Therefore winged inclusions record little information about the finite strain. Rootless intrafolial folds with opposing closures have geometrically strong similarities with winged inclusions. It is speculated that the formation of winged inclusions might be an efficient mechanisms to produce rootless intrafolial folds, which might influence the rheological behaviour of natural highly strained rocks.

Grasemann, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin

2014-05-01

470

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

2008-12-01

471

Public chemical compound databases.  

PubMed

The internet has rapidly become the first port of call for all information searches. The increasing array of chemistry-related resources that are now available provides chemists with a direct path to the information that was previously accessed via library services and was limited by commercial and costly resources. The diversity of the information that can be accessed online is expanding at a dramatic rate, and the support for publicly available resources offers significant opportunities in terms of the benefits to science and society. While the data online do not generally meet the quality standards of manually curated sources, there are efforts underway to gather scientists together and 'crowdsource' an improvement in the quality of the available data. This review discusses the types of public compound databases that are available online and provides a series of examples. Focus is also given to the benefits and disruptions associated with the increased availability of such data and the integration of technologies to data mine this information. PMID:18428094

Williams, Anthony J

2008-05-01

472

Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

Cooper, Grorge

2001-01-01

473

Quantifying strain birefringence halos around inclusions in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure and temperature conditions of formation of natural diamond can be estimated by measuring the residual stress that an inclusion remains under within a diamond. Raman spectroscopy has been the most commonly used technique for determining this stress by utilising pressure-sensitive peak shifts in the Raman spectrum of both the inclusion and the diamond host. Here, we present a new approach to measure the residual stress using quantitative analysis of the birefringence induced in the diamond. As the analysis of stress-induced birefringence is very different from that of normal birefringence, an analytical model is developed that relates the spherical inclusion size, R i, host diamond thickness, L, and measured value of birefringence at the edge of the inclusion, Updelta n(R_{text{i}} )_{text{av}} , to the peak value of birefringence that has been encountered; to first order Updelta n_{text{pk}} = (3/4)(L/R_{text{i}} ) Updelta n(R_{text{i}} )_{text{av}} . From this birefringence, the remnant pressure ( P i) can be calculated using the photoelastic relationship Updelta n_{text{pk}} = - (3/4)n3 q_{text{iso}} P_{text{i}} , where q iso is a piezo-optical coefficient, which can be assumed to be independent of crystallographic orientation, and n is the refractive index of the diamond. This model has been used in combination with quantitative birefringence analysis with a MetriPol system and compared to the results from both Raman point and 2D mapping analysis for a garnet inclusion in a diamond from the Udachnaya mine (Russia) and coesite inclusions in a diamond from the Finsch mine (South Africa). The birefringence model and analysis gave a remnant pressure of 0.53 ± 0.01 GPa for the garnet inclusion, from which a source pressure was calculated as 5.7 GPa at 1,175°C (temperature obtained from IR analysis of the diamond host). The Raman techniques could not be applied quantitatively to this sample to support the birefringence model; they were, however, applied to the largest coesite inclusion in the Finsch sample. The remnant pressure values obtained were 2.5 ± 0.1 GPa (birefringence), 2.5 ± 0.3 GPa (2D Raman map), and 2.5-2.6 GPa (Raman point analysis from all four inclusions). However, although the remnant pressures from the three methods were self-consistent, they led to anomalously low source pressure of 2.9 GPa at 1,150°C (temperature obtained from IR analysis) raising serious concerns about the use of the coesite-in-diamond geobarometer.

Howell, D.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Jones, A. P.; Nasdala, L.; Harris, J. W.

2010-11-01

474

First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison  

SciTech Connect

Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f{sub O2} conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f{sub O2} = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of these samples allows comparison of Ti valence of (1) pyroxene in sp-pyx inclusions with that of fassaite; (2) spinel in hibonite-bearing with that of hibonite-free inclusions; and (3) hibonite in sp-hib inclusions with that of large, single grains and the previously analyzed sample.

Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L. (UC)

2009-03-23

475

Solid State Characterization of Domperidone: Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to prepare inclusion complex of domperidone with hydroxylpropyl-?-cyclodextrin in order improved the solubility and hence to increase dissolution of domperidone. An effect of concentration of hydroxylpropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the aqueous solubility of domperidone was determined by phase-solubility method. The aqueous solubility of domperidone increased as a function of hydroxylpropyl-?-cyclodextrin concentration, showing AL type diagram. Solid domperidone/hydroxylpropyl-?-cyclodextrin complex was prepared in ratio 1:1 by ultrasonication and kneading method. Solid state inclusion complex was characterized by FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction and differential-scanning calorimetry techniques. FTIR studies showed intactness of drug in complex whereas powder diffraction studies showed that hydroxylpropyl-?-cyclodextrin complex was amorphous. Solubility studies showed that complexation increased domperidone solubility as compared to pure drug in 0.1M hydrochloric acid and distilled water. Drug content confirms that ultrasonication is one of the efficient methods to prepare inclusion complex. Dissolution data of inclusion complexes also indicated that there is 1.4 folds increase in dissolution as compared to pure drug and was observed in case of inclusion complexes prepared by ultrasonication. PMID:20838533

Ghodke, D. S.; Chaulang, G. M.; Patil, K. S.; Nakhat, P. D.; Yeole, P. G.; Naikwade, N. S.; Magdum, C. S.

2010-01-01

476

The validity and value of inclusive fitness theory  

PubMed Central

Social evolution is a central topic in evolutionary biology, with the evolution of eusociality (societies with altruistic, non-reproductive helpers) representing a long-standing evolutionary conundrum. Recent critiques have questioned the validity of the leading theory for explaining social evolution and eusociality, namely inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory. I review recent and past literature to argue that these critiques do not succeed. Inclusive fitness theory has added fundamental insights to natural selection theory. These are the realization that selection on a gene for social behaviour depends on its effects on co-bearers, the explanation of social behaviours as unalike as altruism and selfishness using the same underlying parameters, and the explanation of within-group conflict in terms of non-coinciding inclusive fitness optima. A proposed alternative theory for eusocial evolution assumes mistakenly that workers' interests are subordinate to the queen's, contains no new elements and fails to make novel predictions. The haplodiploidy hypothesis has yet to be rigorously tested and positive relatedness within diploid eusocial societies supports inclusive fitness theory. The theory has made unique, falsifiable predictions that have been confirmed, and its evidence base is extensive and robust. Hence, inclusive fitness theory deserves to keep its position as the leading theory for social evolution. PMID:21920980

Bourke, Andrew F. G.

2011-01-01

477

Numerical Modeling of Inclusion Behavior in Liquid Metal Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermomechanical performance of metallic alloys is directly related to the metal cleanliness that has always been a challenge for metallurgists. During liquid metal processing, particles can grow or decrease in size either by mass transfer with the liquid phase or by agglomeration/fragmentation mechanisms. As a function of numerical density of inclusions and of the hydrodynamics of the reactor, different numerical modeling approaches are proposed; in the case of an isolated particle, the Lagrangian technique coupled with a dissolution model is applied, whereas in the opposite case of large inclusion phase concentration, the population balance equation must be solved. Three examples of numerical modeling studies achieved at Institut Jean Lamour are discussed. They illustrate the application of the Lagrangian technique (for isolated exogenous inclusion in titanium bath) and the Eulerian technique without or with the aggregation process: for precipitation and growing of inclusions at the solidification front of a Maraging steel, and for endogenous inclusions in the molten steel bath of a gas-stirred ladle, respectively.

Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Descotes, Vincent; Jardy, Alain

2013-09-01

478

Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study has yielded surface water paleotemperatures from primary fluid inclusions in mid Permian Nippewalla Group halite from western Kansas. A 'cooling nucleation' method is used to generate vapor bubbles in originally all-liquid primary inclusions. Then, surface water paleotemperatures are obtained by measuring temperatures of homogenization to liquid. Homogenization temperatures ranged from 21??C to 50??C and are consistent along individual fluid inclusion assemblages, indicating that the fluid inclusions have not been altered by thermal reequilibration. Homogenization temperatures show a range of up to 26??C from base to top of individual cloudy chevron growth bands. Petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence indicate that no significant pressure correction is needed for the homogenization temperature data. We interpret these homogenization temperatures to represent shallow surface water paleotemperatures. The range in temperatures from base to top of single chevron bands may reflect daily temperatures variations. These Permian surface water temperatures fall within the same range as some modern evaporative surface waters, suggesting that this Permian environment may have been relatively similar to its modern counterparts. Shallow surface water temperatures in evaporative settings correspond closely to local air temperatures. Therefore, the Permian surface water temperatures determined in this study may be considered proxies for local Permian air temperatures.

Benison, K. C.; Goldstein, R. H.

1999-01-01

479

How robust are melt inclusions in olivine for mantle study?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt inclusions in olivine are commonly used to address composition of mantle sources and processes of mantle melting. Here I will assess basic assumption of such studies: ability of melt inclusions to preserve chemical characteristics of parental melts formed in the mantle. Using published and new data I will demonstrate that olivines generally trap their melt inclusions during shallow crystallization in the crust by fast growth in the thermal boundary layers of mixing magma batches. Whether such trapped melts represent parental melts or they were modified by reaction on route could be recognized by chemical evidence of shallow equilibrium with plagioclase or pyroxene. Some inclusions reveal post-trapping modification of heaviest REE and H2O by volume diffusion through host olivine as predicted by the high diffusion coefficients for these elements in olivine (e.g . Spandler et al, Nature 2007 and Portnyagin et al, EPSL 2008). However, the contents of the middle and light REE and those of all highly incompatible trace elements are fully preserved. I conclude that (1) time scales in the magmatic system are short enough to preserve the abundances of highly and moderately incompatible elements inherited from primary melts, and (2) there is no evidence that wall-rock interaction has contributed significantly to the incompatible-element composition of Hawaiian melt inclusions.

Sobolev, A. V.

2008-12-01

480

Computational study on the molecular inclusion of andrographolide by cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

Due to the poor water solubility of andrographolide (andro), an inclusion technique has been developed to modify its physical and chemical properties so as to improve its bioavailability. In contrast with the immense experimental studies on the inclusion complexes of andro:cyclodextrin, no computational study has so far been carried out on this system. In this work, preliminary docking experiments with AutoDock were performed. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Austin Model 1 (AM1) calculations upon the docking instances were applied to investigate the two possible modes of molecular inclusions between andro and x-cyclodextrin (xCD, where x is alpha, beta or gamma). Atoms-in-Molecules (AIM) analysis based on the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ wavefunction was applied to verify the existence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. It was found that the most stable complex among the six possible inclusion complexes was the one formed between andro and betaCD with andro's decalin ring moiety wrapped by CD at a ratio of 1:1. The hydrogen bonds between andro and CD were responsible for the stability of the inclusion complexes. The calculated data were found to be consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the results of this study can aid new drug design processes. PMID:18841328

Zhou, Hongwei; Lai, Wai-Ping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wai-Kee; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

2009-03-01

481

First-year students' perceptions of inclusion and relationships with other university experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first report of first -year students' perceptions of inclusion in teaching practices and campus interactions in an Australian university using a six-item set of questions as a scale to measure inclusion. There were no significant effects of age, gender, program of study or campus on perceptions of inclusion. Perceptions of inclusion correlated significantly with perceptions of

Craig Zimitat

482

Inclusive Education: A Casebook and Readings for Prospective and Practicing Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents readings and teaching cases designed to prepare teachers for inclusive education. Part 1, "Readings," provides an overview of issues related to inclusive education and describes approaches for creating inclusive classrooms and schools, including: (1) "Creating Inclusive Classrooms: An Overview" (Suzanne E. Wade and Judy Zone);…

Wade, Suzanne E., Ed.

483

Determination of sulfur in fluid inclusions by laser ablation ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIST SRM 610 (570 ± 70 µg g ?1 ), which was further validated using EPMA and then used as standard reference material for the fluid inclusion analysis. The sulfur concentration in an assemblage of brine inclusions from a quartz-molybdenum vein was determined to be 5900 ± 2000 µg g ?1 measuring 17 inclusions with the ICP-SF-MS and 13 inclusions

Marcel Guillong; Christopher Latkoczy; Jung Hun Seo; Detlef Günther; Christoph A. Heinrich

2008-01-01

484

Training, Understanding, and the Attitudes of Primary School Teachers Regarding Inclusive Education in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education is one of the most important issues in education in Hong Kong, China. Because the role of teachers is critical to the success of inclusive education, this study investigated some of the elements that determine the success of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' perceived definition of inclusive education, the…

Leung, Chi-hung; Mak, Kit-ying

2010-01-01

485

Microthermometric analysis of synthetic fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was employed as a pressurized fluid inclusion heating stage to determine temperatures of phase transitions in synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Using this technique, the common problem of decrepitation or stretch- ing of inclusions having high internal pressures was eliminated. Homogenization temperatures of pure H2O synthetic inclusions determined in the HDAC are inversely related to

CHRISTIAN SCHMIDT; I-MING CHOU; ROBERT J. BODNAR; WILLIAM A. BASSETT

486

Inclusive study of high-energy multiparticle production and two-body correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental information on multibody hadron production is examined in the framework of an inclusive and semi-inclusive approach. In the first part, the trends towards possible asymptotic limits is briefly discussed. The main part of this review is then devoted to the study of inclusive and semi-inclusive two-particle correlations.

L. Foà

1975-01-01

487

Antimicrobial compounds in tears.  

PubMed

The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

McDermott, Alison M

2013-12-01