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1

Ordered arrangements of metal nanoparticles on alpha-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes by magnetron sputtering .  

E-print Network

??An ordered self-assembly of copper, silver and gold nanoparticles onto crystal faces of a-cyclodextrin/1- octanethiol and 2a-cyclodextrin/1-octylamine inclusion complexes by means of physical vapor deposition… (more)

Barrientos, L.

2012-01-01

2

Application of MOOT to scattering of elastic waves from compound inclusions  

SciTech Connect

It is shown how MOOT (method of optimal truncation, a convergent T-matrix scheme) can be used to calculate elastic wave scattering from compound inclusions, i.e., inclusions which themselves contain flaws - inclusions, voids, or cracks. The general equations are derived, and they are solved for a particular axially-symmetric case - a cracked spherical inclusion immersed in fluid. The crack edge is a circle on the equatorial plane; the crack can extend either inward to the center or outward to the surface of the sphere. Numerical results are given for scattering of acoustic waves from cracked spheres of various materials. Cracked spheres can be fabricated relatively easily, and may be useful in NDE calibrations.

Visscher, W.M.

1980-01-01

3

A new sprout inhibitor of potato tuber based on carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoterpene, D-carvone or (4S)-(+)-carvone, present in the essential oil of caraway seeds (Carum carvi L.), acts as a sprouting inhibitor agent for potato tubers in storage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the\\u000a possibility of using carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound as a sprout inhibitor agent for potato tubers. A Raman study\\u000a of the interactions between ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)

M. Costa E Silva; C. I. C. Galhano; A. M. G. Moreira Da Silva

2007-01-01

4

Physicochemical and molecular modeling studies of cefixime-L-arginine-cyclodextrin ternary inclusion compounds.  

PubMed

In an attempt to improve the physicochemical properties of cefixime (CEF), its supramolecular inclusion compounds were prepared with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) in presence and/or absence of ternary component L-arginine (ARG) using spray drying technique. Initially, the phase solubility studies revealed a stoichiometry of 1:1 molar ratio with an AL-type of phase solubility curve. The stability constants of binary systems were remarkably improved in presence of ARG, indicating positive effect of its addition. The inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, XRPD, DSC, SEM, particle size analysis, and dissolution studies. Further, molecular mechanic (MM) calculations were performed to investigate the possible orientations of CEF inside ?CD cavity in presence and/or absence of ternary component. In case of physicochemical studies, the ternary systems performed well as a result of comprehensive effect of ternary complexation and particle size reduction achieved by a spray drying technology. PMID:24053809

Jadhav, Priyanka; Petkar, Bhushan; Pore, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Anita; Burade, Kishorkumar

2013-11-01

5

Structural and dynamical aspects of the phase transition in the new thiourea thiazolium bromide inclusion compound.  

PubMed

A new thiourea thiazolium bromide inclusion compound is presented here. Detailed investigations of its phase transition were performed by differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, and dielectric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods, completed by calculation of the steric hindrances for molecular reorientations and simulations of the second moment of the nuclear magnetic resonance line by the Monte Carlo method. A second order ferrielectric structural phase transition has been detected at 190.5 K as thiazolium cations collectively reorient inside channels. The dynamics is discussed in terms of inequivalent energy barriers associated with cation rotation as the symmetry breaking occurs. Oscillations of thiourea molecules and NH(2) groups have been also observed. PMID:19044918

Pajzderska, A; Wasicki, J; Ma?uszy?ska, H; Czarnecki, P; Toupet, L; Collet, E

2008-09-14

6

Inclusion and Optical Resolution of Guest Molecules by Selected Synthetic Dihydroxy- and Trihydroxy-Host Compounds Containing Heterocyclic Scaffolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review focuses on structural aspects of inclusion complexation between selected host molecules that contain - OH sensor groups appended to, or associated with, heterocyclic moieties, and both non-chiral and chiral guests. Among the host compounds discussed, those derived from tartaric acid feature prominently as they have been extensively explored, especially in the context of optical resolution of racemic guests. Of the various techniques employed in the study of the derived solid-state inclusion complexes, single crystal X-ray studies have contributed significantly to an understanding of the roles of hydrogen bonding, van der Waals, C-H···? and ?-? interactions in complex stabilization. For the host molecules described, the literature surveyed accordingly provides many case studies that feature X-ray analysis as a primary tool for investigating the mechanistic aspects of inclusion phenomena such as optical resolution and enantioselective photoreactivity.

Caira, Mino R.; Tanaka, Koichi

7

Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25

Xintao Shuai; Min Wei; Francis Probeni; Todd A. Bullions; I. Daniel Shin; Alan E. Tonelli

2002-01-01

8

1H NMR study of inclusion compounds of phenylurea derivatives in ?-cyclodextrin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR), which has become an important tool for the study "in situ" of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) complexes, was used to study and structurally characterize the inclusion complexes formed between ?-CD and isoproturon, fenuron, monuron and diuron. The high variation of the chemical shifts from the proton located inside the cavity (H-3, H-5 and H-6) coupled with the non variation of the one located outer sphere of the ?-CD (H-1, H-2 and H-4) provided clear evidence of the inclusion phenomena. Two-dimensional rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were carried out to further support the proposed inclusion mode.

Dupuy, N.; Barbry, D.; Bria, M.; Marquis, S.; Vrielynck, L.; Kister, J.

2005-04-01

9

Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution behavior of nicardipine–cyclodextrins inclusion compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion complexation between nicardipine hydrochloride (NC), a calcium-channel antagonist, and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) or hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was evaluated in aqueous environment and in solid state. The phase solubility profiles with both cyclodextrins (CDs) were classified as AL-type, indicating the formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Stability constants (Ks) were calculated from the phase solubility diagrams and were found to be pH

Catarina M Fernandes; M Teresa Vieira; Francisco J B. Veiga

2002-01-01

10

Improving ITC studies of cyclodextrin inclusion compounds by global analysis of conventional and non-conventional experiments  

PubMed Central

Summary The study of 1:1 cyclodextrin inclusion compounds by isothermal titration calorimetry was explored in a theoretical and experimental point of view to compare the efficiency of conventional and non-conventional experiments. All direct and competitive protocols were described and evaluated in terms of accuracy on both binding constant and inclusion enthalpy. Significant improvement in the calorimetric characterization may be obtained by means of the global analysis of non-conventional experiments coupled to the standard titration protocol. While the titration-release approach proved to be the most accurate strategy for classical complexations, the valuable contribution of other non-conventional experiments was demonstrated for issues concerning weak stability, enthalpy, or solubility. PMID:25550724

Bertaut, Eléonore

2014-01-01

11

Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and cyclopentadienyl tantalum and niobium calixarene compounds and their water and acetonitrile inclusion complexes  

SciTech Connect

Several niobium and tantalum pentamethylcyclopentadienyl or cyclopentadienyl calixarene complexes were prepared and structurally characterized. The cavity in these compounds is of an appropriate geometry to receive small molecules such as water or acetonitrile. X-ray diffraction and Fenske-Hall calculations were used in the consideration of the structure of these compounds.

Acho, J.A.; Doerrer, L.H.; Lippard, S.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-05-10

12

Pt inclusion compounds as oxygen reduction catalysts in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Pt inclusions in high-specific-area graphite (HS300, from Lonza) and Vulcan (XC-72R, from Cabot) have been synthesized by the reduction of PtCl{sub x} salts intercalated in these hosts. These materials perform well as catalysts for the reduction of oxygen in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). After an activation time of 48 h during which the cathode is held at 0.5 V vs. the reference hydrogen electrode, it is found that catalysts based on Pt inclusions and commercial catalysts of the same Pt content and loading have similar mass and specific activities. However, in the same conditions, catalysts based on Pt inclusions perform better in the high-current region than the commercial catalysts. It has been shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis that, at the beginning of the activation time, a fraction of the Pt oxides and/or hydroxides present in the materials is reduced to Pt metal. This reduction improves the catalytic activities of the materials prepared in this study and also those of commercial catalysts. Further improvement is probably due to hydration of the catalyst layer and/or the washing out of insidious contaminants (e.g., chloride ions). Because higher current densities can be obtained with Pt included in graphite catalyst at a loading of 0.13 mg Pt/cm{sup 2} than with commercial Pt supported on Vulcan catalyst at a loading of 0.15 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}, the use of cathode catalysts containing Pt inclusions is therefore a way of reducing the Pt loading at the cathode of PEFCs. However, a limitation of the new materials is the fact that the maximum amount of Pt that can be included in Vulcan is only about 5 wt %, whereas it is only 10 wt % in graphite.

Faubert, G.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J.P. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1998-09-01

13

Hydrogen-bonded inclusion compounds with reversed polarity: anionic metal-complexes and cationic organic linkers.  

PubMed

Synthesized and structurally characterized is a new series of soft-host frameworks assembled by charge-assisted hydrogen bonds between an anionic metal complex (MC) and cationic organic linkers (OL), specifically [Co(en)(ox)(2)](-) and diprotonated 4,4'-bipyridinium (H(2)bpy) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridinium)ethylene (H(2)bpye). While frameworks built of cationic complexes and anionic organic linkers are already well-known, the seven new compounds described here represent the first series of frameworks with reversed polarity, that is, made of anionic complexes and cationic organic linkers. The compounds have a general formula [OL][MC](2)·n(guest), where the guest molecules 4,4'-biphenol (bp), 4-methoxyphenol (mp), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (dmb), 1,6-dimethoxynaphtalene (dmn), and 4-nitroanisole (na). Structurally the compounds can be described as pillared-layer frameworks with layers constructed of MC anions and linked together by hydrogen-bonded cationic OL pillars. The guest molecules occupy the galleries between the pillars while their steric, electronic, and ?-? and hydrogen-bonding capabilities influence the overall structure of the soft frameworks. PMID:22085246

Prakash, M Jaya; Sevov, Slavi C

2011-12-19

14

Inclusion compounds between ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: iron II lactate: a theoretical and experimental study using diffusion coefficients and molecular mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was ?-CD>?-CD>?-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

2003-01-01

15

How the inclusion of treated water in beverages influences the appearance of halogenated volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

A simple, robust, and reliable headspace gas chromatography method has been developed for the determination of 14 halogenated volatile organic compounds, including iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs), at nanogram per liter levels in beverages. The main source of the presence of THMs in reconstituted fruit juices, nectars, and soft drinks is the treated water included as an ingredient; the concentration and speciation depend on the volume and disinfection process of the treated water either from the distribution network or from water directly disinfected by the food factory. Chloroform appears at concentrations below 1 ?g/L in natural juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water due to contamination from the chlorinated sanitizers usually employed in the food industry. However, the beverages manufactured with treated water contain, in addition to chloroform, brominated THMs and dichloroiodomethane (detected in beverages for the first time), which can be used as indicators of the presence of treated water. PMID:25255208

Montesinos, Isabel; Gallego, Mercedes

2014-10-22

16

The guest ordering and dynamics in urea inclusion compounds studied by solid-state 1H and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea inclusion compounds with different guest species were studied by 13C CP MAS and 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. It is possible to arrange the asymmetric guest species in three different ways: head-head, head-tail and tail-tail. 13C CP MAS NMR studies indicate that the preference arrangement is determined by the interaction strength of the end functional groups. 13C relaxation experiments are used to study the dynamic properties of urea inclusion compounds. 13C relaxation studies on urea inclusion compounds with n-alkane or decanoic acid show that the 13C T1 and 13C T1? values exhibit the position dependence towards the center of the chain, indicating internal chain mobility. The analysis of variable-temperature 13C T1? experiments on urea inclusion compounds with hexadecane and pentadecane, for the first time, suggests that chain fluctuations and lateral motion of n-alkane guests may contribute to the 13C T1? relaxation.

Yang, Xiaorong; Müller, Klaus

2011-12-01

17

Formation of a flame retardant-cyclodextrin inclusion compound and its application as a flame retardant for poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the formation of an inclusion compound (IC) between a commercial flame retardant (FR) and beta-cyclodextrin (CD). The FR-CD-IC was melt-processed into PET films which were tested for flammability. The flammabilities of pure PET films, PET films containing pure CD, and PET films containing FR applied from a bath and then oven-cured, were also observed. Flammabilities, as measured using

Lei Huang; Michael Gerber; Jin Lu; Alan E Tonelli

2001-01-01

18

Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

2015-01-01

19

The Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound ST-669 Restricts Chlamydial Inclusion Development and Bacterial Growth and Localizes to Host Cell Lipid Droplets within Treated Cells  

PubMed Central

Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

Sandoz, Kelsi M.; Valiant, William G.; Eriksen, Steven G.; Hruby, Dennis E.; Allen, Robert D.

2014-01-01

20

Post monitoring of a cyclodextrin remeditated chlorinated solvent contaminated aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin (HPâCD) has been tested successfully in the laboratory and in the field for enhanced flushing of low-polarity contaminants from aquifers. The cyclodextrin molecule forms a toroidal structure, which has a hydrophobic cavity. Within this cavity, organic compounds of appropriate shape and size can form inclusion complexes, which is the basis for the use of cyclodextrin in groundwater remediation. The hydrophilic exterior of the molecule makes cyclodextrin highly water-soluble. The solubility of cyclodextrins can be further enhanced by adding functional groups, such as hydroxypropyl groups, to the cyclodextrin core. The aqueous solubility of HPâCD exceeds 950 g/L. These high solubilities are advantageous for field applications because they permit relatively high concentrations of the flushing agent. In order for cyclodextrin to become a feasible remediative alternative, it must be demonstrate a short term resistance to biodegradation during field application, but ultimately biodegrade so as not to pose a long term presence in the aquifer. The potential for degradation of cyclodextrin as well as changes in the chlorinated solvents and groundwater geochemistry were examined during the post monitoring of a field demonstration in a shallow aquifer at Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base in Virginia. It was found that a portion of the cyclodextrin remaining in the aquifer after the cessation of field activities biodegraded during the 425 days of post monitoring. This degradation also led to the degradation of the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and 1,1-trichloroethane through both biological and chemical processes. The aquifer remained anaerobic with average dissolved oxygen levels below 0.5 mg/L. Dissolved nitrate and sulfate concentrations within the cyclodextrin plume decreased due their being used as terminal electron acceptors during the degradation of the cyclodextrin. The concentrations of total iron at the field site showed no change over time. It can be concluded from this research that cyclodextrin remaining in the subsurface after cessation of active remediation will degrade due to microbial processes. The chlorinated solvents will also degrade through both chemical and biological processes to their daughter products. The terminal electron acceptors present within the cyclodextrin plume will also be used for energy during the degradation processes.

Blanford, W. J.

2006-12-01

21

Selective detergent-extraction from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles, using cyclodextrin inclusion compounds: a novel generic approach for the preparation of proteoliposomes.  

PubMed Central

A novel generic approach is described for the selective extraction of detergents from mixed detergent/lipid/protein micelles for the preparation of proteoliposomes of defined lipid-protein ratio. The approach is based on the much higher affinity of inclusion compounds of the cyclodextrin type for detergents in comparison with bilayer-forming lipids. This approach has distinct advantages over other procedures currently in use. It produces good results with all detergents tested, independent of type and critical micelle concentration, and appears to be generally applicable. It yields nearly quantitative recovery of membrane protein in the proteoliposome fraction. Finally, no large excess of lipid is required; a molar ratio of lipid to protein of 100 to 1 already produces proteoliposomes with functional membrane protein, but higher ratios are well tolerated. The size of the vesicles thus obtained depends on the detergent used. Separation of the resulting proteoliposomes from the detergent-cyclodextrin complexes was most easily achieved by centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. A variety of detergents was tested in this procedure on the bovine rod visual pigment rhodopsin in combination with retina lipids. In all cases good yields of proteoliposomes were obtained, which contained fully functional rhodopsin. PMID:9480873

Degrip, W J; Vanoostrum, J; Bovee-Geurts, P H

1998-01-01

22

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

23

Growth characteristic, guest distribution, guest ordering and the stability of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth characteristics of urea inclusion compounds with 1-decene, n-decane and mixture of 1-decene and n-decane (relative mass ratio = 1:1) were studied by CCD high-speed Camera. The present studies show that the speed of UICs growth in tunnel direction is faster than in vertical direction and the length of UICs with 1-decene is shorter than UICs with n-decane, and the length of UICs with mixture is between them due to the influence of the vinyl in 1-decene. The value of R = I(CH2)/I(CH3) and M = I(CHCH2)/I(CH3) in FTIR spectrum of UICs increasing with growth time demonstrates that urea prefers to include n-decane than 1-decene. 13C CP/MAS NMR studies of UICs indicate that the arrangement of 1-decene in UICs is CH3⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The arrangement of 1-decene in UICs leads to short chain of UICs with 1-decene in tunnel direction. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of UICs with MIX reveal that there are three different types of arrangement: CH3⋯CH3, CHCH2⋯CH3 and CHCH2⋯CH2CH. The methods of FTIR and DSC were used to test the stability of UICs with different guests. The result shows that UICs with n-decane are stable than UICs with 1-decene. And the stability of UICs with mixture is in the middle.

Wang, Yan; Ge, Xihui; Zhang, Minqing; Zhu, Huaigong; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Ming

2014-01-01

24

Inclusive foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most public foresight programmes in the 1990s limited participation to technological experts in the identified fields. However, almost all the programmes had an implied social dimension and several concluded that more inclusive participation was needed in future programmes. The paper aims to discuss how inclusiveness might be achieved. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – At first sight extending participation seems eminently possible.

Denis Loveridge

2005-01-01

25

Inclusive Scattering  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the understanding of quasi-elastic inclusive electron-nucleus scattering. Particular emphasis is placed on the scaling property of the data, the status of the Coulomb sum rule and the puzzle of the excess transverse strength.

Ingo Sick

2000-12-31

26

Inclusive Classrooms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five Standards-based strategies for successful inclusion of special-needs students in the secondary science classroom are described in this article. Use a multisensory approach; encourage collaboration among students; provide specific expectations and ass

Konstantinos Alexakos

2001-03-01

27

Design and characterization of a calixarene inclusion compound for calibration of long-range carbon-fluorine distance measurements by solid-state NMR  

PubMed Central

An inexpensive, easily synthesized calixarene:fluorotoluene host:guest inclusion complex has been designed for optimization and calibration of solid-state NMR measurements of carbon-fluorine distances using Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR). Complexation of the fluorotoluene with the calixarene host separates the molecules such that simple two-spin behavior is observed for one site with a 4.08 Å carbon-fluorine distance. Fluorotoluene dynamics within the calixarene matrix causes motional averaging of the dipolar couplings that make it possible to easily optimize REDOR experiments and test their accuracy for relatively long distance measurements (> 6.6 Å). This provides a new tool for accurate REDOR measurements of long carbon-fluorine distances, which have important applications in the characterization of fluorine-containing drugs, proteins, and polymers. PMID:20822943

Fowler, Daniel J.; Khalifah, Peter G.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

2010-01-01

28

Design and characterization of a calixarene inclusion compound for calibration of long-range carbon-fluorine distance measurements by solid-state NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive, easily synthesized calixarene:fluorotoluene host:guest inclusion complex has been designed for optimization and calibration of solid-state NMR measurements of carbon-fluorine distances using Rotational Echo DOuble Resonance (REDOR). Complexation of the fluorotoluene with the calixarene host separates the molecules such that simple two-spin behavior is observed for one site with a 4.08 Å carbon-fluorine distance. Fluorotoluene dynamics within the calixarene matrix cause motional averaging of the dipolar couplings, which makes it possible to easily optimize REDOR experiments and test their accuracy for relatively long distance measurements (>6.6 Å). This provides a new tool for accurate REDOR measurements of long carbon-fluorine distances, which have important applications in the characterization of fluorine-containing drugs, proteins, and polymers.

Fowler, Daniel J.; Khalifah, Peter G.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

2010-11-01

29

A rapid method for separation of anomeric saccharides using a cyclodextrin bonded phase and for investigation of mutarotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC separation of anomeric sugars using a ?-cyclodextrin bonded phase and an eluent ethyl acetate\\/methanol\\/water has been achieved. HPLC is a useful method for analytically separating the anomers of sugars in a mutarotated system and is a good supplement to the nuclear magnetic resonance. By means of this technique investigations of the mutarotation of D-glucose gave 36% ?-form and 64%

Dörte Schumacher; Lothar W. Kroh

1995-01-01

30

Enhanced analysis of triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris L. by capillary zone electrophoresis with the addition of running buffer modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclodextrin-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of three isomeric compounds (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid), caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Without the addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and methanol, the separation of these analytes was poorly resolved. These eight compounds, however, were well separated from each other within

Hon-Yeung Cheung; Qing-Feng Zhang

2008-01-01

31

Carbide inclusions in delta-phase plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusions in plutonium alloys are common and depend on the processing parameters and age of the material. Plutonium-bearing compounds frequently observed as inclusions include: hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and carbides. Optical metallography and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize plutonium carbide (PuC) inclusions in delta-phase plutonium. The structural complexities of plutonium combined with its radioactivity, pyrophoric nature, and toxicity

Thomas Baros; Charles C Davis; Heather T Hawkins; M. J. Ruggiero; S. J. Valentine; B. G. Storey; L. Roybal

2004-01-01

32

Synthesis and Characterization of the Inclusion Complex of ?-cyclodextrin and Azomethine.  

PubMed

A ?-cyclodextrin (?-Cyd) inclusion complex containing azomethine as a guest was prepared by kneading method with aliquot addition of ethanol. The product was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), which proves the formation of the inclusion complex where the benzyl part of azomethine has been encapsulated by the hydrophobic cavity of ?-Cyd. The interaction of ?-Cyd and azomethine was also analyzed by means of spectrometry by UV-Vis spectrophotometer to determine the formation constant. The formation constant was calculated by using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation at 25 °C. The apparent formation constant obtained was 1.29 × 104 L/mol. Besides that, the stoichiometry ratio was also determined to be 1:1 for the inclusion complex of ?-Cyd with azomethine. PMID:23434664

Sambasevam, Kavirajaa Pandian; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad; Ismail, Nor Atiqah

2013-01-01

33

Inclusion and Museums: Developing Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent policy on inclusion has had an impact on the development of museum galleries and related educational provision. Museums are used as learning organisations and, as such, need to consider how to create an inclusive environment. However, inclusive provision for people with learning difficulties in museums tends to be isolated and small scale,…

Shepherd, Hannah

2009-01-01

34

Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

Yang, Xiaoguang (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-11-13

35

Rethinking Inclusion: Schoolwide Applications  

E-print Network

Efforts to bring about a unified system of educational supports and services from the standpoint of special education have focused primarily on the concept of inclusion. Various models of inclusion have suffered from a ...

Sailor, Wayne; Roger, Blair

2005-03-01

36

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

37

Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

Dilley, Lorie

2013-01-01

38

Towards Inclusive Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

Gafoor, K. Abdul

2010-01-01

39

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

2007-01-01

40

Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic susceptibility of eleven glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Neel transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds.

Thorpe, A. N.; Senftle, F. E.; Alexander, C.; Briggs, C.

1974-01-01

41

Antiferromagnetic inclusions in lunar glass  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 fines and two specimens of a relatively large glass spherical shell were studied as a function of temperature from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. All but one specimen showed the presence of antiferromagnetic inclusions. Closely spaced temperature measurements of the magnetic susceptibility below 77 K on five of the specimens showed antiferromagnetic temperature transitions (Ne??el transitions). With the exception of ilmenite in one specimen, these transitions did not correspond to any transitions in known antiferromagnetic compounds. ?? 1974.

Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Briggs, C.; Alexander, C.

1974-01-01

42

Conclusions on Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inclusion classroom is defined as one that is tasked with mainstreaming special education students into a population of general education students. In this brief article, the author, a high school mathematics teacher, shares his personal experiences in teaching in an inclusion classroom. A primary focus is his relationship with the special…

Fink, John

2004-01-01

43

Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores the theme of inclusion. Inclusion is one of the themes within the recent Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) publication: "Engaging mathematics for all learners" and the author had the good fortune to participate in this project. This involved working with five schools which, frivolously, all had a…

Ollerton, Mike

2009-01-01

44

A newly synthesized compound, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid-N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester suppresses inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male mice.  

PubMed

We previously reported the cancer chemopreventive activity of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA, Miyamoto et al., Nutr Cancer 2008; 60:675-84) and a ?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound of GOFA (Tanaka et al., Int J Cancer 2010; 126:830-40) in colitis-related colorectal carcinogenesis. In our study, the chemopreventive effects of a newly synthesized GOFA-containing compound, GOFA-N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX) enzymes, were investigated using a colitis-associated mouse colorectal carcinogenesis model with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The dietary administration of GOFA-L-NAME after the AOM and DSS treatments significantly reduced the multiplicity of adenocarcinomas (inhibition rates: 100 ppm, 84%, p < 0.001; 500 ppm, 94%, p < 0.001) compared with the AOM + DSS group. Dietary GOFA-L-NAME significantly decreased the proliferation (p < 0.001) and increased the apoptosis (p < 0.001) of colonic adenocarcinoma cells. A subsequent short-term experiment revealed that dietary GOFA-L-NAME decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory enzymes, such as iNOS and COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in the colonic mucosa of mice that received 1.5% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. Our findings indicate that GOFA-L-NAME is able to inhibit colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis by modulating inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mice. PMID:24474144

Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Mori, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2014-08-15

45

Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

2011-10-01

46

Fluid inclusion geothermometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

Cunningham, C.G., Jr.

1977-01-01

47

Stochastic evolution inclusions   

E-print Network

This work is concerned with an evolution inclusion of a form, in a triple of spaces \\V -> H -> V*", where U is a continuous non-decreasing process, M is a locally square-integrable martingale and the operators A ...

Bocharov, Boris

2010-01-01

48

Diversity & Inclusion Progress Report  

E-print Network

Diversity & Inclusion Progress Report Dr. Henry Odi, Vice Provost for Academic Diversity Provost..................................................................................................... 23 XVIII. Office of the Vice Provost for Academic Diversity (VPAD.................................................................................................... 31 APPENDIX 2: The Principles of Our Equitable Community

Napier, Terrence

49

Limitations of inclusive fitness  

PubMed Central

Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

2013-01-01

50

Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

2011-01-01

51

Adaptation and inclusive fitness.  

PubMed

Inclusive fitness theory captures how individuals can influence the transmission of their genes to future generations by influencing either their own reproductive success or that of related individuals. This framework is frequently used for studying the way in which natural selection leads to organisms being adapted to their environments. A number of recent papers have criticised this approach, suggesting that inclusive fitness is just one of many possible mathematical methods for modelling when traits will be favoured by natural selection, and that it leads to errors, such as overemphasising the role of common ancestry relative to other mechanisms that could lead to individuals being genetically related. Here, we argue that these suggested problems arise from a misunderstanding of two fundamental points: first, inclusive fitness is more than just a mathematical 'accounting method' - it is the answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise; second, there is something special about relatedness caused by common ancestry, in contrast with the other mechanisms that may lead to individuals being genetically related, because it unites the interests of genes across the genome, allowing complex, multigenic adaptations to evolve. The critiques of inclusive fitness theory have provided neither an equally valid answer to the question of what organisms should appear designed to maximise, nor an alternative process to unite the interest of genes. Consequently, inclusive fitness remains the most general theory for explaining adaptation. PMID:23845249

West, Stuart A; Gardner, Andy

2013-07-01

52

Inclusion Body Myositis  

PubMed Central

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

2012-01-01

53

USE OF STARCH INCLUSION COMPLEXES FOR IMPROVED DELIVERY OF DIETARY POLYPHENOLS TO THE ORAL CAVITY BY CHEWING GUM.  

E-print Network

??Starch inclusion complexes can increase the stability, dispersibility, and quite possibly bioavailability, of bioactive guest compounds encapsulated within a starch helix. Bhosale and Ziegler (unpublished)… (more)

Blair, Debie

2010-01-01

54

Cyclodextrin formation by the thermostable alpha-amylase of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1 and reclassification of the enzyme as a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.  

PubMed Central

Extensive characterization of the thermostable alpha-amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1, recently reclassified as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes, clearly demonstrated that the enzyme is a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Product analysis after incubation of the enzyme with starch revealed formation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins, as well as linear sugars. The specific activity for cyclization of this CGTase was similar to those of other CGTases, whereas the specific activity for hydrolysis was relatively high in comparison with other CGTases. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of the T. thermosulfurigenes enzyme with sequences from known bacterial CGTases showed high homology. The four consensus regions of carbohydrate-converting enzymes, as well as a C-terminal raw-starch binding motif, could be identified in the sequence. PMID:7747949

Wind, R D; Liebl, W; Buitelaar, R M; Penninga, D; Spreinat, A; Dijkhuizen, L; Bahl, H

1995-01-01

55

Cyclodextrin formation by the thermostable alpha-amylase of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1 and reclassification of the enzyme as a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase.  

PubMed

Extensive characterization of the thermostable alpha-amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1, recently reclassified as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes, clearly demonstrated that the enzyme is a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Product analysis after incubation of the enzyme with starch revealed formation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins, as well as linear sugars. The specific activity for cyclization of this CGTase was similar to those of other CGTases, whereas the specific activity for hydrolysis was relatively high in comparison with other CGTases. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of the T. thermosulfurigenes enzyme with sequences from known bacterial CGTases showed high homology. The four consensus regions of carbohydrate-converting enzymes, as well as a C-terminal raw-starch binding motif, could be identified in the sequence. PMID:7747949

Wind, R D; Liebl, W; Buitelaar, R M; Penninga, D; Spreinat, A; Dijkhuizen, L; Bahl, H

1995-04-01

56

Polarization in inclusive reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formalism for discussing the spin dependence of inclusive reactions is presented. The role of various constraints following from conservation of parity and angular momentum conservation is discussed. Expressions for specific single and double polarization observables are presented. Predictions of the triple-Regge model for these observables are given.

Gary R. Goldstein; Joseph F. Owens

1976-01-01

57

Diversity & Inclusion Executive Summary  

E-print Network

the importance of smaller and less visible action as well as large and more visible action. Here are just a few recruitment, retention, and development of women in the STEM (science, technology, engineering on diversity and inclusion for the members of the Strategic Plan Implementation Group (SPIG). A comprehensive

Napier, Terrence

58

Raising Achievement through Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

Persson, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

59

Peer Tutoring for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer tutoring is a pedagogical technique that has promise to improve outcomes for students with a disability within existing resource constraints. Published empirically-based papers on peer-tutoring were descriptively analysed. Synthesis of these studies revealed that peer tutoring is effective in inclusive physical education contexts. Evidence…

Temple, Viviene A.; Lynnes, Michelle D.

2008-01-01

60

Inclusion. Inclusive ECCD: A Fair Start for All Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children with special needs should be served within inclusive early childhood programs. Quality Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs provide a model to use when developing inclusive programs for children of all ages. This theme issue of "Coordinator's Notebook" focuses on the development of inclusive ECCD programs. The…

Evans, Judith L.; Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

1998-01-01

61

Designing an Inclusive Pill Dispenser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusive design is becoming topical but to many people the inclusive design process still seems a mystery, especially to\\u000a design students who do not often have the chance to work with end users.

H. Dong; N. Vanns

62

Prokaryote Inclusions: Descriptions and Discoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical inclusions were observed in a “colorless egg-shaped alga” in 1786, but were not identified as sulfur until 1875.\\u000a The discovery of additional inclusions required improvements to the light microscope. Thus, cyanophycin, polyphosphate, lipid,\\u000a and glycogen inclusions were not observed until late in the nineteenth century and insecticidal protein crystals in 1915.\\u000a Polyhydroxybutyrate was identified as a lipid inclusion in

Jessup M. Shively

63

Full Inclusion: Dream or Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, a major debate has arisen between full-inclusion advocates and their critics. Morse maintains that full inclusion is the only way to ensure that mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are carried out. Santos argues that inclusion must be tempered by alternative arrangements that best serve an individual child's…

Morse, Timothy E.; Santos, Karen

1995-01-01

64

Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping. These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels. We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature. Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC-MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed. ?? 1984.

Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K., Jr.; Oro, J.

1984-01-01

65

Inclusion body myositis.  

PubMed

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50 years. Muscle histopathology shows endomysial inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often accompanied by rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. It is likely that IBM is has a prominent degenerative component. This article reviews the evolution of knowledge in IBM, with emphasis on recent developments in the field, and discusses ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25037082

Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

2014-08-01

66

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion Diversity and Inclusion Awards DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION CHAMPION AWARD | DEADLINE: MARCH 22, 2013 The Diversity and Inclusion Awards recognizes outstanding contributions of diverse students, faculty, staff

Chapman, Michael S.

67

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion Diversity and Inclusion Awards DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION CHAMPION AWARD -- DEPARTMENT | DEADLINE: MARCH 22, 2013 The Diversity and Inclusion Awards recognizes outstanding contributions of diverse students

Chapman, Michael S.

68

Predicting inclusion behaviour and framework structures in organic crystals.  

PubMed

We have used well-established computational methods to generate and explore the crystal structure landscapes of four organic molecules of well-known inclusion behaviour. Using these methods, we are able to generate both close-packed crystal structures and high-energy open frameworks containing voids of molecular dimensions. Some of these high-energy open frameworks correspond to real structures observed experimentally when the appropriate guest molecules are present during crystallisation. We propose a combination of crystal structure prediction methodologies with structure rankings based on relative lattice energy and solvent-accessible volume as a way of selecting likely inclusion frameworks completely ab initio. This methodology can be used as part of a rational strategy in the design of inclusion compounds, and also for the anticipation of inclusion behaviour in organic molecules. PMID:19876969

Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Day, Graeme M; Jones, William

2009-12-01

69

Why Program Quality Matters for Early Childhood Inclusion: Recommendations for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only a handful of states address children with disabilities in their early child care quality rating systems. As a result, few states are evaluating the quality of inclusive programs and services. This problem is compounded by a lack of consensus on dimensions that define high quality inclusion and a need for additional measures of quality…

Buysse, Virginia; West, Tracey; Hollingsworth, Heidi

2009-01-01

70

Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

71

Capillary gas chromatography using a ?-cyclodextrin for enantiomeric separation of methylamphetamine, its precursors and chloro intermediates after optimization of the derivatization reaction.  

PubMed

The enantiomeric ratio of methylamphetamine (MAMP) is closely related to the optical activity of precursors and reagents used for the synthesis and this knowledge can provide useful information concerning the origins and synthetic methods used for illicit manufacture. The information can be utilized for regulation of the precursors and investigation of the manufacturing sources but this requires analytical procedures to determine purity of drug substances, impurity profiling and enantiomeric composition. In this study, a gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) method using a ?-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase was developed and optimized for the simultaneous enantiomeric separations of MAMP and its common precursors, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine, as well as its chlorointermediates formed during MAMP synthesis by the Emde method, after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The optimization was performed using multivariate statistics (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) in order to select and compare optimal experimental conditions. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calculated calibration curves showed good linearity range up to 0.1?g/mL for all tested analytes. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.002-0.008?g/mL and the coefficient of variability was between 1.0 and 3.9%. The method has the advantage of achieving excellent precision under repeatability and reproducibility conditions while detection by MS allows for the identity of analytes to be confirmed in a single analysis. The method was therefore applied satisfactory to MAMP analysis. PMID:24816508

P?otka, Justyna M; Simeonov, Vasil; Morrison, Calum; Biziuk, Marek; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-06-20

72

A myoglobin functional model composed of a ferrous porphyrin and a cyclodextrin dimer with an imidazole linker.  

PubMed

A 1:1 inclusion complex (Fe(II)PImCD) of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis- (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinatoiron(II) (Fe(II)P) and an O-methylated beta-cyclodextrin dimer with an imidazole linker (ImCD) was found to bind dioxygen in aqueous solution. The half-saturation pressure of dioxygen (P(1/2)O2) is 1.7 torr at 25 degrees C, which is 10 times lower than that for a previous myoglobin functional model (hemoCD) with a pyridine linker. Meanwhile, the half-life of oxygenated Fe(II)PImCD is 3 h, which is 10 times shorter than that of oxygenated hemoCD. The covering of the iron(II) center by a microscopic environment is essential for preventing autoxidation of oxygenated ferrous porphyrin, which is promoted by nucleophilic attack of H2O and/or nucleophiles such as inorganic anions. Due to structural requirements, covering of the Fe(II) center of Fe(II)PImCD is insufficient compared with the case of hemoCD. As a result, water molecules can penetrate more easily the cleft of the O2-Fe(II)PImCD complex and act as an autoxidation inducer. This structure also causes poorer selectivity against carbon monoxide (M = 1040). In contrast, the dioxygen affinity of Fe(II)PImCD is much higher than that of hemoCD because the imidazole moiety is a stronger electron donor than pyridine. PMID:17441072

Kano, Koji; Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Mabuchi, Takahiro; Kodera, Masahito; Hirota, Shun

2006-09-18

73

Inclusive and Exclusive Quasifree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of the yield when an energetic nucleon interacts with the nucleus arises from quasifree scattering (QFS) collisions between the projectile and one of the constituent nucleons of the target. This has been the tacit assumption in many recent studies of inclusive (p,p ^') and (p,n) reactions, although detailed tests of this hypothesis have not been performed. Differences in the scattering observables between free NN scattering and QFS may provide a probe to help understand how the nuclear medium affects bound nucleon properties. Studies of the (p,p^' ) reaction primarily probe the isoscalar nuclear response whereas the (p,n) reaction is uniquely sensitive to the isovector response. We have measured inclusive (p,p^ ') and (p,n) and exclusive (p,2p) and (p,np) differential cross sections and analyzing powers from ^2H, ^{12 }C, and ^{40}Ca targets. These inclusive and exclusive data, acquired at 200 MeV incident proton energy, were measured concurrently to minimize possible systematic errors in their inter-comparison. In order to make np coincident measurements feasible, a large solid angle/efficiency neutron detector was designed and built. The central angle of the neutron detector, and hence the ejectile nucleon, was 30^circ . This angle was chosen to study the response at a momentum transfer of ~1.5 fm ^{-1}, to be compatible with earlier (p,p^') and (p,2p) QFS experiments. The associated nucleon was detected in a large solid angle array of NaI, enabling studies of the exclusive yields over roughly half the phase space expected for QFS. The missing mass resolution of this two arm detector system was sufficient to allow study of the strongly excited hole states for targets up to A = 40. By comparing inclusive to integrated exclusive cross sections, we can better test the assumptions of simple QFS and to what extent more complicated reaction dynamics such as multinucleon knockout and cluster knockout contribute to the yields. These data can be compared to various reaction models to test our understanding of the strong final state interactions as well as more fundamental predictions such as the QF peak position, width, energy and angle dependence. Exclusive cross section data impose an even stricter requirement on the reaction models. Measurements of the analyzing powers can be utilized to distinguish between various theoretical models. Relativistic dynamics calculations, for instance, predict strong suppression of the analysing powers with respect to free-space NN values. This has been suggested as a clear 'signature' of the importance of relativistic dynamics. Furthermore, these data may also be employed to compare between various reaction models such as the pseudoscalar/pseudovector ambiguity in the pi-N coupling vertex.

Carman, Daniel Scott

1995-01-01

74

Inclusive Jets in PHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

Roloff, P.

75

Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

Brackenreed, Darlene

2008-01-01

76

Inclusion by Design: Engineering Inclusive Practices in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to help teachers understand the importance of intentional design for inclusive education, this article describes the design process an engineer might use when designing a new project. If teachers learn to think like engineers, it is possible for them to design inclusive education. This conceptual design can then be combined with…

Dukes, Charles; Lamar-Dukes, Pamela

2009-01-01

77

Compound Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Albert Einstein called compound interest the 8th wonder of the world. Find out why compound interest and the time value of money are so important. What is Interest Click on the following link to read about the different types of interest. Loans and Interest So why learn about compound interest? Using time and interest to your advantage, you can make more money than you have ever dreamed of. See how the time value of ...

Ms. Riches

2007-10-16

78

Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

2011-01-01

79

In Support of Unfinished Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article claims that the radical potential inherent in the origins of inclusive education has been altered into a tool for protecting the status quo. Drawing on ideas from the essay "The Unfinished" by Thomas Mathiesen (1971), I discuss inclusion as a potential alternative to mainstream education and argue that the potential power of…

Hausstätter, Rune Sarromaa

2014-01-01

80

"On Campus": Pioneering Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"On Campus" is an inclusive education initiative for persons with developmental disabilities at the University of Alberta. Now celebrating its 20th Anniversary, we pause to reflect on the implementation, structure, function and evolution of the program, the first of its kind globally. Increasing social change has led to more and more inclusive

Brown, Miranda; Fay-Verschurr, Franciess; Logan, Deanna; Rossiter, Lindsay

2007-01-01

81

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

2015-01-01

82

Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

2009-01-01

83

Inclusion Body Myositis  

PubMed Central

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a muscle disease with two separate pathogenic components, degeneration and inflammation. Typically, nonnecrotic myofibers are focally surrounded and invaded by CD8+ T cells and macrophages. Both attacked and nonattacked myofibers express high levels of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules, a prerequisite for antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. However, only a subgroup of HLA-I+ myofibers is attacked by immune cells. By using IHC, we classified myofibers from five patients with sporadic IBM as attacked (AIBM) or nonattacked (NIBM) and isolated the intracellular contents of myofibers separately by laser microdissection. For comparison, we isolated myofibers from control persons (HCTRL). The samples were analyzed by microarray hybridization and quantitative PCR. HLA-I up-regulation was observed in AIBM and NIBM, whereas HCTRL were negative for HLA-I. In contrast, the inducible chain of the interferon (IFN) ? receptor (IFNGR2) and several IFN-?–induced genes were up-regulated in AIBM compared with NIBM and HCTRL fibers. Confocal microscopy confirmed segmental IFNGR2 up-regulation on the membranes of AIBM, which positively correlated with the number of adjacent CD8+ T cells. Thus, the differential up-regulation of the IFN-? signaling cascade observed in the attacked fibers is related to local inflammation, whereas the ubiquitous HLA-I expression on IBM muscle fibers does not require IFNGR expression. PMID:21855683

Ivanidze, Jana; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Lochmüller, Hanns; Engel, Andrew G.; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Dornmair, Klaus

2011-01-01

84

Study on the spectral and inclusion properties of a sensitive dye, 3-naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline, in solvents and ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

3-Naphthyl-1-phenyl-5-(5-fluoro-2-nitrophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (NPFP), a fluorogenic probe and its derivative NPFP-Phenylephrine were synthesized and their absorption and fluorescence properties were recorded in solvents of varying polarity. Spectroscopic studies reveal that, the solvatochromic behavior of the compounds depend not only on the polarity but also on the hydrogen-bonding properties of the solvents. The effects of ?-cyclodextrin on the fluorescence properties of both compounds were studied. It was found that there is an enhancement in the fluorescence intensity of labeled drug (NPFP-Phenylephrine) in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin. In the present study, the molecular motions of NPFP-Phenylephrine embedded in a ?-cyclodextrin cavity have been investigated by fluorescence techniques in steady-state and time resolved modes. PMID:25448966

Varghese, Beena; Al-Busafi, Saleh N; Suliman, FakhrEldin O; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z

2015-02-01

85

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-22

86

Organosulfur Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts. This set of questions focuses on organosulfur compounds, with a special emphasis on thiols and sulfides.

Reich, Ieva

87

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOEpatents

A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

2010-08-10

88

DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION AT VIRGINIA TECH  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY #12;II Diversity Strategic Plan VirginiaTech 2013-2018 Contents TOWARD AN INCLUSIVE COMMUNITY D i VirginiaTech 2013-2018 in the co-curriculum, and in communities Likewise, diversity and inclusion extendsDIVERSITY AND INCLUSION AT VIRGINIA TECH DIVERSITY STRATEGIC PLAN 2013-2018 TOWARD AN INCLUSIVE

Buehrer, R. Michael

89

Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…

Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy

2011-01-01

90

Multipurpose Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

1983-01-01

91

Chemical microsensors  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

92

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

Kramer, D.A.

2001-01-01

93

Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

2014-01-01

94

The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

2010-01-01

95

Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

2004-01-01

96

Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

Rudd, Fern

97

Managing Special and Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide to special and inclusive education and provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field. Author Stephen Rayner examines context, policy, and practice, and shows how to successfully navigate the managerial challenges involved, while contributing to the way forward through leadership in a diverse field. The author…

Rayner, Steve G.

2007-01-01

98

Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

Exceptional Parent, 2008

2008-01-01

99

Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

2010-01-01

100

OPALWelcome At Dartmouth, inclusivity and  

E-print Network

OPALWelcome At Dartmouth, inclusivity and intentionality are hallmarks of our contemporary liberal regard to those issues which pertain to the historical and contemporary experiences of people of African Programs (ISP) helps international undergraduates adjust, adapt and acclimate to Dartmouth and the United

Shepherd, Simon

101

Volatile Release From The Siberian Traps Inferred From Melt Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption with global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption. We present data from the analysis of more than 100 melt inclusions, including both homogenized inclusions and rare glassy inclusions with low crystallinity. Many melt inclusions from tuffs and flows near the base of the Siberian Traps sequence are substantially enriched in chlorine and fluorine compared to Deccan Traps and Laki melt inclusions (Self et al., 2008; Thordarson et al., 1996). These inclusions record chlorine concentrations up to ~1400 ppm, and fluorine concentrations up to ~5000 ppm. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of ~5000 ppm and substantial concentrations of chlorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine concentrations in the range of one weight percent. Visscher et al. (2004) proposed that chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) may have played a major role in the terrestrial end-Permian extinction. These CFCs are powerful catalysts for the breakdown of ozone, a process which can expose the biosphere to increased ultraviolet radiation. Measurements of elevated chlorine and fluorine from the Siberian Traps may thus provide a concrete source for CFCs that could have triggered this kill mechanism.

Black, Benjamin A.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Rowe, Michael C.; Ukstins Peate, Ingrid

2010-05-01

102

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

Kramer, D.A.

2003-01-01

103

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

Kramer, D.A.

2006-01-01

104

Surface tension method for determining binding constants for cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ionic surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A new method has been developed for determining binding constants of complexes of cyclodextrins with surface-active compounds, including water-soluble ionic surfactants. The technique requires measuring the change in surface tension caused by addition of a cyclodextrin (CD) to aqueous solutions of the surfactant; the experimental results lead directly to inferred values of the thermodynamic activity of the surfactant. Surface tension results are reported for three different surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence and in the absence of added [beta]-CD. Data for CPC have been obtained at surfactant concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration. Correlations between surface tension and surfactant activity are expressed by the Szyszkowski equation, which subsumes the Langmuir adsorption model and the Gibbs equation. It is observed that the surface tension increases monotonically as [beta]-cyclodextrin is added to ionic surfactant solutions. At concentrations of CD well in excess of the surfactant concentration, the surface tension approaches that of pure water, indicating that neither the surfactant-CD complexes nor CD itself are surface active. Binding constants are inferred from a model that incorporates the parameters of the Szyszkowski equation and mass action constants relating to the formation of micelles from monomers of the surfactant and the counterion. Evidence is given that two molecules of CD can complex the C-16 hydrocarbon chain of the cetyl surfactants. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Dharmawardana, U.R.; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

1993-09-01

105

Carbonatitic melts in diamond inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid inclusions in diamonds are commonly smaller than a micrometer and form clouds or concentric zones carrying many millions of inclusions. Fluid composition varies between four end-members: Hydrous melts rich in silica and alkalis, carbonatitic melts rich in magnesium and calcium, brines rich in chlorine and potassium and sulfide melts rich in iron and nickel. Carbonatitic melts were found together with all the other fluids. No mixing or mutual occurrence was detected between the other three end-members. The carbonatitic melts in most diamonds are rich in magnesium, calcium and iron and carry variable amounts of alkalies and barium. Carbonate and water absorption in the IR spectrum along with EPMA detection of variable amounts of chlorine, silica and phosphorus indicate that the micro-inclusions trapped carbonatitic melts. A clear continuous array extends from the carbonatitic melt composition towards the hydrous, silicic end member. Another array connects the carbonatitic melt with the brines. The occurrence of carbonatitic melts in conjunction with all other fluids indicates their important role in the evolution of all fluids and in diamond growth. This is also supported by experimental diamond growth from carbonate-rich melts at pressures and temperatures recorded by natural diamonds. Carbon for diamond growth may originate from reduction of the carbonate in the melt, dissolved elemental carbon or contemporaneous resorption of other diamonds. Metasomatic interaction with melts or fluids is evident in many diamond-inclusions and xenocrysts. The carbonatitic melts as well as the other melts and brines can account for many such enrichment or resetting events. The entrapment of these fluids in diamond micro-inclusions provides a unique opportunity for a direct study of their composition and evolution.

Izraeli, E. S.; Klein-Bendavid, O.; Navon, O.

2003-04-01

106

Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

2008-02-20

107

Application of DNA Chip Scanning Technology for Automatic Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusions  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter

2014-01-01

108

Application of DNA chip scanning technology for automatic detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter; Virok, Dezso P

2014-01-01

109

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

Kramer, D.A.

2002-01-01

110

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2011-01-01

111

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

Kramer, D.A.

2010-01-01

112

Isolation and characterization of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate inclusions  

E-print Network

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon reserve found in some bacteria, and under nutrient limiting conditions accumulates intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies. These inclusions contain proteins, and the PHB within ...

Kshetry, Nina

2006-01-01

113

Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes  

E-print Network

a work and learning environment that is inclusive. Women, minorities, and people with disabilities to support the college's goals of creating and sustaining a diverse and inclusive learning environment." OIE

Arnold, Jonathan

114

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

Kramer, D.A.

2007-01-01

115

Measurement of inclusive  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Inclusive photoproduction of mesons has been measured for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range GeV and photon virtuality 1 GeV. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 37 pb. Total and differential cross sections as functions of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are presented in restricted kinematical regions and the data are compared with next-to-leading\\u000a order

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; R. Yoshida; H. Zhang; M. C. K. Mattingly; F. Anselmo; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; G. CaraRomeo; G. Castellini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; N. Coppola; M. Corradi; S. DePasquale; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; Y. ZamoraGarcia; A. Zichichi; C. Amelung; A. Bornheim; I. Brock; K. Coboken; J. Crittenden; R. Dener; M. Eckert; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; K. Heinloth; L. Heinz; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; A. Kappes; U. F. Katz; R. Kerger; E. Paul; M. Pfeier; H. Schnurbusch; H. Wieber; D. S. Bailey; S. Campbell-Robson; W. N. Cottingham; B. Foster; R. Hall-Wilton; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; J. D. McFall; D. Piccioni; D. G. Ro; R. J. Tapper; H. H. Wills

1999-01-01

116

Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management  

E-print Network

intellectual disabilities (such as those with autism or traumatic brain injury). For example, in 2002, while 76.9% of students with disabilities overall ____________ This dissertation follows the style of The Journal of Teacher Education. 2 received... the conclusion that based on teacher and parent responses, the inclusion of students with Down syndrome in the general education classroom was successful. Later, in 2001, Wolpert discussed the successful practices of these teachers in including students...

Montague, Marcia

2011-02-22

117

Fun with Compound Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and create compound words We will be studying compound words! First we need to find out what a compound word is, go to this website and read about compound words.What is a compound word Now that you have read about compound words lets do some fun activities to help us review. First go to Compound word flashcards, here you will ...

Ms. Huggins

2012-04-12

118

Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

McMaster, Christopher

2014-01-01

119

75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY 12 CFR PART 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal...comment on this proposed regulation on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of...diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The proposed...

2010-01-11

120

75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1207 RIN 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal...public to comment on this proposed rule on minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of...diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. Consequently,...

2010-03-08

121

Feature Issue on Inclusion and School Restructuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue on inclusion and school restructuring for students with and without disabilities contains the following articles: (1) "The 7 Habits for Educators" (Terri Vandercook); (2) "The Evolution of Inclusive Education" (Jennifer York-Barr and Terri Vandercook); (3) "Creating Inclusive Schools: What Does the Research Say?" (Margaret J.…

Vandercook, Terri; York-Barr, Jennifer

1996-01-01

122

Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions  

SciTech Connect

To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

Sorensen, E.M.B.

1987-01-01

123

The compressible inclusion function of EPS geofoam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the state of knowledge for using expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam where the primary geosynthetic function provided by the geofoam is compressible inclusion. In general, a compressible inclusion is any material that compresses readily under an applied stress or displacement compared to other materials in contact with, or in the vicinity of, the compressible inclusion. Geotechnical applications for

John S. Horvath

1997-01-01

124

Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

McMaster, Christopher

2012-01-01

125

Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

Loreman, Tim

2014-01-01

126

Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

2011-01-01

127

Magnesium compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

Kramer, D.A.

2012-01-01

128

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

1986-01-14

129

Bismaleimide compounds  

DOEpatents

Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

1986-01-14

130

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion Diversity and Inclusion Awards OUTSTANDING COMMUNITY PARTNER AWARD | DEADLINE: MARCH 22, 2013 The Diversity and Inclusion Awards recognizes outstanding contributions of diverse students, faculty, staff, and community

Chapman, Michael S.

131

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion and Inclusion Awards recognizes outstanding contributions of diverse students, faculty, staff, and community-being of diverse communities, and has demonstrated a commitment to OHSU's goal of being a diverse and inclusive

Chapman, Michael S.

132

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion and through service to the community. Diversity and Inclusion Champion Award Recognizing a staff member to OHSU's goal of being a diverse and inclusive community, and actively works toward the well

Chapman, Michael S.

133

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion and Inclusion Awards recognizes outstanding contributions of diverse students, faculty, staff, and community to the promotion of diversity and inclusion within OHSU and through service to the community. Student Name Academic

Chapman, Michael S.

134

The crack-inclusion interaction problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

Liu, X.-H.; Erdogan, F.

1986-01-01

135

The crack-inclusion interaction problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

1984-01-01

136

Generation of long-lived methylviologen radical cation in the triplet-state mediated electron transfer in a ?-cyclodextrin based supramolecular triad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium-pyrene-methylviologen supramolecular triad was assembled through inclusion complexation of adamantane-linked Ru(II)-Py dyad in MV2+-linked ?-cyclodextrin. Excitation of the Ru(II) chromophore populated its 3MLCT which upon energy transfer gave 3Py, which donates an electron to MV2+ to give Ru(II)-Pyrad +-MVrad +. A second electron transfer then occurs from Ru(II) to Pyrad + to give the supramolecular Ru(III)-Py-MVrad + charge separated state. Laser flash photolysis experiments confirmed formation of MVrad + which exhibited 100 ?s lifetime. Steady state irradiation of the self-assembled system in the presence of sacrificial donor also led to formation of long-lived MVrad +.

Rakhi, Arikkottira M.; Gopidas, Karical R.

2015-01-01

137

Oxide inclusions and tool wear in machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusions formed in experimental steels by calcium, aluminum, and silicon additions are characterized. The morphology,\\u000a phase identity, elemental analyses, and semiquantitative wt pct of the inclusions in each steel are presented. A correlation\\u000a of tool wear tests conducted on the experimental steels and the inclusion characteristics indicates that a major factor in\\u000a tool flank wear is the high temperature

Gloria M. Faulring; S. Ramalingam

1979-01-01

138

Developing inclusive e-learning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement for e-inclusion relates to the employment of appropriate development strategies for software applications and services so as to accomplish accessibility and increased interaction quality at deployment time. Inclusive e-learning is the outcome from the application of e-inclusion design and implementation methods in the context of e-learning systems. This paper reports consolidated development experience from the construction of the

Anthony Savidis; Dimitris Grammenos; Constantine Stephanidis

2006-01-01

139

Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

Li, Jun

140

Inclusion bodies: not that bad…  

PubMed Central

The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

Ramón, Ana; Señorale-Pose, Mario; Marín, Mónica

2014-01-01

141

Making the case for inclusive design.  

PubMed

This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

2015-01-01

142

The effect of inclusions in brittle material  

E-print Network

This thesis experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of brittle heterogeneous materials. Unconfined, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on prismatic gypsum specimens containing either one, or two, inclusions. ...

Janeiro, Raymond Pinho

2009-01-01

143

Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

2004-01-01

144

Inclusive Jet & DijetInclusive Jet & Dijet Production at HERAProduction at HERA  

E-print Network

Inclusive Jet & DijetInclusive Jet & Dijet Production at HERAProduction at HERA M axime.8 2-jets p 2-jets DIS Inclusive jets DIS Proton PDF S 2-jets pPhoton PDF ObservablesQCD param. #12;M. Gouzevitch (Ecole Polytechnique, France) HEP2007, Manchester, 20/07/2007 3 Jet reconstruction · Iterative

145

SUMO1 marks the nuclear inclusions in familial neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive ataxia and neuronal nuclear inclusions (NIs), similar to the inclusions found in expanded CAG repeat diseases. NIID may be familial or sporadic. The cause of familial NIID is poorly understood, as no CAG expansion has been detected. We examined three cases, from two unrelated families, who had

D. L Pountney; Y Huang; R. J Burns; E Haan; P. D Thompson; P. C Blumbergs; W. P Gai

2003-01-01

146

Supporting the Development of More Inclusive Practices Using the Index for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion is a central issue for educational psychologists (EPs) today, yet they have often been portrayed as gatekeepers to special provision. One approach for EPs to promote more inclusive practices in schools is through the Index for Inclusion as a vehicle for consultation. This paper reports a study of EPs acting as "critical friends" to…

Hick, Peter

2005-01-01

147

Teaching inclusively: are secondary physical education student teachers sufficiently prepared to teach in inclusive environments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has attempted to examine PE teacher's perceptions of inclusion. However, it is evident that

Janine Kim Coates

2012-01-01

148

Teaching inclusively: are secondary physical education student teachers sufficiently prepared to teach in inclusive environments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has attempted to examine PE teacher's perceptions of inclusion. However, it is evident that

Janine Kim Coates

2011-01-01

149

On elastic interactions between spherical inclusions by the equivalent inclusion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work three-dimensional stress distributions around interacting spherical inclusions embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix are investigated. The stress distributions around the interacting inclusions are computed by using Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method (EIM) with constant, linear, or quadratic eigenstrains. A Taylor series expansion is employed to find the approximate solution of the EIM consistency equations. The effect of the

B. Benedikt; M. Lewis; P. Rangaswamy

2006-01-01

150

Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this interest…

Warming, Hanne

2011-01-01

151

Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

2010-01-01

152

Inclusion: A Catalyst for School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tells the story of one elementary school faculty who responded to the call for accountability by adopting an inclusive view and implementing educational practices where all students were welcomed and considered valuable, contributing members of the school community. The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education…

Hyatt, Keith J.; DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina; Ober, Scott

2005-01-01

153

Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

2014-01-01

154

Extremes of Inclusion: Too Much, Too Little.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined inclusion or making all children part of classroom life. Examined underinclusion, in which children remain on the fringe of the classroom community, and overinclusion, in which they are too involved in the social expectations of their classmates. Observations support appropriate amounts and forms of inclusion for optimal results. (DLH)

Seifert, Kelvin L.

1999-01-01

155

Building Inclusion: Respectful Communication across Difference  

E-print Network

Building Inclusion: Respectful Communication across Difference This document provides some suggestions for communicating across differences in order to create a more inclusive campus community". · If you specify race or ethnic origin, be certain it is relevant. Gender · Use gender-neutral words

Hitchcock, Adam P.

156

Refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the coarse-grained inclusions of the Allende meteorite is reviewed, with attention given to petrography and major minerals, micromineralogy and microtextures, bulk chemical composition, and isotopic composition. It is concluded that the coarse-grained inclusions provide evidence for a supernova explosion that occurred just before condensation, for incompletely homogenized material from several nucleosynthetic sources, and for solar nebular regions

L. Grossman

1980-01-01

157

Teacher Qualifications and Attitudes toward Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular education classroom has resulted in many studies on teacher attitudes. Current research has examined teacher beliefs about inclusion, their concerns, and issues pertaining to their ability to cater effectively for children with disabilities in their classrooms. Despite this, there…

Hsien, Michelle; Brown, P. Margaret; Bortoli, Anna

2009-01-01

158

Faculty Preparedness to Build Cultural Inclusiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty members play a significant role in retaining diverse students, faculty, and staff on a college campus based on how culturally inclusive their behavior is. This research elucidates the development of a faculty inclusiveness survey, and tests it on a national random sample of 637 faculty members to determine how prepared they are to build…

Samuels, Dena Renee

2010-01-01

159

Inclusive Programming for Students with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although autism varies from one child to another, there are several common key factors to creating a successful inclusion program. In this article, the author discusses the factors in inclusion program that works for all. These factors include: (1) Appropriate Placement; (2) Teacher and Paraprofessional Selection; (3) Parental Involvement; (4)…

Crisman, Belinda W.

2008-01-01

160

Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

161

Making the Social Visible Within Inclusive Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need to address children's social development in the midst of academic initiatives for early childhood curricula. A study was conducted to make visible and support children's social interactions within inclusive preschool classrooms through documentation from the Reggio Emilia approach. Findings demonstrated that children's interactions occurred among different configurations within inclusive preschool classrooms, involving: 1) children who

Laurie Katz; Jeanne Galbraith

2006-01-01

162

Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

2010-01-01

163

Ultramafic inclusions in basaltic rocks from Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultramafic inclusions and the enclosing basaltic rocks were collected from a number of localities in the Hawaiian Islands; these and other specimens were studied by standard pétrographic techniques and with an electron microprobe. Emphasis was on determination of mineral assemblages, mineral compositions, and variations in composition. Sixty-eight inclusions and thirteen basaltic rocks are described, with partial chemical analyses (Ti, Al,

Richard W. White

1966-01-01

164

Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

2013-01-01

165

Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

Kang, Sang-gu

2011-01-01

166

Equality and Inclusion of Social Diversity  

E-print Network

Equality and Inclusion of Social Diversity with respect to Woods and Forests in the UK: An Evidence Review #12;0 | Diversity & Equality Evidence Review | B. Ambrose-Oji | 01/04/2009 Equality Evidence.Ambrose-Oji@forestry.gsi.gov.uk An appropriate citation for this report is: Ambrose-Oji, B., 2009, Equality and Inclusion of Social Diversity

167

Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

1982-01-01

168

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan MPI-K, Heidelberg and YerPhI,Yerevan On behalf Diffractive DIS at HERA Measurements of diffractive structure function QCD fits Comparison with hadronic final presented in this talk are based on HERA-I data Armen Bunyatyan, Inclusive Diffraction at HERA LISHEP 2006

169

The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

2006-01-01

170

Improvement of dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into MCM-41 mesoporous silicate.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper was the use of mesoporous silicate MCM-41 to increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-class II of the Biopharmaceutic Classification System. The inclusion/adsorption compound of piroxicam in MCM-41 was obtained with a drug loading of about 14%. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed the presence of piroxicam not arranged in crystalline form and FT-IR spectroscopy showed the presence of light interactions (hydrogen bonds) between the silicate silanols and the drug. The decrease of Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (B.E.T.) specific surface area and pore volume between free MCM-41 and the inclusion/adsorption compound was a prove of the presence of piroxicam inside the mesopores. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests and a remarkable dissolution rate improvement was observed in comparison to the crystalline drug in all tested conditions. The dissolution profile at pH 1.2 was comparable to that of the marketed product Brexin, a formulation with rapid analgesic effect onset. The improvement of dissolution rate is due to both the lack of drug in the crystalline form and to the extremely large surface area of the siliceous support. Physical stability tests of the free drug and the inclusion/adsorption complex were conducted as well over one month storage at 40 degrees C at different relative humidity. PMID:17826966

Ambrogi, V; Perioli, L; Marmottini, F; Giovagnoli, S; Esposito, M; Rossi, C

2007-11-01

171

Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.  

PubMed

Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual?s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. PMID:24530825

Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

2014-06-01

172

Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept  

PubMed Central

In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

Costa, James T.

2013-01-01

173

Update in inclusion body myositis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The purpose of this study is to review recent scientific advances relating to the natural history, cause, treatment and serum and imaging biomarkers of inclusion body myositis (IBM). Recent findings Several theories regarding the aetiopathogenesis of IBM are being explored and new therapeutic approaches are being investigated. New diagnostic criteria have been proposed, reflecting the knowledge that the diagnostic pathological findings may be absent in patients with clinically typical IBM. The role of MRI in IBM is expanding and knowledge about pathological biomarkers is increasing. The recent description of autoantibodies to cytosolic 5? nucleotidase 1A in patients with IBM is a potentially important advance that may aid early diagnosis and provides new evidence regarding the role of autoimmunity in IBM. Summary IBM remains an enigmatic and often misdiagnosed disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is still not fully understood. To date, pharmacological treatment trials have failed to show clear efficacy. Future research should continue to focus on improving understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and on the identification of reliable and sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials. IBM is a rare disease and international multicentre collaboration for trials is important to translate research advances into improved patient outcomes. PMID:24067381

Machado, Pedro; Brady, Stefen; Hanna, Michael G.

2013-01-01

174

Phenotypic variability within the inclusion body spectrum of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease in frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions.  

PubMed

Basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID) are rare diseases included among frontotemporal lobar degenerations with FUS-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS). We report clinical and pathologic features of 2 new patients and reevaluate neuropathologic characteristics of 2 previously described cases, including an early-onset case of basophilic inclusion body disease (aged 38 years) with a 5-year disease course and abundant FUS-positive inclusion bodies and 3 NIFID cases. One NIFID case (aged 37 years) presented with early-onset psychiatric disturbances and rapidly progressive cognitive decline. Two NIFID cases had later onset (aged 64 years and 70 years) and complex neurologic deficits. Postmortem neuropathologic studies in late-onset NIFID cases disclosed ?-internexin-positive "hyaline conglomerate"-type inclusions that were positive with 1 commercial anti-FUS antibody directed to residues 200 and 250, but these were negative to amino acids 90 and 220 of human FUS. Early-onset NIFID had similar inclusions that were positive with both commercial anti-FUS antibodies. Genetic testing performed on all cases revealed no FUS gene mutations. These findings indicate that phenotypic variability in NIFID, including clinical manifestations and particular neuropathologic findings, may be related to the age at onset and individual differences in the evolution of lesions. PMID:22892522

Gelpi, Ellen; Lladó, Albert; Clarimón, Jordi; Rey, Maria Jesús; Rivera, Rosa Maria; Ezquerra, Mario; Antonell, Anna; Navarro-Otano, Judith; Ribalta, Teresa; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Pérez, Anna; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Ferrer, Isidre

2012-09-01

175

Volatile Release from the Siberian Traps Inferred from Melt Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is one of the largest known continental flood volcanic provinces in the Phanerozoic. The quantification of volatile degassing is particularly important because the Siberian Traps have often been invoked as a possible trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction (e.g. Campbell et al., 1992; Wignall, 2001). Volatile degassing provides a crucial mechanism to link mafic volcanic eruption to global environmental change. Mafic flood basalt magmas are expected to have low volatile contents (similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts). However, Siberian Traps magmas were chambered in and erupted through a thick sedimentary basin and may have interacted with, and obtained volatiles from, sedimentary lithologies such as limestone, coal, and evaporite. Melt inclusions from the Siberian Traps provide insight into the potential total volatile budget throughout the evolution of the large igneous province. These droplets of trapped melt may preserve volatile species that would otherwise have degassed at the time of eruption (Thordarson et al., 1996). Mafic pyroclastic deposits from the lowermost Arydzhangsky suite (basal Siberian Traps) contain clinopyroxene phenocrysts hosting melt inclusions. Electron microprobe analysis of clinopyroxene-hosted re-homogenized melt inclusions indicates maximum measured concentrations of up to 1500 - 2000 ppm sulfur, 500 - 760 ppm chlorine, and 1900 - 2400 ppm fluorine. Olivines from the Maymechinsky suite, recognized as the last extrusive products of Siberian Traps volcanism, contain melt inclusions with maximum sulfur concentrations in the range of 5000 ppm, and less substantial concentrations of chlorine and fluorine. Intrusive igneous rocks from the province also display significant volatile contents. A sill from the Ust-Ilimsk region yielded plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions which contain chlorine and fluorine concentrations nearing one weight percent. Visscher et al. (2004) proposed that chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFCs) may have played a major role in the terrestrial end-Permian extinction. These CFCs are powerful catalysts for the breakdown of ozone, a process which can expose the biosphere to increased ultraviolet radiation. Measurements of elevated chlorine and fluorine from the Siberian Traps may thus provide a concrete source for CFCs that could have triggered this kill mechanism.

Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Rowe, M. C.; Ukstins Peate, I.

2009-12-01

176

Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

1988-01-01

177

Basophilic inclusions and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.  

PubMed

Basophilic inclusions (BIs) and neuronal intermediate filament inclusions (NIFIs) are key structures of basophilic inclusion body disease and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), respectively. BIs are sharply-defined, oval or crescent neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions that appear pale blue-gray in color with HE staining and purple in color with Nissl but are stained poorly with silver impregnation techniques. Immunohistochemically BIs are negative for tau, trans-activation response DNA 43 (TDP-43), ?-synuclein, neurofilament (NF) and ?-internexin, positive for p62, and variably ubiquitinated. Noticeably, BIs are consistently fused in sarcoma (FUS) positive. NIFIs are by definition immuno-positive for class IV IFs including three NF triplet subunit proteins and ?-internexin but negative for tau, TDP-43, and ?-synuclein. In NIFID cases several types of inclusions have been identified. Among them, hyaline conglomerate-like inclusions are the only type that meets the above immunohistochemical features of NIFIs. This type of inclusion appears upon HE staining as multilobulated, faintly eosinophilic or pale amphophilic spherical masses with a glassy appearance. These hyaline conglomerates appear strongly argyrophilic, and robustly and consistently immuno-positive for IFs. In contrast, this type of inclusion shows no or only occasional dot-like FUS immunoreactivity. Therefore, BIs and NIFIs are distinct from each other in terms of morphological, tinctorial and immunohistochemical features. However, basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) and NIFID are difficult to differentiate clinically. Moreover, Pick body-like inclusions, the predominant type of inclusions seen in NIFID, are considerably similar to the BIs of BIBD in that this type of inclusion is basophilic, poorly argyrophilic, negative for IFs and intensely immuno-positive for FUS. As BIBD and NIFID share FUS accumulation as the most prominent molecular pathology, whether these two diseases are discrete entities or represent a pathological continuum remains a question to be answered. PMID:24673472

Ito, Hidefumi

2014-12-01

178

Effective field theories for inclusive B decays  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study inclusive decays of the B meson. These allow one to determine CKM elements precisely and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We use the framework of effective field theories, in ...

Lee, Keith S. M. (Keith Seng Mun)

2006-01-01

179

Genetics Home Reference: Inclusion body myopathy 2  

MedlinePLUS

... families, researchers called it distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) or Nonaka myopathy. When a similar disorder ... in Iranian Jewish families, researchers called it rimmed vacuole myopathy or hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM). It ...

180

Genetics Home Reference: Microvillus inclusion disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of nutrients from food during digestion, resulting in malnutrition and dehydration. Affected infants often have difficulty gaining ... and fluids during digestion leads to recurrent diarrhea, malnutrition, and dehydration in individuals with microvillus inclusion disease. ...

181

Evaluation of monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds in ambient air around Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus halepensis and Cedrus atlantica trees growing in Algiers city area by chiral and achiral capillary gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in ambient air around either Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus atlantica and Pinus halepensis trees from El- Hamma Botanical Garden (Algiers) or from Pinus halepensis trees field located in Bab-Ezzouar (suburb of Algiers) was qualitatively and semi-quantitatively evaluated. The sampling was carried out in ambient air by adsorption through an activated charcoal cartridge followed by the carbon disulfide extraction. The solution was subjected to high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) analysis in programmed temperature. The identification of the components was established by the means of retention Kovàts indexes. The use of a ?-cyclodextrin chiral capillary column allowed a good separation of monoterpenic enantiomers released in the atmosphere. The enantiomeric ratio provided a good insight into the enantiomeric compound preferentially emitted by plants.

Yassaa, Noureddine; Youcef Meklati, Brahim; Cecinato, Angelo

182

Measurement of the Inclusive Electroproduction of Hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroproduction of hadrons was studied with a wide-aperture spectrometer. Inclusive data are presented for the electron-scattering region -0.5>q2>-2.5 (GeVc)2, 4inclusive variables ?, p?2, and x are studied in the region x>0. A striking difference from photoproduction is observed in the excess of positive over negative hadrons at high x and high q2.

Dakin, J. T.; Feldman, G. J.; Lakin, W. L.; Martin, F.; Perl, M. L.; Petraske, E. W.; Toner, W. T.

1972-09-01

183

Cavity formation from inclusions in ductile fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously proposed conditions for cavity formation from equiaxed inclusions in ductile fracture have been examined. Critical\\u000a local elastic energy conditions are found to be necessary but not sufficient for cavity formation. The interfacial strength\\u000a must also be reached on part of the boundary. For inclusions larger than about 100Å the energy condition is always satisfied\\u000a when the interfacial strength

A. S. Argon; J. Im; R. Safoglu

1975-01-01

184

Uranium exploration by radon measurement in inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Exploration for uranium by measuring radon in the inclusions of minerals is a survey technique developed in recent years. Two methods exists: radon measurement in inclusions in bedrock and in the sediments of water systems. The former method is used at the stage of uranium survey and exploration and its principle may be described as follows: The inclusion halo of uraniferous secondary inclusions is formed on a large scale in the rocks adjoining hydrothermal U-deposits. If samples are selected from bedrock at a given range and then heated, the inclusions will decrepitate and, as a result, give off radon. After the measurement of the relative content of radon with radon-meters, one can outline the anomalous areas of radon, which will be the indicators of the location of blind U-ore-bodies. As for the second method, its principle lies in that the diffusion haloes may be distributed in the sedimentary sands of water system as a result of the weathering, disintegration and transportation of bedrock containing U-deposits. Therefore, the anomalous areas can be determined by measurement of radon in the inclusions in sedimentary sands, which will be conducive to U-ore-formation. Field and laboratory work done in recent years using the radon measurement method has yielded successful and promising results, showing some advantages of this method over the commonly used gamma, eman, hydrochemical and other methods.

Shan, L.; Liu, X.D.; Wu, W.J.

1985-01-01

185

Unusual inclusions found in a national diamond  

SciTech Connect

Three pale yellow minerals, 100-200 microns in their longest dimension, were extracted from a diamond 2.5 mm in size and examined in an SEM equipped with an X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. These inclusions were found to be two grains of garnet and a coesite, all of which contain a microscopic grain of Ti-rich biotite, a small amount of sanidine and a number of other minerals. (1) Garnet-biotite-apatite-rutile-sanidine-(Fe,Ca) melt. Attached to one end of this garnet inclusion is a crystal of biotite (50 x 30 ..mu..m) in which an apatite and a rutile are embedded. A thin lamella of sanidine occurs in the biotite near the garnet boundary. (2) Garnet-biotite-apatite-sanidine-rutile-pyrrhotite-(Fe,Ca,K) phase (unidentified). This garnet inclusion partially encased a biotite crystal while all other phases occur as minute prismatic needles or irregular and globular masses on the inclusion surface. (3) Coesite-biotite-sanidine-calcite. They are considered primary phases because the diamond host contains neither internal nor external fractures. Garnet, coesite, biotite and apatite are syngenetic inclusions in this diamond based on their relatively large sizes and their intergrown relationships. All other phases may also be primary or derived from biotite which, in the presence of sulfur, may produce phlogopite + sanidine + pyrrhotite + rutile. The droplets of melt and thin lamella of sanidine in inclusion (1) seem to be products of incongruent melting of biotite during the emplacement of kimberlite.

Leung, I.S.

1985-01-01

186

Endomorphisms on half-sided modular inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In algebraic quantum field theory we consider nets of von Neumann algebras indexed over regions of the space time. Wiesbrock [''Conformal quantum field theory and half-sided modular inclusions of von Neumann algebras,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 158, 537-543 (1993)] has shown that strongly additive nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle are in correspondence with standard half-sided modular inclusions. We show that a finite index endomorphism on a half-sided modular inclusion extends to a finite index endomorphism on the corresponding net of von Neumann algebras on the circle. Moreover, we present another approach to encoding endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras on the circle into half-sided modular inclusions. There is a natural way to associate a weight to a Moebius covariant endomorphism. The properties of this weight have been studied by Bertozzini et al. [''Covariant sectors with infinite dimension and positivity of the energy,'' Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 471-492 (1998)]. In this paper we show the converse, namely, how to associate a Moebius covariant endomorphism to a given weight under certain assumptions, thus obtaining a correspondence between a class of weights on a half-sided modular inclusion and a subclass of the Moebius covariant endomorphisms on the associated net of von Neumann algebras. This allows us to treat Moebius covariant endomorphisms in terms of weights on half-sided modular inclusions. As our aim is to provide a framework for treating endomorphisms on nets of von Neumann algebras in terms of the apparently simpler objects of weights on half-sided modular inclusions, we lastly give some basic results for manipulations with such weights.

Svegstrup, Rolf Dyre [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan)

2006-12-15

187

Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds  

PubMed Central

The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

2005-01-01

188

Inclusion of Paracetamol into ?-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): ?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- ?-CD (HP- ?-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- ?-CD (Me- ?-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- ?-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- ?-CD > HP- ?-CD > ?-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- ?-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

2011-09-01

189

Inclusion of trans-resveratrol in methylated cyclodextrins: synthesis and solid-state structures  

PubMed Central

Summary The phytoalexin trans-resveratrol, 5-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzenediol, is a well-known, potent antioxidant having a variety of possible biomedical applications. However, its adverse physicochemical properties (low stability, poor aqueous solubility) limit such applications and its inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs) has potential for addressing these shortcomings. Here, various methods of the attempted synthesis of inclusion complexes between trans-resveratrol and three methylated cyclodextrins (permethylated ?-CD, permethylated ?-CD and 2,6-dimethylated ?-CD) are described. Isolation of the corresponding crystalline 1:1 inclusion compounds enabled their full structure determination by X-ray analysis for the first time, revealing a variety of guest inclusion modes and unique supramolecular crystal packing motifs. The three crystalline inclusion complexes were also fully characterized by thermal analysis (hot stage microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry). To complement the solid-state data, phase-solubility studies were conducted using a series of CDs (native and variously derivatised) to establish their effect on the aqueous solubility of trans-resveratrol and to estimate association constants for complex formation.

Trollope, Lee; Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Noonan, Terence; Bourne, Susan A; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura

2014-01-01

190

Absence of evidence ? evidence of absence: statistical analysis of inclusions in multiferroic thin films.  

PubMed

Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi(6)Ti(2.8)Fe(1.52)Mn(0.68)O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of 'new single phase multiferroic materials'. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions. PMID:25026969

Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E; Holmes, Justin D; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W

2014-01-01

191

Absence of Evidence ? Evidence of Absence: Statistical Analysis of Inclusions in Multiferroic Thin Films  

PubMed Central

Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi6Ti2.8Fe1.52Mn0.68O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of ‘new single phase multiferroic materials’. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions. PMID:25026969

Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E.; Holmes, Justin D.; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W.

2014-01-01

192

Spectroscopic investigations and crystal structure from synchrotron powder data of the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin with atenolol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion complexes of atenolol with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) in aqueous solution have been investigated with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of this inclusion complex was established to be equimolar (1:1) and its stability constant was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the ?-CD-atenolol (1:1) inclusion compound has been solved from synchrotron powder diffraction data using direct-space search techniques. The crystal structure model and 1H NMR data are in good agreement and, with support of Hyperchem MM+ molecular dynamics results, suggest which protons are likely to be involved in the inclusion process that leads to the supramolecular architecture of this guest-host complex.

Borodi, Gheorghe; Bratu, Ioan; Dragan, Felicia; Peschar, René; Helmholdt, Robert B.; Hernanz, Antonio

2008-10-01

193

Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3??m, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7??m yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

Conner, Amber J.

2013-01-01

194

Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings  

E-print Network

their severity, foundries often employ special gating techniques to reduce the contact area and time between cycle of inclusions during the filling of steel castings. There are two ways that inclusions can or together. Inclusion motion is calculated by solving an equation of motion for each inclusion at each time

Beckermann, Christoph

195

The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various influences, most…

Le Fanu, Guy

2013-01-01

196

From Exclusion to Inclusion: Collaborative Work Contributions to More Inclusive Learning Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been deep changes in societies during the last decade. As a result, schools face new challenges, such as avoiding exclusion by promoting inclusion. In this paper we present the findings of our efforts to use collaborative work as a mediation tool in order to achieve more inclusive learning settings. This work starts from the assumption…

Cesar, Margarida; Santos, Nuno

2006-01-01

197

Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Strategies for Coping with Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine…

Brackenreed, Darlene

2011-01-01

198

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion  

E-print Network

The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion disparities, social determinants of health, access to health care among diverse and underserved communities and describe how the nominee's research work has impacted diverse underserved and underrepresented communities

Chapman, Michael S.

199

[Ubiquitous perfluorinated compounds].  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which all or most of hydrogen atoms are substitiuted by fluorine atoms. These compounds are commonly used in many branches of industry. Perfluorinated compounds are in the limelight because of numerous reports concerning their toxicity and negative effects on human health as well as contradictory information about their cancerogenic effect. The above compounds are used in production of many commonly used products including such brand names as Gore-Tex, Teflon, Stainmaster. The most common ways of penetrating these compounds into a human organism are: via food, inhalation and skin contact. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:21980858

Kucharska, Agnieszka; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Snopczy?iski, Tomasz; Ludwicki, Jan K

2011-01-01

200

Fluid-deposited graphitic inclusions in quartz: Comparison between KTB (German Continental Deep-Drilling) core samples and artificially reequilibrated natural inclusions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used Raman microsampling spectroscopy (RMS) to determine the degree of crystallinity of minute (2-15 ??m) graphite inclusions in quartz in two sets of samples: experimentally reequilibrated fluid inclusions in a natural quartz grain and biotite-bearing paragneisses from the KTB deep drillhole in SE Germany. Our sequential reequilibration experiments at 725??C on initially pure CO2 inclusions in a quartz wafer and the J. Krautheim (1993) experiments at 900-1100??C on organic compounds heated in gold or platinum capsules suggest that, at a given temperature, (1) fluid-deposited graphite will have a lower crystallinity than metamorphosed organic matter and (2) that the crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is affected by the composition of the fluid from which it was deposited. We determined that the precipitation of more-crystalline graphite is favored by lower fH2 (higher fO2), and that the crystallinity of graphite is established by the conditions (including gas fugacities) that pertain as the fluid first reaches graphite saturation. Graphite inclusions within quartz grains in the KTB rocks show a wide range in crystallinity index, reflecting three episodes of carbon entrapment under different metamorphic conditions. Isolated graphite inclusions have the spectral properties of totally ordered, completely crystalline graphite. Such crystallinity suggests that the graphite was incorporated from the surrounding metasedimentary rocks, which underwent metamorphism at upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Much of the fluid-deposited graphite in fluid inclusions, however, shows some spectral disorder. The properties of that graphite resemble those of experimental precipitates at temperatures in excess of 700??C and at elevated pressures, suggesting that the inclusions represent precipitates from C-O-H fluids trapped under conditions near those of peak metamorphism at the KTB site. In contrast, graphite that is intimately associated with chlorite and other (presumably low-temperature) silicates in inclusions is highly disordered and spectrally resembles kerogens. This graphite probably was deposited during later greenschist-facies retrograde metamorphism at about 400-500??C. The degree of crystallinity of fluid-deposited graphite is shown to be a much more complex function of temperature than is the crystallinity of metamorphic graphite. To some extent, experiments can provide temperature-calibration of the crystallinity index. However, the difference in time scales between experimental runs and geologic processes makes it difficult to infer specific temperatures for naturally precipitated graphite. Copyright ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pasteris, J.D.; Chou, I.-M.

1998-01-01

201

?B-crystallin negative astrocytic inclusions.  

PubMed

We report on an unusual pathological finding of astrocytes, observed in the brain of a 16-year-old African-American male with severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. The brain showed bilateral pericentral, perisylvian polymicrogyria and pachygyria, in conjunction with a large number of hypertrophic astrocytes with eosinophilic granular cytoplasmic inclusions. The astrocytic abnormality was more severe in the dysgenetic area but present throughout the cerebral cortex. Astrocytic inclusions stained with acid fuchsin, azocarmine and Holzer's stain, and were immunoreactive for GFAP, S-100, and ubiquitin, but not for ?B-crystallin, filamin, vimentin, nestin, tau or ?-synuclein. Based on the case and a review of the literature, the authors postulate that these astrocytic inclusions in the cerebral cortex reflect abnormalities in radial glial developmental processes, such as migration, differentiation, or glial-neuronal interaction function during neuronal migration. PMID:20621427

Barnett, Brad P; Bressler, Joseph; Chen, Terina; Hutchins, Grover M; Crain, Barbara J; Kaufmann, Walter E

2011-04-01

202

Volatiles in melt inclusions from Icelandic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt inclusions hosted in olivine crystals from the glassy rims of subglacially erupted pillow basalts on Iceland have been analysed for volatiles, major elements and trace elements. Volatile measurements were undertaken using Fourier-Transform InfraRed spectroscopy utilising a novel technique which enables unexposed and much smaller inclusions than were previously possible to be analysed. Major elements were measured using electron microprobe and trace elements by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Comparison between initial results from the inclusions and the compositions of the bulk glasses show that the inclusions are less evolved and contain more H2O at the same MgO content. In addition many of the inclusions have higher H2O/K2O than their bulk glasses and some even contain CO2 (up to 629 ppm), which is below detection limits in the bulk glasses. This indicates that these inclusions are less affected by degassing. Two inclusions have extreme H2O/K2O (> 10), possibly suggesting that they have assimilated hydrous crustal material. The volatile and major element compositions of the bulk glasses have been used to suggest that the Iceland mantle plume is wet. However, trace element measurements show that enriched Iceland magmas have lower H2O/Ce than the adjacent Reykjanes Ridge. This could reflect syn-eruptive degassing or mixing between undegassed and recycled degassed magmas. Alternatively Iceland magmas could be derived from the EM (enriched mantle) component, which is believed to represent recycled oceanic crust. It is suggested that this material is efficiently dehydrated during the subduction process, so even though it has an enriched character, H2O is relatively depleted. As a result, EM melts have higher absolute H2O contents than mid- ocean ridge basalts (MORB), but lower H2O/Ce (or other H2O-incompatible element ratios), which has led to EM plumes being termed `dampspots'. The inclusion data will be presented in this context. Their compositions will show how the melt has evolved, enabling the relative roles of degassing, crystallisation and assimilation in the volatile systematics to be examined.

Nichols, A. R.; Wysoczanski, R. J.; Carroll, M. R.

2006-12-01

203

Production of epoxy compounds from olefinic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine and tertiary alkanol dissolved in an inert organic solvent are reacted with aqueous alkali to produce tertiary alkyl hypochlorite which is recovered in the organic solvent and reacted with water and olefinically unsaturated compound to produce chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol. Chlorohydrin and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent are contacted with aqueous alkali to produce the epoxy compound, and tertiary alkanol recovered in the organic solvent is recycled to hypochlorite production. The process may be integrated with the electrolytic production of chlorine, with an appropriate treatment of the recycle aqueous stream when required.

Gelbein, A.P.; Kwon, J.T.

1985-01-29

204

Inclusion: Professional Development Needs of Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attitudinal resistance among teachers regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities is well documented in the literature. Studies collectively highlight two specific areas that contribute to this resistance. First, a lack of teacher knowledge or preparedness for meeting the diverse needs of children with disabilities stimulates…

Stocks, Amanda G.

2010-01-01

205

Inclusivity Imperatives and the Australian National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With work currently being undertaken on formulating Australia's first national curriculum, now seems an opportune time to review the current state of play with regard to how well inclusivity is being represented in the developing documentation. An accurate understanding of "what is" is often the first step in preparing for "what may be" on a much…

Berlach, Richard G.; Chambers, Dianne J.

2011-01-01

206

Controllability and extremality in nonconvex differential inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

LetF:[0, T]×Rn?2Rn be a set-valued map with compact values; let ?:Rn?Rm be a locally Lipschitzian map,z(t) a given trajectory, andR the reachable set atT of the differential inclusion\\u000a

H. D. Tuan

1995-01-01

207

Directionally differentiable multiobjective optimization involving discrete inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to multiobjective optimization problems involving discrete inclusions. The objective functions are assumed to be directionally differentiable and the domination structure is defined by a closed convex cone. The directional derivatives are not assumed to be linear or convex. Several concepts of optimal solutions are analyzed, and the corresponding necessary conditions are obtained as well in maximum

Y. Ishizuka; H. D. Tuan

1996-01-01

208

Bullying and the inclusive school environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Australian education departments and teacher education institutions become aware of international trends, they are keen to implement quickly pedagogical and curriculum changes that are being promoted as best practice for schools of the twenty-first century. One such recent change has been the inclusivity movement. There remain, however, many unresolved issues for teachers that fall outside these new paradigm shifts

Christine Forlin; Dianne J Chambers

2003-01-01

209

The Value of Connectedness in Inclusive Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author addresses the importance of relationships in order for learning to take place in an inclusive manner. Anecdotes illustrate the value in beginning where the learner is and the unexpected opportunities the journey can lead to when both teacher and learner venture through unchartered paths together.

Figueroa, Ivan

2014-01-01

210

Inclusive Writing in a Psychology Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most college professors are looking for ways to make writing a positive experience for students. This is increasingly a challenge in our contemporary world, which tends to be very image-oriented. This short paper outlines ways in which student writing-projects can be designed encourage critical and innovative thinking in students. Inclusive

Parameswaram, Gowri

2007-01-01

211

Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion in general education and attention to belonging are the first steps toward greater achievement for all students. This must be followed by improving the core teaching and curriculum to enhance learning of all students through differentiation, and teaching to multiple modalities and learning preferences. For these changes to occur,…

Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

2009-01-01

212

Seamless Teaching: Navigating the Inclusion Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In schools across the country, students in special education and general education are increasingly learning together in inclusive classrooms. This is a significant civil-rights achievement, but it also means students in special education are being taught by general education teachers who may not have the training and skills to best serve them.…

Barrett, Lois

2013-01-01

213

Inclusive and dijet b productions at CDF  

SciTech Connect

This contribution reports recent CDF measurements of the inclusive b-jet and b{bar b} dijet production cross sections obtained at the Tevatron Run II in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Preliminary results are in reasonable agreement with QCD predictions.

Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

2005-01-01

214

Changes in Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite federal mandates to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, teachers continue to have mixed feelings about their own preparedness to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting. However, research has demonstrated that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion are more…

Swain, Kristine D.; Nordness, Philip D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

2012-01-01

215

A nonlinear elasticity phantom containing spherical inclusions  

PubMed Central

The strain image contrast of some in vivo breast lesions changes with increasing applied load. This change is attributed to differences in the nonlinear elastic properties of the constituent tissues suggesting some potential to help classify breast diseases by their nonlinear elastic properties. A phantom with inclusions and long-term stability is desired to serve as a test bed for nonlinear elasticity imaging method development, testing, etc. This study reports a phantom designed to investigate nonlinear elastic properties with ultrasound elastographic techniques. The phantom contains four spherical inclusions and was manufactured from a mixture of gelatin, agar and oil. The phantom background and each of the inclusions has distinct Young’s modulus and nonlinear mechanical behavior. This phantom was subjected to large deformations (up to 20%) while scanning with ultrasound, and changes in strain image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between inclusion and background, as a function of applied deformation, were investigated. The changes in contrast over a large deformation range predicted by the finite element analysis (FEA) were consistent with those experimentally observed. Therefore, the paper reports a procedure for making phantoms with predictable nonlinear behavior, based on independent measurements of the constituent materials, and shows that the resulting strain images (e.g., strain contrast) agrees with that predicted with nonlinear FEA. PMID:22772074

Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

216

Inclusive High Schools: Learning from Contemporary Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing both processes and outcomes, this book provides a framework for developing inclusive high schools, illustrated by detailed accounts of high schools that have struggled, strategized, and ultimately achieved success. Themes discussed include building crucial school-based relationships, developing support strategies, communicating…

Fisher, Douglas, Ed.; Sax, Caren, Ed.; Pumpian, Ian, Ed.

217

Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

2010-01-01

218

Listening Carefully for Inclusion: A Principal's Awakening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a reflective piece of learning in process and what it means to be a principal of all children. The narrative is an extension from the doctorial work the author completed at the University of Alberta entitled "A Narrative Inquiry into Mothers' Experiences of Securing Inclusive Education" (Raymond, 2002). This research inquiry…

Raymond, Heather

2005-01-01

219

Campus Alberta: Inclusive/Special Education Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important directives for a provincial initiative in continuing professional development opportunities for teachers and administrators, in inclusive/special education, have recently taken place in Alberta. The four major Alberta Universities have been working together since October of 2000, to develop a model for professional development options in…

Lupart, Judy; Chmiliar, Linda; Grigg, Nancy; Hiebert, Bryan

2004-01-01

220

Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

Curcic, Svjetlana

2009-01-01

221

Building Inclusive Communities: A Social Capital Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population shifts have changed the face of many Idaho communities, but inclusive relationships among groups can build the social capital required for communities to thrive. University of Idaho Extension developed "Idaho's Journey for Diversity and Human Rights" as a hands-on traveling workshop about past and present issues of human rights and…

Shaklee, Harriet; Laumatia, Laura; Luckey, Brian; Traver, Sue; Nauman, Arlinda; Tifft, Kathee; Liddil, Audrey; Hampton, Carol

2010-01-01

222

Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

2013-01-01

223

Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids  

PubMed Central

We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder. PMID:24353470

Yavari, Arash; Goriely, Alain

2013-01-01

224

Some Thoughts on Models of Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven models of inclusion for deaf children are briefly described: (1) residential programming; (2) residential/public school split; (3) public school programming with a residential component; (4) contained classroom programming; (5) class within a class; (6) integration plus resource; and (7) integration with monitoring. Roles of teachers,…

Luetke-Stahlman, B.

1994-01-01

225

Equity and Inclusion in Physical Education PLC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical Educationalists in many western and westernised societies across the globe are facing new challenges as system wide changes take place increasing the role of private bodies (e.g. Academy trusts) in the delivery of school based education. This reflective and rather personal paper considers the place and meaning of "inclusion" and…

Evans, John

2014-01-01

226

SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

2000-01-01

227

Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

Ince, Basak

2012-01-01

228

Making the Social Visible within Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing need to address children's social development in the midst of academic initiatives for early childhood curricula. A study was conducted to make visible and support children's social interactions within inclusive preschool classrooms through documentation from the Reggio Emilia approach. Findings demonstrated that children's…

Katz, Laurie; Galbraith, Jeanne

2006-01-01

229

On the Dirt Road to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

2012-01-01

230

Transformative Pathways: Inclusive Pedagogies in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a three-year study of Praxis Inquiry based developments in teacher education undertaken by an international consortium of university colleagues who have worked in Australia, Iceland, Latvia, and the United Kingdom. Our study suggests that the attainment of inclusive community responsive pedagogies--in schools and in teacher…

Guojonsdottir, Hafdis; Cacciattolo, Marcelle; Dakich, Eva; Davies, Anne; Kelly, Claire; Dalmau, Mary C.

2008-01-01

231

Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

2012-01-01

232

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion Applies to: Any website conducting university of the art digital and web based information delivery of information is increasingly central in carrying out constituencies. This policy establishes minimum standards for the accessibility of web based information

Jones, Michelle

233

Student behaviour self?monitoring enabling inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school dropout. Schools remain committed to the use of exclusions as response to disruptive behaviours, justified in

Stephen K. Jull

2009-01-01

234

Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

1997-01-01

235

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction at HERA Armen Bunyatyan for the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations XXXIX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics Gomel Region, 4-9 September 2009 · Introduction · Diffractive structure functions: comparison of different data · QCD fits and diffractive PDFs · Comparison

236

Numerical Simulations of Inclusion Behavior in Gas-Stirred Ladles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computation fluid dynamics-population balance model (CFD-PBM) coupled model has been proposed to investigate the bubbly plume flow and inclusion behavior including growth, size distribution, and removal in gas-stirred ladles, and some new and important phenomena and mechanisms were presented. For the bubbly plume flow, a modified k- ? model with extra source terms to account for the bubble-induced turbulence was adopted to model the turbulence, and the bubble turbulent dispersion force was taken into account to predict gas volume fraction distribution in the turbulent gas-stirred system. For inclusion behavior, the phenomena of inclusions turbulent random motion, bubbles wake, and slag eye forming on the molten steel surface were considered. In addition, the multiple mechanisms both that promote inclusion growth due to inclusion-inclusion collision caused by turbulent random motion, shear rate in turbulent eddy, and difference inclusion Stokes velocities, and the mechanisms that promote inclusion removal due to bubble-inclusion turbulence random collision, bubble-inclusion turbulent shear collision, bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision, inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface, bubble wake capture, and wall adhesion were investigated. The importance of different mechanisms and total inclusion removal ratio under different conditions, and the distribution of inclusion number densities in ladle, were discussed and clarified. The results show that at a low gas flow rate, the inclusion growth is mainly attributed to both turbulent shear collision and Stokes collision, which is notably affected by the Stokes collision efficiency, and the inclusion removal is mainly attributed to the bubble-inclusion buoyancy collision and inclusion own floatation near slag-metal interface. At a higher gas flow rate, the inclusions appear as turbulence random motion in bubbly plume zone, and both the inclusion-inclusion and inclusion-bubble turbulent random collisions become important for inclusion growth and removal. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the total removal ratio increases, but when the gas flow rate exceeds 200 NL/min in 150-ton ladle, the total removal ration almost does not change. For the larger size inclusions, the number density in bubbly plume zone is less than that in the sidewall recirculation zones, but for the small size inclusions, the distribution of number density shows the opposite trend.

Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

2013-06-01

237

XAFS Model Compound Library  

DOE Data Explorer

The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

Newville, Matthew

238

Compound cryopump for fusion reactors  

E-print Network

We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

Kovari, M; Shephard, T

2013-01-01

239

Preparation of uranium compounds  

SciTech Connect

UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

2013-02-19

240

Interaction between a crack and a soft inclusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the application to weld defects in mind, the interaction problem between a planar-crack and a flat inclusion in an elastic solid is considered. The elastic inclusion is assumed to be sufficiently thin so that the thickness distribution of the stresses in the inclusion may be neglected. The problem is reduced to a system of four integral equations having Cauchy-type dominant kernels. The stress intensity factors are calculated and tabulated for various crack-inclusion geometries and the inclusion to matrix modulus ratios, and for general homogeneous loadiong conditions away from the crack-inclusion region.

Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

1985-01-01

241

Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

Burruss, R.C.

1987-01-01

242

Addition of Titanium Oxide Inclusions into Liquid Steel to Control Nonmetallic Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium oxide inclusions in steel are well known to inhibit grain growth and act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite because of absorbing manganese from the surrounding steel resulting in a manganese depleted zone around the inclusion. In this article, the inclusions resulting from TiO2 additions to low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr steel were studied. Different types of TiO2 containing materials were added to liquid steel before or during casting to get small titanium-oxide-rich inclusions in steel. The main goals were to find out what happens to TiO2 in liquid steel after addition and during cooling and to study further what type of inclusions are formed in the steel as a result of the TiO2 addition. Based on the thermodynamic calculations and the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and SEM-electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, TiO2 is first reduced to Ti3O5 in liquid steel at high temperatures and then to Ti2O3 during cooling at around 1573 K (1300 °C). Both reactions liberate oxygen, which reacts with Ti, Mn, and Al forming complex Ti2O3-rich inclusions. The results also show that TiO2 additions result in more TiOx + MnO inclusions compared with experiments with Ti addition and that the absolute amount of manganese present in the inclusions is much higher in experiments with TiO2 addition than in experiments with Ti additions.

Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri

2012-04-01

243

Types of Compound Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide is designed to help students recognize and learn the different types of compound leaves. The single Web page can be easily printed for use at field sites. Along with a short description, an illustration that identifies a leaflet and petiole is included for four types of compound leaves.

244

Preparation, characterisation and bioactivity evaluation of the inclusion complex formed between picoplatin and ?-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

The inclusion complex of picoplatin with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was prepared and characterised by different analytical methods, including NMR, FTIR, TGA, phase solubility as well as SEM. All of these approaches indicated that picoplatin was able to form an inclusion complex with ?-CD, and that the picoplatin/?-CD inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from free picoplatin. The stoichiometry of the complex was 1:1; the pyridine group of picoplatin was deeply inserted into the cavity of ?-CD and the amine platinum group of picoplatin was near the narrower rim of ?-CD. The calculated apparent stability constant of the complex was 10,318M(-1). Moreover, the water solubility of picoplatin was significantly improved, according to phase-solubility studies. The complex maintained its anticancer activity, as shown by an in vitro cell-survival assay on A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. All of these results showed that inclusion complexation may be a promising strategy to design a novel formulation of picoplatin as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25119104

Zhang, Jian-Qiang; Li, Ke; Cong, Yan-Wei; Pu, Shao-Ping; Zhu, Hong-You; Xie, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yi; Lin, Jun

2014-09-19

245

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARASPORAL INCLUSION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KYUSHUENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacillus thuringiensis var. kyushuensis synthesizes an irregularly shaped parasporal inclusion during sporulation. lectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are composed of a relatively homogeneous appearing center surrounded by a thick, electron dense coating. urified incl...

246

Superscaling of inclusive electron scattering from nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the degree to which the concept of superscaling, initially developed within the framework of the relativistic Fermi gas model, applies to inclusive electron scattering from nuclei. We find that data obtained from the low-energy loss side of the quasielastic peak exhibit the superscaling property; i.e., the scaling functions f({psi}{sup '}) are not only independent of momentum transfer (the usual type of scaling: scaling of the first kind), but coincide for A{>=}4 when plotted versus a dimensionless scaling variable {psi}{sup '} (scaling of the second kind). We use this behavior to study the as yet poorly understood properties of the inclusive response at large electron energy loss. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)] [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Sick, Ingo [Departement fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Basel, CH4056 Basel, (Switzerland)] [Departement fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Basel, CH4056 Basel, (Switzerland)

1999-12-01

247

Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory  

PubMed Central

Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's ‘formal Darwinism project’. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

Grafen, Alan

2009-01-01

248

Inclusion for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

The present quasi-experimental study examines the outcomes for a group of 102 children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder at age 2 who attended an inclusive toddler program (described by Stahmer and Ingersoll, 2004) until age 3. Outcomes on standardized developmental assessments indicate significant improvement, with large effect sizes, in developmental level, adaptive behavior and communication. Thirty-one of the children (31%) were functioning in the typically developing range when they exited the program at age 3, after an average of 8 months of intervention. Predictors of positive outcomes included length of time in the program, level of words and gestures use at entry and higher externalizing and lower internalizing behavior CBCL scores at entry. Implications for serving toddlers with autism in inclusive settings and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21486899

STAHMER, AUBYN C.; AKSHOOMOFF, NATACHA; CUNNINGHAM, ALLISON B.

2014-01-01

249

Microbeam XAFS investigations on fluid inclusions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors discuss the use of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques for the determination of structure of metal complexes in fluid inclusions heated to elevated temperatures. Analysis of Zn K-edge XAFS spectra measured from a single hypersaline fluid inclusion in quartz shows that the ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} complex is dominant at all temperatures up to and including 430 C. The Zn-Cl bond length was found to decrease uniformly with temperature, up to nearly 2% at 430 C in comparison to the value at 25 C. The Zn-Cl mean-square relative displacement increased linearly with temperature, from a value of 0.0043 {angstrom}{sup 2} at 25 C to 0.0089 {angstrom}{sup 2} at 430 C.

Mayanovic, R.A. [Southwest Missouri State Univ., Springfield, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Anderson, A.J. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, Nova Scotia (Canada). Geology Dept.; Bajt, S. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Radiation Sources

1996-12-31

250

Inclusive production of D  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The inclusive production of mesons in photon-photon collisions has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 183 and 189 GeV. The mesons are reconstructed in their decay to with the observed in the two decay modes and . After background subtraction, \\u000a mesons have been selected in events without observed scattered beam electron (“anti-tagged”) and

K. Ackerstaff; G. Alexander; J. Allison; S. Arcelli; S. Asai; D. Axen; G. Azuelos; I. Bailey; E. Barberio; T. Barillari; S. Baumann; T. Behnke; G. Bella; A. Bellerive; S. Bentvelsen; S. Bethke; S. Betts; O. Biebel; A. Biguzzi; O. Boeriu; D. Bonacorsi; M. Boutemeur; S. Braibant; P. Bright-Thomas; L. Brigliadori; P. Capiluppi; D. Chrisman; C. Ciocca; E. Clay; I. Cohen; J. Couchman; C. Couyoumtzelis; M. Cuffiani; S. Dado; S. Dallison; R. Davis; P. Dervan; K. Desch; B. Dienes; M. Donkers; J. Dubbert; E. Duchovni; G. Duckeck; E. Etzion; F. Fabbri; A. Fanfani; M. Fanti; L. Feld; P. Ferrari; F. Fiedler; M. Fierro; I. Fleck; A. Frey; P. Gagnon; G. Gaycken; C. Geich-Gimbel; G. Giacomelli; P. Giacomelli; D. Glenzinski; J. Goldberg; W. Gorn; C. Grandi; K. Graham; E. Gross; J. Grunhaus; C. Hajdu; M. Hansroul; M. Hapke; K. Harder; A. Harel; M. Harin; M. Hauschild; R. Hawkings; G. Herten; A. Hocker; K. Hoffman; R. Howard; P. Igo-Kemenes; K. Ishii; A. Jawahery; H. Jeremie; M. Jimack; P. Jovanovic; N. Kanaya; J. Kanzaki; G. Karapetian; D. Karlen; V. Kartvelishvili; K. Kawagoe; T. Kawamoto; A. Klier; T. Kobayashi; M. Kobel; M. Kolrep; S. Komamiya; T. Kress; P. Krieger; T. Kuhl; M. Kupper; P. Kyberd; H. Landsman; D. Lanske; J. Lauber; I. Lawson; D. Lellouch; J. Letts; L. Levinson; R. Liebisch; J. Lillich; C. Littlewood; J. Lu; J. Ludwig; A. Macchiolo; A. Macpherson; W. Mader; M. Mannelli; S. Marcellini; G. Martinez; T. Mashimo; J. McKenna; F. Meijers; P. Mendez-Lorenzo; H. Mes; I. Meyer; A. Michelini; S. Mihara; G. Mikenberg; W. Mohr; A. Montanari; T. Mori; K. Nagai; I. Nakamura; R. Nisius; F. Odorici; A. Okpara

2000-01-01

251

Inclusive quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review on the field of inclusive quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering. It discusses the approach used to measure the data and includes a compilation of data available in numerical form. The theoretical approaches used to interpret the data are presented. A number of results obtained from the comparison between experiment and calculation are then reviewed. The analogies to, and differences from, other fields of physics exploiting quasielastic scattering from composite systems are pointed out.

Benhar, Omar; Day, Donal; Sick, Ingo [INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Departement fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2008-01-15

252

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1996-08-01

253

Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2006-08-01

254

T-learning for social inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper focuses on research themes related to t-learning applications. It particularly deals with digital divide and social inclusion issues and the most relevant features of t-learning. It reports also the main evidences arising from the Beacon project, funded on the last call of the 6th framework program. BEACON (Brazilian European Consortium for DTT Services) is a three years

Chiara Sancin; Vittorio Dell' Aiuto

255

Theory Predictions for Inclusive atmospheric Neutrino flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the history of theory prediction of inclusive atmospheric neutrino flux shortly, then the 3-dimensional calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in some detail. With the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux for INO and South Pole, we discuss on the relation of atmospheric neutrino flux and geomagnetic field. We find the full 3-dimensional scheme calculation is necessary for the theory prediction of the atmospheric neutrino flux.

Honda, Morihiro

2013-06-01

256

Adult pulmonary cytomegalic inclusion disease: report of a case.  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of pulmonary cytomegalic inclusion disease in adult. The condition was only diagnosed post mortem. A detailed description of the inclusions and inclusion-bearing cells is given. Histochemical observations which reveal an outer and inner zone to the intranuclear inclusion body are confirmed. Electron microscopy shows the viral basis of the infection. The morphology of the virus particles is compatible with a herpesvirus infection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6244337

Browning, J D; More, I A; Boyd, J F

1980-01-01

257

Hydrogen-Bonded Inclusion Compounds with Reversed Polarity: Anionic Metal-Complexes and Cationic Organic Linkers  

E-print Network

in catalysis, separation, molecular recognition, etc.1 Of special interest among them are the soft frameworks proton-donating ligands such as ammonia, amines, water, etc., can be viewed as replacing two parallel

258

Opening doors: promoting social inclusion through increased sports opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social inclusion remains high on the British government's agenda despite considerable evolution in conceptualizations of the term. This essay re-examines assumptions underpinning the linkage between increased opportunity and greater levels of social inclusion with a particular focus on the role of sports facilities and sporting opportunities. It explores the role of sport in the promotion of social inclusion, drawing on

Amanda Waring; Carolynne Mason

2010-01-01

259

Teacher Perspectives on Inclusive Education in Rural Alberta, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of 123 elementary-to-secondary teacher surveys and 14 in-depth qualitative interviews examining teachers' perspectives regarding inclusion in a rural school district are reported. Four features of inclusive education from the perspective of teachers are elaborated: (1) attitudes toward inclusion; (2) supportive communication and…

McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Irvine, Angela; Loreman, Tim; Cizman, Juna Lea; Lupart, Judy

2013-01-01

260

Control of inclusion characteristics in direct cast steel billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main criteria are used to characterize steel cleanliness. First the number and size of inclusions must be at the minimum level achievable with state-of-the-art steelmaking and casting equipment and procedures. Second the remaining small inclusions must have a chemical composition suitable for the steel application. In high carbon steel destined for wire drawing, inclusions need to be as deformable

Martin Gagné; Eric Thibault

1999-01-01

261

Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refolding of proteins from inclusion bodies is affected by several factors, including solubilization of inclusion bodies by denaturants, removal of the denaturant, and assistance of refolding by small molecule additives. We will review key parameters associated with (1) conformation of the protein solubilized from inclusion bodies, (2) change in conformation and flexibility or solubility of proteins during refolding upon reduction

Kouhei Tsumoto; Daisuke Ejima; Izumi Kumagai; Tsutomu Arakawac

2003-01-01

262

Mini review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies  

E-print Network

Mini review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies Kouhei Tsumoto parameters asso- ciated with (1) conformation of the protein solubilized from inclusion bodies, (2) change of the ex- pressed proteins in insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). IBs must then be solubilized and refolded

Lebendiker, Mario

263

University Students’ Perceptions of an Inclusive Music Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 130 undergraduate and graduate music education and music therapy students watched a videotape of elementary children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical peers preparing and performing in a musical production. The focus of the video was on preparation for inclusion, inclusive interactions, and the performance. Four questions addressing inclusion that required written responses from participants were posed.

Jane W. Cassidy; Cynthia M. Colwell

2012-01-01

264

26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...into two portions. One portion is equal to...000) and has a zero inclusion ratio...applicable fraction is one ($2,000/$2...inclusion ratio is zero (1 ? 1 = 0). ...applicable fraction of zero (0/$2,000...inclusion ratio of one (1 ? 0 =...

2010-04-01

265

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

266

Inclusive Education: Practical Implementation of the Least Restrictive Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 chapters of this book address theoretical and practical aspects of the development and implementation of inclusive education programs. Chapter titles and authors are: (1) "Inclusive Education: The Past, Preset, and Future" (Lissa A. Power-deFur and Fred P. Orelove); (2) "Inclusion and School Restructuring: Meeting the Needs of All Children"…

Power-deFur, Lissa A.; Orelove, Fred P.

267

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Implementation Plan FY 2012 ­ FY 2015 March 16, 2012 Enclosure #12;NASA Diversity and Inclusion Strategic and Inclusion Assessment Survey, deployed in FY 2010, as well as the annual government-wide Employee Viewpoint

Waliser, Duane E.

268

Evaluation of some Methods for Preparing Gliclazide- ?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Gliclazide has been found to form inclusion complexes with ?- cyclodextrin (?-CD) in solution and in solid state. The present study was undertaken to determine a suitable method for scaling up gliclazide-?-CD inclusion complex formation and to evaluate the effect of some parameters on the efficiency of complexation. Method: The solid inclusion complexes of gliclazide and ?-cyclodextrin were prepared

NP Sapkal; VA Kilor; KP Bhusari

269

Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting  

E-print Network

deoxidation inclusions (for which buoyancy is negligible) in continuous casting (rather than in shape castingModelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate

Beckermann, Christoph

270

Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

2014-01-01

271

The Reggio Emilia Approach and Inclusive Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of inclusion in preschool and compares educational practices of high-quality inclusive preschools in the United States with those characterizing the Reggio Emilia approach. Offers recommendations for better serving children with special needs in inclusive settings, including viewing teachers as researchers, and using…

Vakil, Shernavaz; Freeman, Ramona; Swim, Terry Jo

2003-01-01

272

Why Inclusion Benefits Everyone--Insights from a Parent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the experience of a parent of a special needs child attending an early child care center that embraces inclusion. Describes: (1) the search for a center; (2) her child's experience at school; (3) making inclusion possible; and (4) integration of all the parts. Asserts that all the children in the center benefit from inclusion. (SD)

Walton, Terrell

2001-01-01

273

March 2014 1 Summary of Inclusive Diversity Actions  

E-print Network

Subcommittee on Diversity and Inclusion formed · BALANCE (Black and Latino Alumni Network for Community of The Principles of Our Equitable Community on course syallabi 2014 · Diversity, inclusion, and cultural awarenessMarch 2014 1 Summary of Inclusive Diversity Actions At Lehigh 2005- present (work in progress) 2005

Napier, Terrence

274

Inclusion and Guilt: The Emotional Fallout for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of inclusion of children with exceptionalities is accepted by teachers, but the practice of inclusion is problematic, particularly at the secondary level. In a study of inclusion and the impact of budgetary constraints in Nova Scotia, teachers reported that they had difficulty meeting the needs of all students within their classroom…

Macmillan, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J.

2006-01-01

275

The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek

2009-01-01

276

Melt Inclusions in Olivine-Phyric Shergottite LAR 06319: Important Considerations in Using Melt Inclusions to Retrieve Parent Magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on melt inclusions in coarse olivine grains in LAR 06319 which does not have a cumulate component and its melt inclusions present a relatively simple case that allows us to address several methodological issues.

Basu Sarbadhikari, A.; Goodrich, C. A.; Liu, Y.; Taylor, L. A.

2010-03-01

277

Author's personal copy Coexisting silicate melt inclusions and H2O-bearing, CO2-rich fluid inclusions in mantle  

E-print Network

and H2S in the fluid inclusions. Trace element compositions of silicate melt and fluid inclusions were), although some experimental studies have documen- ted the rapid diffusion of certain (trace) elements

Bodnar, Robert J.

278

Stress concentration near stiff inclusions: validation of rigid inclusion model and boundary layers by means of photoelasticity  

E-print Network

Photoelasticity is employed to investigate the stress state near stiff rectangular and rhombohedral inclusions embedded in a 'soft' elastic plate. Results show that the singular stress field predicted by the linear elastic solution for the rigid inclusion model can be generated in reality, with great accuracy, within a material. In particular, experiments: (i.) agree with the fact that the singularity is lower for obtuse than for acute inclusion angles; (ii.) show that the singularity is stronger in Mode II than in Mode I (differently from a notch); (iii.) validate the model of rigid quadrilateral inclusion; (iv.) for thin inclusions, show the presence of boundary layers deeply influencing the stress field, so that the limit case of rigid line inclusion is obtained in strong dependence on the inclusion's shape. The introduced experimental methodology opens the possibility of enhancing the design of thin reinforcements and of analyzing complex situations involving interaction between inclusions and defects.

Diego Misseroni; Francesco Dal Corso; Summer Shahzad; Davide Bigoni

2014-04-03

279

The strange-sea quark spin distribution in the nucleon from inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering  

E-print Network

We propose new method which allows determination of the strange-sea quark spin distribution in the nucleon through measurement of various inclusive and semi-inclusive polarized deep inelastic electron- or muon-proton reactions. It is shown, that using combinations of inclusive data and semi-inclusive data containing neutral pions in the final state, it is possible to extract the strange-sea quark spin distribution. Similar result can be obtained for charged pions and some other hadrons also.

L. Grigoryan

2008-02-10

280

SUMO-1 marks the nuclear inclusions in familial neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease.  

PubMed

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive ataxia and neuronal nuclear inclusions (NIs), similar to the inclusions found in expanded CAG repeat diseases. NIID may be familial or sporadic. The cause of familial NIID is poorly understood, as no CAG expansion has been detected. We examined three cases, from two unrelated families, who had autosomal dominant NIID but normal CAG repeats in genes involved in polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases. We found that NIs in all three cases were intensely immunopositive for SUMO-1, a protein which covalently conjugates to other proteins and targets them to the nuclear regions (nuclear bodies) responsible for nuclear proteasomal degradation. Electron microscopy demonstrated that SUMO-1 was located on the 10-nm fibrils of NIs. In cultured PC12 cells, we found that inhibition of proteasome function by specific inhibitors resulted in the appearance of SUMO-1-immunopositive nuclear inclusions. Our study suggests that recruitment of SUMO-1 modified proteins into insoluble nuclear inclusions and proteasomal dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of NIs in familial NIID cases. PMID:14637113

Pountney, D L; Huang, Y; Burns, R J; Haan, E; Thompson, P D; Blumbergs, P C; Gai, W P

2003-11-01

281

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

1985-01-01

282

Ringed-Carbon Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-02-12

283

Anti-Fog Compound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracer Chemical Corporation's TRX Anti-Fog Composition is an inexpensive product which prevents condensation on plastic and glass surfaces. It was the result from a Tech Briefs article detailing a Johnson Space Center compound.

1985-01-01

284

Intercalation compounds of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad review of recent research work on the preparation and the remarkable properties of intercalation compounds of graphite, covering a wide range of topics from the basic chemistry, physics and materials science to engineering applications.

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus

1981-01-01

285

Intercalation compounds of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad review of recent research work on the preparation and the remarkable properties of intercalation compounds of graphite, covering a wide range of topics from the basic chemistry, physics and materials science to engineering applications.

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus

2002-01-01

286

Compound Independent Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

2007-12-12

287

Heart testing compound  

DOEpatents

The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

1983-06-29

288

Chemistry of peroxide compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

Volnov, I. I.

1981-01-01

289

Phenolic Molding Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

290

An overview on current fluid-inclusion research and applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of some of the more important developments in fluid-inclusion research and applications in recent years, including fluid-inclusion petrography, PVTX studies, and analytical techniques. In fluid-inclusion petrography, the introduction of the concept of 'fluid-inclusion assemblage' has been a major advance. In PVTX studies, the use of synthetic fluid inclusions and hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells has greatly contributed to the characterization of the phase behaviour of geologically relevant fluid systems. Various analytical methods are being developed and refined rapidly, with the Laser-Raman and LA-ICP-MS techniques being particularly useful for volatile and solute analyses, respectively. Ore deposit research has been and will continue to be the main field of application of fluid inclusions. However, fluid inclusions have been increasingly applied to other fields of earth science, especially in petroleum geology and the study of magmatic and earth interior processes.

Chi, G.; Chou, I.-M.; Lu, H.-Z.

2003-01-01

291

Quantitative analysis of inclusion distributions in hot pressed silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Depth of penetration measurements in hot pressed SiC have exhibited significant variability that may be influenced by microstructural defects. To obtain a better understanding regarding the role of microstructural defects under highly dynamic conditions; fragments of hot pressed SiC plates subjected to impact tests were examined. Two types of inclusion defects were identified, carbonaceous and an aluminum-iron-oxide phase. A disproportionate number of large inclusions were found on the rubble, indicating that the inclusion defects were a part of the fragmentation process. Distribution functions were plotted to compare the inclusion populations. Fragments from the superior performing sample had an inclusion population consisting of more numerous but smaller inclusions. One possible explanation for this result is that the superior sample withstood a greater stress before failure, causing a greater number of smaller inclusions to participate in fragmentation than in the weaker sample.

Michael Paul Bakas

2012-12-01

292

Stratigraphic evaluation of petroleum migration and seals using fluid inclusion and rock pyrolysis volatiles: Application to three deep wells, onshore Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Hydrocarbon Stratigraphy Inc.`s fluid inclusion and rock pyrolysis well profiles evaluate petroleum migration and seals. Up to five hundred cuttings samples are typically analyzed for a 15,000 ft well. Compounds analyzed include methane and other paraffins, naphthenes, benzene, toluene, carbon dioxide and a range of other minor compounds. The utility of this new technology is demonstrated using three deep exploration wells drilled onshore Trinidad, one of which was analyzed while drilling. Exploration utility of this new technology includes detecting oil or gas migration through a dry hole without shows, whether oil has migrated through a gas-charged reservoir and seal location. Non-collective fluid inclusion volatile stratigraphy evaluates petroleum migration, product types and seals. Petroleum migration is manifested as large compartments of petroleum inclusion-bearing strata. Inclusion volatiles can be characterized as oil, wet gas, dry gas, biodegraded oil, or as exhibiting no evidence of migration. Seals occur between petroleum inclusion-rich compartments and strata having no evidence of migration, or between compartments containing distinctly different petroleum inclusion types. Rock pyrolysis volatile stratigraphy evaluates source rock and sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of carbonates, sulfates and clays.

Smith, M.P. [Advanced Hydrocarbon Stratigraphy Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Pottorf, R.J. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States); Sykes, M.A. [Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

293

Inclusion Optimization for Next Generation Steel Products  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to determine the conditions under which the inclusions in liquid steel can act as heterogeneous nucleants for solidification. The experimental approach consisted of measuring the undercooling of a pure iron droplet in contact with different oxides to determine which oxides promote iron solidification by providing a suitable surface for nucleation and which oxides and under which conditions the metal can be deeply undercooled. The conclusions suggest that deep undercoolings are possible at low oxygen content provided the oxygen potential is such that substrate decomposition does not occur. If the oxygen content increases the undercooling decreases.

Dr. Sridar Seetharaman: Dr. Alan Cramb

2006-04-06

294

Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions  

DOEpatents

A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

1981-01-01

295

Solubilization and refolding of inclusion body proteins.  

PubMed

High-level expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often results in accumulation of protein molecules into aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs). Isolation of properly folded, bioactive protein from IBs is a cumbersome task and most of the times results in poor recovery. The process of recovering bioactive proteins from IBs consists of solubilization of IB aggregates using denaturants, followed by refolding of the solubilized protein. Here, we describe a simple protocol for screening of buffers for solubilization of IB proteins. Various IB aggregate solubilization methods including organic solvents have been described. PMID:25447870

Singh, Anupam; Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Panda, Amulya K

2015-01-01

296

Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a Llama.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old, female Llama presented for evaluation of a limbal based corneal mass involving the OD of 4 months duration. The mass was excised en bloc by a nonpenetrating keratectomy, followed by placement of a conjunctival advancement flap covering the keratectomy site. The mass was submitted for histological evaluation. Histopathology identified the mass to be a corneal epithelial inclusion cyst filled with necrotic squamous and neutrophilic debris. Surgical excision was complete and considered curative with no signs of recurrence 3 months postoperatively. There was no known prior ocular trauma; however, a previously performed corneal biopsy for evaluation of recurrent epithelial erosions may have been an initiating cause. PMID:18302575

Pirie, Chris G; Pizzirani, Stefano; Parry, Nicola M

2008-01-01

297

Inclusion of Two PhP(O)(OH) 2 Guest Molecules into the Cavity of Macrocyclic Cavidand Cucurbit[8]uril  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new inclusion compound which is a supramolecular adduct of cucurbit[8]uril with two guest molecules of phenylphosphonic acid, PhP(O)(OH)2, included into the cavity as ``two guests in host'' is reported. The guests match both size and hydrophilicity\\/hydrophobicity requirements. Two phenyl groups of molecules of PhP(O)(OH)2 are directed toward the center of the large hydrophobic cavity whereas the PO(OH)2 groups are

ELENA V. CHUBAROVA; Denis G. Samsonenko; Maxim N. Sokolov; Olga A. Gerasko; Vladimir P. Fedin; Javier G. Platas

2004-01-01

298

Microscopic analysis of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain from Malaysia that produces exosporium-enclosed parasporal inclusion.  

PubMed

The current study focused on the microscopic studies of a native Bacillus thuringiensis strain isolated from Malaysia, Bt-S84-13a, that produced an unusual crystal type. Primary detection of parasporal inclusions using a phase contrast microscope presented one to two small crystal proteins in the sporulating cells of Bt-S84-13a. Compound light microscopic examination of autolysed Bt-S84-13a cells stained with 0.133% Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed two types of crystal morphology: small crystals independent of spores and spore-associated crystals. Surface structure analysis with a scanning electron microscope revealed spherical-like, coarse and wrinkled-looking crystal in Bt-S84-13a. A close-up observation of the crystal morphology using a transmission electron microscope also demonstrated two parasporal inclusions in Bt-S84-13a. One inclusion was deposited against the forespore and was in a shape of incomplete rectangular. Another smaller inclusion was developed within the exosporium and was rectangular in shape. However, the latter inclusion was found lack in another bacterial cell which was still in the early stages of sporulation. This unique crystal morphology may imply some biological potential in Bt-S84-13a. PMID:24943903

Chai, Pui Fun; Rathinam, Xavier; Solayappan, Maheswaran; Ahmad Ghazali, Amir Hamzah; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

2014-10-01

299

Valuing Student Teachers' Perspectives: Researching Inclusively in Inclusive Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how engaging with the principles of inclusive research can enhance research studies that set out to understand the experiences of student teachers on initial teacher education programmes. It does so by describing the methodological development of an on-going study of student teachers' perspectives on working with diverse…

Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Amrhein, Bettina

2014-01-01

300

Inclusive/Exclusive? Contradictory Perspectives on Autism and Inclusion: The Case for an Integrative Position  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores some of the tensions that frequently arise in debates about inclusion and the education of children and young people on the autism spectrum. This debate is often characterised by bipolar thinking and moral posturing, and is obscured by misunderstandings and omissions. This can create confusion for practitioners trying their…

Ravet, Jackie

2011-01-01

301

Leadership to Promote Inclusion: Perceptions of Elementary Principals on Inclusion, Co-Teaching, and Differentiated Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals with Disabilities Act mandates that all students with or without disabilities should be included in the regular education classroom to the greatest extent appropriate. Research shows the importance of the principal's ability to shape programs, policies and school cultures that are supportive of inclusion. Deploying a modified…

Murray, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

302

Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

Cologon, Kathy

2014-01-01

303

Promoting Inclusion? "Inclusive" and Effective Head Teachers' Descriptions of Their Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6-16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and…

Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

2014-01-01

304

An Inclusive Classroom? A Case Study of Inclusiveness, Teacher Strategies, and Children's Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of what appears to be an inclusive classroom in Sweden is reported. The group of children in the class studied was very heterogeneous: five of the 15 children had a disability diagnosis at the time of the study. One aim of the study was to develop a methodology which can be used in order to investigate in what sense classrooms are…

Nilholm, Claes; Alm, Barbro

2010-01-01

305

Sulfur compounds in coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

1977-01-01

306

Metalloid compounds as drugs  

PubMed Central

The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

Sekhon, B. S.

2013-01-01

307

Iron- and 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline-containing periplasmic inclusion bodies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A chemical analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dark aggregated particles were seen on pellets of iron-rich, mid-logarithmic phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy of these cells showed inclusion bodies in periplasmic vacuoles. Aggregated particles isolated from the spent medium of these cells contained iron as indicated by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy that revealed Fe3+. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis of whole cells revealed the presence of iron-containing particles beneath the surface of the cell, indicating that the isolated aggregates were the intracellular inclusion bodies. Collectively, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the isolated inclusion bodies revealed the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline which is the Pseudomonas quinolone signaling compound (PQS) and an iron chelator; 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (pseudan VII), which is an iron chelator, antibacterial compound and precursor of PQS; 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline (pseudan IX) which is an iron chelator and antibacterial compound; 4-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline (pseudan I), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline N-oxide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Royt, P.W.; Honeychuck, R.V.; Pant, R.R.; Rogers, M.L.; Asher, L.V.; Lloyd, J.R.; Carlos, W.E.; Belkin, H.E.; Patwardhan, S.

2007-01-01

308

Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

The information available in the literature provides evidence for the biodegradation of some poly- and per-fluorinated compounds, but such biodegradation is incomplete and may not result in mineralization. Recent publications have demonstrated that 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, for example, can be degraded by bacteria from soil and wastewater treatment plants to perfluorooctanoic acid. Similarly, 2-N-ethyl(perfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethanol can be degraded by wastewater treatment sludge to perfluorooctanesulfonate. It is presently unclear whether these two products are degraded further. Therefore, the question remains as to whether there is a potential for defluorination and biodegradation of PFCs that contributes significantly to their environmental fate. The lack of mineralization observed is probably caused by the stability of the C-F bond, although there are examples of microbially catalyzed defluorination reactions. As is the case with reductive dechlorination or debromination, reductive defluorination is energetically favorable under anaerobic conditions and releases more energy than that available from sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. Consequently, we should consider the possibility that bacteria will adapt to utilize this source of energy, although evolving mechanisms to overcome the kinetic barriers to degradation of these compounds may take some time. The fact that such reactions are absent for some PFCs, to date, may be because too little time has passed for microorganisms to adapt to these potential substrates. Hence, the situation may be comparable to that of chlorinated organic compounds several decades ago. For many years, organochlorine compounds were considered to be catabolically recalcitrant; today, reductive chlorination reactions of many organochlorines, including PCBs and dioxins, are regularly observed in anaerobic environments. Hence, it is opportune and important to continue studying the potential degradation of perfluorinated compounds in carefully designed experiments with either microbial populations from contaminated sites or cultures of bacteria known to dehalogenate chlorinated compounds. PMID:19025092

Parsons, John R; Sáez, Monica; Dolfing, Jan; de Voogt, Pim

2008-01-01

309

Microoptical compound lens  

DOEpatents

An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-23

310

Effect of liquid crystals with cyclodextrin on the bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble compound, diosgenin, after its oral administration to rats.  

PubMed

Diosgenin, found in wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), has been shown to ameliorate diabetes and hyperlipidemia, increase cell proliferation in a human 3D skin model, and inhibits melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. It is also an active element in cosmeceutical and dietary supplements. Although the bioavailability of diosgenin is low due to its poor solubility and intestinal permeability, it was subsequently improved using a ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion complex. Recently liquid crystals (LCs) were shown to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose in the present study was to prepare diosgenin LCs and investigate the interaction between LC and ?-CD in order to improve its bioavailability of diosgenin. Crystallinity and particle diameters of LCs in water were determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Zetasizer. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the plasma content of diosgenin after its oral administration to Wistar rats. Regarding the formation of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and phytantriol (PHY) LC, SAXS patterns showed the hexagonal and cubic phases, respectively. Bioavailability was significantly enhanced after oral administration of LCs prepared by GMO than after diosgenin alone. The bioavailability was further improved with the combination of LC and ?-CD than LC and water. PMID:24954725

Okawara, Masaki; Hashimoto, Fumie; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Tokudome, Yoshihiro

2014-09-10

311

Aminopropyl thiophene compounds  

DOEpatents

Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

312

Fun with Ionic Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

2007-01-01

313

8-fluoropurine compounds  

DOEpatents

An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Encino, CA)

2001-01-01

314

Noun Compounding in Thai.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study, a slightly revised version of the author's 1968 Ph.D. thesis presented to the University of Chicago, investigates compound formation in Thai. Chapter 1 summarizes the transformational generative theory on which the study is based, discusses the concept that Thai is a "simple" language in comparison with English, and briefly…

Fasold, Ralph William August

315

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

316

Compound floating pivot micromechanisms  

DOEpatents

A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-04-24

317

Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

2009-09-25

318

Fracture behavior of HPHT synthetic diamond with micrometers metallic inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture behavior of the diamond single crystals with metallic inclusions was investigated in the present paper. Single\\u000a diamond crystals with metallic inclusions were formed by a special process with high pressure and high temperature (HPHT).\\u000a The inclusions trapped in the diamond were characterized mainly to be metallic carbide of (Fe,Ni)23C6 or Fe3C and solid solution of ?-(Fe,Ni) by transmission

He-sheng Li; Yong-xin Qi; Yuan-pei Zhang; Mu-sen Li

2009-01-01

319

Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Sputnik kimberlite pipe, Yakutia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sputnik kimberlite pipe is a small “satellite” of the larger Mir pipe in central Yakutia (Sakha), Russia. Study of 38 large diamonds (0.7-4.9 carats) showed that nine contain inclusions of the eclogitic paragenesis, while the remainder contain inclusions of the peridotitic paragenesis, or of uncertain paragenesis. The peridotitic inclusion suite comprises olivine, enstatite, Cr-diopside, chromite, Cr-pyrope garnet (both lherzolitic

N. V. Sobolev; F. V. Kaminsky; W. L. Griffin; E. S. Yefimova; T. T. Win; C. G. Ryan; A. I. Botkunov

1997-01-01

320

Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

NONE

1998-01-01

321

Inclusive decays of B mesons to charmonium  

E-print Network

—+g'X, Q' —+J/vPm+vr and B +y, X, y, m J/Qp —subtracted. 52 INCLUSIVE DECAYS OF 8 MESONS TO CHARMONIUM 2669 0.100 CJ Q 0.075 CV CI 0.050 0.025 o+0 Kj O t ] I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0.4 0.8 1.2 g' Momentum (GeV/c) 1.6 FIG. 15. Momentum spectrum.... Liu, M. Saulnier, R. Wilson, H. Yamamoto, T. Bergfeld, B.I. Eisenstein, G. Gollin, B. Ong, M. Palmer, M. Selen, J. J. Thaler, K.W. Edwards, M. Ogg, A. Bellerive, D.I. Britton, E.R.F. Hyatt, D.B. MacFarlane, P.M. Patel, B. Spaan, A.J. SadofF, R. Ammar...

Baringer, Philip S.

1995-09-01

322

Sporadic inclusion body myositis: an unsolved mystery.  

PubMed

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is considered to be the most common acquired muscle disease associated with aging. It is a disabling disorder still without effective treatment. sIBM causes weakness and atrophy of the distal and proximal muscles. Involvement of quadriceps and deep finger flexors are clues to early diagnosis. Dysphagia in the course of the disease is common. Muscle biopsy shows chronic myopathic features, lymphocytic infiltration invading non-necrotic fibbers, rimmed vacuoles and accumulation of amyloid-related proteins. It remains uncertain whether sIBM is primarily an immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy or a degenerative myopathy with an associated inflammatory component. This review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of the disease as well as the current genetic and pathogenic concepts and therapeutic approaches. Despite recent clues, in many respects sIBM remains an unsolved mystery. PMID:19474772

Machado, Pedro; Miller, Adrian; Holton, Janice; Hanna, Michael

2009-01-01

323

Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

Haddad, Georges

324

Inclusive jet cross section at CDF  

SciTech Connect

This contribution reports on preliminary measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected with CDF corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 385 pb{sup -1}. Two analyzes are presented: one uses the longitudinally invariant k{sub T} algorithm to reconstruct the jets, the other uses the midpoint algorithm. Both are limited to jets with rapidity in the range 0.1 < |y{sup jet}| < 0.7. The measured cross sections are in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions after including the non-perturbative corrections necessary to account for underlying event and hadronization effects.

Lefevre, R.; Martinez, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE

2005-01-01

325

Ongoing developments in sporadic inclusion body myositis.  

PubMed

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an acquired muscle disorder associated with ageing, for which there is no effective treatment. Ongoing developments include: genetic studies that may provide insights regarding the pathogenesis of IBM, improved histopathological markers, the description of a new IBM autoantibody, scrutiny of the diagnostic utility of clinical features and biomarkers, the refinement of diagnostic criteria, the emerging use of MRI as a diagnostic and monitoring tool, and new pathogenic insights that have led to novel therapeutic approaches being trialled for IBM, including treatments with the objective of restoring protein homeostasis and myostatin blockers. The effect of exercise in IBM continues to be investigated. However, despite these ongoing developments, the aetiopathogenesis of IBM remains uncertain. A translational and multidisciplinary collaborative approach is critical to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with IBM. PMID:25399751

Machado, Pedro M; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Brady, Stefen; Gang, Qiang; Healy, Estelle; Morrow, Jasper M; Wallace, Amanda C; Dewar, Liz; Ramdharry, Gita; Parton, Matthew; Holton, Janice L; Houlden, Henry; Greensmith, Linda; Hanna, Michael G

2014-12-01

326

Inclusive $A_{LL}$ Measurements at STAR  

E-print Network

One of the primary goals of the RHIC Spin program is to determine the gluon polarization distribution within the proton. At leading order, $pp$ collisions involve a mixture of quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon scattering. In RHIC, the gluon-gluon and quark-gluon contributions dominate, making the accelerator an ideal tool to explore gluon polarization. The STAR experiment has measured the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for inclusive production of jets and pions, and for charged pion production opposite a jet, at $\\sqrt{s} = 200 GeV$. The results provide valuable new constraints on the gluon polarization in the proton when included in a next-to-leading-order global analysis. The current status of the STAR measurements and the plans for future measurements will be discussed.

Adam Kocoloski; for the STAR Collaboration

2009-06-01

327

Structure of inclusion bodies of cabbage black ring virus.  

PubMed

Inclusions in cells of Nicotiana glutinosa infected with a horse-radish strain of cabbage black ring virus (CBRV) were investigated on ultrathin sections. Large amorphous inclusions contained cellular constitutents showing usually no pathological alterations. Lamellar inclusions (bundles, circular inclusions, pinwheels), closely associated with endoplasmic reticulum, occurred frequently in areas of cytoplasm showing no vesiculation. Sac-like structures composed of concentric lamellae were observed in the cytoplasm or intruding into the vacuole. Spherosomes containing each a single crystal were found very often in the cytoplasm. Masses of virus particles in a parallel arrangement were usually located at the tonoplast. PMID:15442

Brcák, J; Králík, O

1977-01-01

328

Polymorphism of nuclear inclusions in carcinoma of the cervix uteri.  

PubMed

Frequency, polymorphism and ultrastructural characteristics of the nuclear inclusion bodies encountered in cancers of the uterine cervix are reported and briefly discussed. The nuclear inclusions are grouped in three distinct types: a) nuclear bodies (comprising type I and II inclusions according to Bouteille et al.'s classification), b) inclusion of cytoplasmic origin, and c) particles of chromatic material. The ultrastructural aspects of the chromatic particles suggest an early structuration of viral chromatin into core material. There appears to be a direct relation between the frequency of chromatic particles and raised antiherpetic antibodies in the patient's sera. PMID:6280039

Georgescu, L; Dr?gan, M; Teodorescu, M; Diosi, P; Petra?cu-Stefanovici, O; Raica, M

1982-01-01

329

Inclusive Hadron Production in p+p Collisions at STAR  

E-print Network

The STAR experiment at RHIC has measured a variety of inclusive hadron cross sections in $p+p$ collisions at Sqrt(s) = 200 GeV. Measurements of the differential cross section for inclusive charged pion production at mid rapidity and for inclusive neutral pion production at forward rapidity (3.0 STAR for the differential cross section for inclusive neutral pion production near mid rapidity are presented. These cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and can provide constraints on the pion fragmentation functions. Good agreement between data and pQCD has been found for all three cross sections.

Frank Simon; for the STAR Collaboration

2006-09-08

330

Petrographic studies of refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite  

SciTech Connect

Textural and mineral-chemical data on freeze-thaw disaggregated refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite are reported. The data were obtained with neutron activation analysis, SEM, and spectroscopy, the study revealed corundum-bearing inclusions, spinel-hibonite aggregates and spherules, and spinel-pyroxene and elivine-pyroxene inclusions. One of the three spinel-, pyroxene-, forsterite-rich inclusions had an amoeba-shaped spinel-pyroxene core, implying vapor-to-solid condensation and therefore crystallization from a melt. It is concluded that the meteorite formation encompassed diverse nebular materials, and that further studies of the meteorite will enhance the data base on the planetary nebular processes.

Macpherson, G.J.; Grossman, L.; Hashimoto, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.

1984-11-15

331

Petrographic studies of refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Textural and mineral-chemical data on freeze-thaw disaggregated refractory inclusions from the Murchison meteorite are reported. The data were obtained with neutron activation analysis, SEM, and spectroscopy, the study revealed corundum-bearing inclusions, spinel-hibonite aggregates and spherules, and spinel-pyroxene and elivine-pyroxene inclusions. One of the three spinel-, pyroxene-, forsterite-rich inclusions had an amoeba-shaped spinel-pyroxene core, implying vapor-to-solid condensation and therefore crystallization from a melt. It is concluded that the meteorite formation encompassed diverse nebular materials, and that further studies of the meteorite will enhance the data base on the planetary nebular processes.

Macpherson, G. J.; Grossman, L.; Hashimoto, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Tanaka, T.

1984-01-01

332

Energetics of inclusion-induced bilayer deformations.  

PubMed Central

The material properties of lipid bilayers can affect membrane protein function whenever conformational changes in the membrane-spanning proteins perturb the structure of the surrounding bilayer. This coupling between the protein and the bilayer arises from hydrophobic interactions between the protein and the bilayer. We analyze the free energy cost associated with a hydrophobic mismatch, i.e., a difference between the length of the protein's hydrophobic exterior surface and the average thickness of the bilayer's hydrophobic core, using a (liquid-crystal) elastic model of bilayer deformations. The free energy of the deformation is described as the sum of three contributions: compression-expansion, splay-distortion, and surface tension. When evaluating the interdependence among the energy components, one modulus renormalizes the other: e.g., a change in the compression-expansion modulus affects not only the compression-expansion energy but also the splay-distortion energy. The surface tension contribution always is negligible in thin solvent-free bilayers. When evaluating the energy per unit distance (away from the inclusion), the splay-distortion component dominates close to the bilayer/inclusion boundary, whereas the compression-expansion component is more prominent further away from the boundary. Despite this complexity, the bilayer deformation energy in many cases can be described by a linear spring formalism. The results show that, for a protein embedded in a membrane with an initial hydrophobic mismatch of only 1 A, an increase in hydrophobic mismatch to 1.3 A can increase the Boltzmann factor (the equilibrium distribution for protein conformation) 10-fold due to the elastic properties of the bilayer. PMID:9545056

Nielsen, C; Goulian, M; Andersen, O S

1998-01-01

333

Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

1997-10-01

334

Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2014-05-28

335

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids

S. R. Blasch; R. M. Jr. Coveney

1988-01-01

336

Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for basaltic glasses; compositional trends with melt inclusion size observed in the Siqueiros melt inclusions are described well by this simple single-stage linear cooling model. Despite the overall success of the modeling of MgO concentration profiles using a single-stage cooling history, MgO concentration profiles in some melt inclusions are better fit by a two-stage cooling history with a slower-cooling first stage followed by a faster-cooling second stage; the inferred total duration of cooling from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C ranges from 40 s to just over 1 h. Based on our observations and models, compositions of zoned melt inclusions (even if measured at the centers of the inclusions) will typically have been diffusively fractionated relative to the initially trapped melt; for such inclusions, the initial composition cannot be simply reconstructed based on olivine-addition calculations, so caution should be exercised in application of such reconstructions to correct for post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on inclusion walls. Off-center analyses of a melt inclusion can also give results significantly fractionated relative to simple olivine crystallization. All melt inclusions from the Siqueiros and Galapagos sample suites exhibit zoning profiles, and this feature may be nearly universal in glassy, olivine-hosted inclusions. If so, zoning profiles in melt inclusions could be widely useful to constrain late-stage syneruptive processes and as natural diffusion experiments.

Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.

2014-07-01

337

Process Dependence and the Sivers Effect in Inclusive and Semi-Inclusive Reactions  

SciTech Connect

We perform an analysis of the the spin asymmetry for single inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions collected by AnDY experiment and the Sivers asymmetry data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments. In particular, we consider the role color gauge invariance plays in determining the process-dependence of the Sivers effect. We find that after carefully taking into account the initial-state and final-state interactions between the active parton and the remnant of the polarized hadron, the calculated jet spin asymmetry based on the Sivers functions extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experiments is consistent with the AnDY experimental data. This provides a first indication for the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in different processes. We also make predictions for both direct photon and Drell-Yan spin asymmetry, to further test the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in future experiments.

Gamberg, Leonard P. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Kang, Zhong-Bo [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01

338

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

339

Fluid Inclusions in Extraterrestrial Samples Fact or Fiction?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the years there have been numerous reports of liquid inclusions in meteorites. Roedder reviews the reported occurrences of liquid inclusions in meteorites and states that "silicate-melt inclusions are expectable and apparently ubiquitous, but the presence of actual liquid inclusions (i.e., with moving bubbles at room temperature) would seem almost impossible." The reason for this conclusion is that meteorites (presumably) form in space at high temperatures and very low pressures where liquid water (or carbon dioxide) is not stable. Perhaps the most infamous report of fluid inclusions in meteorites was that of Warner et al. In that study, the authors reported the presence of two-phase, liquid-vapor inclusions in a diogenite from Antarctica. This report of fluid inclusions generated considerable interest in the meteorite community, and caused many to question existing models for the origin of the diogenites. This interest was short-lived however, as later investigations of the same samples showed that the inclusions were most likely artifacts. Rudnick et al. showed that many of the inclusions in meteorites prepared at the Johnson Space Center contained a fluid that fluoresced strongly under the laser beam on the Raman microprobe. They interpreted this to indicate that the inclusions contained Almag oil used in the preparation of thin sections. Presumably, the Almag oil entered empty vesicles along fractures that were opened intermittently during cutting. Here, the occurrence of unambiguous fluid inclusions that could not have been introduced during sample preparation are described in samples from two different extraterrestrial environments. One environment is represented by the SNC (martian) meteorites ALH 84001 and Nakhla. The second environment is represented by the Monahans 1998 meteorite that fell recently in the USA.

Bodnar, R. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Gibson, E. K.

2000-01-01

340

Compound Chondrules fused Cold  

E-print Network

About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ~ 1100K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025K. In that temperatur...

Hubbard, Alexander

2015-01-01

341

Arsonium compounds in algae.  

PubMed

Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5'-dimethylarsinoyl-5'-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

Benson, A A

1989-08-01

342

Compound cycle engine program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

1986-01-01

343

Parental Concerns on Inclusion: The Northern Ireland Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between home and school is an integral feature of how pupils learn and parents have a central role to play in their child's education. Philosophical and practical discourse around inclusion has informed and directed inclusive policy in recent years. In Northern Ireland, it has latterly been conducted under the auspices of emerging…

O'Connor, Una

2007-01-01

344

Strategies for Teaching Exceptional Children in Inclusive Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20 chapters of this book on teaching students with disabilities in inclusive settings are arranged into four parts on curriculum and instruction, assessment, classroom management, and collaboration. Individual chapters and their authors are: (1) "Curriculum Considerations in an Inclusive Environment" (Cynthia D. Warger and Marleen C. Pugach);…

Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

345

Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …

Kersten, Fred

2006-01-01

346

Promoting Inclusivity through and within Teacher Education Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting inclusivity is a core aim for many teacher education programmes throughout the UK, USA, Canada and other highly diverse nations. However, despite this aim, teacher education programmes continue to face challenges in preparing teachers who feel confident in addressing issues of diversity and inclusivity in their classrooms. The purpose of…

DeLuca, Christopher

2012-01-01

347

Curriculum Considerations in Inclusive Classrooms: Facilitating Learning for All Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses how the curriculum can be designed, adapted, and delivered in general education classrooms that are attempting to promote inclusive communities. Chapters include: "Toward Inclusive Classrooms" (Susan Stainback et al.); "Celebrating Diversity, Creating Community: Curriculum that Honors and Builds on Differences" (Mara…

Stainback, Susan, Ed.; Stainback, William, Ed.

348

Confusion about Inclusion: Patching up or System Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Klaus Wedell, Emeritus Professor at the Institute of Education, University of London, looks back over 35 years of developments in the worlds of special and inclusive education. He engages directly with the complexities--for example, the tensions between the standards agenda and policy on inclusion--that have led some commentators…

Wedell, Klaus

2008-01-01

349

Inclusion in South Korea: The Current Situation and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion has occupied the centre of attention in education in many countries for the past few decades, and it is the same in South Korea. Although most researchers and educators agree that inclusion is necessary for equal educational opportunities and social participation of students with disabilities, there are debates about the most effective…

Kwon, Hyunsoo

2005-01-01

350

Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

2014-01-01

351

Inclusive Education Reform in Queensland: Implications for Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Queensland, Australia, the school system is being reformed to be more "inclusive". However, the enthusiasm for "inclusive education" in Queensland seems to be waning amongst practitioners, and the "confusion, frustration, guilt and exhaustion" that has emerged with teachers and support practitioners in the UK is emerging amongst support…

Bourke, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

352

Inclusive education reform in Queensland: implications for policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Queensland, Australia, the school system is being reformed to be more ‘inclusive’. However, the enthusiasm for ‘inclusive education’ in Queensland seems to be waning amongst practitioners, and the ‘confusion, frustration, guilt and exhaustion’ that has emerged with teachers and support practitioners in the UK is emerging amongst support practitioners and teachers in Queensland. This paper argues that this is

Patricia E. Bourke

2010-01-01

353

Peer Supports and Inclusive Education: An Underutilized Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms requires a variety of supports. This article demonstrates the role that peers can play in supporting each other. Whole-classroom strategies such as Class-Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) and cross-age tutoring are highlighted as methods of supporting inclusive education.…

Bond, Rebecca; Castagnera, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

354

From Special to Inclusive Education in Macau (SAR)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education for learners with special education needs (SEN) in Macau (SAR), China, has gradually transitioned over the past 30 years from a completely segregated approach to a more inclusive one. Following a review of the development of special education and the transition towards inclusion in Macau, consideration is given to the enactment of…

Forlin, Chris

2011-01-01

355

Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

Terzi, Lorella

2014-01-01

356

Titanium nitride inclusion removal in an electron beam melting hearth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the Sphlow Java applet to calculate the "neutral density" window for porous titanium nitride inclusions in an electron beam melting hearth, and discuss both the fraction of particles which enter the final product and the complexities of porous inclusion transport.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2005-05-12

357

Effective Inclusion: Professional Development in the Context of the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses changes in effective teaching practice and characteristics of different levels of acceptance of school cultures. It reports the results of a survey of 72 inclusion teachers showing that teachers believed their attitude toward students was the first or second most important condition needed for successful inclusion. (Contains…

Weiner, Howard M.

2003-01-01

358

Inclusive Education Policies: Discourses of Difference, Diversity and Deficit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an analysis of inclusive education policies across international, and Anglo-American national and provincial/state jurisdictions to reveal how policies discursively construct inclusion under current, increasingly neoliberal conditions. In making this case, the paper draws upon primary UNESCO and Organisation for Economic…

Hardy, Ian; Woodcock, Stuart

2015-01-01

359

Educators' Experiences of Inclusive Learning Contexts: An Exploration of Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful implementation of inclusive education relies heavily on educators. Inclusive education is based on values such as human dignity, equality, human rights and freedom. The complexity of the interactive relationships between different systems, such as learners, educators, families, schools and the learning context, was recognised in…

Magare, Ishmael; Kitching, Ansie Elizabeth; Roos, Vera

2010-01-01

360

Preparing Early Childhood Special Educators for Inclusive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe experienced practitioners' beliefs about inclusion and their perceptions of what early childhood special education (ECSE) preservice teachers need to know and be able to do to effectively support early childhood inclusion. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to describe the…

Hooper, Belinda Bourne

2011-01-01

361

Social and Educational Justice: The Human Rights Framework for Inclusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report calls for the phased closure of separate, special schools in the United Kingdom as a main task in developing inclusive education. It argues that the central problem in the development of inclusive education in the United Kingdom is the continuing philosophical, financial and legislative support of segregated schooling. The report…

Rustemier, Sharon

362

Annotated Inclusion Constraints for Precise Flow Analysis Ana Milanova  

E-print Network

Annotated Inclusion Constraints for Precise Flow Analysis Ana Milanova Department of Computer Program flow analysis is a technique that analyzes the source code of the program and determines. Analyses based on inclusion constraints examine the source code of the program and construct a system

Milanova, Ana

363

Privilege, Compromise, or Social Justice: Teachers' Conceptualizations of Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the beliefs of teachers in the USA about the education of students with disabilities, focusing on their conceptualizations of inclusive education. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 30 teachers. The findings highlight multiple interpretations of inclusive education and suggest that teachers' support…

Lalvani, Priya

2013-01-01

364

Modeling of inclusion growth and dissolution in the weld pool  

SciTech Connect

The composition, size distribution, and number density of oxide inclusions in weld metal are critical factors in determining weldment properties. A computational model has been developed to understand these factors, considering fluid flow and the temperature field in the weld pool during submerged arc (SA) welding of low-alloy steels. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are solved in three dimensions to calculate the velocity and temperature fields in the weld pool. The loci and corresponding thermal cycles of thousands of oxide inclusions are numerically calculated in the weld pool. The inclusions undergo considerable recirculatory motion and experience strong temperature gyrations. The temperature-time history and the computed time-temperature-transformation (TTT) behavior of inclusions were then used to understand the growth and dissolution of oxide inclusions in the weld pool. The statistically meaningful characteristics of inclusion behavior in the weld pool, such as the residence time, number of temperature peaks, etc., were calculated for several thousand inclusions. The calculated trends agree with experimental observations and indicate that the inclusion formation can be described by combining thermodynamics and kinetics with the fundamentals of transport phenomena.

Hong, T.; Debroy, T.; Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.

2000-02-01

365

Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

366

Restructuring the Inclusion Classroom to Facilitate Differentiated Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how the teachers in a sixth grade mathematics inclusion class used differentiated instruction to better meet the needs of all learners in the classroom. In an inclusion class with students of mixed abilities, differentiated instruction allows the teacher to meet the needs of every learner by providing students with multiple…

Patterson, Joshua L.; Conolly, Mindy C.; Ritter, Shirley A.

2009-01-01

367

Inclusion in Mexico: Ensuring Supportive Attitudes by Newly Graduated Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of students with special education needs in regular schools in Mexico is slowly gaining momentum. Likewise, teacher training for inclusion is increasingly becoming an important aspect of preservice training. This research investigates the perceptions of 286 preservice teachers who are about to complete their general teacher training…

Forlin, Chris; Cedillo, Ismael Garcia; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Fletcher, Todd; Hernandez, Humberto Javier Rodriguez

2010-01-01

368

Developing Inclusive Practices among Educational Psychologists: Problems and Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses some of the problems and possibilities facing educational psychologists (EPs) as they strive to take a proactive role in promoting inclusion in their daily work. It begins by commenting on recent evidence which suggests that, despite exhortations to the contrary, many EPs continue to promote non-inclusive ways of working. …

Farrell, Peter

2006-01-01

369

Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of secondary teachers to inclusion in schools. Three hundred and ninety-one teaching and management-level staff from 19 mainstream and 6 special schools in one local authority in Scotland completed a survey. Overall, teaching staff were pro-inclusion, conditional on adequate support and resources. There was a…

Boyle, Christopher; Topping, Keith; Jindal-Snape, Divya

2013-01-01

370

Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

2009-01-01

371

Assessing Inclusion: Strategies for Success. Hot Topics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 16 readings focuses on the implementation and evaluation of efforts to include students with special needs in general education classrooms. The readings are: (1) "From Segregation to Integration: A Brief History of Special Education and Inclusion" (Katie Blenk and Doris Landau Fine); (2) "National Study on Inclusion: Overview…

Philipsen, Maike, Ed.

372

Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

2010-01-01

373

Parental Perspectives on Inclusion: Effects of Autism and Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the child's diagnosis (autism vs. Down syndrome), age, and current educational placement on parental perceptions toward inclusion for their child with disabilities. Parents of children with autism and with Down syndrome completed surveys regarding their opinions on their child's current educational placement, their desire for changing the current placement, and their views on inclusive

Connie Kasari; Stephanny F. N. Freeman; Nirit Bauminger; Marvin C. Alkin

1999-01-01

374

Conceptualizing Inclusive Research with People with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The inclusion of people with intellectual disability in research is a common requirement of research funding. Little conceptual clarity is available to guide the conduct of inclusive research or judge its fidelity, there is minimal evidence of its impact, and questions remain about its feasibility and rigour. Method: A comprehensive…

Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

2014-01-01

375

Inclusion and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a clear national trend toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. This trend poses particularly vexing challenges for delivering appropriate programs for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This chapter describes the complexity of determining appropriate inclusive placements for…

Simpson, Richard; Mundschenk, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

376

Transatlantic Conversations about Inclusive Education: France and Nova Scotia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusive education has become an international educational priority with the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This article compares and analyses in depth two different educational systems on two continents with regard to their development of inclusive education and their current issues with this…

Schneider, Cornelia; Harkins, Mary Jane

2009-01-01

377

Enhancement of Class-Inclusion Reasoning Through Verbal Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to ascertain whether class inclusion behavior is enhanced when children are first asked to compare the subclasses appearing in the class inclusion task and whether such an effect could be due to simple comparisons among the vocabulary terms differentiating the questions. Subjects were second, third, and fourth grade children. (BD/BR)

Winer, Gerald A.

1978-01-01

378

Teacher efficacy: A model for teacher development and inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with special needs must have the opportunity to learn in inclusive classrooms. However, this requires that classroom teachers believe that (a) students can learn in spite of any negative environmental influences in their lives, and (b) they personally have the ability to reach any student. Securing this teaching efficacy for teachers in inclusive classroom settings requires paradigm shifts in

Aleidine J. Moeller; Sharon Ishii-Jordan

1996-01-01

379

Inclusion and Mastery: Variations on the Theme of Subjection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article undertakes a discursive analysis of the concepts of "inclusion" and "mastery" using memory stories generated in a collective biography workshop. The five authors analysed their memories from childhood and adolescence on two separate and competing concepts that currently inform educational practice: inclusion and mastery. These stories…

Claiborne, Lise Bird; Cornforth, Sue; Davies, Bronwyn; Milligan, Andrea; White, Elizabeth Jayne

2009-01-01

380

Towards Inclusion: Provision for Diversity in the Transition to School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies of inclusion challenge the construct of readiness and require schools to prepare for the diversity of children as they transition to school. However, there is limited empirical evidence concerning how this challenge is met. This paper presents two Australian studies that investigate inclusive practices in the transition to school. Study 1…

Petriwskyj, Anne; Thorpe, Karen; Tayler, Collette

2014-01-01

381

Essential Inclusive Education-Related Outcomes for Alberta Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs) that Alberta preservice teachers need to develop over the course of their teacher preparation programs in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms. Inclusive classrooms are those where all students regardless of diversity learn in the same contexts. These KSAs are…

Loreman, Tim

2010-01-01

382

Generalized Set-Valued Variational Inclusions and Resolvent Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized set-valued variational inclusions, the resolvent equations, and the fixed-point problem, using the resolvent operator technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze some iterative algorithms for solving the generalized set-valued variational inclusions and related optimization problems.

Muhammad Aslam Noor

1998-01-01

383

Three-Step Iterative Algorithms for Multivalued Quasi Variational Inclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we suggest and analyze some new classes of three-step iterative algorithms for solving multivalued quasi variational inclusions by using the resolvent equations technique. New iterative algorithms include the Ishikawa, Mann, and Noor iterations for solving variational inclusions (inequalities) and optimization problems as special cases. The results obtained in this paper represent an improvement and a significant refinement

Muhammad Aslam Noor

2001-01-01

384

Preparing Teachers for Inclusion: Jordanian Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted during a period of national educational reforms in Jordan to investigate Jordanian preservice early childhood teachers' attitudes toward inclusion and the adequacy of their current preparation for implementing inclusion. The study also sought to identify the perceived concerns of preservice early childhood teachers about…

Fayez, Merfat; Dababneh, Kholoud; Jumiaan, Ibrahim

2011-01-01

385

Tiny Melt Inclusions from 2009 Redoubt Tephra Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Graduate student Allison Payne (USGS ARRA student appointment) uses a binocular microscope to pick out minerals that contain tiny melt inclusions from 2009 Redoubt tephra samples. Melt inclusions are then analyzed with a SHRIMP - Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe - for their volatile (H2O and...

2010-05-20

386

Understanding Inclusive Early Childhood Education: A Capability Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the application of current discourse in inclusive education, particularly the capability approach and its utility in early childhood education. The article highlights the tensions between a rights-based discourse that informs inclusive education practice and the right for children to have early intervention. Structural…

Underwood, Kathryn; Valeo, Angela; Wood, Rebecca

2012-01-01

387

Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense" understanding…

Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

2006-01-01

388

Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

2014-01-01

389

Inclusive Diffraction in DIS -H1 Paul Laycock  

E-print Network

Inclusive Diffraction in DIS - H1 Results Paul Laycock University of Liverpool Diffraction 2006, Milos #12;Paul Laycock Inclusive Diffraction in DIS ­ H1 results Diffraction 2006 Page 2 Overview Diffractive DIS at H1 ­ Kinematics and Observables Comparison of Experimental Techniques ­ Rapidity Gap

390

Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High level nuclear waste disposal in a geologic repository was proposed. Natural salt deposits which are considered contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all liquid and gas liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusion shape and size are discussed.

Yagnik, S. K.

1982-09-01

391

Global analysis of inclusive B decays  

SciTech Connect

In light of the large amount of new experimental data, we revisit the determination of |V{sub cb}| and m{sub b} from inclusive semileptonic and radiative B decays. We study shape variables to order {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 3}/m{sub b}{sup 3} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{beta}{sub 0}, and include the order {alpha}{sub s} {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b} correction to the hadron mass spectrum in semileptonic decay, which improves the agreement with the data. We focus on the 1S and kinetic mass schemes for the b quark, with and without expanding m{sub b}-m{sub c} in HQET. We perform fits to all available data from BABAR, BELLE, CDF, CLEO, and DELPHI, discuss the theoretical uncertainties, and compare with earlier results. We find |V{sub cb}| = (41.9 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.1{sub {tau}{sub B}}) x 10{sup -3} and m{sub b}{sup 1S} = 4.68 {+-} 0.04GeV, including our estimate of the theoretical uncertainty in the fit.

Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh; Trott, Michael

2004-08-13

392

Inclusion of dengue in TDR's disease portfolio.  

PubMed

This article reports the outcome of the informal consultation of the WHO in-house expert scientists on the proposed inclusion of dengue and tuberculosis in the Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) portfolio to be reviewed during the 22nd session of the Joint Coordinating Board. The purpose of the meeting was to identify research gaps, pinpoint research needed, and proposed a potential agenda for TDR activities regarding dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). During the meeting, WHO staff presented an analysis of the global situation for dengue and an outline of WHO activities in dengue control and vaccine development. Three discussion groups proposed a list of priority subjects where TDR could initiate activities: 1) in social, economic and behavioral research; 2) in vector research; 3) in diagnosis; 4) in pathophysiology; and 5) in vaccine discovery and development. At present, the only method for controlling or preventing dengue and DHF rely on controlling the mosquito vector. Therefore, developing appropriate and efficient vector control methods, improving laboratory diagnosis and case management of patients, and developing an effective vaccine were the primary objectives of research and capability strengthening. PMID:12322389

1999-08-01

393

Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details the development and operation of a system of inclusive education in India during the latter part of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century. Through a literature review and the employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews the study sought to determine how inclusion is defined and how the professional…

Hodkinson, Alan; Devarakonda, Chandrika

2009-01-01

394

Wherefore art thou, inclusion? Analysing the development of inclusive education in New South Wales, Alberta and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, moves toward ‘inclusion’ have prompted change in the formation of education policies, schooling structures and pedagogical practice. Yet, exclusion through the categorisation and segregation of students with diverse abilities has grown, particularly for students with challenging behaviour. This paper considers what has happened to inclusive education by focusing on three educational jurisdictions known to be

Linda J. Graham; Markku Jahnukainen

2011-01-01

395

The Case for Inclusion: A Study of the Development of Inclusive Preschool Programs for Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to identify the actions taken by public school districts to develop, implement, and maintain inclusive preschool programs. Further, this study compared the inclusive preschools' main components to the components identified by Buysse et al. (2001) and the components recommended by the Division of Early…

Cox, Kathy M.

2010-01-01

396

Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

2012-01-01

397

Inclusion "All Present and Correct?" A Critical Analysis of New Labour's Inclusive Education Policy in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Derrida this paper considers how inclusive education in England was defined and operationalised within New Labour's educational policy and by those teachers who reconstructed this policy within the confines of schools and individual classrooms. The paper has two critical ambitions. First it argues that the epistemology of inclusion

Hodkinson, Alan

2013-01-01

398

Social Competence, Sense of Loneliness, and Speech Intelligibility of Young Children with Hearing Loss in Individual Inclusion and Group Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on social competence (SC) and perceived sense of loneliness of preschool children with hearing loss (HL) in group inclusion (GI, a small group of children with HL is integrated in a standard classroom) and individual inclusion (II, each child with HL is individually integrated into a standard classroom). The relations between…

Most, Tova; Ingber, Sara; Heled-Ariam, Einat

2012-01-01

399

Phenolic compounds in Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides alkaloids Catharanthus roseus produces a wide spectrum of phenolic compounds, this includes C6C1 compounds such as 2,3-dihydoxybenzoic acid, as well as\\u000a phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The occurrence of these compounds in C. roseus is reviewed as well as their biosynthesis and the regulation of the pathways. Both types of compounds compete with the indole

Natali Rianika Mustafa; Robert Verpoorte

2007-01-01

400

Bilingual Reading of Compound Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing\\u000a compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with\\u000a adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate\\u000a when the translated compounds (the combination of

In Yeong Ko; Min Wang; Say Young Kim

2011-01-01

401

Offset Compound Gear Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

2010-01-01

402

Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols. However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

403

Titanium alkoxide compound  

DOEpatents

A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-08-14

404

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOEpatents

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

1992-09-22

405

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOEpatents

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

1992-01-01

406

Terahertz plastic compound lenses.  

PubMed

We present terahertz (THz) lenses made of highly refracting polymeric compounds which provide a better focusing performance and an increased functionality in comparison to conventional THz lenses. Using mixtures consisting of polypropylene (PP) and alumina as well as PP and zinc sulfide allows a significant increase of the refractive index while simultaneously keeping a low extinction and dispersion. With these new material combinations, lenses with an increased focusing capability are realized. This is evaluated by focal plane measurements using a fiber coupled THz time-domain spectrometer. PMID:23842159

Wichmann, M; Mondol, A S; Kocic, N; Lippert, S; Probst, T; Schwerdtfeger, M; Schumann, S; Hochrein, T; Heidemeyer, P; Bastian, M; Bastian, G; Koch, M

2013-06-20

407

Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene  

PubMed Central

Summary Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest–host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T

2014-01-01

408

in the Inclusions in Si-Mn-killed Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equilibria between CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO(-MnO) slag and Fe-1.5 mass pct Mn-0.5 mass pct Si-0.5 mass pct Cr melt was investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) in order to understand the effect of slag composition on the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steels. The composition of the inclusions were mainly equal to (mol pct MnO)/(mol pct SiO2) = 0.8(±0.06) with Al2O3 content that was increased from about 10 to 40 mol pct by increasing the basicity of slag (CaO/SiO2 ratio) from about 0.7 to 2.1. The concentration ratio of the inclusion components, , and the activity ratio of the steel components, , showed a good linear relationship on a logarithmic scale, indicating that the activity coefficient ratio of the inclusion components, , was not significantly changed. From the slag-steel-inclusion multiphase equilibria, the concentration of Al2O3 in the inclusions was expressed as a linear function of the activity ratio of the slag components, on a logarithmic scale. Consequently, a compositional window of the slag for obtaining inclusions with a low liquidus temperature in the Si-Mn-killed steel treated in an alumina ladle is recommended.

Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun

2014-06-01

409

Modelling of the Ultrasonic Response of Inclusions in Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study performed to model and predict the ultrasonic response of alumina inclusions in steels. The Born and the extended quasistatic approximations have been applied and modified to improve their accuracy in the framework of this application. The modified Born approximation, allowing to deal with various inclusion shapes, have been selected to be implemented in the CIVA software. The model reliability has been evaluated by comparison with Ying and Truell's exact analytical solution. In parallel, measurements have been carried out upon both natural and artificial alumina inclusions.

Darmon, Michel; Calmon, Pierre; Bèle, Bertrand

2003-03-01

410

Inclusive jet production in two-photon collisions at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive jet production, e+e- ?e+e- jet X, is studied using 560 pb-1 of data collected at LEP with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The inclusive differential cross section is measured using a kt jet algorithm as a function of the jet transverse momentum, pt, in the range 3 inclusive ?± and ?0 production.

Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J. A.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberría, I.; Käfer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, S. C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S. C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G. Y.

2004-11-01

411

48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section...agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101...Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a)...

2010-10-01

412

48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products. 252.225-7022 Section...agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101...Agreements Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a)...

2011-10-01

413

12 CFR 1207.20 - Office of Minority and Women Inclusion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Minority and Women Inclusion. 1207.20 Section...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS MINORITY AND WOMEN INCLUSION (Eff. Jan. 27, 2011) Minority and Women Inclusion and Diversity...

2011-01-01

414

Learning in Inclusive Education Research: Re-Mediating Theory and Methods with a Transformative Agenda  

E-print Network

In theory, inclusive education is about all students and focuses on student presence, participation, acceptance, and achievement. In practice, inclusive education is multiplicity of discourses and practices. Historically, inclusive education...

Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Dorn, Sherman; Christensen, Carol

2006-01-01

415

Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

2013-12-01

416

Goethite-bearing brine inclusions, petroleum inclusions, and the geochemical conditions of ore deposition at the Jumbo mine, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions occur in sphalerite, calcite, dolomite, and barite at the Jumbo mine, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit in eastern Kansas. In addition to petroleum, Na-Ca-Mg-Fe chloride brines were present during deposition of calcite and sphalerite in which primary inclusions contain {approx gt}23 equivalent wt.% NaCl. Dolomite- and barite-hosted inclusions are more dilute, possibly because of mixing between hydrothermal fluids and groundwater during mineralization. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures (Th) between 85 and 95{degree}C. Aqueous inclusions have Th values ranging from {approximately}90 to 130{degree}C for sphalerite to below {approximately}50{degree}C for barite. Primary brine inclusions in calcite at the Jumbo mine contain goethite, apparently as a daughter mineral. Goethite has also been tentatively identified in inclusions from the Fletcher mine of Missouri. If goethite is a true daughter phase, it implies the presence of oxidized fluids during mineralization. This suggests that ore deposition resulted from interactions between hydrothermal fluids and dilute groundwater.

Blasch, S.R.; Coveney, R.M. Jr. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1988-05-01

417

Inclusive practices for children and youths with communication disorders. Ad Hoc Committee on Inclusion for students with Communication Disorders.  

PubMed

An array of inclusive service delivery models is recommended for the implementation of services to children and youths with communication disorders. Inclusive practices are intervention services that are based on the unique and specific needs of the individual, and provided in a context that is least restrictive. There are a variety of models through which inclusive practices can be provided, including a direct (pull-out) program, in classroom-based service delivery, community-based models, and consultative interventions. These models should be seen as flexible options that may change depending on student needs. The speech-language pathologist, in collaboration with parents, the student, teachers, support personnel, and administrators, is in the ideal position to decide the model or combination of models that best serves each individual student's communication needs. Implementation of inclusive practices requires consideration of multiple issues, including general education reform, cost effectiveness, and program efficacy. In addition, administrative and school system support, personnel qualifications, staff development, flexible scheduling, and the effects of inclusive practices on all learners need to be considered. At present, available research suggests guarded optimism for the effectiveness of inclusive practices. However, many critical questions have not yet been addressed and additional research is needed to assess the full impact of inclusive practices for students with communication disorders. PMID:8680263

1996-01-01

418

Inclusion-positive cell types in adult-onset intranuclear inclusion body disease: implications for clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

The distribution of inclusions in adult-onset type intranuclear inclusion body disease (INIBD) has not been fully described. We analyzed the clinical and pathological changes of three autopsy cases of adult type INIBD and provide a detailed description of the distribution of inclusions in nervous system and visceral organs. Although patients showed cognitive decline and autonomic dysfunction, there were no specific symptoms related to general organs. The neuropathological changes responsible for cognitive decline and autonomic dysfunction were considered to be white matter changes in the cerebral hemispheres and inclusions in the autonomic nervous system, e.g., in the sympathetic ganglia and myenteric plexus. Alterations of spongiosis with both myelin and axon loss in the cerebral white matter seemed to be related to dysfunction of astrocytes with intranuclear inclusions. In visceral organs, the inclusions were much more widely distributed than previously appreciated and included renal mesangial cells, adrenal sustentacular cells, fibrocytes, Kupffer cells, pancreatic centroacinar and ductal epithelial cells. Since skeletal muscle cells, Schwann cells and smooth muscle cells were also inclusion positive, we propose that biopsy of muscle, peripheral nerve or rectum may prove useful for the clinical diagnosis of INIBD. PMID:18923837

Liu, Ying; Mimuro, Maya; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Niwa, Hisayoshi; Miyao, Shinichi; Ujihira, Nobuko; Akatsu, Hiroyasu

2008-12-01

419

Biomimetic microfabricated compound eyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century, compound eyes in nature have been one of the most studied and intriguing topics in physiological optics due to their unique optical scheme for imaging. Hundreds to ten thousands of integrated optical units called ommatidia are spherically arranged along a curvilinear surface and point in different directions. Each ommatidium collects light within a small angular acceptance and collectively they construct a full image with a wide field-of-view. In this work, artificial compound eye lenses with three-dimensional configuration, which are anatomically and functionally similar to those in nature, have been synthesized using a photosensitive polymer resin by utilizing microlens technology, self-written waveguide process, and soft lithography. Replicated honeycomb packed polymer microlenses as substitute for facet lenses in a natural compound eye was microfabricated with a photoresist melting process for microlens templates and a soft lithographic process for polymer replication. The microtemplate of photoresist microlens arrays (F/1 ˜ F/3, DL = 20 ˜ 50 mum) with low Fresnel number (NF < 10) and high packing density was replicated with different polymers such as UV curable epoxy resin, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, and a negative tone photoresist. Related to ommatidial optics, the diffraction of a low Fresnel number microlens, the light guiding of a waveguide, and the angular acceptance function of a microlens-waveguide system were theoretically studied with numerical analysis. First, as a prototype microfabricated microlens-waveguide system ( DL = 300 mum), a small angular acceptance (rho A = 1.5°) comparable to that of natural ommatidia was experimentally achieved and compared with the numerical analysis. The system is based on self-written waveguides in a photosensitive polymer resin and replicated elastomer microlens arrays. However, due to the technical difficulties in handling the elastomer membrane with microlenses, it is limited in scaling down to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidium. Second, as an advanced development, self-aligned microlens-waveguide systems comparable to the physical dimensions of natural ommatidia have been developed and integrated in a photosensitive resin. The individual microlens-waveguide systems of about 8,370 were spherically arranged along the circumference of a polymer dome of 2.5 mm in diameter and each points in different directions. The spherical configuration was realized using a replication process of reconfigurable microtemplates, i.e. the polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns under small pressure (5 kPa ˜ 20 kPa). The characterizations of the small scale microlenses (F/1.8 ˜ F/2.9, DL = 25 mum) and waveguides were also carried out with a modified reflection/transmission confocal microscope. The comparative discussion between natural and artificial compound eyes is described and several future directions based on this work are also proposed.

Jeong, Ki-Hun

2005-11-01

420

Common Compound Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

Frederick A. Senese

421

Microoptical telescope compound eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

422

Microoptical telescope compound eye.  

PubMed

A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

2005-02-01

423

Investigation of transport of genistein, daidzein and their inclusion complexes prepared with different cyclodextrins on Caco-2 cell line.  

PubMed

Isoflavonoids are widespread constituents in medical plants especially in legumes (Fabaceae), but occur in other different plant families as well (Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Amaranthaceae). Their antioxidant, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects make them promising compounds in therapy of important disorders especially in estrogen related diseases. Poor solubility in aqueous system of genistein and daidzein needs a solubility enhancement for pharmaceutical use. These compounds are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs) considering matching their size and polarity. The molecular encapsulation with beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), gamma-cyclodextrin (?-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and random methyl-beta cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of genistein and daidzein. Determining enhancement in solubility and bioavailability we investigated the transport of these inclusion complexes across Caco-2 cell line comparing that of the pure compounds and found significant improving effect of the different CD derivatives on membrane permeation of the two isoflavone aglycons. PMID:23810850

Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Kiss, Tímea; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Szente, Lajos; Sz?ke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

2013-10-01

424

The Effect of Inclusion on Student Performance on State Assessments  

E-print Network

on the state assessment, and the independent variable was the student's access to general education curriculum as measured by Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) inclusiveness designations. Control variables were selected to test for the effects...

Robbins, Joan

2010-12-20

425

Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive jet cross section in photoproduction has been measured as a function of transverse energy and pseudorapidity using the H 1 detector at the HERA electron-proton collider. The results are compared with leading order QCD calculations.

Collaboration, H1; Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bischoff, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. C.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.

1993-09-01

426

Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

1987-01-01

427

Fluid inclusion geobarometry from ejected Mt. Somma-Vesuvius nodules.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions from seven cumulate and three 'skarn' nodules collected from the pyroclastics of three non-Plinian eruptive episodes are presented. -J.A.Z.

Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Roedder, E.; Cortini, M.

1985-01-01

428

Inclusive Education: A Modern-Day Civil-Rights Struggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within-school segregation occurs when children classified for special education are disproportionately poor and minorities. Inclusive education, services for marginalized students, and long-term structural change are needed. (SK)

Kovach, John A.; Gordon, Don E.

1997-01-01

429

The cytomegalic inclusion cell and disease; a hypothesis.  

PubMed

Infections due to human cytomegalovirus are common in the general population, disease on the other hand is rare, being usually associated with the presence of cytomegalic inclusion bearing cells in the tissues. It can be inferred that in healthy individuals latently infected with this agent, such cells are promptly destroyed by the policing immune system and the efficiency of this immune surveillance is due to the high degree of antigenic disparity of cytomegalic inclusion bearing and normal cells. However, any impairment of the immune defence may render the host unable to deal with the inclusion bearing cells, which are then believed to induce at least some of the severe clinical symptoms of cytomegalic inclusion disease. PMID:197402

Diosi, P

1977-01-01

430

Using Performance Feedback to Support Paraprofessionals in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paraprofessionals (also referred to as paraeducators or instructional assistants) who work in inclusive early childhood classrooms are facing increasing responsibilities in supporting teachers and children with diverse learning needs (Deardorff, Glasenapp, Schalock, & Udell, 2007; Downing, Ryndak, & Clark, 2000; Giangreco, Broer, &…

Brown, Teresa L.; Gatmaitan, Michelle; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna M.

2014-01-01

431

On fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative  

SciTech Connect

In the paper, fractional differential inclusions with the Jumarie derivative are studied. We discuss the existence and uniqueness of a solution to such problems. Our study relies on standard variational methods.

Kamocki, Rafa?, E-mail: rafkam@math.uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Differential Equations and Computer Science, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Differential Equations and Computer Science, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland); Obczy?ski, Cezary, E-mail: czacza@math.uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Nonlinear Analysis, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Nonlinear Analysis, University of Lodz, Banacha 22, 90-238 Lodz (Poland)

2014-02-15

432

Automated Inclusive Design Heuristics Generation with Graph Mining  

E-print Network

. The research applies the actionfunction diagram to model the interaction between a user and a product, design difference classification to compare a typical product with its inclusive counterpart, graph theory to mathematically represent the comparison...

Sangelkar, Shraddha Chandrakant

2013-08-01

433

Semi-inclusive charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions  

E-print Network

The general, universal formalism for semi-inclusive charged-current (anti)neutrino-nucleus reactions is given for studies of any hadronic system, namely, either nuclei or the nucleon itself. The detailed developments are ...

Van Orden, J.?W.

434

German Fulbright Delegates Visit the Office of Diversity and Inclusion  

E-print Network

on campus by the Office of Diversity and Inclusion (ODI). The aim of the seminar was to introduce and administrators; and measuring success and benefits of diversity management. While visiting ODI, the German

435

Parental perspectives on inclusion: Effects of autism and down syndrome  

E-print Network

on Inclusion: Effects of Autism and Down Syndrome Connieeffects of the child's diagnosis (autism vs. Down syndrome),effects were found. In terms of diagnostic group, parents of children with Down syndrome

Kasari, C; Freeman, SFN; Bauminger, N; Alkin, MC

1999-01-01

436

MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

437

EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

438

Volatile compositions of melt inclusions in Coso Range Rhyolite  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved water and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite domes and lava flows in the Coso volcanic field to determine pre-eruptive volatile content of the magma. Inclusions roughly 50--100 microns in diameter were analyzed for dissolved water and carbon dioxide using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glasses have a total water concentration ranging from four to six weight percent and no detectable carbon dioxide. Vapor bubbles in the inclusions about 10--40 microns in diameter were also analyzed for their volatile composition. The spectra show no evidence for carbon dioxide, although significant water is observed. If the melt inclusions were saturated at the time of entrapment, then crystallization occurred between 1,200 and 2,100 bars pressure or greater than 4 kilometers depth.

Blouke, K.J. (Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

439

Convergence of Iterative Schemes for Multivalued Quasi-Variational Inclusions  

E-print Network

and Muhammad Aslam Noor Abstract : Relying on the resolvent operator method and using Nadler's theorem, we the Ishikawa, Mann and Noor iterations for solving variational inclusions (inequalities) as special cases. We

Boyer, Edmond

440

Preparation and Evaluation of Silymarin ?-cyclodextrin Molecular Inclusion Complexes  

PubMed Central

Silymarin is a hepatoprotective agent, having poor water solubility and oral absorption of about 23 – 47%, leading to low bioavailability of the drug. The aim of the present study is to improve the solubility and dissolution rate and in turn the hepatoprotective activity of the drug, by formulating its inclusion complex with beta (?)-cyclodextrin, using different methods. The phase solubility analysis indicates the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex of the drug with beta cyclodextrin. Apparent stability constant for Silymarin (Kc) was 722 K-1 with ?-cyclodextrin complex. The inclusion complexes were prepared by four different methods, namely, physical mixing, kneading, co-precipitation, and solvent evaporation. The prepared complexes were characterized using differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. The inclusion complex prepared by the co-precipitation methods exhibits an overall best result, with respect to the formulation of sustained release formulations. PMID:21897659

Ghosh, A; Biswas, S; Ghosh, T

2011-01-01

441

Thermal transparency with the concept of neutral inclusion.  

PubMed

The concept of the electromagnetic wave transparency is introduced into the thermal field. The conditions of the thermal transparency for a multilayered sphere with isotropic coatings, a coated spheroid with an isotropic coating, and a coated sphere with a radial anisotropic core or a radial anisotropic coat are deduced with the help of the idea of the neutral inclusion. The thermal transparency can be achieved by making the effective thermal conductivity of the composite inclusion equal to the thermal conductivity of the surrounding matrix. The validity of the theoretical analysis is checked by the corresponding simulated results, which indicate that the designed neutral inclusion can be transparent perfectly. A specific case of interest of the thermal transparency is its application to cancel the thermal stress concentration resulting from the existence of the inclusions in the particle (even the thermal-insulated particle) -reinforced composites. PMID:24125374

He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi

2013-09-01

442

SAMPL4, a blind challenge for computational solvation free energies: the compounds considered.  

PubMed

For the fifth time I have provided a set of solvation energies (1 M gas to 1 M aqueous) for a SAMPL challenge. In this set there are 23 blind compounds and 30 supplementary compounds of related structure to one of the blind sets, but for which the solvation energy is readily available. The best current values of each compound are presented along with complete documentation of the experimental origins of the solvation energies. The calculations needed to go from reported data to solvation energies are presented, with particular attention to aspects which are new to this set. For some compounds the vapor pressures (VP) were reported for the liquid compound, which is solid at room temperature. To correct from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation requires ?Sfusion, which is only known for mannitol. Estimated values were used for the others, all but one of which were benzene derivatives and expected to have very similar values. The final compound for which ?Sfusion was estimated was menthol, which melts at 42 °C so that modest errors in ?Sfusion will have little effect. It was also necessary to look into the effects of including estimated values of ?Cp on this correction. The approximate sizes of the effects of inclusion of ?Cp in the correction from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation were estimated and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp invariably makes ?GS more positive. To extend the set of compounds for which the solvation energy could be calculated we explored the use of boiling point (b.p.) data from Reaxys/Beilstein as a substitute for studies of the VP as a function of temperature. B.p. data are not always reliable so it was necessary to develop a criterion for rejecting outliers. For two compounds (chlorinated guaiacols) it became clear that inclusion represented overreach; for each there were only two independent pressure, temperature points, which is too little for a trustworthy extrapolation. For a number of compounds the extrapolation from lowest temperature at which the VP was reported to 25 °C was long (sometimes over 100°) so that it was necessary to consider whether ?Cp might have significant effects. The problem is that there are no experimental values and possible intramolecular hydrogen bonds make estimation uncertain in some cases. The approximate sizes of the effects of ?Cp were estimated, and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp in the extrapolation of VP down to room temperature invariably makes ?Gs more negative. PMID:24706106

Guthrie, J Peter

2014-03-01

443

Tubular symplectic inclusions in olivine from the Fukang pallasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olivine from the Fukang meteorite, like that from many other pallasites, contains distinctive arrays of parallel, straight, tubular inclusions. They differ in their extension and linearity from those in terrestrial olivines. They comprise approximately 1% of the total volume. Most have lens-shaped cross-sections, but some are rounded. The major axis of the lens-shaped inclusions is rigorously oriented along olivine [001],

Michael R. Stevens; David R. Bell; Peter R. Buseck

2010-01-01

444

Fluid flow and inclusion removal in continuous casting tundish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional fluid flow in continuous casting tundishes with and without flow control devices is first studied. The results\\u000a indicate that flow control devices are effective to control the strong stirring energy within the inlet zone, and other zones\\u000a are with much uniform streamline. By dividing tundish into two zones with different inclusion removal mechanisms the inclusion\\u000a removal is calculated. Three

Lifeng Zhang; Shoji Taniguchi; Kaike Cai

2000-01-01

445

Measurement of inclusive production of neutral hadrons from Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of the inclusive production of pi0, eta, Ks0 and Lambda based on 929,000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured inclusive momentum distributions have been compared with predictions from parton shower models as well as an analytical Quantum Chromodynamics calculation. Comparing to low energy e+e- data, we find that QCD describes

M. Acciarri; A. Adam; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; G. Alkhazov; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; J. J. Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; C. Burgos; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; A. Bykov; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; R. Castello; N. Cavallo; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de La Cruz; X. T. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; L. Malgeri; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; M. Redaelli; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; A. Robohm; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen

1994-01-01

446

Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions from Izu-Hakone Region, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions, angular to rounded and up to 20 cm in size, have been found as accidental fragments in\\u000a a mud flow of the Okata basalt group, O-shima Island and in a tuff breccia, Hakone. New analyses are represented for seventeen\\u000a inclusions and three pyroxenes.\\u000a \\u000a It is reasonable to conclude from petrographic and chemical features that the

K. Aoki; H. Kuno

1972-01-01

447

N-rich fluid inclusions in octahedrally-grown diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is generally considered a trace component in the Earth's mantle. Mantle volatiles sampled from mid-ocean ridge basalts or preserved as fluid inclusions in xenoliths are dominated by CO2, with only traces of nitrogen. Here we describe CO2-N2 fluid inclusions with 40 mol% N2 and silicate melt inclusions with ?0.1 wt% dissolved N2 in mantle-derived diamonds from 3 different cratons. The diamonds are octahedrally-grown, which is the most common growth habit and rarely reported to contain fluid inclusions. The inclusions have C/N ratios <1, more than two orders of magnitude below typical mantle values. We propose that nitrogen can become concentrated to high degrees by processes related to diamond growth. A growing diamond does not readily consume the nitrogen available, suggesting incompatible behaviour. Residual N2 from this process represents a concentrated nitrogen flux escaping the convecting mantle. Hidden nitrogen fluxes like this might be significant in counteracting the large apparent net influx by subduction. Based on nitrogen and carbon speciation in the inclusions, we propose that redox processes control the liberation of nitrogen from the convecting mantle, by the oxidation of NH+4 in silicates to mobile N2, concurrent with a parallel oxidation process releasing carbonate melt from the asthenosphere. Isotopic fractionation accompanying changes in nitrogen speciation could help account for the apparent isotopic mismatch between surficial and mantle nitrogen.

Smith, Evan M.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Afanasiev, Valentin P.

2014-05-01

448

Genesis of melilitolite from Colle Fabbri: inferences from melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melilite and wollastonite from the Colle Fabbri stock contain silicate melt and silicate-carbonate inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of silicate inclusions are within the magmatic temperature range of mantle ultrabasic melts: about 1,320 ± 15 °?. Their composition is melilititic and evolves to the composition of leucite tephrite and phonolite. The composition of silicate-carbonate inclusions are high SiO2, Ca-rich, enriched in alkalies and are similar to that of inclusions of carbonatite melts in the minerals of melilitolites of other intrusive ultramafic complexes. They are also similar to the compositions of metasomatized travertine covering the melilitolite stock. The presence of primary silicate and silicate-carbonate inclusions evidences that the melilitite magma from which melilitolites of Colle Fabbri crystallized was associated with carbonatite liquid. This liquid was highly fluidized, mobile and aggressive. Actively interacting with overlying travertine, the liquid enriched them with alkalies, aluminosilicates and incompatible elements, which resulted in the equalization of their compositions. Heterogeneous compositional dominions were formed at the contact between melilitolite and wall pelites. In the minerals of these contact facies high-Si melt inclusions of varying composition have been observed. Their occurrence is related to the local assimilation by the high-temperature melilitite magma of pelitic country rocks. The content of incompatible elements in melilitite melts and melilitolites is higher than the mantle norm and they have peculiar indicator ratios, spectra, Eu/Eu* ratio, which suggest a peculiar mantle source.

Panina, L. I.; Nikolaeva, A. T.; Stoppa, F.

2013-12-01

449

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

2008-12-01

450

Method of preparing metallocene compounds  

DOEpatents

This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

Rosenblum, Myron (Lexington, MA); Matchett, Stephen A. (Lisle, IL)

1992-01-01

451

Antimalarial compounds from Schefflera umbellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic extract of the leaves of Schefflera umbellifera exhibited good antimalarial activity when tested against the chloroquine-susceptible strain (D10). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of the dichloromethane\\/methanol extract yielded an active compound, betulin, which exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 3.2µg\\/ml. The reference compound, chloroquine gave an IC50 value of 27.2ng\\/ml. Two other compounds were

X. S. Mthembu; F. R. Van Heerden; G. Fouché

2010-01-01

452

[Solubilizing effect and inclusion reaction of cyclic bisdesmosides from tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum].  

PubMed

Tubeimosides I, II and III (cyclic bisdesmosides) have been isolated from Chinese cucurbitaceous crude drug Tu-bei-mu, a tuber of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet. Solubilizing effects of these cyclic bisdesmosides on water insoluble or less-soluble compounds were examined. It was revealed that cyclic bisdesmosides were effective on increasing the solubility of Yellow OB, dl-alpha-tocopherol and saponin A from Sapindus mukurossi. The critical micell concentration (cmc) and association number as well as diameter of micell of tubeimoside I in water were also measured. The interaction of tubeimoside I with 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS) in aqueous solution was investigated photometrically. It was observed that tubeimoside I strongly enhanced the intensity of fluorescence of ANS, suggesting the significant formation of inclusion complex. PMID:2074540

Miyakoshi, M; Kasai, R; Nishioka, M; Ochiai, H; Tanaka, O

1990-12-01

453

Nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of the inclusion complexation of gliclazide with beta-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

The formation of the gliclazide-beta-cyclodextrin (GL-beta-CD) inclusion compound has been studied in the liquid state by phase solubility techniques and by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. From the initial straight portion of the solubility curve (Bs type), the value of the apparent stability constant (Kc) was calculated as 1094 M(-1). The nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirm that GL yields a complex with beta-CD in aqueous medium, which is mainly due to the penetration of the azabicyclooctyl group of GL into the cavity of beta-CD. The study of the monodimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) of the H3 proton of CD has shown that the tolyl group also interacts with CD, but to a lesser extent than the azabicyclooctyl moiety. Finally, the application of the continous variation technique confirmed the 1:2 drug:CD stoichiometry of the complex. PMID:9002462

Moyano, J R; Arias-Blanco, M J; Gines, J M; Rabasco, A M; Pérez-Martínez, J I; Mor, M; Giordano, F

1997-01-01

454

Effect of Complex Inclusion Particles on the Solidification Structure of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of combinations of several deoxidizers, i.e., Mg-Al, Mg-Ti, Al-Ti, and Ce-Al, on the solidification structure of Fe-2 mass pct Ni-1 mass pct Mn-1 mass pct Mo alloy melt was investigated using a melt sampling and quenching method. Using this method, we evaluated the catalytic potency of several complex inclusion particles by taking the inclusion evolution process into account. Fine equiaxed crystals were obtained in the Mg-Ti-deoxidized steel wherein the MgO(MgAl2O4)-TiN complex compounds formed. However, the longer the holding time at high temperatures, the larger the fraction of Ti2O3, and very fine TiN formed because of microsegregation during solidification, resulting in poor equiaxed crystals. When the steel was deoxidized with Mg-Al, the initial structure was dominantly columnar. However, the longer the holding time, the larger the fraction of MgAl2O4 spinel, resulting in the formation of fine equiaxed crystals. Ce-Al complex deoxidation provided a relatively small portion of equiaxed crystals, whereas Ti-Al deoxidation produced the fewest equiaxed crystals because of the formation of alumina. The effectiveness of each inoculant particle for the crystallization of the primary ?-iron was explained well by the lattice disregistry concept.

Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Changhee; Park, Joo Hyun

2012-12-01

455

Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms  

PubMed Central

The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

2004-01-01

456

Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

Cooper, Grorge

2001-01-01

457

Behavior of alumina-magnesia complex inclusions and magnesia inclusions on the surface of molten low-carbon steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that alumina inclusions on the surface of molten Al-killed steel quickly attract each other to form clusters.\\u000a On the other hand, alumina-magnesia complex inclusions on the surface of molten low-carbon steel with a high oxygen content\\u000a have a much weaker tendency to form clusters. In the present work, the reason for the different behaviors of the

Sei Kimura; K. Nakajima; S. Mizoguchi

2001-01-01

458

Enhanced analysis of triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris L. by capillary zone electrophoresis with the addition of running buffer modifiers.  

PubMed

A cyclodextrin-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of three isomeric compounds (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid), caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Without the addition of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and methanol, the separation of these analytes was poorly resolved. These eight compounds, however, were well separated from each other within 20 min with a borax running buffer (40 mM of borax, pH 9.4) containing 2mM beta-CD and 4% (v/v) methanol at the voltage of 25 kV, temperature of 25 degrees C and detection wavelength of 210 nm. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time ranged from 0.16 to 0.74% while those of the peak area ratios ranged from 2.17 to 4.61% for six determinations of the analytes at concentration of 10 and 25 microg mL(-1). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analytes were all >0.998, and the recoveries were from 96.8 to 103.6%. The method was successfully applied to determine these bioactive components in the samples of Prunella vulgaris L. and its beverage drink products. Our results reveal that only the isomeric compounds and rosmarinic acid could be detected in the spikes of P. vulgaris L.; other components were either too low to be detected or not present while only rosmarinic acid was detected in the beverage products. PMID:18980769

Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Qing-Feng

2008-12-12

459

Using melt inclusions and fluid inclusions to track ore-metal behavior in magma-hydrothermal systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt and fluid inclusions yield important clues to the history of igneous melts and their related hydrothermal ore deposits (1). Under ideal conditions, melt inclusions in volcanic rocks yield data on the actual concentrations of ore metals and volatiles during instantaneous snapshots of crystallization and degassing. Their varying compositions can directly reflect sequestration of ore-metals in fractionating minerals and/or exsolving brines and vapors. Frequently, scientists compare the concentration of volatile elements in melt inclusions with their abundance in devolatilized matrix glass. Though this provides an informative qualitative overview of volatility, it is essentially impossible to use such data to calculate thermodynamically relevant partition coefficients. The resulting partitioning ratio instead represents fractionation over a wide range of pressures, and compositions (for both exsolved fluid and silicate melt). Ideally, workers should identify co-entrapped fluid and glass inclusions to provide more thermodynamically meaningful partitioning ratios for volatile metals and gases (2,3). Unfortunately, the occurrence of fluid inclusions co-entrapped with silicate melt is relatively rare, and studies of synthetic fluid and melt inclusions may be the most practical means of exploring the effect of crystallization and degassing in 'natural' systems. As with melt inclusions, under ideal conditions, fluid inclusions in intrusive rocks represent the compositions of fluids generated within associated magmatic-hydrothermal fluid systems. Multiple generations of cross-cutting fractures may be generated, resulting in trails of secondary and pseudosecondary inclusions in igneous minerals, and primary and secondary inclusions in hydrothermal assemblages. Chemistry of the fluids preserved within different inclusion generations will change markedly due to changes in magmatic temperature and pressure and mixing of diverse external fluids from meteoric and metamorphic sources. For example, ore elements sequestered by magmatic crystallization at high temperature may be liberated and re-transported by fluids upon magma cooling due to breakdown and dissolution of oxides and sulfides at low temperature. Both fluid and melt inclusions can be open to modification between initial formation and ultimate petrographic inspection. In melt inclusions, bubbles separate from glass and variably re-hydrate the glass during cooling. In addition, crystals can form and elements can diffuse between glass and host mineral. These problems are yet more exaggerated in intrusive rocks, but workers are still able to obtain useful information through meticulous inspection, categorization and analysis through diverse techniques. This presentation will review a variety of recent studies that illustrate these concepts and demonstrate how to extract useful information from inclusions from a variety of deposit types. (1) Audétat, A. & Lowenstern, J.B. (in press) Melt Inclusions. In Scott. S. (ed.) Geochemistry of Mineral Resources: Treatise of Geochemistry, 2nd edition. (2) Zajacz Z, et al. (2008) Geochim et Cosmochim.Acta, 72: 2169-2197. (3) Lerchbaumer, L. & Audétat, A., (2013) Econ. Geol. v. 108, p. 987-1013.

Lowenstern, J. B.; Audétat, A.

2013-12-01

460

Winged inclusions under high-strain simple shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we investigate pinch-and-swell objects, which have been subjected to layer parallel shear deformation. We use a high-resolution mechanical numerical model, which allows to model finite strains up to ? = 40. The developing structures have been called winged inclusions, which have geometrically similarities with ?-clast systems and rolling structures. However, our model results suggest markedly different mechanical evolution for winged inclusions, which has to be considered when these structures are used as shear sense indicator or finite strain gauge. During the early stages of formation winged inclusions may resemble mirror images of sigmoidal objects and miss-interpretations will lead to a wrong interpretation of the shear sense. During high-shear strain, the structures may be approximately described as consisting of a pulsating faster rotating core and thinning tails that experience differential slower rotation. The viscosity ratio and the shape of the winged inclusion have a significant influence on the rotation rate. The tails are subject to ptygmatic folding when they rotate through the field of instantaneous shortening and may unfold again in the field of instantaneous stretching. During on-going shearing the trailing wing may become the leading wing and finally unfold after rotation of 180° resulting again in a pinch and swell shaped objects. Therefore winged inclusions record little information about the finite strain. Rootless intrafolial folds with opposing closures have geometrically strong similarities with winged inclusions. It is speculated that the formation of winged inclusions might be an efficient mechanisms to produce rootless intrafolial folds, which might influence the rheological behaviour of natural highly strained rocks.

Grasemann, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin

2014-05-01

461

Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears  

PubMed Central

The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

McDermott, Alison M.

2013-01-01

462

Bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities. Prominent among these are toxins: hepatotoxins such as microcystins and nodularins and neurotoxins such as anatoxins and saxitoxins. Cytotoxicity to tumor cells has been demonstrated for other cyanobacterial products, including 9-deazaadenosine, dolastatin 13 and analogs. A number of compounds in cyanobacteria are inhibitors of proteases — micropeptins, cyanopeptolins, oscillapeptin, microviridin,

M Namikoshi; KL Rinehart

1996-01-01

463

ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

464

Morphological Dynamics in Compound Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the time-course of morphological processing of trimorphemic Finnish compounds. We find evidence for the parallel access to full-forms and morphological constituents diagnosed by the early effects of compound frequency, as well as early effects of left constituent frequency and family size. We also observe an interaction between…

Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

2008-01-01

465

Bilingual Reading of Compound Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

2011-01-01

466

Video: Focusing a Compound Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to focus a compound microscope. The brief clip, available for viewing on YouTube, would be most useful for students with a basic understanding of the parts of a compound microscope and how to use it. Running time for the video is 0:55.

2013-07-01

467

Freehand spatial-angular compounding of photoacoustic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality that relies on the absorption of optical energy and the subsequent emission of acoustic waves that are detected with a conventional ultrasound probe. PA images are susceptible to background noise artifacts that reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We investigated spatial-angular compounding of PA images to enhance these image qualities. Spatial-angular compounding was implemented by averaging multiple PA images acquired as an ultrasound probe was rotated about the elevational axis with the laser beam and PA target fixed in the same location. An external tracking system was used to provide the position and orientation (i.e. pose) information of each PA image. Based on this pose information, frames in similar elevational planes were filtered from the acquired image data and compounded using one of two methods. One method registered overlapping signals between frames prior to compounding (using the pose information), while the second method omitted this spatial registration step. These two methods were applied to pre-beamformed RF, beamformed RF, and envelope-detected data, resulting in six different compounding pipelines. Compounded PA images with similar lateral resolution to a single reference image had factors of 1.1 - 1.6, 2.0 - 11.1, and 2.0 - 11.1 improvements in contrast, CNR, and SNR, respectively, when compared to the reference image. These improvements depended on the amount of relative motion between the reference image and the images that were compounded. The inclusion of spatial registration prior to compounding preserved lateral resolution and signal location when the relative rotations about the elevation axis were 3.5° or less for images that were within an elevational distance of 2.5 mm from the reference image, particularly when the method was applied to the enveloped-detected data. Results indicate that spatial-angular compounding has the potential to improve image quality for a variety of photoacoustic imaging applications.

Kang, Hyun-Jae; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

468

Devices for collecting chemical compounds  

DOEpatents

A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

2013-12-24

469

First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison  

SciTech Connect

Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f{sub O2} conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f{sub O2} = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of these samples allows comparison of Ti valence of (1) pyroxene in sp-pyx inclusions with that of fassaite; (2) spinel in hibonite-bearing with that of hibonite-free inclusions; and (3) hibonite in sp-hib inclusions with that of large, single grains and the previously analyzed sample.

Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L. (UC)

2009-03-23

470

The Arithmetic Mean Theorem of Eshelby Tensor for a Rotational Symmetrical Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, H. Nozaki and M. Taya found numerically that for any regular polygonal inclusion except for a square, both the Eshelby tensor at the center and the average Eshelby tensor over the inclusion domain are equal to the Eshelby tensor for a circular inclusion and independent of the orientation of the inclusion. Then in 2001, these remarkable properties were

M. Z. Wang; B. X. Xu

2004-01-01

471

Establishing Differences between Diversity Requirements and Other Courses with Varying Degrees of Diversity Inclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how diversity requirements differ from courses that are highly inclusive or less inclusive of diversity. Results suggest that instructor characteristics are statistically different and that highly inclusive and less inclusive diversity courses score highest and lowest, respectively, on measures of effective teaching compared…

Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Engberg, Mark E.

2011-01-01

472

Inclusive Education: A Casebook and Readings for Prospective and Practicing Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents readings and teaching cases designed to prepare teachers for inclusive education. Part 1, "Readings," provides an overview of issues related to inclusive education and describes approaches for creating inclusive classrooms and schools, including: (1) "Creating Inclusive Classrooms: An Overview" (Suzanne E. Wade and Judy Zone);…

Wade, Suzanne E., Ed.

473

Fluid inclusions as tectonothermobarometers: Relation between pressure-temperature history and reequilibration morphology during crustal thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of experimental reequilibration studies of natural primary aqueous inclusions in quartz under conditions of hydrostatic compressive loading at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kbar and 500 °C indicate that the intensity of reequilibration features is inversely proportional to inclusion volume. The smallest inclusions show the first evidence of reequilibration (dissolution of inclusion walls) after ˜1.8 kbar of effective

M. O. Vityk; R. J. Bodnar; C. S. Schmidt

1994-01-01

474

CW Mode Structure and Constraint Beamforming in a Waveguide with Unknown Large Inclusions  

E-print Network

in a shallow ocean with an unknown large inclusion. We assume that there is an un­ known inclusion embeddedCW Mode Structure and Constraint Beamforming in a Waveguide with Unknown Large Inclusions Yongzhi in a shallow water waveguide. The existence of the unknown inclusion changes the propagating field greatly

475

Preparation and characterization of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes.  

PubMed

In this study, debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes were prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and addition amount of phosphatidylcholine on the phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate was investigated. The phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate prepared under the optimal conditions were 106 mg/g and 84.8%, respectively. The formation of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the molecular, cluster, and fractal structures of the complexes were investigated using (13)C CP/MAS NMR and SAXS. The results indicated that the inclusion complexes were formed by hydrophobic interactions between alkyl chain of phosphatidylcholine and debranched-starch helix cavity. The complexes possessed a mass fractal structure, and a semicrystalline structure with a Bragg distance of 19.04 nm formed. After complexation, the stability of phosphatidylcholine was significantly improved, and phosphatidylcholine of the complexes can be gradually released with pancreatin treatment. This study revealed that debranched-starch can be used as an effective carrier of phosphatidylcholine for the purpose of improving its stability. PMID:25557535

Cheng, Weiwei; Luo, Zhigang; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiong

2015-01-21

476

Thermodynamic study on the effects of ?-cyclodextrin inclusion with berberine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence enhancement of berberine (Berb) as a result of complex with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is investigated. The association constants of ?-CD and ?-CD with Berb are 60 and 137 M -1 at 20 °C in pH 7.20 aqueous solution. Effects of temperature on the forming inclusion complexes of ?-CD with Berb have been examined through using fluorescence titration. Enthalpy and entropy values calculated from fluorescence data are -33.7·kJ mol -1 and 74.3 J·mol -1·K -1, respectively. It was found that the dielectric constant of ?-CD cavity is about 24 in a rough analogy with absolute alcohol. These results suggest that the extrusion of 'high energy water' molecules from the cavity of ?-CD and hydrophobic interaction upon the inclusion complex formation are the main forces of the inclusion reaction. Effect of pH on the association of ?-CD with Berb was also studied. Mechanism of the inclusion of ?-CD with Berb is further studied by absorption and NMR measurements. Results show that ?-CD forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with Berb.

Yu, Jun-Sheng; Wei, Fang-Di; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Chang-Chun

2002-01-01

477

Characterisation of soils with stony inclusions using geoelectrical measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation and sampling of coarse heterogeneous soils is often impossible using common geotechnical in situ tests once the soil contains particles with a diameter larger than a few decimetres. In this situation geophysical techniques—and particularly electrical measurements—can act as an alternative method for obtaining information about the ground characteristics. This paper deals with the use of electrical tomography on heterogeneous diphasic media consisting of resistive inclusions embedded in a conductive matrix. The adopted approach articulates in three steps: numerical modelling, measurements on a small-scale physical model, and field measurements. Electrical measurements were simulated using finite element analyses, on a numerical model containing a random concentration of inclusions varying from 0% to 40%. It is shown that for electrode spacing 8 times greater than the radius of inclusions, the equivalent homogeneous resistivity is obtained. In this condition, average measured resistivity is a function of the concentration of inclusions, in agreement with the theoretical laws. To apply these results on real data, a small-scale physical model has been built, where electrical measurements were conducted both on the model and on each phase. From these laboratory measurements, a very satisfying estimation of the percentage of inclusions has been obtained. Finally, the methodology applied to a real experimental site composed of alluvial fan deposits made of limestone rocks embedded in a clayey matrix. The estimated percentage of rock particles obtained via electrical measurements was in accordance with the real grain size distribution.

Rey, Etienne; Jongmans, Denis; Gotteland, Philippe; Garambois, Stephane

2006-03-01

478

Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions.  

PubMed

Halite crystals were selected from a 186 m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9,600 and 97,000 years before present (ybp) respectively. Extracted inclusions were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with haloarchaea-specific 16S rDNA primers or placed into haloarchaea culture medium. Enrichment cultures were obtained from 97 kyr halite crystal inclusion fluid and haloarchaea-containing prepared crystals (positive controls), whereas inclusions from crystals of 9.6 kyr halite and the haloarchaea-free halite crystals (negative controls) resulted in no growth. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rDNA) of the 97 kyr isolate, designated BBH 001, revealed a homology of 100% with Halobacterium salinarum. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that BBH 001 was closely related to H. salinarum (81-75% hybridization) and its ascription to this haloarchaea species. The described method of retrieving particle-containing brine from fluid inclusions offers a robust approach for assessing the antiquity of microorganisms associated with evaporites. PMID:14641589

Mormile, Melanie R; Biesen, Michelle A; Gutierrez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B; Onstott, Tullis C; Fredrickson, James K

2003-11-01

479

Modulation of protonation-deprotonation processes of 2-(4'-pyridyl)benzimidazole in its inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

2-(4'-Pyridyl)benzimidazole (4PBI) can exist in several states of protonation, having three basic nitrogen atoms. The equilibria involving these states, in ground as well as in excited states, are found to be affected significantly by cyclodextrins (CDs). The formation of inclusion complexes of this compound with all three varieties of cyclodextrins is observed to be more favorable at pH 9 than at pH 4, due to the predominance of the neutral form of dye at pH 9. The binding affinity of 4PBI to CDs is found to be governed by two factors: (i) the size of the host and (ii) the mode of insertion of 4PBI. We find that, for the host with a smaller cavity (?-CD), insertion of the dye with a pyridyl face is favored, whereas, for ?-CD, the preference is shifted toward the benzimidazole face of the dye. For ?-CD, the binding affinity of the dye is maximum due to perfect cavity matching with the guest. A combination of steric factor and hydrogen bonding interaction is found to be responsible for modulation of the protonation-deprotonation equilibria of the guest molecule in the inclusion complex. Surprisingly, a protonated form is found to be promoted upon inclusion in cyclodextrins, under certain conditions. This is an unusual behavior and has been rationalized by prototropism involving the hydroxyl protons of cyclodextrin molecules. PMID:23730970

Khorwal, Vijaykant; Sadhu, Biswajit; Dey, Arghya; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Datta, Anindya

2013-07-18

480

Fluid inclusion study of some Sarrabus fluorite deposits, Sardinia, Italy.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid inclusions in six deposits of fluorite fracture fillings associated with Hercynian (Carboniferous) cycle magmatism were studied by microthermometric techniques. All the inclusions were liquid dominated, aqueous, and homogenized in the liquid phase. One-phase (liquid), two-phase (liquid + vapour) and three-phase (liquid, vapour, and solid NaCl daughter mineral) fluid inclusions were noted. This study indicates that five of the fluorite deposits formed from 95o-125oC fluids with approx 15 wt.% NaCl. One other deposit appears to have been formed by very dilute solutions at approx 125oC. It is suggested that the local fluorite-forming process was the formation of fracture-localized hydrothermal systems in which magmatic water interaction with some other fluid-connate, meteoric, or marine.-G.J.N.

Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Valera, R.

1984-01-01

481

Electrochemical dynamics of nanoscale metallic inclusions in dielectrics.  

PubMed

Nanoscale metal inclusions in or on solid-state dielectrics are an integral part of modern electrocatalysis, optoelectronics, capacitors, metamaterials and memory devices. The properties of these composite systems strongly depend on the size, dispersion of the inclusions and their chemical stability, and are usually considered constant. Here we demonstrate that nanoscale inclusions (for example, clusters) in dielectrics dynamically change their shape, size and position upon applied electric field. Through systematic in situ transmission electron microscopy studies, we show that fundamental electrochemical processes can lead to universally observed nucleation and growth of metal clusters, even for inert metals like platinum. The clusters exhibit diverse dynamic behaviours governed by kinetic factors including ion mobility and redox rates, leading to different filament growth modes and structures in memristive devices. These findings reveal the microscopic origin behind resistive switching, and also provide general guidance for the design of novel devices involving electronics and ionics. PMID:24953477

Yang, Yuchao; Gao, Peng; Li, Linze; Pan, Xiaoqing; Tappertzhofen, Stefan; Choi, ShinHyun; Waser, Rainer; Valov, Ilia; Lu, Wei D

2014-01-01

482

Inclusion complex of sulfadimethoxine with cyclodextrins: preparation and characterization.  

PubMed

The inclusion complexation behavior, characterization and binding ability of sulfadimethoxine (SDMO) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) have been investigated both in solution and solid state by means of absorption, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, DSC, SEM, TEM, XRD and molecular modeling methods. The spectral shifts revealed that the part of pyrimidine and aniline rings of SDMO are entrapped in the CD cavity. The stoichiometric ratio and association constant were determined by Benesi-Hildebrand plots and spectroscopic studies respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to compare inclusion systems with physical mixtures, and demonstrated the complex formation in the solid state. The morphology and size of the nanoparticles of SDMO/CD complexes in aqueous solution were observed by TEM. The DSC analysis showed that the thermal stability of SDMO was enhanced in the presence of CD. Investigations of energetic and thermodynamic properties by PM3 method confirmed the stability of the inclusion complexes. PMID:24299845

Rajendiran, N; Siva, S

2014-01-30

483

Silicate Inclusions in the Kodaikanal IIE Iron Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicate inclusions in iron meteorites display an astonishing chemical and mineralogical variety, ranging from chondritic to highly fractionated, silica- and alkali-rich assemblages. In spite of this, their origin is commonly considered to be a simple one: mixing of silicates, fractionated or unfractionated, with metal. The latter had to be liquid in order to accommodate the former in a pore-free way which all models accomplish by assuming shock melting. II-E iron meteorites are particularly interesting because they contain an exotic zoo of silicate inclusions, including some chemically strongly fractionated ones. They also pose a formidable conundrum: young silicates are enclosed by very old metal. This and many other incompatibilities between models and reality forced the formulation of an alternative genetic model for irons. Here we present preliminary findings in our study of Kodaikanal silicate inclusions.

Kurat, G.; Varela, M. E.; Zinner, E.

2005-01-01

484

Depleted melt inclusions in MORB plagioclase: messages from the mantle or mirages from the magma chamber?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt inclusions that are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE; Ti, Zr, Nb), relative to other incompatible elements, were found in a plagioclase phyric normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) from the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Similar inclusions are present in many other phyric NMORB. HFSE-depleted inclusions constitute only a few percent of all melt inclusions in this sample, and inclusions

Peter J. Michael; William F. McDonough; Roger L. Nielsen; Winton C. Cornell

2002-01-01

485

Paired-angle multiplicative compounding.  

PubMed

Ultrasound compounding is a method of combining multiple images from different angles in order to create a single image with improved resolution and reduced angular-dependent artifactual detail. Compounding methods traditionally calculate each pixel in the compound image as a simple functional relationship between pixel elements in the component image set. In order to achieve an even better resolution and further reduce angular-dependent artifacts, this paper investigates a new type of compounding we call paired angle multiplicative compounding (PAMC), in which compound images are produced by a summation of multiplied pairs of component images acquired at different angles. A PAMC image of a breast phantom demonstrates improved delineation ofmicrocalcifications in comparison to the mean operation. Images of the forearm are used to investigate larger angles of paired multiplication, the best improving contrast ratio (28%) and signal to noise ratio (24%) when compared to the mean method. The PAMC method is found to be similar to the MEM and median compounding operations, the largest difference being that it is better preserving contributions from normal incidence but at the expense of needing a larger angular range. PMID:18939612

Macione, James; Yang, Zhi; Fox, Martin

2008-04-01

486

Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

2001-01-01

487

Laser microprobe analyses of noble gas isotopes and halogens in fluid inclusions: Analyses of microstandards and synthetic inclusions in quartz  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ar, Kr, Xe, Cl, Br, I, and K abundances and isotopic compositions have been measured in microscopic fluid inclusions in minerals by noble gas mass spectrometry following neutron irradiation and laser extraction. The laser microprobe noble gas mass spectrometric (LMNGMS) technique was quantified by use of microstandards, including air-filled capillary tubes, synthetic basalt glass grains, standard hornblende grains, and synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz. Common natural concentrations of halogens (Cl, Br, and I) and noble gases (Ar and Kr) in trapped groundwaters and hydrothermal fluids can be analyzed simultaneously by LMNGMS in as little as 10-11 L of inclusion fluid, with accuracy and precision to within 5-10% for element and isotope ratios. Multicomponent element and isotope correlations indicate contaminants or persistent reservoirs of excess Xe and/or unfractionated air in some synthetic and natural fluid inclusion samples. LMNGMS analyses of natural fluid inclusions using the methods and calibrations reported here may be used to obtain unique information on sources of fluids, sources of fluid salinity, mixing, boiling (or unmixing), and water-rock interactions in ancient fluid flow systems. ?? 1992.

Böhlke, J.K.; Irwin, J.J.

1992-01-01

488

Dissolution behavior of ?-cyclodextrin molecular inclusion complexes of aceclofenac  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) on the in vitro dissolution of aceclofenac (AF) from molecular inclusion complexes. Aceclofenac molecular inclusion complexes in 1:1 and 1:2 M ratio were prepared using a kneading method. The in vitro dissolution of pure drug, physical mixtures, and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was carried out. Molecular inclusion complexes of AF with ?-CD showed a considerable increase in the dissolution rate in comparison with the physical mixture and pure drug in 0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2, and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Inclusion complexes with a 1:2 M ratio showed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison to other ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated no interaction between AF and ?-CD in complexes in solid state. Molecular modeling results indicated the relative energetic stability of the ?-CD dimer-AF complex as compared to ?-CD monomer-AF. Dissolution enhancement was attributed to the formation of water soluble inclusion complexes with ?-CD. The in vitro release from all the formulations was best described by first-order kinetics (R2 = 0.9826 and 0.9938 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively) followed by the Higuchi release model (R2 = 0.9542 and 0.9686 in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer, respectively). In conclusion, the dissolution of AF can be enhanced by the use of a hydrophilic carrier like ?-CD. PMID:21966164

Dua, Kamal; Pabreja, Kavita; Ramana, M. V.; Lather, Vinny

2011-01-01

489

Inclusion body disease (herpesvirus infection) of falcons (IBDF).  

PubMed

Inclusion body disease of falcons (IBDF) is caused by a herpesvirus. The clinical course is short, 24 to 72 hours in duration, and is characterized by mild to severe depression and weakness often accompanied by anorexia. The disease is invariably fatal. The virus has a marked affinity for the reticuloendothelial system and hepatocytes,producing focal to diffuse necrosis of infected tissues accompanied by the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. The virus is pathogenic for American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in which typical lesions of IBDF are reproduced. The lesions of IBDF are similar to those produced by some herpesvirus infections in other avian species. PMID:163383

Graham, D L; Mare, C J; Ward, F P; Peckham, M C

1975-01-01

490

Gluon saturation and inclusive hadron production at LHC  

SciTech Connect

In high-density QCD the hadron production stems from decay of mini jets that have the transverse momenta of the order of the saturation scale. It is shown in this paper that this idea is able to describe in a unique fashion both the inclusive hadron production for {radical}(s){>=}546 GeV including the first data from LHC and the deep inelastic scattering at HERA. Recently reported data from ALICE, CMS, and ATLAS including inclusive charged-hadron transverse momentum and multiplicity distribution in pp collisions are well described in our approach. We provide predictions for the upcoming LHC measurements.

Levin, Eugene [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rezaeian, Amir H. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avenida Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

2010-07-01

491

Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World  

PubMed Central

Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

2015-01-01

492

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at D0  

E-print Network

We present a new preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in pp-bar collisions based on a integrated luminosity of about 0.8 fb-1. The data were acquired using the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. Jets are reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm with radius R_cone = 0.7. The inclusive jet cross section is presented as a function of transverse jet momentum and rapidity. Predictions from perturbative QCD in next-to-leading order, plus threshold corrections in 2-loop accuracy describe the shape in the transverse jet momentum.

M. Voutilainen

2006-09-15

493

Isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion study of skarns from Vesuvius  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present new mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion, stable carbon and oxygen, as well as Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope data of Ca-Mg-silicate-rich ejecta (skarns) and associated cognate and xenolithic nodules from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex, Italy. The typically zoned skarn ejecta consist mainly of diopsidic and hedenbergitic, sometimes "fassaitic" clinopyroxene, Mg-rich and Ti-poor phlogopite, F-bearing vesuvianite, wollastonite, gehlenite, meionite, forsterite, clinohumite, anorthite and Mg-poor calcite with accessory apatite, spinell, magnetite, perovskite, baddeleyite, and various REE-, U-, Th-, Zr- and Ti-rich minerals. Four major types of fluid inclusions were observed in wollastonite, vesuvianite, gehlenite, clinopyroxene and calcite: a) primary silicate melt inclusions (THOM = 1000-1050??C), b) CO2 ?? H2S-rich fluid inclusions (THOM = 20-31.3??C into the vapor phase), c) multiphase aqueous brine inclusions (THOM = 720-820??C) with mainly sylvite and halite daughter minerals, and d) complex chloride-carbonate-sulfate-fluoride-silicate-bearing saline-melt inclusions (THOM = 870-890??C). The last inclusion type shows evidence for immiscibility between several fluids (silicate melt - aqueous chloride-rich liquid - carbonate/sulfate melt?) during heating and cooling below 870??C. There is no evidence for fluid circulation below 700??C and participation of externally derived meteoric fluids in skarn formation. Skarns have considerably variable 206Pb/204Pb (19.047-19.202), 207Pb/204Pb (15.655-15.670), and 208Pb/204Pb (38.915-39.069) and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd (0.51211-0.51244) ratios. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of skarn calcites (??13CV-PDB = -5.4 to -1.1???; ??18OV-SMOW = 11.7 to 16.4???) indicate formation from a 18O- and 13C-enriched fluid. The isotope composition of skarns and the presence of silicate melt inclusion-bearing wollastonite nodules suggests assimilation of carbonate wall rocks by the alkaline magma at moderate depths (< 5 km) and consequent exsolution of CO2-rich vapor and complex saline melts from the contaminated magma that reacted with the carbonate rocks to form skarns.

Gilg, H.A.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Ayuso, R.A.

2001-01-01

494

Drag forces on inclusions in classical fields with dissipative dynamics  

E-print Network

We study the drag force on uniformly moving inclusions which interact linearly with dynamical free field theories commonly used to study soft condensed matter systems. Drag forces are shown to be nonlinear functions of the inclusion velocity and depend strongly on the field dynamics. The general results obtained can be used to explain drag forces in Ising systems and also predict the existence of drag forces on proteins in membranes due to couplings to various physical parameters of the membrane such as composition, phase and height fluctuations.

Vincent Demery; D. S. Dean

2010-04-01

495

Next-to-leading-order corrections to inclusive hadron photoproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete calculation of next-to-leading-order corrections to inclusive hadron photoproduction. We take into account all contributions from resolved and unresolved photons and apply the results to ?0 production at CERN LEP 2 as well as at the DESY ep collider HERA where we study in detail the scale dependence of the cross section. In addition compact analytical expressions for the matrix elements for all the direct contributions to both cross sections are presented. We also make a comparison with existing single tag data on inclusive charged hadron production.

Gordon, L. E.

1994-12-01

496

Inclusion type radiochromic gel dosimeter for threedimensional dose verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the verification of 3D dose distributions in modern radiation therapy, a new inclusion type radiochromic gel detector has been developed. In this gel, a hydrophobic leuco dye (leucomalachite green: LMG) was dissolved in water as an inclusion complex with highly branched cyclic dextrin. The radiation induced radical oxidation property of the LMG gel with various sensitizers was investigated. As a result, the optical dose responses were enhanced by the addition of bromoacetic acid and manganese (II) chloride. Unfavorable auto-oxidation of the gel was reduced when it was stored at 4°C.

Usui, Shuji; Yoshioka, Munenori; Hayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tominaga, Takahiro

2015-01-01

497

Inclusive inelastic scattering of heavy ions and nuclear correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of inclusive inelastic scattering distributions for heavy ion collisions are considered within the high energy optical model. Using ground state sum rules, the inclusive projectile and complete projectile-target inelastic angular distributions are treated in both independent particle and correlated nuclear models. Comparisons between the models introduced are made for alpha particles colliding with He-4, C-12, and O-16 targets and protons colliding with O-16. Results indicate that correlations contribute significantly, at small momentum transfers, to the inelastic sum. Correlation effects are hidden, however, when total scattering distributions are considered because of the dominance of elastic scattering at small momentum transfers.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.

1990-01-01

498

Inclusive Jet $A_{LL}$ Measurements at STAR  

E-print Network

We report STAR's preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet longitudinal spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ using data from the RHIC 2006 run. The 2006 data set was taken with 200 GeV polarized proton-proton collisions and represents 4.7 $pb^{-1}$ of data. Typical beam polarizations were $\\sim 55-60%$. The data are compared with theoretical calculations of $A_{LL}$ based on various GRSV models of the polarized parton distribution functions in the nucleon. Previous STAR inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ and cross section measurements are also presented, as is a discussion of constraints these data place on the allowed theoretical models.

David Staszak; for the STAR Collaboration

2008-05-20

499

Routes to Novel Azo compounds   

E-print Network

Routes to novel heterocyclic azo compounds and components of use as potential inkjet dyes were investigated. A new route to fluorenones from biphenyl acid chlorides using FVP (Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis) has been discovered. ...

Iannarelli, Paul M.

500

Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds  

DOEpatents

At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

Crabtree, Robert H. (Bethany, CT); Brown, Stephen H. (Princeton, NJ); Muedas, Cesar A. (New Haven, CT); Ferguson, Richard R. (Branford, CT)

1992-01-01