Sample records for a-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds

  1. Synthesis and surface grafting of a ?-cyclodextrin dimer facilitating cooperative inclusion of 2,6-ANS

    PubMed Central

    Städe, Lars W; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Duroux, Laurent; Wimmer, Reinhard; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) dimer was synthesized and surface-grafted by click chemistry onto azide-functionalized quartz surfaces in order to introduce the cooperative features of the ?-CD dimer to solid surfaces. Using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, it is shown that the free ?-CD dimer forms a 1:1 complex with the fluorescent guest molecule, 2-anilinonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (otherwise known not to form 1:2 complexes with parent ?-CD), with an apparent association constant of 7300 M?1. Further, it is shown using total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy that the inclusion of the fluorescent guest into both cavities of the ?-CD dimer is maintained when grafted onto a solid surface. PMID:25977726

  2. Intermolecular energy transfer of the spin-polarized triplet state in a ?-cyclodextrin cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Hisao; Mizunuma, Yasuhiro; Ashikawa, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; I'Haya, Yasumasa J.

    1988-03-01

    The triplet-triplet energy-transfer process from xanthone to naphthalene was studied in a ?-cyclodextrin system at 77 K using a time-resolved ESR method. The efficient inclusion of these two molecules and the formation of a fixed configuration between them in a ?-cyclodextrin cavity were found with the aid of spin polarization transfer.

  3. Spectroscopic investigation of the three prototropic forms of a ?-cyclodextrin-indolizine derivative from its inclusion-cum-charge-transfer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bankim Chandra; Deb, Nipamanjari; Becuwe, Matthieu; Fourmentin, Sophie; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2011-02-01

    By absorption and fluorescence (steady state and time-resolved) studies, three prototropic forms of (N-6-deoxy-?-cyclodextrin-6-yl-1-aminocarbonyl)-3-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-7-pyridine-4-yl indolizine, (1) have been established and shown to be a potential fluorescent pH sensor with switching action. Inclusion complexes of (1) with a number of quinones have been shown to exhibit charge transfer (CT) spectra in aqueous medium and variation of such spectra with change in pH yield the proton affinity of the biologically important indolizine moiety. Förster cycle reveals that in the excited state indolizine moiety has a greater proton affinity. The nature of the CT transitions (whether n-donor-?-acceptor or ?-donor-?-acceptor) has been experimentally ascertained.

  4. High-field EPR of irradiated inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segre, Ulderico; Brustolon, Marina; Brunel, Louis Claude; Maniero, Anna Lisa

    1999-07-01

    High-field EPR can be successfully used to study the dynamics of guest molecules in inclusion compounds. A radical guest has been obtained by ?-irradiation of the inclusion compound nonadecan-10-one in perhydrotriphenylene. The rotational motion of the radicals inside the host channels is fast and the relaxation effect on the X-band EPR line shapes is small. The line widths of the W-band EPR spectra (108 GHz) are significantly larger since the molecular rotation modulates the g-tensor of the radical. Analysis of the relaxation effects shows that the X-band and W-band EPR are complementary. The former gives the maximum information at low temperature, while the latter is useful at higher temperatures.

  5. Inclusion compound based approach to arrays of artificial dipolar molecular rotors: bulk inclusions.

    PubMed

    Kobr, Lukáš; Zhao, Ke; Shen, Yongqiang; Polívková, Kate?ina; Shoemaker, Richard K; Clark, Noel A; Price, John C; Rogers, Charles T; Michl, Josef

    2013-03-01

    We examine the insertion of two dipolar molecular rotors as guests into a host, tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazine (TPP, 1), using differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and dielectric spectroscopy. The rotors are 1-(4'-n-pentylbiphenyl-4-yl)-12-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-p-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane and 1,12-bis(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-p-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane. Both enter the bulk even though their nominal diameter exceeds the nominal channel diameter and although a closely related rotor, 1-n-hexadecyl-12-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-p-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane, is known to produce a surface inclusion compound. Rotational barriers of 5.4-9.3 kcal/mol were found for the dichlorophenyl rotator contained within the TPP channel. Clearly, van der Waals diameters in themselves do not suffice to predict TPP channel entry. It is suggested that the efficacy of the p-carborane stopper is reduced by the presence of the two relatively bulky adjacent benzene rings, which help to stretch the channel, and by the axial direction of its axis, which prevents the attached rotator from contributing to the stopping action. PMID:22780697

  6. The Potential for Improving Medical Textiles with Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Tonelli

    Cyclodextrins (CDs), 1,4 -?-linked cyclic starches containing 6 (?-CD), 7 (?-CD), and 8 (?-CD) glucose units, are water soluble molecular bracelets, with hydrophobic interiors and hydrophilic exteriors. They are widely known for their ability to serve as hosts in the formation of both soluble and solid crystalline inclusion complexes (ICs) with a large variety of non-covalently included guest molecules. Recently

  7. Fragrance-release Property of &bgr;Cyclodextrin Inclusion Compounds and their Application in Aromatherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Wang; Sh. L. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Fragrance compounds and essential oils are chosen carefully taking advantage of research works in aromatherapy. Considering their volatile nature, the fragrance molecules have to be formed as inclusion compounds with cyclodextrin molecules in order to retain fragrances for a long time. To prepare aromatherapeutic textiles, &bgr;-cyclodextrin is the first choice as the host molecule, because &bgr;-cyclodextrin molecules are capable of

  8. Nano-Saturn: Theoretical design of new C60 inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kigure, Shota; Okada, Susumu

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate a nanoscale model of Saturn consisting of C60 and [24]circulene (nano-Saturn) as a novel inclusion compound based on first-principles total-energy calculations using density functional theory. We found that nano-Saturn is energetically stable compared with other known C60 inclusion compounds. Furthermore, the formation reaction of nano-Saturn is exothermic with an energy gain of 0.5 eV per molecule. The electronic structure of nano-Saturn possesses complex structure because of the deep lowest unoccupied state of C60.

  9. [Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzader, Carolyn, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This special newsletter issue on inclusion of students with disabilities includes the following articles: "Inclusion: A Responsible Approach" (Harley A. Tomey, III); "Research Base Limited on Effects of Inclusion" (Thomas P. Lombardi); "Research Supports Inclusion for Physically Disabled--Vocational Ed Prevents Dropping Out"; "National Survey…

  10. Application of MOOT to scattering of elastic waves from compound inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how MOOT (method of optimal truncation, a convergent T-matrix scheme) can be used to calculate elastic wave scattering from compound inclusions, i.e., inclusions which themselves contain flaws - inclusions, voids, or cracks. The general equations are derived, and they are solved for a particular axially-symmetric case - a cracked spherical inclusion immersed in fluid. The crack edge is a circle on the equatorial plane; the crack can extend either inward to the center or outward to the surface of the sphere. Numerical results are given for scattering of acoustic waves from cracked spheres of various materials. Cracked spheres can be fabricated relatively easily, and may be useful in NDE calibrations.

  11. Synthesis and spectral investigation of Al(III) catechin/?-cyclodextrin and Al(III) quercetin/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Karina; Nikolaou, Sofia; De Giovani, Wagner F.

    2008-06-01

    Al-catechin/?-cyclodextrin and Al-quercetin/?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) inclusion compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR and TG and DTA analyses. Because quercetin is sparingly soluble in water, the stability constants of the Al-quercetin/?-CD and Al-catechin/?-CD compounds were determined by phase solubility studies. The A L-type diagrams indicated the formation of 1:1 inclusion compounds and allowed calculation of the stability constants. The thermodynamic parameters were obtained from the dependence of the stability constants on temperature and results indicated that the formation of the inclusion compounds is an enthalpically driven process. The thermal decomposition of the solid Al-quercetin/?-CD and Al-catechin/?-CD inclusion compounds took place at different stages, compared with the respective precursors, proving that an inclusion complexation process really occurred.

  12. A new sprout inhibitor of potato tuber based on carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Costa E Silva; C. I. C. Galhano; A. M. G. Moreira Da Silva

    2007-01-01

    A monoterpene, D-carvone or (4S)-(+)-carvone, present in the essential oil of caraway seeds (Carum carvi L.), acts as a sprouting inhibitor agent for potato tubers in storage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the\\u000a possibility of using carvone\\/?-cyclodextrin inclusion compound as a sprout inhibitor agent for potato tubers. A Raman study\\u000a of the interactions between ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)

  13. Reorganization of PET via Coalescence form It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with gamma-Cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Wei; Todd A. Bullions; Alan E. Tonelli

    2002-01-01

    Bulk PET samples have been produced by the coalescence of their segregated,extended chains from the narrow channels of the crystalline inclusion compound (IC) formed between gamma-cyclodextrin (CD) host and the PET guest. DSC, FTIR, TGA, and X-ray observations of PET samples coalesced from their crystalline gamma-CD-IC suggest structures and morphologies that are different from samples obtained by ordinary solution and

  14. Physicochemical and molecular modeling studies of cefixime-L-arginine-cyclodextrin ternary inclusion compounds.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Priyanka; Petkar, Bhushan; Pore, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Anita; Burade, Kishorkumar

    2013-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the physicochemical properties of cefixime (CEF), its supramolecular inclusion compounds were prepared with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) in presence and/or absence of ternary component L-arginine (ARG) using spray drying technique. Initially, the phase solubility studies revealed a stoichiometry of 1:1 molar ratio with an AL-type of phase solubility curve. The stability constants of binary systems were remarkably improved in presence of ARG, indicating positive effect of its addition. The inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, XRPD, DSC, SEM, particle size analysis, and dissolution studies. Further, molecular mechanic (MM) calculations were performed to investigate the possible orientations of CEF inside ?CD cavity in presence and/or absence of ternary component. In case of physicochemical studies, the ternary systems performed well as a result of comprehensive effect of ternary complexation and particle size reduction achieved by a spray drying technology. PMID:24053809

  15. Study of the Inclusion Compound Formed between a Luminescent Europium(III) ? -Diketonate Complex and ? Cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana S. Braga; Rute A. Sá Ferreira; Isabel S. Gonçalves; Paulo Ribeiro-Claro; Martyn Pillinger; Joäo Rocha; José J. C. Teixeira-Dias; Luís D. Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A 1 : 1 inclusion compound between ?-CD and the tris chelate complex Eu(NTA)3·2H2O [NTA = 1-(2-naphthoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoroacetone)] was prepared and characterized in the solid-state by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, 13C CP MAS NMR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Possible host-guest interaction geometries were generated from ab initio calculations. The photoluminescence results reveal the presence of a metal-to-ligand energy transfer that

  16. Structure of and hydrogen bonding in a 3:2 inclusion compound of N-methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride with acetonitrile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Dega-Szafran; M. Szafran; A. Antkowiak; M. Grundwald-Wyspianska; E. Nowak; M. Gdaniec; Z. Kosturkiewicz

    2002-01-01

    N-Methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride (MMB·HCl) forms a 3:2 inclusion compound with acetonitrile. The crystal structure of the compound has been determined at 100K from a twinned crystal to be trigonal with the space group P3; a=b=16.767(2), c=6.996(1)A?,?=120°. The host framework is constructed from the ionic pairs formed by the chlorine anion and the protonated, at the carboxylate group, betaine cation. The

  17. Molecular Inclusion Properties of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds by a Modified ?-Cyclodextrin Intercalated within a Layered Double Hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongting Zhao; George F. Vance

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion properties of various nonionic hydrophobic organic compounds by a novel intercalate derived from magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg\\/Al LDH) and carboxymethyl-ß-cyclodextrin with a degree of substitution of 3 [CMCD(3)]. The isotherm sorption results at 25 °C showed that the CMCD(3)-Mg\\/Al LDH intercalate could retain all the organic compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene,

  18. Hydrogen-Bonded Metal-Complex Sulfonate (MCS) Inclusion Compounds: Effect of the Guest Molecule on the Host Framework

    E-print Network

    Hydrogen-Bonded Metal-Complex Sulfonate (MCS) Inclusion Compounds: Effect of the Guest Molecule as pillars. The hydrogen-bonded MCS layers and the orientations of the pillars adjust and rearrange in order-bonding needs of the guest molecules mold the soft framework into different structures. These MCS host

  19. Reorganization of PET via Coalescence form It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with gamma-Cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Min; Bullions, Todd A.; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2002-03-01

    Bulk PET samples have been produced by the coalescence of their segregated,extended chains from the narrow channels of the crystalline inclusion compound (IC) formed between gamma-cyclodextrin (CD) host and the PET guest. DSC, FTIR, TGA, and X-ray observations of PET samples coalesced from their crystalline gamma-CD-IC suggest structures and morphologies that are different from samples obtained by ordinary solution and melt processing techniques. Coalesced PET is also semi-crystalline and evidences a Tm only marginally elevated from that of typical bulk or solution crystallized samples. However, after melting the coalesced PET sample, it appears difficult to quench the resultant PET "melt" into the usual amorphous,glassy PET, with a Tg 80 C. Instead, the coalesced PET "melt" is observed to rapidly recrystallize during the attempted quench, and so upon reheating evidences no Tg nor a crystallization exotherm at Tc, but simply re-melts at the as-coalesced Tm. This behavior is unaffected by holding the coalesced PET sample above Tm for 2 or more hours, indicating that the highly extended,unentangled character of the PET chains in the PET-gamma-CD-IC crystals is at least partially retained in the amorphous regions of the coalesced PET. It was also possible to determine the predominant conformations of the PET chains in the amorphous regions of the coalesced sample by analyzing the FTIR spectra of as-received, solution-cast, and coalesced PET samples in light of the conformations available to randomly-coiling and highly-extended PET chains.

  20. 1H NMR study of inclusion compounds of phenylurea derivatives in ?-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, N.; Barbry, D.; Bria, M.; Marquis, S.; Vrielynck, L.; Kister, J.

    2005-04-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR), which has become an important tool for the study "in situ" of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) complexes, was used to study and structurally characterize the inclusion complexes formed between ?-CD and isoproturon, fenuron, monuron and diuron. The high variation of the chemical shifts from the proton located inside the cavity (H-3, H-5 and H-6) coupled with the non variation of the one located outer sphere of the ?-CD (H-1, H-2 and H-4) provided clear evidence of the inclusion phenomena. Two-dimensional rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were carried out to further support the proposed inclusion mode.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution behavior of nicardipine–cyclodextrins inclusion compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina M Fernandes; M Teresa Vieira; Francisco J B. Veiga

    2002-01-01

    Inclusion complexation between nicardipine hydrochloride (NC), a calcium-channel antagonist, and ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) or hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was evaluated in aqueous environment and in solid state. The phase solubility profiles with both cyclodextrins (CDs) were classified as AL-type, indicating the formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Stability constants (Ks) were calculated from the phase solubility diagrams and were found to be pH

  2. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  3. 1H NMR study of inclusion compounds of phenylurea derivatives in ?-cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Dupuy; D. Barbry; M. Bria; S. Marquis; L. Vrielynck; J. Kister

    2005-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), which has become an important tool for the study “in situ” of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) complexes, was used to study and structurally characterize the inclusion complexes formed between ?-CD and isoproturon, fenuron, monuron and diuron. The high variation of the chemical shifts from the proton located inside the cavity (H-3, H-5 and H-6) coupled

  4. Structure of and hydrogen bonding in a 3:2 inclusion compound of N-methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride with acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Szafran, M.; Antkowiak, A.; Grundwald-Wyspianska, M.; Nowak, E.; Gdaniec, M.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.

    2002-03-01

    N-Methylmorpholine betaine hydrochloride (MMB·HCl) forms a 3:2 inclusion compound with acetonitrile. The crystal structure of the compound has been determined at 100 K from a twinned crystal to be trigonal with the space group Poverline3; a= b=16.767(2), c=6.996(1) Å, ?=120°. The host framework is constructed from the ionic pairs formed by the chlorine anion and the protonated, at the carboxylate group, betaine cation. The cation and anion are joined by the O-H⋯Cl - hydrogen bond of the length 2.974(2) Å and angle 173(3)°. The guest molecules are included in two kinds of channels formed in the host matrix. The narrow channel runs parallel to the z axis at x=2/3, y=1/3 and is filled with acetonitrile molecules situated at the three-fold axis. The second channel, also parallel to the z axis, joins large cavities with the center at 0,0,1/2 of overline3 symmetry. The cavity accommodates two guest molecules which exhibit disorder in the crystal. There are only van der Waals interactions between the host and the guest. FTIR spectra of MMB·HCl and its deuterated analog have been discussed.

  5. Host-guest inclusion compound from nitramine crystals exposed to condensed carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Saint Martin, Sabine; Marre, Samuel; Guionneau, Philippe; Cansell, François; Renouard, Joel; Marchetto, Virginie; Aymonier, Cyril

    2010-12-01

    HNIW or CL20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a nitramine, which is considered as the highest energetic molecular compound known to date, therefore, attracting increasing interest in propulsion applications. Additionally, CL20 is an interesting system for fundamental studies, exhibiting several polymorphs, which can behave as host lattices for trapping guest molecules. Herein, a new CL20 structure that contains inserted CO(2) molecules is reported. A combination of Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and thermal analyses (thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry) was used to characterize this new material. PMID:20938939

  6. How the inclusion of treated water in beverages influences the appearance of halogenated volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Isabel; Gallego, Mercedes

    2014-10-22

    A simple, robust, and reliable headspace gas chromatography method has been developed for the determination of 14 halogenated volatile organic compounds, including iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs), at nanogram per liter levels in beverages. The main source of the presence of THMs in reconstituted fruit juices, nectars, and soft drinks is the treated water included as an ingredient; the concentration and speciation depend on the volume and disinfection process of the treated water either from the distribution network or from water directly disinfected by the food factory. Chloroform appears at concentrations below 1 ?g/L in natural juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water due to contamination from the chlorinated sanitizers usually employed in the food industry. However, the beverages manufactured with treated water contain, in addition to chloroform, brominated THMs and dichloroiodomethane (detected in beverages for the first time), which can be used as indicators of the presence of treated water. PMID:25255208

  7. Urea Inclusion Compound-Based Fractionation for the Eco-Friendly Purification of Ethyl Ferulate in a Bio-Based Sunscreen Product Stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea inclusion compound (UIC)-based fractionation of free fatty acids (FFA) has been employed for over 50 years on both analytical and preparative scales. This approach, which fractionates lipids, mainly based on their degree of saturation, has potential value as a large-scale and continuous-mode p...

  8. The guest ordering and dynamics in urea inclusion compounds studied by solid-state 1H and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Müller, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Urea inclusion compounds with different guest species were studied by 13C CP MAS and 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. It is possible to arrange the asymmetric guest species in three different ways: head-head, head-tail and tail-tail. 13C CP MAS NMR studies indicate that the preference arrangement is determined by the interaction strength of the end functional groups. 13C relaxation experiments are used to study the dynamic properties of urea inclusion compounds. 13C relaxation studies on urea inclusion compounds with n-alkane or decanoic acid show that the 13C T1 and 13C T1? values exhibit the position dependence towards the center of the chain, indicating internal chain mobility. The analysis of variable-temperature 13C T1? experiments on urea inclusion compounds with hexadecane and pentadecane, for the first time, suggests that chain fluctuations and lateral motion of n-alkane guests may contribute to the 13C T1? relaxation.

  9. A cyclodextrin dimer as a supramolecular reaction platform for aqueous organometallic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Blaszkiewicz, Claire; Bricout, Hervé; Léonard, Estelle; Len, Christophe; Landy, David; Cézard, Christine; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Monflier, Eric; Tilloy, Sébastien

    2013-08-11

    A reaction platform based on a cyclodextrin dimer, which is able to simultaneously include a substrate in one cavity and an organometallic catalyst into the other, proved to be highly efficient for aqueous hydroformylation reaction of higher olefins. PMID:23804025

  10. Phase Structure and Properties of a Biodegradable Block Copolymer Coalesced from It's Crystalline Inclusion Compound Formed with alpha-Cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Xintao; Wei, Min; Probeni, Francis; Bullions, Todd A.; Shin, I. Daniel; Tonelli, Alan E.

    2002-03-01

    A well-defined biodegradable block copolymer of poly(epsilon caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized and characterized and then included as a guest in an inclusion compound (IC) formed with the host alpha-cyclodextrin (CD). The PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was subsequently coalesced from it's CD-IC crystals by either treatment with hot water (50 C) or an aqueous amylase solution at 25 C. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was examined by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXD and was found to be much more homogeneosly organized, with much less segregation and crystallinity of the PCL and PLLA microphases. The morpholgy, crystallization kinetics, thermal behavior, and biodegradability of the coalesced PCL-b-PLLA block copolymer was studied by comparison to similar observations made on as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA, PCL and PLLA homopolymers, and their solution-cast blend. The PCL and PLLA blocks are found to be more intimately mixed, with less phase segregation, in the coalesced diblock copolymer, and this leads to homogeneous bulk crystallization, which is not observed for the as-synthesized diblock copolymer. The coalesced PCL-b-PLLA was also found to be more quickly biodegraded (lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus)than the as-synthesized PCL-b-PLLA or the physical blend of PCL and PLLA homopolymers. Overall, the coalescence of the inherently phase segregated diblock copolymer PCL-b-PLLA results in a small amount of compact, chain-extended PCL and PLLA crystals embedded in an amorphous phase, largely consisting of well-mixed PCL and PLLA blocks. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to control the morpholgy of a biodegradable diblock copolymer, thereby significantly modifying it's properties, by coalescence from it's CD-IC crystals.

  11. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  12. Development of Improved Empirical Models for Estimating the Binding Constant of a ?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Chari; Farooq Qureshi; John Moschera; Ralph Tarantino; Devendra Kalonia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To develop empirical models for predicting the binding between a drug and ?-cyclodextrin. Specifically, the logarithm of the\\u000a 1:1 binding constant is expressed as the function of various molecular descriptors of the drug. Many potential drugs exhibit\\u000a poor aqueous solubility. Also, the amount available for solubility studies is limited early in drug development. Thus, models\\u000a that show which excipients can

  13. Crystal Structures of Aripiprazole, a New Antipsychotic Drug, and of its Inclusion Compounds with Methanol, Ethanol and Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Limor Tessler; Israel Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    Aripiprazole, 7-[4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]butoxy]-3,4-dihydrocarbostyril, is an important new neuroleptic drug\\u000a used in the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychoses. This study elucidates its detailed molecular structure and two\\u000a preferred conformational forms, and relates to the solvates of this compound when crystallized from different environments.\\u000a The latter is associated with the hydrogen-bonding capacity of aripiprazole through the piperazinyl and dihydrocarbostyril\\u000a functions. Four unique

  14. A cyclodextrin host-guest recognition approach to an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Noori, Abolhassan

    2011-08-15

    An electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) using a ?-cyclodextrin/poly(N-acetylaniline)/carbon nanotube composite modified carbon paste electrode has been developed. Synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in addition to the pre-concentrating effect of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as well as its different inclusion complex stability with 5-HT and DA was used to construct an electrochemical sensor for quantification of these important neurotransmitters. The overlapping anodic peaks of 5-HT and DA at 428 mV on bare electrode resolved in two well-defined voltammetric peaks at 202 and 363 mV vs. Ag/AgCl respectively. The oxidation mechanism of 5-HT and DA on the surface of the electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and it was found that the electrode processes are pH dependent and electrochemical oxidation of 5-HT is totally irreversible while the electrode gave a more reversible process to DA. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of about 4-200 ?M with a detection limits down to sub-?M levels (S/N=3) after 20-s accumulation, for both. The proposed sensor was shown to be remarkably selective for 5-HT and DA in matrices containing different species including ascorbic acid and uric acid. The suitability of the developed method was tested for the determination of 5-HT and DA in the Randox Synthetic Plasma samples and acceptable recoveries were obtained for a set of spiked samples. PMID:21715153

  15. Luminescent supramolecular architectures: A cyclodextrin modified with a europium(III) crown swing

    SciTech Connect

    Pikramenou, Z.; Nocera, D.G. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-02-19

    A new photoactive supramolecular assembly featuring a cyclodextrin modified with a Eu{sup 3+} {contained in} aza crown ether has been prepared. The authors report the complete characterization of the crown-modified cyclodextrin as well as the synthesis and photophysical properties when Eu{sup 3+} occupies the aza receptor site. The luminescence properties of the cyclodextrin appended with Eu{sup 3+} {contained in} aza mimic that of the simple Eu{sup 3+} {contained in} aza complex. However, enhanced europium emission is observed upon the introduction of benzene to solutions of the supramolecular assembly. They attribute this enhancement to an absorption-energy-transfer-emission process from benzene in the cavity of cyclodextrin to Eu{sup 3+} ion residing in the appended aza macrocycle.

  16. Enhanced mineralization of diuron using a cyclodextrin-based bioremediation technology.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Jaime; Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Rubio-Bellido, Marina; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sanchez-Trujillo, María A; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2012-10-10

    The phenylurea herbicide diuron [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethylurea] is widely used in a broad range of herbicide formulations and, consequently, it is frequently detected as a major soil and water contaminant in areas where there is extensive use. Diuron has the unfortunate combination of being strongly adsorbed by soil organic matter particles and, hence, slowly degraded in the environment due to its reduced bioavailability. N-Phenylurea herbicides seem to be biodegraded in soil, but it must be kept in mind that this biotic or abiotic degradation could lead to accumulation of very toxic derived compounds, such as 3,4-dichloroaniline. Research was conducted to find procedures that might result in an increase in the bioavailability of diuron in contaminated soils, through solubility enhancement. For this purpose a double system composed of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), which is capable of forming inclusion complexes in solution, and a two-member bacterial consortium formed by the diuron-degrading Arthrobacter sulfonivorans (Arthrobacter sp. N2) and the linuron-degrading Variovorax soli (Variovorax sp. SRS16) was used. This consortium can achieve a complete biodegradation of diuron to CO2 with regard to that observed in the absence of the CD solution, where only a 45% biodegradation was observed. The cyclodextrin-based bioremediation technology here described shows for the first time an almost complete mineralization of diuron in a soil system, in contrast to previous incomplete mineralization based on single or consortium bacterial degradation. PMID:22985203

  17. Dyeing and antibacterial activation with methylene blue of a cyclodextrin modified polyester vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Kacem, I; Laurent, T; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Chai, F; Haulon, S; Hildebrand, H F; Martel, B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an antiseptic and blue dyed polyester (PET) vascular graft in order to reach two distinct properties: (i) the prevention of postoperative infections, (ii) the improvement of the graft compatibility with the coelioscopy surgical technique. This work consisted of dyeing a vascular prosthesis with methylene blue (MB) which is known as a cationic dye with antiseptic properties. Therefore, the functionalization of the PET fibers of the prosthesis with a cyclodextrin-citric acid polymer (PolyCD) was achieved in order to improve its sorption capacity. The NMR experiments demonstrated that a 1:2 complex occurred between hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP-?CD) and MB. Kinetic and sorption isotherm studies showed that an impregnation of the polyCD modified prosthesis (PET-CD) in a 1 g L(-1) of MB solution for 150 min was sufficient to reach the saturation of the device. Results proved that the adsorption mechanism followed the Langmuir model and a maximum of 20 mg g(-1) of MB on the graft. A sustained release of MB in batch tests was observed in PBS and in vitro microbiological assays displayed a prolongation of the bactericidal effect of PET-CD whose extent varied with the amount of MB preliminarily adsorbed onto the PET-CD. PMID:24123800

  18. Inclusive tourism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Münch; Rebecca Ulrich

    \\u000a ‘Inclusive Tourism’ is often referred to as ‘Accessible Tourism’ or even ‘Disabled Tourism’. Disabled people were used to\\u000a be and still are partially excluded from the leisure activities offered to people without mobility problems. Therefore accessible\\u000a tourism is about making it easy for all people, irrespective of their gender, age or physical status, to enjoy tourism experiences.\\u000a It is a

  19. AC-conductivity and Raman spectra of polyiodide inclusion compounds (?-cyclodextrin)2·KI7·16H2O and (?-cyclodextrin)2·LiI7·14H2O during the dehydration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, John C.; Charalampopoulos, Vasileios G.; Xynogalas, Pantelis; Viras, Kyriakos

    2006-07-01

    The frequency and temperature dependence of ac-conductivity and phase shift of polycrystalline inclusion compounds (?-CD)2·KI7·16H2O and (?-CD)2·LiI7·14H2O (?-CD=?-cyclodextrin) has been investigated over the frequency and temperature ranges of 0 100 kHz and 240 420 K. A Raman spectroscopic study and calorimetric measurements are also accomplished. The Arrhenius exponential behaviour ?=?0exp(-E/2KT) of the ac-conductivity for T>275 K is caused by the contribution of the metal cations K+, Li+. This contribution is facilitated by the water-net via the Grotthuss mechanism. The ac conductivity starts deviating from the exponential behaviour with lower increasing rate, at 347 K for ?-K and at 353 K for ?-Li reaching a maximum value at 371.1 and 361.8 K, respectively, and then decreases rapidly due to the gradual removal of all the water molecules. The values 371.1 and 361.8 K are characterized as semiconductor to metal transition temperatures. The shift of the initial Raman peak at 179 cm-1 to the final value 165 cm-1 as the temperature increases reveals the lengthening of I2 units via a charge transfer interaction in I-7 units. A second topical maximum value of conductivity appears at 399.7 K for ?-K and 403 K for ?-Li, attributed to the sublimation of I2.

  20. Making Excellence Inclusive Biennial Inclusive Excellence

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Karsten

    Making Excellence Inclusive 2nd Biennial Inclusive Excellence Statewide Summit Friday, April 20://www.events.unh.edu/RegistrationForm.pm?event_id=9620 For more information contact Janice Pierson at UNH, Office of Inclusive Excellence, 603 to Action: Overview of NH Inclusive Excellence Initiative, and Creating Opportunities for Broadening

  1. Exploring flubendazole formulations for use in sheep. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a cyclodextrin-based solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a poor water solubility broad-spectrum BZD methylcarbamate anthelmintic compound. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are usually used to increase aqueous solubility of poor hydrosoluble compounds. The comparative in vitro aqueous solubility of FLBZ and other BZD anthelmintics in the presence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) was evaluated in the current work. Additionally, the comparative pharmacokinetic behaviour of FLBZ (and its metabolites) administered by the intraruminal (i.r.) or intraabomasal (i.a.) routes to sheep as either an aqueous CDs-based solution or a conventional carboximethylcellulose (CMC) suspension was assessed. Drug solubility studies involving albendazole, mebendazole, oxfendazole and FLBZ were performed in an aqueous solution (pH 1.2 or 7.4) with or without HP?CD (10%, w/v). The pharmacokinetic study involved two experiments. Experiment 1: In a crossover study, sheep received either a FLBZ-CDs solution (n = 3) or a FLBZ-CMC suspension (n = 3) by the i.r. route (3.8?mg/kg). The treatment Groups were reversed after a 21-days washout period. Experiment 2: sheep (n = 4) were treated by the i.a. route with the FLBZ-CDs solution (3.8?mg/kg). Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were collected between 0 and 72?h post-treatment. Samples were analysed by HPLC. Results Improvement of FLBZ aqueous solubility due to CDs resulted markedly higher than that observed for mebendazole and albendazole. However, oppositely to what was expected, the absorption-related pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any marked formulation-dependant effect. After the i.a. administration of FLBZ, the AUC and the Tmax of the parent compound were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, which is consistent with ruminal bypass. Conclusion The administration of FLBZ as a CDs-based solution, does not seem to achieve great practical relevance for parasite control in sheep. PMID:22640491

  2. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  3. Supporting Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Gianna

    2006-01-01

    Written to support all teaching and learning staff in developing good inclusive practice, this book provides knowledge and understanding about a range of inclusion issues, such as what an inclusive school might look like and practical guidance on supporting the development of such a school. It also explores issues surrounding: (1) Ethnicity; (2)…

  4. [Inclusive Recreation and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyne, Linda A., Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This feature issue focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies…

  5. Highly photoresponsive monolayer-protected gold clusters by self-assembly of a cyclodextrin-azobenzene-derived supramolecular complex.

    PubMed

    Callari, Fiorella; Petralia, Salvatore; Sortino, Salvatore

    2006-03-01

    Reversibly-photoswitchable gold nanoparticles containing azobenzene and exhibiting a light response "virtually identical" to that of the free chromophore were achieved by self-assembling a host-guest inclusion complex between alpha-cyclodextrin and an azobenzene-terminated alkanethiol in an aqueous medium. PMID:16491192

  6. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  7. Handbook for Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar, Carol A.; West, Lynda L.

    This manual is intended to help regular and special educators and related professionals to better serve special learners in inclusive settings through identifying practical strategies for the classroom and school, and techniques for overcoming barriers to inclusion. The manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The first chapter addresses…

  8. Resources on Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulgin, Kathy, Ed.

    This information packet is intended for use by teachers, parents, administrators, therapists, advocates, and others interested in achieving inclusive educational opportunities for students with disabilities. Part I provides reprints of selected readings, including: "Sample Case Studies of Inclusive Education" (Janet Duncan); "Public Schools…

  9. Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the theme of inclusion. Inclusion is one of the themes within the recent Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) publication: "Engaging mathematics for all learners" and the author had the good fortune to participate in this project. This involved working with five schools which, frivolously, all had a…

  10. Stochastic evolution inclusions 

    E-print Network

    Bocharov, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with an evolution inclusion of a form, in a triple of spaces \\V -> H -> V*", where U is a continuous non-decreasing process, M is a locally square-integrable martingale and the operators A ...

  11. Inclusive fitness in evolution.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Regis; Michod, Richard E

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. For over fifty years, the evolution of social behaviour has been guided by the concept of inclusive fitness as a measure of evolutionary success. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness should be abandoned. In so doing, however, they misrepresent the role that inclusive fitness has played in the theory of social evolution by which understanding social behaviour in a variety of disciplines has developed and flourished. By discarding inclusive fitness on the basis of its limitations, they create a conceptual tension which, we argue, is unnecessary, and potentially dangerous for evolutionary biology. PMID:21430724

  12. Normalizing Difference in Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglieri,Susan; Knopf,Janice H.

    2004-01-01

    Inclusion practices and special education can be transformed by using a disability studies perspective, which constructs differences as natural, acceptable, and ordinary. Although inclusion is a moral imperative in promoting social justice, some inclusive practices continue to marginalize students with disabilities. A truly inclusive school…

  13. Structure of an inclusive compound of bis(piperidinium-4-carboxylate)hydrogen semi-tartrate with water and methanol studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, FTIR and DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Fojud, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2009-06-01

    The complex consisting of two piperidine-4-carboxylic acid, L-tartaric acid, water and methanol molecules has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, 1H, 13C NMR, 13C CP MAS NMR, FTIR spectra and DFT calculations. The title complex is composed of the following units: piperidinium-4-carboxylate (P4C), piperidinium-4-carboxylic acid (P4CH), semi-tartrate anion (TA), water and methanol; it crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1. TA anions form infinite chains through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.503(5) Å. The zwitterionic P4C molecules are linked by the N +H···OOC hydrogen bond of 2.780(5) Å into chains. The P4CH cation is a bridge between the TA and P4C chains. P4CH and P4C form a homoconjugated cation through the COOH···OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.559(5) Å. Water interacts with TA and P4CH, while methanol interacts only with water. In the optimized molecule of the (P4C) 2H·TA·H 2O·HOCH 3 complex, the components form a cyclic oligomer through four O-H···O and four N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra elucidate the structure of the title complex in the aqueous solution. The 13C CP MAS NMR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The FTIR spectrum confirms a very complex structure of the title compound.

  14. High temperature behavior of metallic inclusions in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.L.

    1980-08-01

    The object of this thesis was to construct a temperature gradient furnace to simulate the thermal conditions in the reactor fuel and to study the migration of metallic inclusions in uranium oxide under the influence of temperature gradient. No thermal migration of molybdenum and tungsten inclusions was observed under the experimental conditions. Ruthenium inclusions, however, dissolved and diffused atomically through grain boundaries in slightly reduced uranium oxide. An intermetallic compound (probably URu/sub 3/) was formed by reaction of Ru and UO/sub 2-x/. The diffusivity and solubility of ruthenium in uranium oxide were measured.

  15. Inclusion Body Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders that share many similarities. These include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing myopathy (NM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Inclusion body myositis is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy after age 50 and it presents with chronic proximal leg and distal arm asymmetric mucle weakness. Despite similarities with PM, it is likely that IBM is primarily a degenerative disorder rather than an inflammatory muscle disease. Inclusion body myositis is associated with a modest degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and an abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy with some chronicity. The muscle histopathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often times accompanied by rimmed vacuoles. In this chapter, we review sporadic IBM. We also examine past, essentially negative, clinical trials in IBM and review ongoing clinical trials. For further details on DM, PM, and NM, the reader is referred to the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies chapter. PMID:23117948

  16. Optimization of inclusive fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Grafen

    2006-01-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be

  17. Social Justice and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hnatuk, Tyler; Sayeed, Rashaad

    2005-01-01

    In this article, two university students, Tyler Hnatuk and Rashaad Sayeed share their experience with education in an inclusive school and how that experience taught them about building a society for all. By sharing their story of a "youth partnership" they hope to enable others to be active in their communities and in their education.

  18. Education for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Poverty can be both a consequence of, and contributory factor to, educational exclusion. This paper argues that poverty and exclusion are multidimensional. They require a multisectoral and multilevel approach in education if the most vulnerable sectors of society are to benefit from initiatives to turn exclusion into inclusion. This paper also…

  19. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  20. Correlation of heat of formation data for organic sulfur compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. McCullough; W. D. Good

    1961-01-01

    The method of Allen was used to correlate unpublished and recently published Bureau of Mines results for the heats of formation of organic sulfur compounds. Six parameters were evaluated from data for 25 acyclic alkane thiols, sulfides and disulfides. With the inclusion of appropriate strain energies, the results for seven cyclic sulfur compounds also were correlated. For all 32 compounds,

  1. Inclusion. Inclusive ECCD: A Fair Start for All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Young children with special needs should be served within inclusive early childhood programs. Quality Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs provide a model to use when developing inclusive programs for children of all ages. This theme issue of "Coordinator's Notebook" focuses on the development of inclusive ECCD programs. The…

  2. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MDA Partners in Progress Search form Search Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal history, ...

  3. Optimisation of inclusive fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grafen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The first fully explicit argument,is given that broadly supports,a widespread,belief among,whole-organism,biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms,acting as if maximizing,their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization,programs,permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some,kind of Lyapunov,or even potential function.

  4. Inclusion complex formation of diferrocenyldimethylsilane with ?-cyclodextrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Fernandes; Sérgio Lima; Susana S. Braga; Paulo Ribeiro-Claro; José E. Rodriguez-Borges; Cátia Teixeira; Martyn Pillinger; José J. C. Teixeira-Dias; Isabel S. Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    An inclusion compound comprising ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and diferrocenyldimethylsilane, Fc–SiMe2–Fc [Fc=(?5-C5H5)Fe(?5-C5H4)], has been prepared and characterized in the solid state by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy (13C, 29Si). Elemental analysis indicated that the host:guest molar ratio in the product was approximately 1.5. Ab initio calculations in vacuo were carried out in order

  5. Len Barton, inclusion and critical disability studies: theorising disabled childhoods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Goodley

    2010-01-01

    Len Barton has pioneered the sociological study of education in the areas of disability studies and inclusive education. This paper addresses an argument developed by Len Barton that social exclusion, of which disablism is one element, (1) has many compounding forms of differing exclusions, (2) is not a natural but a socially constructed process, (3) has no single factor that

  6. An order-disorder ferroelectric host-guest inclusion compound.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2014-02-17

    The host-guest complex [(DIPA)([18]crown-6)](ClO4) (1; DIPA=2,6-diisopropylanilinium) was constructed and found to undergo a sequence of phase transitions (Ibam-Pbcn-Pna21) at T1=278?K and T2=132?K, respectively. Systematic characterizations, such as differential scanning calorimetry, heat capacity, temperature-dependent dielectric constant, and P-E hysteresis loop, reveal that the centrosymmetric-to-polar phase transition at T2 is a paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition. The symmetry breaking was also confirmed by temperature-dependent second-harmonic generation effect and X-ray powder diffraction. The ferroelectric mechanism is attributable to the linear motion of the perchlorate counterions accompanied by the order-disorder transition of the [18]crown-6 molecules and the anions. PMID:24497326

  7. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified. PMID:1979447

  8. Silicon Analogues of Triarylmethanol Hosts. Inclusion Properties and Host–guest Structures: A Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Weber; Wilhelm Seichter; Konstantinos Skobridis; Dimitrios Alivertis; Vassiliki Theodorou; Petra Bombicz; Ingeborg Csöregh

    2006-01-01

    The simple triarylmethanol hosts, 2 and 4, and their silicon analogues, 1 and 3, have been studied for comparison of the formation of crystalline inclusion compounds. Clathrate formation experiments showed\\u000a that replacement of the carbinol C atoms in 2 and 4 by Si atoms to give 1 and 3 resulted in a distinct increase of the capability to form inclusion

  9. Why Program Quality Matters for Early Childhood Inclusion: Recommendations for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia; West, Tracey; Hollingsworth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Only a handful of states address children with disabilities in their early child care quality rating systems. As a result, few states are evaluating the quality of inclusive programs and services. This problem is compounded by a lack of consensus on dimensions that define high quality inclusion and a need for additional measures of quality…

  10. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  11. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  12. Vanadium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Cortizo; Viviana C. Salice; Susana B. Etcheverry

    1994-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds upon alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and\\u000a vanadyl inhibited both the soluble and particulate ALP activity from UMR.106 cells and from bovine intestinal ALP. We have\\u000a also shown the inhibition of ALP activity in the soluble fraction of osteoblasts by peroxo and hydroperoxo vanadium compounds.\\u000a ALP activity in the particulate fraction

  13. Singing and social inclusion.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  14. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  15. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  16. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    SciTech Connect

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  19. Nickel Compounds

    Cancer.gov

    Nickel is a silvery-white metallic element found in the earth’s crust. It can be combined with other elements to form nickel compounds. Because of its unique properties, nickel has many industrial uses. Most nickel is used in metal alloys because it imparts useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

  20. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  1. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario (Frost & Brackenreed, 2004). The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Inclusion in a Faith Community Inclusion in a Faith Community

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Inclusion in a Faith Community Inclusion in a Faith Community Being included means more than being in a community. It means being with a community. To be fully with a community requires that all aspects of the community--from physical space to attitudes-- are accessible and welcoming, and that all

  3. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  4. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  5. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  6. Principals Influence Culture of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…

  7. Equal and Inclusive User Involvement

    E-print Network

    Equal and Inclusive User Involvement in the Mental Health Services in Ireland: Results from............................................................................................................... 59 #12;Equal and Inclusive User Involvement in the Mental Health Services in Ireland Page 62 Executive Summary User involvement is not always a means of empowerment. It is also a process which can

  8. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  9. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  10. Aroma Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed G. Dastager

    The increasing demand for natural products in the food industry has encouraged remarkable efforts towards the development\\u000a of biotechnological processes for the production of aroma compounds. This chapter deals with major achievements reported in\\u000a this field, with a special emphasis on the potential lying in plant cell, microbial cultures and enzyme technology for the\\u000a production of a wide range of

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  15. Inclusion of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with ?-cyclodextrin by different processing methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Ginés; Jose I. Pérez-Martínez; Maria J. Arias; José R. Moyano; Esmeralda Morillo; Antonio Ruiz-Conde; Pedro J. Sanchez-Soto

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of the herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with ?-Cyclodextrin produces the formation of a new inclusion compound in solution and in solid state. XRD, MR, DSC and SEM techniques have allowed to investigate the inclusion process of the three processing methods (co-precipitation, spray-drying and kneading) under test. Inclusion of 2,4-D in ?-CD in solution was also studied by phase

  16. Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management 

    E-print Network

    Montague, Marcia

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the management practices of expert secondary general education teachers in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, expert teachers of classrooms who included students ...

  17. A fluorescence-based cyclodextrin sensor to detect nitroaromatic explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aravindan Ponnu; Eric V. Anslyn

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of a cyclodextrin inclusion complex (CIC) in fluorescence sensing to provide a method to classify energetic nitroaromatic compounds. A CIC was prepared by the inclusion of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) with ?-cyclodextrin (CD) (BPEA\\/CD) in water with 5% tetrahydrofuran by volume. The inclusion behaviour of BPEA with ?-CD was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of ?- and

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  19. Bulk Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumale, M.; Barbier, T.; Bréard, Y.; Raveau, B.; Kinemuchi, Y.; Funahashi, R.; Guilmeau, E.

    2014-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of Nb-substituted TiS2 compounds have been investigated in the temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. Polycrystalline samples in the series Ti1- x Nb x S2 with x varying from 0 to 0.05 were prepared using solid-liquid-vapor reaction and spark plasma sintering. Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction data are consistent with the existence of full solid solution for x ? 0.05. Transport measurements reveal that niobium can be considered as an electron donor when substituted at Ti sites. Consequently, the electrical resistivity and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decrease as the Nb content increases, due to an increase in the carrier concentration. Moreover, due to mass fluctuation, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced, leading to a slight increase of ZT values as compared with TiS2.

  20. Surface tension method for determining binding constants for cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of ionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardana, U.R.; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A new method has been developed for determining binding constants of complexes of cyclodextrins with surface-active compounds, including water-soluble ionic surfactants. The technique requires measuring the change in surface tension caused by addition of a cyclodextrin (CD) to aqueous solutions of the surfactant; the experimental results lead directly to inferred values of the thermodynamic activity of the surfactant. Surface tension results are reported for three different surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence and in the absence of added [beta]-CD. Data for CPC have been obtained at surfactant concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration. Correlations between surface tension and surfactant activity are expressed by the Szyszkowski equation, which subsumes the Langmuir adsorption model and the Gibbs equation. It is observed that the surface tension increases monotonically as [beta]-cyclodextrin is added to ionic surfactant solutions. At concentrations of CD well in excess of the surfactant concentration, the surface tension approaches that of pure water, indicating that neither the surfactant-CD complexes nor CD itself are surface active. Binding constants are inferred from a model that incorporates the parameters of the Szyszkowski equation and mass action constants relating to the formation of micelles from monomers of the surfactant and the counterion. Evidence is given that two molecules of CD can complex the C-16 hydrocarbon chain of the cetyl surfactants. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Inclusion complexes of ?-cyclodextrin-dinitrocompounds as UV absorber for ballpoint pen ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Krishnan; Radhakrishnan, S.; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-08-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), 2,4-dinitroaniline (2,4-DNA), 2,6-dinitroaniline (2,6-DNA) and 2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,6-DNB) has appeared for the UV absorption bands in different wavelength region below 400 nm, a combination of these dinitro aromatic compounds gave the broad absorption spectra within the UV region. The absorption intensities have been increased by preparation of the inclusion complex of dinitro compounds with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD). Prepared inclusion complexes are used to improve the UV protection properties of the ball point pen ink against photo degradation. The formation of solid inclusion complexes was characterized by FT-IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The UV protecting properties of these inclusion complexes were calculated their sun protection factor (SPF) is also discussed. The stability of the ballpoint pen ink has been confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopic method.

  2. Inclusion 101: How To Teach All Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; Shea, Thomas M.

    This book is designed to help educators provide effective instruction to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Chapters address: (1) the concepts of inclusive society, schools, classrooms and services; (2) legal foundations for inclusion and government support for education; (3) the qualities of inclusive schools and classrooms; (4)…

  3. Inclusion is Undecidable for Pattern Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Jiang; Arto Salomaa; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    1993-01-01

    The inclusion problem for (nonerasing) pattern languages was raised by Angluin [1] in 1980. It has been open ever since. In this paper, we settle this open problem and show that inclusion is undecidable for (both erasing and nonerasing) pattern languages. In addition, we show that a special case of the inclusion problem, i.e., the inclusion problem for terminal-free erasing

  4. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  5. TSTA compound cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Patrick, R.E.; Call, W.R.

    1980-08-18

    The Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA), at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, is intended to demonstrate realistic fuel supply and cleanup scenarios for future fusion reactors. The vacuum pumps must be capable of handling large quantities of reactor exhaust gases consisting largely of mixtures of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Cryocondensing pumps will not pump helium at 4.2 K; while cryosorption pumps using molecular sieves or charcoal have good helium pumping speed, the adsorbent clogs with condensed hydrogen while pumping mixtures of both. A solution to this problem is a compound design whereby the first stage condenses the hydrogen and the second, or sorption, stage pumps the helium. The TSTA pump designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses argon gas to cryotrap the helium in the helium-hydrogen mixture. The argon is sprayed directly onto the 4.2 K surface at a rate proportional to the helium flow rate, permitting continuous pumping of the helium-hydrogen mixtures in a single-stage pump. However, the possibility of differential desorption as a first stage in the TSTA gas separation cycle required the inclusion of a first-stage hydrogen isotope condenser. The design, performance, and operating characteristics are discussed.

  6. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-print Network

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  7. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  8. The Needs of Inclusive Preschool Teachers about Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalin, Selma; Demir, Seyda; Sucuoglu, Bülbin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Iscen, Fadime

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Since the law related to the inclusion of children with special needs was passed, the number of children with special needs in preschool classrooms has increased each year. Preschool teachers face serious challenges when they teach children with diverse abilities in the same environment. Although most of them support the idea of…

  9. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

  10. Campus Conversations on Diversity & Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    for Managing Workplace Diversity that is included in the Supervisory Training Program. To register, access httpCampus Conversations on Diversity & Inclusion At Johns Hopkins University To register go to http about: Equity, Civility and Respect @JHU Minimizing conflict Perceptions of power Diverse

  11. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  12. Classroom Management in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodak, Leslie C.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classes provides an opportunity for teachers to identify classroom management policies and practices that promote diversity and community. Community-building management strategies that facilitate friendships, collaboration, parent involvement, and address challenging behaviors in a…

  13. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  14. Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

  15. Hadronization Effects in Inclusive ? Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    It is shown that the nonperturbative effects due to hadronization play a crucial role in low-energy strong interaction processes. Specifically, such effects impose a stringent constraint on the infrared behavior of the Adler function and play an essential role in the theoretical analysis of inclusive ? lepton decay.

  16. SPECTRAL INCLUSION AND ANALYTIC CONTINUATION

    E-print Network

    A. ATZMON, A. EREMENKO and M. SODIN

    an 1/n 6 r. Problem 1. Is there a similar criterion for spectral inclusion into other compact sets? In this paper .... [5, Section 18] are defined by the equation ... FK n (cos t)=2?n+1 cos nt. These are the monic Chebyshev polynomials of the second and the first kind, .... conditions (11) and (12) cannot be satisfied simultaneously.

  17. Curriculum Adaptation for Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tom; And Others

    This manual on curriculum adaptation for inclusive classrooms was developed as part of the PEERS (Providing Education for Everyone in Regular Schools) Project, a 5-year collaborative systems change project in California to facilitate the integration of students with severe disabilities previously at special centers into services at regular school…

  18. GUIDELINES FOR INCLUSIVE COMMUNICATION AT

    E-print Network

    ' does not just mean the words you say. It can include visual representations and body language language is constantly in a state of flux, so it is essential that we use communication that is inclusive. The language used in these communications has an impact on the recipient, their perception of MMU and may

  19. Isolation and characterization of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate inclusions

    E-print Network

    Kshetry, Nina

    2006-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon reserve found in some bacteria, and under nutrient limiting conditions accumulates intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies. These inclusions contain proteins, and the PHB within ...

  20. Preferential water loss from synthetic fluid inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Hall; S. Michael Sterner

    1993-01-01

    A fundamental question in most fluid inclusion studies is whether inclusions behave as compositionally closed systems after trapping, and, thus, represent samples of the fluid phase(s) present in the system at the time of their formation. This question was addressed in high-temperature laboratory experiments with synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz and it was found that at 825°C the inclusions exhibited

  1. Deconstructing Normalisation: Clearing the Way for Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: normalization and inclusion. It reviews the aims, processes, and outcomes of the normalization and social role valorization movement and explores its compatibility with inclusion. Lessons from normalization are applied to the inclusion movement.…

  2. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  3. Epizootiology of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Piacentini; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

    1989-01-01

    Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were infected artificially with the virus that causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). A specific and consistent time course of infection was demonstrated for inclusion body number and hematocrit values. At 12°C, the inclusions appeared approximately 11 d postinjection and were most common near day 21. Hematocrit values were lowest at day 28. By day 30,

  4. Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

  5. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  6. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  7. Inclusive Attitudes: A Pre-Service Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    This enquiry has shown that pre-service teachers in Ontario, Canada (n = 141), believe they have the prerequisite training and knowledge to be inclusive educators. They believe inclusion is effective and produces required results for both identified and non-identified students. Inclusion was viewed as a difficult proposition dependent upon several…

  8. Inclusive Schooling; Global Ideals and National Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winzer, Maggie; Mazurek, Kas

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, inclusive schooling for students with exceptional conditions has emerged in a range of national contexts to the extent that inclusion is now a world-wide movement. Major prompts arise from mandates and directives from international bodies such as UNESCO. However, the provision of education built on social inclusion places…

  9. Removal of organic pollutants from water via molecular inclusion within a cavitand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Dalcanale; Giuliano Costantini; Paolo Soncini

    1992-01-01

    The molecular inclusion chemistry of cavitands provides a useful way for the removal of organic pollutants from water. A wide range of lipophilic organic compounds, present at trace level in water, are efficiently extracted by cavitand1, which can be easily reactivated and reused.

  10. Questioning Secondary Inclusive Education: Are Inclusive Classrooms Always Best for Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkachyk, Ruth Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Educating students with special needs in inclusive settings has become a priority for westernized governments as they strive to create more inclusive societies. While recognizing the societal benefits of inclusion, teachers and parents question whether or not implementation of full inclusion will come at the expense of learners' individual…

  11. Nonlinear neutral inclusions: assemblages of coated ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Silvia Jiménez; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The problem of determining nonlinear neutral inclusions in (electrical or thermal) conductivity is considered. Neutral inclusions, inserted in a matrix containing a uniform applied electric field, do not disturb the field outside the inclusions. The well-known Hashin-coated sphere construction is an example of a neutral inclusion. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing neutral inclusions from nonlinear materials. In particular, we discuss assemblages of coated ellipsoids. The proposed construction is neutral for a given applied field. PMID:26064633

  12. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  13. Gaseous species in fluid inclusions: A tracer of fluids and indicator of fluid processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, David I.; Moore, Joseph N.; Yonaka, Brad; Musgrave, John

    1996-01-24

    Quantitative bulk analysis of fluid inclusion volatiles measures the composition of trapped geothermal liquids and vapor. Fluid-inclusion gas-analyses may identify fluid boiling and mixing, and the analyses can be used as a fluid tracer. Fluid boiling is indicated by excess gaseous species. Linear arrays of data points on gas ratio diagrams indicate fluid mixing. Nitrogen-argon ratios are used to discriminate atmospheric fiom magmatic volatiles. Crustal components in geothermal fluids are best indicated by concentrations of methane and helium. Methane strongly correlates with other organic compounds, and N2-Ar-CH4 plots are similar to N2-Ar-He diagrams. Alkene to alkane ratios of C2-7 organic species indicate the oxidation state of geothermal fluids. The Geysers inclusion analyses are an example of how inclusion fluids may be used to understand the paleo hydrology of a geothermal system.

  14. Dynamics of a compound vesicle in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerapaneni, Shravan; Young, Yuan-Nan; Vlahovska, Petia; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of compound vesicle (a lipid bilayer membrane enclosing a fluid with a suspended particle) in shear flow is investigated using both numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. We find that the non-linear coupling (via hydrodynamic interaction) between the inclusion motion and the confining membrane deformation gives rise to new features in the vesicle dynamics. Transition from tank--treading to tumbling can occur even in the absence of any viscosity mismatch. An initially non-concentric inclusion induces transient vesicle waltzing. A swinging-like vesicle motion is observed if the enclosed particle is an ellipsoid. The rheology of a suspension of compound vesicles is also strongly affected by the inclusion confinement. Our results highlight the complex effects of internal cellular structures on cell dynamics in external flow.

  15. Evaluation of monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds in ambient air around Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus halepensis and Cedrus atlantica trees growing in Algiers city area by chiral and achiral capillary gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Youcef Meklati, Brahim; Cecinato, Angelo

    The monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in ambient air around either Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus atlantica and Pinus halepensis trees from El- Hamma Botanical Garden (Algiers) or from Pinus halepensis trees field located in Bab-Ezzouar (suburb of Algiers) was qualitatively and semi-quantitatively evaluated. The sampling was carried out in ambient air by adsorption through an activated charcoal cartridge followed by the carbon disulfide extraction. The solution was subjected to high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) analysis in programmed temperature. The identification of the components was established by the means of retention Kovàts indexes. The use of a ?-cyclodextrin chiral capillary column allowed a good separation of monoterpenic enantiomers released in the atmosphere. The enantiomeric ratio provided a good insight into the enantiomeric compound preferentially emitted by plants.

  16. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John; Alizon, Samuel; Alpedrinha, Joao A C; Andersson, Malte; Andre, Jean-Baptiste; van Baalen, Minus; Balloux, Francois; Balshine, Sigal; Barton, Nick; Beukeboom, Leo W; Biernaskie, Jay M; Bilde, Trine; Borgia, Gerald; Breed, Michael; Brown, Sam; Bshary, Redouan; Buckling, Angus; Burley, Nancy T; Burton-Chellew, Max N; Cant, Michael A; Chapuisat, Michel; Charnov, Eric L; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Cockburn, Andrew; Cole, Blaine J; Colegrave, Nick; Cosmides, Leda; Couzin, Iain D; Coyne, Jerry A; Creel, Scott; Crespi, Bernard; Curry, Robert L; Dall, Sasha R X; Day, Troy; Dickinson, Janis L; Dugatkin, Lee Alan; El Mouden, Claire; Emlen, Stephen T; Evans, Jay; Ferriere, Regis; Field, Jeremy; Foitzik, Susanne; Foster, Kevin; Foster, William A; Fox, Charles W; Gadau, Juergen; Gandon, Sylvain; Gardner, Andy; Gardner, Michael G; Getty, Thomas; Goodisman, Michael A D; Grafen, Alan; Grosberg, Rick; Grozinger, Christina M; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Gwynne, Darryl; Harvey, Paul H; Hatchwell, Ben J; Heinze, Jürgen; Helantera, Heikki; Helms, Ken R; Hill, Kim; Jiricny, Natalie; Johnstone, Rufus A; Kacelnik, Alex; Kiers, E Toby; Kokko, Hanna; Komdeur, Jan; Korb, Judith; Kronauer, Daniel; Kümmerli, Rolf; Lehmann, Laurent; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Lion, Sébastien; Lyon, Bruce; Marshall, James A R; McElreath, Richard; Michalakis, Yannis; Michod, Richard E; Mock, Douglas; Monnin, Thibaud; Montgomerie, Robert; Moore, Allen J; Mueller, Ulrich G; Noë, Ronald; Okasha, Samir; Pamilo, Pekka; Parker, Geoff A; Pedersen, Jes S; Pen, Ido; Pfennig, David; Queller, David C; Rankin, Daniel J; Reece, Sarah E; Reeve, Hudson K; Reuter, Max; Roberts, Gilbert; Robson, Simon K A; Roze, Denis; Rousset, Francois; Rueppell, Olav; Sachs, Joel L; Santorelli, Lorenzo; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schwarz, Michael P; Scott-Phillips, Tom; Shellmann-Sherman, Janet; Sherman, Paul W; Shuker, David M; Smith, Jeff; Spagna, Joseph C; Strassmann, Beverly; Suarez, Andrew V; Sundström, Liselotte; Taborsky, Michael; Taylor, Peter; Thompson, Graham; Tooby, John; Tsutsui, Neil D; Tsuji, Kazuki; Turillazzi, Stefano; Ubeda, Francisco; Vargo, Edward L; Voelkl, Bernard; Wenseleers, Tom; West, Stuart A; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane; Westneat, David F; Wiernasz, Diane C; Wild, Geoff; Wrangham, Richard; Young, Andrew J; Zeh, David W; Zeh, Jeanne A; Zink, Andrew

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues. PMID:21430721

  17. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloq~teC8, supplment au no 11-12, Tor?ze34, Novembre-Dcembre 1973, page C8-55 DYNAMIQUE MOLCULAIRE DANS UN MODLE D'ENZYME

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Pascal 67000 Strasbourg Résumé. -Une étude de la formation du complexe a-cyclodextrine of the inclusion complex between a-cyclodextrin and p-methylcinnamat is presented ;the results yield are hindered. Le cyclohexaglucopyranose-d,4 (a-cyclodextrine) forme des complexes d'inclusion moléculaire en

  18. The crack-inclusion interaction problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue-Hui, L.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The general plane elastostatic problem of interaction between a crack and an inclusion is considered. The Green's functions for a pair of dislocations and a pair of concentrated body forces are used to generate the crack and the inclusion. Integral equations are obtained for a line crack and an elastic line inclusion having an arbitrary relative orientation and size. The nature of stress singularity around the end points of rigid and elastic inclusions is described and three special cases of this intersection problem are studied. The problem is solved for an arbitrary uniform stress state away from the crack-inclusion region. The nonintersecting crack-inclusion problem is considered for various relative size, orientation, and stiffness parameters, and the stress intensity factors at the ends of the inclusion and the crack are calculated. For the crack-inclusion intersection case, special stress intensity factors are defined and are calculated for various values of the parameters defining the relative size and orientation of the crack and the inclusion and the stiffness of the inclusion.

  19. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  20. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA. PMID:26137607

  1. Container compounds - stable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.V.; Tatevskii, V.M.; Yarovoi, S.S.; Bolotin, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the question of the stability of container compounds. As stability criteria the authors use the lifetime of the container compound. Quantitative estimates were obtained by drawing on the theory of quasistationary (resonance) states. The energy levels and the lifetimes for these levels, which are the lifetimes for the container compounds, are calculated with subsequent consideration of the Schroedinger equation. Numerical characteristics are obtained for various container compounds.

  2. Inclusive schooling policy: An educational detective story?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julianne Moss

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the Salamanca statement (UNESCO 1994), inclusive schooling has formed a growing part of the deliberations\\u000a of the special education community. Inclusive schooling research in Australia in the main continues to reproduce traditions\\u000a of the special education field, emphasising the dominant psychological perspectives that have been superimposed on inclusive\\u000a education discourses. At the fifth International Congress of

  3. Characterization of Nonmetallic Inclusions in High-Manganese and Aluminum-Alloyed Austenitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Min, Dong Joon

    2012-07-01

    The effects of Al and Mn contents on the size, composition, and three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions formed in Fe- xMn- yAl ( x = 10 and 20 mass pct, y = 1, 3, and 6 mass pct) steels were investigated to enhance our understanding of the inclusion formation behavior in high Mn-Al-alloyed steels. By assuming that the alumina is a dominant oxide compound, the volume fraction of inclusions estimated from the chemical analysis, i.e., insoluble Al, in the Fe-Mn-3Al steels was larger than the inclusion volume fractions in the Fe-Mn-1Al and Fe-Mn-6Al steels. A similar tendency was found in the analysis of inclusions from a potentiostatic electrolytic extraction method. This finding could be explained from the terminal velocities of the compounds, which was affected by the thermophysical properties of Fe-Mn-Al steels. The inclusions formed in the Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels are classified into seven types according to chemistry and morphology: (1) single Al2O3 particle, (2) single AlN or AlON particle, (3) MnAl2O4 single galaxite spinel particle, (4) Al2O3(-Al(O)N) agglomerate, (5) single Mn(S,Se) particle, (6) oxide core with Mn(S,Se) skin (wrap), and (7) Mn(S,Se) core with Al2O3(-Al(O)N) aggregate (or bump). The Mn(S,Se) compounds were formed by the contamination of the steels by Se from the electrolytic Mn. Therefore, the raw materials (Mn) should be used carefully in the melting and casting processes of Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels.

  4. The effect of inclusions in brittle material

    E-print Network

    Janeiro, Raymond Pinho

    2009-01-01

    This thesis experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of brittle heterogeneous materials. Unconfined, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on prismatic gypsum specimens containing either one, or two, inclusions. ...

  5. Making the case for inclusive design.

    PubMed

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

  6. Inclusion bodies: not that bad…

    PubMed Central

    Ramón, Ana; Señorale-Pose, Mario; Marín, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) constitute a frequent event during the production of heterologous proteins in bacterial hosts. Although the mechanisms leading to their formation are not completely understood, empirical data have been exploited trying to predict the aggregation propensity of specific proteins while a great number of strategies have been developed to avoid the generation of IBs. However, in many cases, the formation of such aggregates can be considered an advantage for basic research as for protein production. In this review, we focus on this positive side of IBs formation in bacteria. We present a compilation on recent advances on the understanding of IBs formation and their utilization as a model to understand protein aggregation and to explore strategies to control this process. We include recent information about their composition and structure, their use as an attractive approach to produce low cost proteins and other promising applications in Biomedicine. PMID:24592259

  7. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  8. The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion Summer Equity Research Program Thinking about graduate school? Interested in research, nursing, medicine, Dental, Nursing and Medicine Internship Program. Learning opportunities include: SUMMER EQUITY RESEARCH

  9. The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion Summer Equity Research Program Interested in research, nursing, medicine, or dentistry? · Hands on MentorshipCONNECT Center for Diversity & Inclusion www.ohsu.edu/diversity Thinking about graduate school

  10. The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    The Power of Difference: Enhancing a Community of Inclusion OHSU Center for Diversity & Inclusion REGISTRATION DEADLINE February 7, 2014 A collaboration among OHSU's Center for Diversity & Inclusion, the Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, and Nursing and the College of Pharmacy. This free one-day conference

  11. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  12. On Generalized Set-Valued Variational Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Wei Liu; Yu-Qiang Li

    2001-01-01

    We point out a basic flaw made by M. A. Noor (1998, J. Math. Anal. Appl.228, 206–220), construct a new iterative algorithm for a class of variational inclusions involving non-monotone set-valued mappings with noncompact values, and study the convergence of the perturbed Ishikawa iterative process for solving a class of the generalized single-valued variational inclusions.

  13. Creating a Respectful and Inclusive Workplace for

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    , accommodation balances the interests of a diverse society. Where, for example, a workplace rule conflictsCreating a Respectful and Inclusive Workplace for Employees with Disabilities ubc equity office, an inclusive environment values diversity and differ- ence and is based on mutual respect, dignity for all

  14. International Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has become a universally debated topic in education. More schools all over the world are seeking to use inclusion as their main service delivery model for students with disabilities. Much research has been conducted globally to gain insights into general education…

  15. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  16. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  17. What's Working: Topics in Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What's Working, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on what works in inclusive education. A major article is "Inclusive Education: Needs of Minnesota Families--Major Findings from a 'Together We're Better' Study." This article presents findings of a statewide survey of families of children with disabilities. Findings are categorized within four areas: (1) educational…

  18. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  19. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  20. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  1. Inclusion body myositis: old and new concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A A Amato; R J Barohn

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy occurring in patients over the age of 50 years and probably accounts for about 30% of all inflammatory myopathies. Muscle biopsy characteristically reveals endomysial inflammation, small groups of atrophic fibres, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and muscle fibres with one or more rimmed vacuoles. However, any given biopsy may lack these

  2. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  3. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  4. Inclusive Focus Particles in English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-gu

    2011-01-01

    When discussing focus particles, it has been common practice to rely on the dichotomy of inclusive vs. exclusive particles, "a la" Konig (1991). Inclusive focus particles are often further divided into scalar particles, such as "also", "too", and "either", and non-scalar particles, such as "even". In this thesis, I advance a comparative analysis…

  5. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

  6. Ultramafic inclusions in basaltic rocks from Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. White

    1966-01-01

    Ultramafic inclusions and the enclosing basaltic rocks were collected from a number of localities in the Hawaiian Islands; these and other specimens were studied by standard pétrographic techniques and with an electron microprobe. Emphasis was on determination of mineral assemblages, mineral compositions, and variations in composition. Sixty-eight inclusions and thirteen basaltic rocks are described, with partial chemical analyses (Ti, Al,

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  8. Inclusion body hepatitis in kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of suspected adenovirus etiology was the apparent cause of death of 9 captive kestrels (Falco sparverius). Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion; disseminated hepatocellular necrosis and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Attempts to reproduce the disease, and to propagate and serologically characterize the agent were unsuccessful.

  9. Selecting analogous problems: similarity versus inclusiveness.

    PubMed

    Reed, S K; Ackinclose, C C; Voss, A A

    1990-01-01

    Students were asked to select one of two analogous problems in order to solve algebra word problems. In Experiment 1, one problem was less inclusive and the other was more inclusive than a test problem. The students judged the complexity and similarity of problems, selected analogous problems, and used the solutions to solve test problems. They performed significantly better on the test problems when given the more inclusive solutions, but used perceived similarity rather than inclusiveness to select analogous problems. The same pattern of results occurred in Experiment 2, in which isomorphic problems replaced the more inclusive problems. The results show that students are deficient in selecting good analogies, both from the same category (Experiment 1) and from a different category (Experiment 2). Students who saw the analogous solutions (Experiment 3) or were majoring in mathematics (Experiment 4) were more likely to select an isomorphic problem over a less inclusive problem, but were not more likely to select a more inclusive over a less inclusive problem. PMID:2314232

  10. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Pseudocantharidins, Novel Phosphatase Modulators That Promote the Inclusion of Exon 7 into the SMN (Survival of Motoneuron) pre-mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaiyi; Kelemen, Olga; van Santen, Maria A.; Yelton, Sharon M.; Wendlandt, Alison E.; Sviripa, Vitaliy M.; Bollen, Mathieu; Beullens, Monique; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; Watt, David S.; Stamm, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a central element of eukaryotic gene expression. Its deregulation can lead to disease, and methods to change splice site selection are developed as potential therapies. Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by the loss of the SMN1 (survival of motoneuron 1) gene. A therapeutic avenue for spinal muscular atrophy treatment is to promote exon 7 inclusion of the almost identical SMN2 (survival of motoneuron 2) gene. The splicing factor tra2-beta1 promotes inclusion of this exon and is antagonized by protein phosphatase (PP) 1. To identify new compounds that promote exon 7 inclusion, we synthesized analogs of cantharidin, an inhibitor of PP1, and PP2A. Three classes of compounds emerged from these studies. The first class blocks PP1 and PP2A activity, blocks constitutive splicing in vitro, and promotes exon 7 inclusion in vivo. The second class has no measurable effect on PP1 activity but activates PP2A. This class represents the first compounds described with these properties. These compounds cause a dephosphorylation of Thr-33 of tra2-beta1, which promotes exon 7 inclusion. The third class had no detectable effect on phosphatase activity and could promote exon 7 via allosteric effects. Our data show that subtle changes in similar compounds can turn a phosphatase inhibitor into an activator. These chemically related compounds influence alternative splicing by distinct mechanisms. PMID:21220421

  12. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  13. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section 26.2642-5 ...1986 § 26.2642-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip becomes...

  14. Primitive material surviving in chondrites - Refractory inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Wark, D. A.; Armstrong, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The refractory inclusions embedded in the matrix of many carbonaceous and some ordinary or enstatite chondrites exhibit mineralogical and bulk composition characteristics which correlate with the first, or highest-temperature, condensation products that have been predicted to form from a hot, but cooling, solar nebula. These inclusions' isotopic compositions indicate presolar nucleosynthetic processes that have contributed to the production of the elements from which the solar system was formed; subsequently, the inclusions experienced melting, recrystallization, and alteration histories that have obscured the formation processes.

  15. Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

  16. Crystallographic relationships between diamond and its inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimis, Paolo; Nestola, Fabrizio; Angel, Ross J.; Milani, Sula; Alvaro, Matteo; Anzolini, Chiara; Schiazza, Mariangela; Bruno, Marco; Prencipe, Mauro; Harris, Jeff W.; Hutchison, Mark T.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the crystallographic orientations of minerals included in diamonds can provide an insight into the mechanisms of their incorporation and the timing of their formation relative to the host diamond. The reported occurrence of non-trivial orientations for some minerals in some diamonds, suggesting an epitactic relationship, has long been considered to reflect contemporaneous growth of the diamond and the inclusion (= syngenesis). Correct interpretation of such orientations requires (i) a statistically significant data set, i.e. crystallographic data for single and multiple inclusions in a large number of diamonds, and (ii) a robust data-processing method, capable of removing ambiguities derived from the high symmetry of the diamond and the inclusion. We have developed software which performs such processing, starting from crystallographic orientation matrixes obtained by X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary studies indicate a wide variety of trends in the orientations of different inclusion phases in diamonds. In contrast to previous claims, olivine inclusions in lithospheric diamonds from Udachnaya do not show any preferred orientations with respect to their diamond hosts, but multiple inclusions in a single diamond often show very similar orientations within a few degrees (Nestola et al. 2014). Chromite (spinel) inclusions exhibit a strong tendency for a single (111) plane of each inclusion to be parallel to a (111) plane of their diamond host, but without any statistically significant orientation of the crystallographic axes a, b, and c. By contrast, 7 inclusions of ferropericlase studied in 2 different super deep diamonds (four inclusions in one diamond and three inclusions in the second diamond) from Brazil all exhibit the same orientation with their axes practically coincident with those of diamonds regardless of the position and the shape of the inclusions. The implications of these observations for the mechanisms of diamond growth will be explored. This work was supported by ERC starting grant 307322 to F. Nestola and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory project to P. Nimis. Nestola F., et al. (2014) Int Geol Rev, 56,1658-1667.

  17. Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIBEL KARAKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in foods originate from one of the main classes of secondary metabolites in plants. They are essential for the growth and reproduction of plants, and are produced as a response for defending injured plants against pathogens. In recent years, there is a growing interest in phenolic compounds and their presumed role in the prevention of various degenerative diseases,

  18. Analyzing Cranberry Bioactive Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Côté; S. Caillet; G. Doyon; J.-F Sylvain; M. Lacroix

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing public interest for the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) as a functional food because of the potential health benefits linked to phytochemical compounds present in the fruit—the anthocyanin pigments, responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives). Isolation of these phenolic compounds and flavonoids from a

  19. Fine root biomass and turnover in southern taiga estimated by root inclusion nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lukac; Douglas L. Godbold

    2010-01-01

    Fine roots play an important part in forest carbon, nutrient and water cycles. The turnover of fine roots constitutes a major\\u000a carbon input to soils. Estimation of fine root turnover is difficult, labour intensive and is often compounded by artefacts\\u000a created by soil disturbance. In this work, an alternative approach of using inclusion nets installed in an undisturbed soil\\u000a profile

  20. J. Phys. Chem. 1995,99, 14137-14141 14137 Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Inclusion Complexes between Cyclodextrins

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Complexes between Cyclodextrins and Aromatic Compounds M. J. Politi: Chieu D. Tran,* and Guan-Hong Gao been used to characterize and measure the association constants of the inclusion complexes between-pyrenesulfonate) and a-,B-, and y-cyclodextrin. It was found that the NIRmethod is particularly suited

  1. Huntingtin Acts in the Nucleus to Induce Apoptosis but Death Does Not Correlate with the Formation of Intranuclear Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Saudou; Steven Finkbeiner; Didier Devys; Michael E Greenberg

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration were investigated using a cellular model that recapitulates features of neurodegeneration seen in Huntington’s disease. When transfected into cultured striatal neurons, mutant huntingtin induces neurodegeneration by an apoptotic mechanism. Antiapoptotic compounds or neurotrophic factors protected neurons against mutant huntingtin. Blocking nuclear localization of mutant huntingtin suppressed its ability to form intranuclear inclusions

  2. Effective field theories for inclusive B decays

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keith S. M. (Keith Seng Mun)

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we study inclusive decays of the B meson. These allow one to determine CKM elements precisely and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. We use the framework of effective field theories, in ...

  3. Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes March 2014 New EOO Tagline://eoo.uga.edu/policies/non-discrimination-anti- harassment-policy Workplace Violence o http://policies.uga.edu/FA/nodes/view/1136/Workplace- Violence

  4. Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Paul [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Recent inclusive charged and neutral current scattering data from HERA are presented. Emphasis is placed on the resulting constraints on the proton parton densities and on the influence of low x proton structure on diffraction.

  5. Eshelby's inclusion problem for polygons and polyhedra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Rodin

    1996-01-01

    An algorithmic closed-form solution is derived for Eshelby's problem for polygonal and polyhedral inclusions. Illustrative calculations are presented for two- and three-dimensional problems. Also it is proven that polyhedra with constant Eshelby's tensor do not exist.

  6. FIXED POINT THEORY APPROACH TO DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lech Górniewicz

    The aim of this chapter is to give a systematic and unified account of topics in fixed point theory methods of differential inclusions which lie on the border line between topology and ordinary differential equations.

  7. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.

    1980-07-01

    An oxygen isotopic study which demonstrates the Allende inclusion HAL is a FUN object is discussed; the hibonite core, black inner rim and fine-grained outer rim have beem sampled. The oxygen in HAL is found to be heterogeneous, the rim samples having oxygen compositions similar to that of melilites and alteration products in other Allende inclusions including the FUN inclusion EK1-4-1, while the oxygen in the hibonite core shows the most extreme deviation from the AD line so far observed. The oxygen in HAL hibonite, in ED1-4-1 spinel and in spinels of usual Allende inclusions form an approximate linear array with a slope close to 1/2. With regard to the fractionation process, it is noted that the fractionation per amu for various elements does not correlate inversely with mass and that fractionation is elementally selective, probably according to volatility.

  8. Inclusion of trans-resveratrol in methylated cyclodextrins: synthesis and solid-state structures.

    PubMed

    Trollope, Lee; Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Noonan, Terence; Bourne, Susan A; Sorrenti, Milena; Catenacci, Laura; Caira, Mino R

    2014-01-01

    The phytoalexin trans-resveratrol, 5-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzenediol, is a well-known, potent antioxidant having a variety of possible biomedical applications. However, its adverse physicochemical properties (low stability, poor aqueous solubility) limit such applications and its inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs) has potential for addressing these shortcomings. Here, various methods of the attempted synthesis of inclusion complexes between trans-resveratrol and three methylated cyclodextrins (permethylated ?-CD, permethylated ?-CD and 2,6-dimethylated ?-CD) are described. Isolation of the corresponding crystalline 1:1 inclusion compounds enabled their full structure determination by X-ray analysis for the first time, revealing a variety of guest inclusion modes and unique supramolecular crystal packing motifs. The three crystalline inclusion complexes were also fully characterized by thermal analysis (hot stage microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry). To complement the solid-state data, phase-solubility studies were conducted using a series of CDs (native and variously derivatised) to establish their effect on the aqueous solubility of trans-resveratrol and to estimate association constants for complex formation. PMID:25670983

  9. Absence of Evidence ? Evidence of Absence: Statistical Analysis of Inclusions in Multiferroic Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Michael; Amann, Andreas; Keeney, Lynette; Pemble, Martyn E.; Holmes, Justin D.; Petkov, Nikolay; Whatmore, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Assertions that a new material may offer particularly advantageous properties should always be subjected to careful critical evaluation, especially when those properties can be affected by the presence of inclusions at trace level. This is particularly important for claims relating to new multiferroic compounds, which can easily be confounded by unobserved second phase magnetic inclusions. We demonstrate an original methodology for the detection, localization and quantification of second phase inclusions in thin Aurivillius type films. Additionally, we develop a dedicated statistical model and demonstrate its application to the analysis of Bi6Ti2.8Fe1.52Mn0.68O18 (B6TFMO) thin films, that makes it possible to put a high, defined confidence level (e.g. 99.5%) to the statement of ‘new single phase multiferroic materials’. While our methodology has been specifically developed for magnetic inclusions, it can easily be adapted to any other material system that can be affected by low level inclusions. PMID:25026969

  10. Inclusion of Paracetamol into ?-cyclodextrin nanocavities in solution and in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kemary, Maged; Sobhy, Saffaa; El-Daly, Samy; Abdel-Shafi, Ayman

    2011-09-01

    We report on steady-state UV-visible absorption and emission characteristics of Paracetamol, drug used as antipyretic agent, in water and within cyclodextrins (CDs): ?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl- ?-CD (HP- ?-CD) and 2,6-dimethyl- ?-CD (Me- ?-CD). The results reveal that Paracetamol forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with CD. Upon encapsulation, the emission intensity enhances, indicating a confinement effect of the nanocages on the photophysical behavior of the drug. Due to its methyl groups, the Me- ?-CD shows the largest effect for the drug. The observed binding constant showing the following trend: Me- ?-CD > HP- ?-CD > ?-CD. The less complexing effectiveness of HP- ?-CD is due to the steric effect of the hydroxypropyl-substituents, which can hamper the inclusion of the guest molecules. The solid state inclusion complex was prepared by co-precipitation method and its characterization was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR and X-ray diffractometry. These approaches indicated that Paracetamol was able to form an inclusion complex with CDs, and the inclusion compounds exhibited different spectroscopic features and properties from Paracetamol.

  11. Organic Compounds Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bell, Harold M.

    2000-01-01

    The Colby College Department of Chemistry offers the Organic Compounds Database, which was compiled by Harold Bell of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Visitors can search by the compounds melting point, boiling point, index of refraction, molecular weight, formula, absorption wavelength, mass spectral peak, chemical type, and by partial name. Once entered, results are returned with basically the same type of information that can be searched, plus any other critical information. References are provided for the close to 2500 organic compounds included in the database; yet, because the site was last modified in 1995, varying the data may be required to fully authenticate its accuracy.

  12. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  13. MANUFACTURE OF LIMONOID COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention relates to methods for manufacturing limonoid compounds. The invention provides methods for isolating limonoid A-ring lactone acid salts, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside dicarboxylic acids, limonoid glycoside monocarboxylic acid salts, and limonoid ...

  14. Compound Independent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  15. Ringed-Carbon Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-02-12

    In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, learn about alkaloids and steroids, both examples of compounds with carbon rings. Short videos with interviews,animations, and photographs are featured.

  16. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation screening compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES S. COCKELL; JOHN KNOWLAND

    1988-01-01

    Amongst the diversity of methods used by organisms to reduce damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the synthesis of UV-screening compounds is almost ubiquitous. UV-screening compounds provide a passive method for the reduction of UV-induced damage and they are widely distributed across the microbial, plant and animal kingdoms. They share some common chemical features. It is likely that on early

  18. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Strategies for Coping with Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine…

  19. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various influences, most…

  20. Teaching Inclusively: Are Secondary Physical Education Student Teachers Sufficiently Prepared to Teach in Inclusive Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Janine Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Contemporary British educational guidelines, such as the National Curriculum (NC) have adopted inclusivity in the way children with special educational needs (SEN) are taught. Therefore, inclusion has risen up the political agenda, resulting in more children with SEN being taught in mainstream environments. Empirical research has…

  1. Theories of Inclusion, Theories of Schools: Deconstructing and Reconstructing the "Inclusive School."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Dyson, Alan; Millward, Alan; Robson, Sue

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of four secondary schools seeking to develop an inclusive approach. Identifies some common themes across the four institutions, such as the nature of resistance and the resilience of special education. Considers the theoretical explanations, and their implications, on the notion of inclusion. (CMK)

  2. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  3. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  4. Nonpost mold cure compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiro

    1997-08-01

    The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

  5. Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above. The natures of the macromolecular carbon in the solid inclusions observed by C-XANES are consistent with the previous studies showing that the carbonaceous solid inclusions have not originated from Monahans parent body [1-3], and have various origins, including various chondritic meteorite parent bodies as well as other unknown source(s).

  6. Compound droplets on fibers

    E-print Network

    Weyer, Floriane; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius.

  7. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  8. Compound Droplets on Fibers.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Floriane; Ben Said, Marouen; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-07-21

    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius. PMID:26090699

  9. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  10. Water soluble biocompatible vesicles based on polysaccharides and oligosaccharides inclusion complexes for carotenoid delivery.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-09-01

    Since carotenoids are highly hydrophobic, air- and light-sensitive hydrocarbon compounds, developing methods for increasing their bioavailability and stability towards irradiation and reactive oxygen species is an important goal. Application of inclusion complexes of "host-guest" type with polysaccharides and oligosaccharides such as arabinogalactan, cyclodextrins and glycyrrhizin minimizes the disadvantages of carotenoids when these compounds are used in food processing (colors and antioxidant capacity) as well as for production of therapeutic formulations. Cyclodextrin complexes which have been used demonstrated enhanced storage stability but suffered from poor solubility. Polysaccharide and oligosaccharide based inclusion complexes play an important role in pharmacology by providing increased solubility and stability of lipophilic drugs. In addition they are used as drug delivery systems to increase absorption rate and bioavailability of the drugs. In this review we summarize the existing data on preparation methods, analysis, and chemical reactivity of carotenoids in inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin, arabinogalactan and glycyrrhizin. It was demonstrated that incorporation of carotenoids into the "host" macromolecule results in significant changes in their physical and chemical properties. In particular, polysaccharide complexes show enhanced photostability of carotenoids in water solutions. A significant decrease in the reactivity towards metal ions and reactive oxygen species in solution was also detected. PMID:26005157

  11. Enhanced thermal stability of eugenol by cyclodextrin inclusion complex encapsulated in electrospun polymeric nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Kayaci, Fatma; Ertas, Yelda; Uyar, Tamer

    2013-08-28

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers encapsulating eugenol (EG)/cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes (IC) (EG/CD-IC) were produced via electrospinning technique in order to achieve high thermal stability and slow release of EG. In order to find out the most favorable CD type for the stabilization of EG, three types of native cyclodextrins (?-CD, ?-CD, and ?-CD) were used for the formation of EG/CD-IC. In the case of PVA/EG/?-CD nanofibers, uncomplexed EG was detected indicating that ?-CD is not a proper host for EG/CD-IC formation. However, for PVA/EG/?-CD-IC and PVA/EG/?-CD-IC nanofibers, enhanced durability and high thermal stability for EG were achieved due to the inclusion complexation. The electrospun nanofibers encapsulating CD-IC of active compounds such as eugenol may be quite useful in the food industry due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with specific functionality, enhanced thermal stability, and slow release of the active compounds by CD inclusion complexation. PMID:23898890

  12. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  13. Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2013-01-01

    Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

  14. SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

  15. Educational Technology for the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the development of an educational technology curriculum aimed at pre-service, primary education and undergraduates; the focus is on the incorporation of ICT competences for inclusive education. The framework was the introduction of SEVERI e-learning environment in Slovenian schools. Students were able to monitor…

  16. Negotiating the Path: Towards Diversity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Letita R.

    2009-01-01

    Global survival hinges on an appreciation that the solutions to problems reside within the collective strength of diversity. However, achieving inclusion is often relegated to periodic infusions of multiculturalism into the mainstream of organizational culture. And "diversity" is quickly becoming the latest buzzword for an idea that, though…

  17. Inclusive Design of Ambient Knowledge Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Stary; Edith Stary; Stefan Oppl

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive Design of knowledge transfer aims to involve different learners and coaches into the transfer process of knowledge in a way that actively supports learning. In this paper we elaborate some benefits for learners and coaches when applying major principles of Maria Montessori along the transfer process of knowledge. Benefits stem from learners' self control and individualised learning experiences. We

  18. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  19. Inclusive universal access in engineering education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Derntl; Renate Motschnig-Pitrik

    2007-01-01

    The context of our research is technology- enhanced learning in CS education. In the paper we extend the concept of Universal Access by including essential non- technological aspects resulting in a concept we call inclusive universal access (IA). IA aims to actively involve students in learning and assessment; to address them on all levels of learning including intellect, skills, and

  20. Preschool Inclusion: Navigating through Alphabet Soup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Rebecca; Bordin, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The number of preschool-aged children with disabilities who spend some part of their day in an inclusive school or child care setting has grown tremendously in the past ten years. Meeting the needs of these children is always challenging. However, Public Law 105-17 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'97) mandates that children…

  1. Multiage Instruction and Inclusion: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon K.; Connor, Mary; Cady, Karin; Zweifel, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a multiage classroom led by three co-teachers who facilitate the education of 42 students ages six through nine years. The classroom is located in a public school district that practices inclusion and subscribes to the principles of whole schooling. A literature review defines the concepts of co-teaching, multiage education,…

  2. Discourse Practices in Inclusive Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Cynthia C.; League, Martha B.; Griffin, Valerie L.; Bae, Jungah

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory study, teachers' use of standards-based, discourse practices and their students' mathematics learning in inclusive elementary mathematics classrooms were examined. Two beginning teachers (one third-grade teacher, one fourth-grade teacher) and six students identified with disabilities or as low performing in mathematics…

  3. Inclusive Standard Model Higgs searches with ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Polci, Francesco [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2008-11-23

    The update of the discovery potential for a Standard Model Higgs boson through the inclusive searches H{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, H{yields}ZZ* and H{yields}WW with the ATLAS detector is reported. The analysis are based on the most recent available simulations of signal, backgrounds as well as the detector response.

  4. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Arash; Goriely, Alain

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder. PMID:24353470

  5. Effect of polarization on hadron inclusive spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Kobrinskii; A. K. Likhoded

    1973-01-01

    The effect of polarization of initial particles on inclusive spectra is ; considered. It is shown that these spectra are independent of polarization in ; the framework of the quark theory. Possible variation of the proton spectrum due ; to the DELTA (1236)-resonance alignment is estimated. (auth);

  6. Inclusive Assessment at Point-of-Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Neil; Zybutz, Tanya; Rouse, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Recognising assessment as a driver for learning and a key part of the student learning experience, this case study considers the impact of opening the assessment process to active student engagement as well as placing inclusivity at the heart of the assessment task at point-of-design. This case study presents an approach to assessment that both…

  7. Inclusion: Professional Development Needs of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocks, Amanda G.

    2010-01-01

    An attitudinal resistance among teachers regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities is well documented in the literature. Studies collectively highlight two specific areas that contribute to this resistance. First, a lack of teacher knowledge or preparedness for meeting the diverse needs of children with disabilities stimulates…

  8. Inclusion: The Unifying Thread for Fragmented Metaphors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Lynn H.

    This paper examines new metaphors in educational leadership and how shifting priorities and contradictions between these metaphors could result in serious fragmentation within the field. It then discusses seven ways that inclusion of all students and, in particular, students with disabilities, is the unifying thread that weaves these metaphors…

  9. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  10. Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    Web Accessibility Office of Diversity and Inclusion Applies to: Any website conducting university of the art digital and web based information delivery of information is increasingly central in carrying out constituencies. This policy establishes minimum standards for the accessibility of web based information

  11. Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

  12. Inclusion and Burnout in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejgin, Naomi; Talmor, Rachel; Erlich, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between inclusion and burnout in physical education teaching. Data were collected from a sample of elementary school physical education (PE) teachers from all six districts in Israel. The research questionnaire included three parts: personal and occupational background, Friedman's Burnout index and work…

  13. Social Inclusion of Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This feature issue presents articles on the social inclusion of people with developmental disabilities into the community and also some related news items. This issue provides profiles of organizations, workplaces, and schools that are successfully integrating people with developmental disabilities into community activities. The articles are: "'I…

  14. Crack path prediction near an elliptical inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Patton; M. H. Santare

    1993-01-01

    A technique is presented which will predict the path of a naturally growing crack where the stress field can be modeled as two-dimensional. The Green function for an arbitrarily oriented edge dislocation interacting with a rigid inclusion (or void) is used in an integral formulation of the elasticity problem. The technique uses a boundary integral approach to solve for the

  15. Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in halite

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.M.; Spencer, R.J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    A variety of paleoclimate proxy records allow determination of relative warming or cooling. However, if we are to understand climate change, quantification of past temperature fluctuations is essential. Our research indicates that fluid inclusions in halite can yield homogenization temperatures that record surface brine temperatures at the time of halite precipitation. To avoid problems with stretching, leaking, and initial trapping of air, samples with primary, single-phase (liquid) fluid inclusions are chilled in a freezer to nucleate vapor bubbles. We tested the reliability of this method of obtaining fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures using modern salts precipitated at Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Homogenization temperatures correlate well with measured brine temperatures. The same method is applied to fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite from a core taken at the same location in Death Valley. Results are at several scales, recording diurnal temperature variations, seasonal temperature fluctuations, and longer-term warming and cooling events that correlate with major changes in the sedimentary environment related to climate. This technique is uniquely instrumental for paleoclimate studies because it offers actual, not just proxy, paleotemperature data. 27 refs., 17 figs.

  16. CALCULATION OF INCLUSION COMPLEX OF A BINAPHTYL

    E-print Network

    Entel, P.

    CALCULATION OF INCLUSION COMPLEX OF A BINAPHTYL DERIVATIVE AND -CYCLODEXTRIN USING DENSITY the interaction of the host-guest -cyclodextrin- 2,2'-Dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl complex by means of molecular dy on the investigation of the most stable con- formation of this complex by investigating some of the structural prop

  17. Changes in Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Nordness, Philip D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite federal mandates to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, teachers continue to have mixed feelings about their own preparedness to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting. However, research has demonstrated that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion are more…

  18. On the Dirt Road to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

  19. Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemyn, Brett Genny

    2005-01-01

    This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

  20. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Inclusion body myopathy 2

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if I still have specific questions about inclusion body myopathy 2? Ask the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language. What does it mean if a disorder seems ...

  2. Researching Classroom Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohna, Stein Erik

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss processes of inclusion and exclusion in compulsory classrooms where both Norwegian and Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) are used. The Norwegian Education Act 1998, section 2?6, gives deaf pupils who have acquired sign language as their first language 'the right to tuition in the use of sign language and through the…

  3. Introduction: Leadership and Diversity: Creating Inclusive Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Jean A.; Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a theme issue that explores the perceptions of teachers toward African American school leaders as they seek to create inclusive school environments; the capacity of teachers and school leaders to negotiate intergroup conflict so they can work collaboratively on matters of race; and leaders' interpretation and implementation of policies…

  4. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  5. Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion in general education and attention to belonging are the first steps toward greater achievement for all students. This must be followed by improving the core teaching and curriculum to enhance learning of all students through differentiation, and teaching to multiple modalities and learning preferences. For these changes to occur,…

  6. Creating Inclusive Schools for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a former principal at Falk Elementary School in Madison, Wisconsin, describes his school's shift as it sought to create an inclusive school for all students and establish an authentic sense of belonging. Nationwide, schools and districts from Concord, New Hampshire, to Whittier, California, and from Cambridge, Massachusetts, to…

  7. Perfluoroalkyl Nitroso Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Banus

    1953-01-01

    A PRELIMINARY study1 of the photochemical properties of the first fluorocarbon iodide, trifluoro-iodomethane, showed that a trifluoromethyl radical is produced the primary reactions of which parallel those of the hydrocarbon free radicals. A direct method thus became available for the preparation of perfluoroalkyl nitroso compounds, by irradiation of the iodide in the presence of nitric oxide and of mercury (to

  8. Optimisation of compound pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Majzoobi; A. Ghomi

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is optimization of the weight of compound cylinder for a specific pressure. The variables are shrinkage radius and shrinkage tolerance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: SEQ technique for optimization, the finite element code, ANSYS for numerical simulation are employed to predict the optimized conditions. The results are verified by testing a number of closed end cylinders with various

  9. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  10. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Owens; A. Peacock

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky

  11. Arsonium Compounds in Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Benson

    1989-01-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous

  12. Biotransformation of halogenated compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hardman

    1991-01-01

    As a result of natural production and contamination of the environment by xenobiotic compounds, halogenated substances are widely distributed in the biosphere. Concern arises as a result of the toxic, carcinogenic, and potential teratogenic nature of these substances. The biotransformations of such halogenated substances are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the biocatalytic cleavage of the carbon-halogen bonds. The physiology, biochemistry,

  13. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Encino, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  14. Tagging Classical Sanskrit Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan S. Gillon

    2009-01-01

    The paper sets out a prima facie case for the claim that the classification of Sanskrit compounds in P??inian tradition can be retrieved from a very slight\\u000a augmentation of the usual enriched context free rules.

  15. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  16. Compound semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alan; Peacock, A.

    2004-09-01

    We discuss the potential benefits of using compound semiconductors for the detection of X- and ?-ray radiation. While Si and Ge have become detection standards for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by one or more of their physical limitations; namely the need for ancillary cooling systems or bulky cryogenics, their modest stopping powers and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors encompass such a wide range of physical properties that it is technically feasible to engineer a material to any application. Wide band-gap compounds offer the ability to operate in a wide range of thermal and radiation environments, whilst still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at hard X-ray wavelengths. Narrow band-gap materials, on the other hand, offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolution of both Si and Ge, by as much as a factor of 3. Assuming that the total system noise can be reduced to a level commensurate with Fano noise, spectroscopic detectors could work in the XUV, effectively bridging the gap between the ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavebands. Thus, in principle, compound semiconductor detectors can provide continuous spectroscopic coverage from the far infrared through to ?-ray wavelengths. However, while they are routinely used at infrared and optical wavelengths, in other bands, their development has been plagued by material and fabrication problems. This is particularly true at hard X- and ?-ray wavelengths, where only a few compounds (e.g., GaAs, CdZnTe and HgI2) have evolved sufficiently to produce working detection systems. In this paper, we examine the current status of research in compound semiconductors and by a careful examination of material properties and future requirements, recommend a number of compounds for further development. In the longer term, when material problems are sufficiently under control, we believe the future lies in the development of heterostructures and inserted interface layers to overcome contacting problems and quantum heterostructures and superlattices to facilitate low-noise readout.

  17. UV–VIS. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FERULIC ACID AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George X. Pan; Cameron I. Thomson; Gordon J. Leary

    2002-01-01

    The UV–Vis. absorption of ferulic acid and related compounds may be considerably augmented by substitution and environment. Among the circumstances investigated in the present study, esterification (mostly to polysaccharides in plant cell wall), dehydrodimerization and inclusion in a cellulose matrix substantially cause the absorption to increase and extend into the visible region. As a result of the combination of these

  18. Determination of antibacterial quaternary ammonium compounds in lozenges by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Taylor; S Toasaksiri; R. G Reid

    1998-01-01

    A method for the specific determination of three quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride and dequalinium chloride, used as antibacterial agents in candy-based lozenges, is described based on capillary zone electrophoresis. It is shown that, following optimisation of buffer composition with respect to organic modifier concentration, pH and buffer concentration together with the inclusion of sodium dodecylsulphate as an

  19. Diagenetic palaeotemperatures from aqueous fluid inclusions: re- equilibration of inclusions in carbonate cements by burial heating.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations based on the observed behaviour of inclusions in fluorite under external confining P allows prediction of the T and depths of burial necessary to initiate re-equilibration of aqueous inclusions in the common size range 40-4 mu m. Heating of 20-60oC over the initial trapping T may cause errors of 10-20oC in the homogenization T. This suggests that re-equilibration may cause aqueous inclusions in carbonates to yield a poor record of their low-T history, but a useful record of the maximum T experienced by the host rock. Previous work suggests that inclusions containing petroleum fluids will be less susceptible to re-equilibration.This and the following six abstracts represent papers presented at a joint meeting of the Applied Mineralogy Group of the Mineralogical Society and the Petroleum Group of the Geological Society held in Newcastle upon Tyne in April 1986.-R.A.H.

  20. Addition of Titanium Oxide Inclusions into Liquid Steel to Control Nonmetallic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri

    2012-04-01

    Titanium oxide inclusions in steel are well known to inhibit grain growth and act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite because of absorbing manganese from the surrounding steel resulting in a manganese depleted zone around the inclusion. In this article, the inclusions resulting from TiO2 additions to low-alloyed C-Mn-Cr steel were studied. Different types of TiO2 containing materials were added to liquid steel before or during casting to get small titanium-oxide-rich inclusions in steel. The main goals were to find out what happens to TiO2 in liquid steel after addition and during cooling and to study further what type of inclusions are formed in the steel as a result of the TiO2 addition. Based on the thermodynamic calculations and the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and SEM-electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, TiO2 is first reduced to Ti3O5 in liquid steel at high temperatures and then to Ti2O3 during cooling at around 1573 K (1300 °C). Both reactions liberate oxygen, which reacts with Ti, Mn, and Al forming complex Ti2O3-rich inclusions. The results also show that TiO2 additions result in more TiOx + MnO inclusions compared with experiments with Ti addition and that the absolute amount of manganese present in the inclusions is much higher in experiments with TiO2 addition than in experiments with Ti additions.

  1. Preparation of In-111-acetylacetone-2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBC): A new inclusion complex readiotracer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Van Heertum, R.L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity of inclusion compound formation of HBC with radiopharmaceuticals and their stability in vivo. In-111 chloride, In-111-acetylacetone (in-111-ACAC), In-111-oxine, In-111-DTPA, and In-111-tropolone were mixed with aqueous HBC solution. Each solution mixture was monitored and assayed by TLC, ITLC, HPLC to identify the purity of the final product. The results indicated that among all the studied RXs, only In-111-ACAC was able to form a stable complex with HBC under these conditions. Biodistribution of In-111-ACAC, and In-111-ACAC-HBC were then compared in non-tumor rats (n=4) yielded liver concentration in %ID*/g of 6.64, 5.27, and 3.25 for In-111-ACAC and 4.13, 2.14, and 1.03 for In-111-ACAC-HBC at 4, 24 and 48 hrs post injection respectively. These results suggested that: (1) HBC can form an inclusion compound with In-111-ACAC (2) This compound is stable in vivo and has lower liver uptake than does In-111-ACAC alone (3) The hydroxypropyl functional side chains can be useful for bifunctional radiolabeling of peptides or antibodies for diagnostic imaging.

  2. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-01

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

  3. Hydrogen in compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

  4. Arsonium compounds in algae

    PubMed Central

    Benson, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5?-dimethylarsinoyl-5?-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

  5. Arsonium compounds in algae.

    PubMed

    Benson, A A

    1989-08-01

    Search for a precursor of the arsenobetaine discovered in Western Australian rock lobster tail muscle has led to an algal metabolite of radioarsenate having the properties of a trimethylarsoniumriboside derivative of the major arsenicals of aquatic plants, dimethylarsinoylribosylglycerol, its sulfate ester, and the corresponding riboside of phosphatidylglycerol. Such an arsonium compound could serve as metabolic precursor of arsenobetaine, the innocuous arsenical component of many marine food products. The oceanic diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, cultured in radioarsenate produced a compound whose chemical, chromatographic, and electrophoretic properties are described. It was found to be identical to the trimethylarsonium derivative synthesized from the major algal arsenical, 1-(5'-dimethylarsinoyl-5'-deoxyribosyl)glycerol-3-O -sulfate. PMID:16594059

  6. Automated Inclusive Design Heuristics Generation with Graph Mining 

    E-print Network

    Sangelkar, Shraddha Chandrakant

    2013-08-01

    Inclusive design is a concept intended to promote the development of products and environments equally usable by all users, irrespective of their age or ability. This research focuses on developing a method to derive heuristics for inclusive design...

  7. Granulitic and eclogitic inclusions from basic pipes at Delegate, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Lovering; A. J. R. White

    1969-01-01

    Basic breccia-nephelinite pipes at Delegate (N.S.W., Australia) contain abundant two-pyroxene granulite, garnet granulite and fassaite eclogite inclusions and rare spinel pyroxenite, peridotite and charnockite inclusions.

  8. Multicylinder compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a compound, rotary-reciprocal engine. It comprises: a two-cycle reciprocator having cylinders, each cylinder having at least one piston arranged for reciprocation in the cylinder in a cycled operation with a timed air input to the cylinder and a timed exhaust from the cylinder; a compressed air intake and combustion gas exit in each cylinder of the reciprocator; fuel injection means for injecting fuel into the cylinders at appropriate times in the cycled operation; and, a rotocharger.

  9. Compound Interdependences in MOP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Carlsson; Robert Fuller

    1996-01-01

    We consider multiple objective programming (MOP) problems with compound interdependences, i.e. the case when the states of some chosen objective are attained through supportive or inhibitory feed-backs from several other objectives. MOP problems with independent objectives (i.e. when the cause-effect relations between the decision variables and the objectives are completely known) will be treated as special cases of the MOP

  10. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially ?-d-glucans. Among them, ?-1,3-glucan with side chain ?-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  11. Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

    1997-10-01

    Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

  12. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  13. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ? 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  15. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  16. The influence of inclusion chemical composition on weld metal microstructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Liu; D. L. Olson

    1987-01-01

    The effects of nonmetallic inclusions on weld metal microstructures were investigated. The inclusions were extracted from\\u000a niobium microalloyed steel weld metal specimens, and examined with light and electron microscopic techniques. An EDS (Energy\\u000a Dispensive Spectroscopy) system was used to determine the chemical composition of the inclusions. Correlation between weld\\u000a metal and inclusion composition was established. Aluminum, titanium, sulfur, and iron

  17. Iron-containing cytoplasmic inclusions in mouse bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, C; Orlic, D

    1980-01-01

    Elongated, tapered inclusions, present in the cytoplasm of macrophages in mouse bone marrow, were studied by electron microscopy. The bone marrow of adult mice that were injected with the hemolytic agent phenylhydrazine, displayed a statistically significant increase in the number of inclusions compared with bone marrow from control animals. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that ferritin, a known product of red cell destruction, was resent in these inclusions. It is suggested that the inclusions are derived from the degradation of phagocytosed red cells. PMID:7405532

  18. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  19. In defence of inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Herre, Edward Allen; Wcislo, William T

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Arguably the defining characteristic of the scientific process is its capacity for self-criticism and correction. Nowak et al. challenge proposed connections between relatedness and the evolution of eusociality, suggest instead that defensible nests and "spring-loaded" traits are key, and present alternative modelling approaches. They then dismiss the utility of Hamilton's insight that relatedness has a profound evolutionary effect, formalized in his widely accepted inclusive fitness theory as Hamilton's rule ("Rise and fall of inclusive fitness theory"). However, we believe that Nowak et al. fail to make their case for logical, theoretical and empirical reasons. PMID:21430725

  20. Inclusiveness in higher education in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Cupito; Ray Langsten

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution,\\u000a in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt’s leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination,\\u000a promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the number of places. Officials expected\\u000a these policies to increase inclusiveness as enrollments

  1. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  2. Inclusive searches for SUSY at CMS

    E-print Network

    Chris Lucas

    2014-09-12

    Multiple searches for supersymmetry have been performed at the CMS experiment. Of these, inclusive searches aim to remain as sensitive as possible to the widest range of potential new physics scenarios. The results presented in this talk use the latest 19.5 fb$^{-1}$ of 8 TeV data from the 2012 LHC run. Interpretations are given within the context of Simplified Model Spectra for a variety of both hadronic and leptonic signatures.

  3. Inclusive J production in Z0 decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S. P. Ahlen; H. Akbari; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; O. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelov; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; A G Atamanchuk; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; J. Behrens; S. Beingessner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; B. Blumenfeld; Gerjan J Bobbink; M. Bocciolini; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; C. Buisson; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J. P. Burq; J K Busenitz; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; F. Carminati; A. M. Cartacci; M. Cerrada; F. Cesaroni; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. M. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; J. Chen; M. L. Chen; W. Y. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. Chmeissani; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; F. Crijns; X. T. Cui; X. Y. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; R. de Asmundis; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Dhina; Daryl DiBitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; T. Driever; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; O. Fackler; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. Field; F. Filthaut; G. Finocchiaro; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; T. Foreman; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. S. Gau; D. Gele; S. Gentile; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; P. Göttlicher; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; C. Grinnell; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; G. Herten; U. Herten; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; S. Jezequel; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; W. W. Kinnison; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; A. Krivschich; H. Kuitjen; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; I. Leedom; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; J. Lettry; X. Leytens; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; X. G. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; D. Linnhofer; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; P. K. Malhotra; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; D. N. Mao; Y. F. Mao; M. Maolinbay; P A Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; L. Martinez-Laso; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; T. Matsuda; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; Th. Meinholz; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; A. Nadtochy; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; H. Newman; C. Neyer; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V Pozhidaev; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; N. Produit; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S Rosier-Lees; L. Romero; J. Rose; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; E. Sajan; J. Salicio; G Sartorelli; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; V. Schegelsky; K. Schmiemann; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; H J Schreiber; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; S. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schütte; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen; S. Shevchenko; X. R. Shi; E. Shumilov; V. Shoutko; E. Soderstrom; A. Sopczak; C. Spartiotis; T. Spickermann; P. Spillantini; R. Starosta; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; F. Sticozzi; H. Stone; K. Strauch

    1992-01-01

    Inclusive J production in Z0 decays is observed via the leptonic decay mode J --> l+l- (l = e,mu). We measure the branching ratio Br(Z0 --> J + X) = (4.1 +\\/- 0.7 (stat.) +\\/- 0.3 (sys.)) × 10-3. We have calculated the fraction of the J mesons from b-hadron decay and find a branching ratio of Br(b --> J

  4. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  5. Composition, structure, and sources of exogenous inclusions in steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Moiseeva; B. P. Moiseev

    2007-01-01

    † Exogenous inclusions introduced in steel from adjacent nonmetallic layers may result in loss of fatigue strength and the destruction of parts operating at elevated loads, since such inclusions may be 5?200 times larger than endogenous inclusions of oxides (reduction products) and sulfides. However, the quantity of macroinclusions in metal on chill casting is so small that they may be

  6. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1...ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined by subtracting...

  7. Center for Diversity & Inclusion DIVERSITY DIGEST February 2013

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    for Diversity & Inclusion is working alongside the Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, and Nursing and the College School of Nursing, Founders Auditorium. read more #12;Center for Diversity & Inclusion Important LinksCenter for Diversity & Inclusion DIVERSITY DIGEST February 2013 Celebrating Black History Month

  8. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    product can reach values of the order of 100 m2 s per ton of steel, and that the air-to-steel volume ratio INTRODUCTION Inclusions are a major cost factor in the production of steel castings. Removing inclusionsPrediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel Liang Wang and Christoph

  9. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel LIANG WANG and CHRISTOPH pouring of steel castings. The software package Thermo-Calc is used to obtain the inclusion phase in the production of steel castings. Removing inclusions and refilling the defect areas with the weld metal account

  10. Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

  11. Leadership for All Students: Planning for More Inclusive School Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…

  12. A Conceptual Analysis of Key Concepts in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston-Kemple, Thomas Ernest

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of an inclusive classroom, inclusion, co-teaching, and disability have been called poorly defined and in need of fresh conceptual analyses. In Chapter 1, I respond to this call for further analysis and then demonstrate, using current educational headlines, that these concepts of "an inclusive classroom,"…

  13. Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness

    E-print Network

    Grafen, Alan

    Detecting kin selection at work using inclusive fitness Alan Grafen* Zoology Department, Oxford arguments, that the model falls squarely within the scope of inclusive fitness theory, which furthermore shows how to calculate inclusive fitness and the relevant relatedness. A distinction is drawn between

  14. Leadership Strategies for Successful Schoolwide Inclusion: The STAR Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munk, Dennis D.; Dempsey, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective, "schoolwide" inclusion ensures the best outcomes for all students--but how can school teams knock down the barriers to inclusion and make sure it's happening across all classrooms? This concise book gives principals and other school leaders the solution they've been waiting for: a clear framework for leading inclusion efforts,…

  15. Teacher preparation for inclusive education: increasing knowledge but raising concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Forlin; Dianne Chambers

    2011-01-01

    The role of the generalist teacher is now affirmed as being an important component in the success or otherwise of inclusive education practice. Issues about the effectiveness of teacher preparation for working in inclusive classes have arisen. An evaluation of pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding their preparedness for inclusion had some interesting findings. The study found that increasing knowledge about legislation

  16. Examining American Indians' Recall of Cultural Inclusion in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freng, Scott; Freng, Adrienne; Moore, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This research examined American Indians' recall of cultural inclusion from their elementary through high school education. Sixteen American Indians described their experiences of schools to peer interviewers. Analysis of interviews revealed three themes: the nature of cultural inclusion, factors influencing cultural inclusion, and recommendations…

  17. Association of inclusion body myositis with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joerg Wenzel; Manfred Uerlich; Rainer Gerdsen; Thomas Bieber; Ingrid Boehm

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old man with inclusion body myositis combined with subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dysphagia. Although inclusion body myositis is usually resistant to immunosuppressive therapy, this patient improved under treatment with corticosteroids. The presented case is discussed in the context of earlier reports of inclusion body myositis and lupus erythematosus.

  18. What Are Schools Looking for in New, Inclusive Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted in four school divisions in central Canada in order to determine whether inclusive educators in schools could identify the knowledge base, skills set, and attitudes desirable in new inclusive teachers. Participants failed to identify an essential knowledge base for inclusive educators. Findings indicated that a focus on…

  19. Edge dislocation climb over non-deformable circular inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Holbrook; W. D. Nix

    1974-01-01

    Edge dislocation climb over non-deformable circular inclusions is studied as a possible rate limiting mechanism for creep of dispersion strengthened metals. The inclusion and matrix are assumed to exhibit no misfit and to be elastically isotropic, with the inclusion, more rigid than the matrix. The climb motion of the dislocation is assumed to be diffusion controlled and very much slower

  20. Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  2. Barriers that Prevent the Achievement of Inclusive Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo; Corvalan, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education inherently involves the inclusion of all citizens in a democratic society. Based on this view, questions emerge with respect to equality and integration in educational systems. Although inclusion should be viewed as a requirement in a democratic society, along with the integration in schools of students from different social…

  3. A Community of Inclusion 2012-13 Report

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    , Chief Diversity Officer & Inclusion Leading a Cultural Transformation #12;Joseph e. RobeRtson, JR. M of ideas and perspectives work together to foster innovation. Diversity is key to maintaining a competitive. Enhancing a Community of Inclusion Integrating diversity and inclusion and achieving cultural transformation

  4. Development of the Inclusion Attitude Scale for High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Catherine; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2009-01-01

    This study involved the development of a new scale to measure high school teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education classrooms. A second aim was to examine the relationship of teachers' professional development regarding inclusion, their years of experience with inclusion, access to instructional…

  5. Challenges of the Secondary School Context for Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Michelle; Gray, Jan; Campbell-Evans, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Senate and State Government reviews into inclusion in Australian schools during the last two decades have revealed that the inclusion of students with disabilities in schools has proved challenging. A qualitative study involving interviews with 50 leaders in inclusive education suggest that currently the secondary school context is a barrier to…

  6. Crack path prediction near an elliptical inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, E. M.; Santare, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is presented which will predict the path of a naturally growing crack where the stress field can be modeled as two-dimensional. The Green function for an arbitrarily oriented edge dislocation interacting with a rigid inclusion (or void) is used in an integral formulation of the elasticity problem. The technique uses a boundary integral approach to solve for the dislocation density along an arbitrarily shaped crack interacting with a rigid elliptical inclusion or void. The crack path is parameterized as a cubic spline, and a first order perturbation solution is employed to account for the generally curvilinear nature of the crack. The singular integrals are solved using a numerical technique which describes the distribution of dislocations along the crack as a piecewise quadratic polynomial to transform the integral equations into algebraic equations well suited to a matrix-type solution. Results of each step of the analysis have been verified with previously published results, and with experimental results of a crack propagating near an open circular hole. New results are also presented as paths of cracks interacting with inclusions of differing ellipticity ratios and at different orientations with respect to the initial crack.

  7. Optineurin immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial intranuclear inclusions in adult-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masataka; Murray, Melissa E; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Dickson, Dennis W

    2014-01-01

    Optineurin (OPTN) is a multifunctional protein involved in cellular morphogenesis, vesicle trafficking, maintenance of the Golgi complex, and transcription activation through its interactions with the Rab8, myosin 6 (MYO6), huntingtin. Recently, OPTN immunoreactivity has been reported in intranuclear inclusions in patients with neuronal intranuclear inclusions disease (NIID). Other studies have shown that the RNA-binding protein, fused in sarcoma (FUS), is a component of intranuclear inclusions in NIID. We aimed to investigate the relationship between OPTN, its binding protein MYO6 and FUS in this study. In control subjects, OPTN (C-terminal) (OPTN-C) and MYO6 immunoreactivity was mainly demonstrated in the cytoplasm of neurons. In NIID patients, both neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII) and glial intranuclear inclusions (GII) were immunopositive for MYO6 as well as OPTN-C. However, the intensity of OPTN-C immunostaining of the neuronal cytoplasm with and without NII was less than that of the control subjects. Double immunofluorescence staining for OPTN-C, ubiquitin (Ub), p62 and FUS revealed co-localization of these proteins within NII. Moreover, Ub positive inclusions were co-localized with MYO6. The percentage of co-localization of Ub with OPTN-C, FUS or MYO6 in NII was 100%, 52% and 92%, respectively. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions consisted of thin and thick filaments. Both filaments were immunopositive for Ub and OPTN-C. These findings suggest that OPTN plays a central role in the disease pathogenesis, and that OPTN may be a major component of NII. PMID:25232514

  8. Bilingual reading of compound words.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words. PMID:20623255

  9. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-print Network

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  10. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  11. Phenolic compounds in Catharanthus roseus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natali Rianika Mustafa; Robert Verpoorte

    2007-01-01

    Besides alkaloids Catharanthus roseus produces a wide spectrum of phenolic compounds, this includes C6C1 compounds such as 2,3-dihydoxybenzoic acid, as well as\\u000a phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The occurrence of these compounds in C. roseus is reviewed as well as their biosynthesis and the regulation of the pathways. Both types of compounds compete with the indole

  12. The strange-sea quark spin distribution in the nucleon from inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    E-print Network

    L. Grigoryan

    2008-02-21

    We propose new method which allows determination of the strange-sea quark spin distribution in the nucleon through measurement of various inclusive and semi-inclusive polarized deep inelastic electron- or muon-proton reactions. It is shown, that using combinations of inclusive data and semi-inclusive data containing neutral pions in the final state, it is possible to extract the strange-sea quark spin distribution. Similar result can be obtained for charged pions and some other hadrons also.

  13. Carcinogenic effect of nickel compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitian Lu; Xianglin Shi; Max Costa; Chuanshu Huang

    2005-01-01

    Nickel is a widely distributed metal that is industrially applied in many forms. Accumulated epidemiological evidence confirms that exposures to nickel compounds are associated with increased nasal and lung cancer incidence, both in mostly occupational exposures. Although the molecular mechanisms by which nickel compounds cause cancer are still under intense investigation, the carcinogenic actions of nickel compounds are thought to

  14. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  15. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  16. Building Inclusion from the Ground up: A Review of Whole School Re-Culturing Programmes for Sustaining Inclusive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that whole school re-culturing programmes can potentially assist in the creation of more inclusive value orientated schools. The relationship between school culture and successful inclusion has been demonstrated in the literature. Furthermore, the structure of whole school programmes in inculcating inclusive values and…

  17. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk of microbial contamination to patients. In the last 11 years, three separate meningitis outbreaks have been traced to purportedly 'sterile' steroid injections contaminated with fungus or bacteria, which were made by compounding pharmacies. The most recent 2012 outbreak has resulted in intense scrutiny of pharmacy compounding practices and increased recognition of the need to ensure that compounding is limited to appropriate circumstances. Patients and healthcare practitioners need to be aware that compounded drugs are not the same as generic drugs, which are approved by the FDA. The risk-benefit ratio of using traditionally compounded medicines is favorable for patients who require specialized medications that are not commercially available, as they would otherwise not have access to suitable treatment. However, if an FDA-approved drug is commercially available, the use of an unapproved compounded drug confers additional risk with no commensurate benefit. PMID:23526368

  18. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  19. Iron- and 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline-containing periplasmic inclusion bodies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royt, P.W.; Honeychuck, R.V.; Pant, R.R.; Rogers, M.L.; Asher, L.V.; Lloyd, J.R.; Carlos, W.E.; Belkin, H.E.; Patwardhan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Dark aggregated particles were seen on pellets of iron-rich, mid-logarithmic phase Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy of these cells showed inclusion bodies in periplasmic vacuoles. Aggregated particles isolated from the spent medium of these cells contained iron as indicated by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy that revealed Fe3+. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis of whole cells revealed the presence of iron-containing particles beneath the surface of the cell, indicating that the isolated aggregates were the intracellular inclusion bodies. Collectively, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the isolated inclusion bodies revealed the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline which is the Pseudomonas quinolone signaling compound (PQS) and an iron chelator; 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (pseudan VII), which is an iron chelator, antibacterial compound and precursor of PQS; 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline (pseudan IX) which is an iron chelator and antibacterial compound; 4-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline (pseudan I), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonylquinoline N-oxide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transition Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomskii, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    1. Localised and itinerant electrons in solids; 2. Isolated transition metal ions; 3. Transition metal ions in crystals; 4. Mott–Hubbard vc charge-transfer insulators; 5. Exchange interaction and magnetic structures; 6. Cooperative Jahn–Teller effect and orbital ordering; 7. Charge ordering in transition metal compounds; 8. Ferroelectrics, magnetoelectrics and multiferroics; 9. Doping of correlated systems and correlated metals; 10. Metal-insulator transitions; 11. Kondoeffect, mixed valence and heavy fermions; Appendix A. Some historical notes; Appendix B. A layman's guide to second quantization; Appendix C. Phase transitions and free energy expansion: Landau theory in a nutshell.

  1. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  2. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  3. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    E-print Network

    Thorsten Auth; Gerhard Gompper

    2009-10-16

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  4. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols. However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  5. MINER?A charged current inclusive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, D. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    MINER?A is a few-GeV neutrino scattering experiment that has been taking data in the NuMI beam line at Fermilab since November 2009. The experiment will provide important inputs, both in support of neutrino oscillation searches and as a pure weak probe of the nuclear medium. For this, MINERvA employs a fine-grained detector, with an eight ton active target region composed of plastic scintillator and a suite of nuclear targets composed of helium, carbon, iron, lead and water placed upstream of the active region. We will describe the current status of the charged current inclusive analysis in plastic scintillator.

  6. Inclusive B decays from resummed perturbation theory.

    E-print Network

    Gardi, Einan

    of cuts, 1.8 ? E0 ? 2.3. Moreover, assuming similar cuts, the relative importance of non-perturbtaive corrections in the partial branching fraction is lower than in the moments. This gives us con- fidence in the predictions for the partial BF. IV... ¯ ? K¯?? peak) but inclusive observ- ables such as the partial branching fractions and the moments (defined over a sufficiently large phase space) are insensitive to these details. FIG. 2: The photon–energy spectrum in B¯ ? Xs? (for the electromagnetic...

  7. Inclusion Optimization for Next Generation Steel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sridar Seetharaman: Dr. Alan Cramb

    2006-04-06

    The project objective is to determine the conditions under which the inclusions in liquid steel can act as heterogeneous nucleants for solidification. The experimental approach consisted of measuring the undercooling of a pure iron droplet in contact with different oxides to determine which oxides promote iron solidification by providing a suitable surface for nucleation and which oxides and under which conditions the metal can be deeply undercooled. The conclusions suggest that deep undercoolings are possible at low oxygen content provided the oxygen potential is such that substrate decomposition does not occur. If the oxygen content increases the undercooling decreases.

  8. Inhibition of Poxvirus Maturation by Rifamycin Derivatives and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, T. H.; Follett, E. A. C.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of a number of rifamycin derivatives and related compounds on the reversibility of the rifampin-induced virus maturation block was studied by using BHK-21 cells infected with vaccinia virus. All of the derivatives of 3-formyl rifamycin SV maintained this block, the required concentration varying from 100 to 1,000 ?g/ml. These compounds vary only in the nature of the side-chain attached to the 3C atom on the naphthohydroquinone moiety; no obvious correlation between the nature of this side-chain and antiviral activity was found. Streptovaricin complex and tolypomycin R also maintained the maturation block; tolypomycin also produced marked alterations in the appearance of the viroplasm contained in rifampin-induced inclusions and immature virus particles. Images PMID:4105118

  9. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A turbo compound engine having a first exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine and a second exhaust turbine coupled to an exhaust port of the first exhaust turbine is described comprising: a first generator drivable by the first exhaust turbine; a second generator drivable by the second exhaust turbine; a motor operatively coupled to an output shaft of the internal combustion engine; speed detecting means for detecting the speed of rotation of the internal combustion engine; and control means for controlling the frequency of electric power, which is the sum of electric power outputs from the first and second generators and supplied to the motor, based on a signal from the speed detecting means, in order to control operation of the motor.

  10. Common Compound Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Frederick A. Senese

    This database, part of a college-level chemistry course, provides information on hundreds of compounds, elements, and substances encountered in introductory chemistry courses and in everyday life. The informaion includes chemical synonyms, molecular weights, structures, equilibrium constants, thermodynamic properties, and common uses, with properties presented in a variety of common units. Structure information includes flat structural formulas, ball and stick models, electron density/electric potential maps, and Chime "live" structures that can be rotated and queried for bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. The site also includes links to the course website, a glossary, a frequently-asked-questions feature, information on sources used in constructing the database, and many other resources.

  11. Dioxin and Related Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1994-01-01

    This substantial new site, provided by the Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Environmental Assessment, addresses the mechanism of Dioxin contamination and describes NCEA's Dioxin Reassessment efforts. The site provides full descriptions and molecular graphics of "Dioxins and related compounds" (Furans, PCB's), as well as EPA Summaries on Dioxin exposure, Dioxin risk, and dose response. The Dioxin Exposure Initiative seeks to quantitatively link dioxin sources to general population exposures using "source measurements, environmental media and national food surveys, and fate and transport modeling." Further links to EPA Regulations and EPA Analytical Methods round out the site. Note that many of the documents at the site are available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) or WordPerfect format.

  12. The role of interpreters in inclusive classrooms.

    PubMed

    Antia, S D; Kreimeyer, K H

    2001-10-01

    The roles of interpreters in an inclusive classroom were examined through a qualitative, 3-year case study of three interpreters in an inclusive school. Interviews were conducted with interpreters, classroom teachers, special education teachers, and administrators. The interview data were supplemented with observations and field notes. Results indicate that in addition to sign interpreting between American Sign Language and speech, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept the teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress. The interpreter/aides and the classroom teachers preferred this full-participant interpreter role, while the special educators and administrators preferred a translator role. Classroom teachers were more comfortable with full-time interpreters who knew the classroom routine, while the special educators and administrators feared that full-time interpreters fostered child and teacher dependence. These issues are discussed in terms of congruence with the Registry of Interpreters code of ethics and how integration of young children might be best facilitated. PMID:11816860

  13. Neutrino inclusive inelastic scattering off nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, S. A.; Petti, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2007-11-01

    We present a detailed description of high-energy neutrino and antineutrino inelastic inclusive scattering off nuclei in terms of nuclear structure functions. In our approach we take into account a QCD description of the nucleon structure functions as well as a number of basic nuclear effects including nuclear shadowing, Fermi motion and binding, nuclear pion excess, and off-shell correction to bound nucleon structure functions. These effects prove to be important in the studies of charged-lepton deep-inelastic scattering. We discuss similarities and dissimilarities in the calculation of nuclear effects for charged-lepton and neutrino scattering caused by a nonconserved axial current in neutrino scattering. We examine the Adler and the Gross-Llewellyn-Smith sum rules for nuclear structure functions and find a remarkable cancellation between nuclear shadowing and off-shell corrections in these sum rules. We present calculations of differential cross sections for inclusive neutrino and antineutrino scattering in comparison with recent data on different target materials.

  14. Imagining Inclusive Teachers: Contesting Policy Assumptions in Relation to the Development of Inclusive Practice in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Andrew J.; Grimes, Peter; Shohel, M. Mahruf C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reflect on data from two research projects in which inclusive practice in the educational system is at issue, in the light of wider field experience (our own and others') of school and teacher development. We question what we understand to be relatively common, implicit policy assumptions about how teachers develop, by examining…

  15. T & I Teachers and Inclusion: Attitudes of Trade and Industrial Education Teachers toward Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraska, Marie F.

    1997-01-01

    The majority of responses from 168 of 250 secondary trade and industrial teachers were favorable on 6 of 30 items related to inclusion of special populations, unfavorable on 11, and undecided on 13. Age and years of teaching experience were not related to attitudes. (SK)

  16. Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cologon, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

  17. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  18. SAMPL4, a blind challenge for computational solvation free energies: the compounds considered.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, J Peter

    2014-03-01

    For the fifth time I have provided a set of solvation energies (1 M gas to 1 M aqueous) for a SAMPL challenge. In this set there are 23 blind compounds and 30 supplementary compounds of related structure to one of the blind sets, but for which the solvation energy is readily available. The best current values of each compound are presented along with complete documentation of the experimental origins of the solvation energies. The calculations needed to go from reported data to solvation energies are presented, with particular attention to aspects which are new to this set. For some compounds the vapor pressures (VP) were reported for the liquid compound, which is solid at room temperature. To correct from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation requires ?Sfusion, which is only known for mannitol. Estimated values were used for the others, all but one of which were benzene derivatives and expected to have very similar values. The final compound for which ?Sfusion was estimated was menthol, which melts at 42 °C so that modest errors in ?Sfusion will have little effect. It was also necessary to look into the effects of including estimated values of ?Cp on this correction. The approximate sizes of the effects of inclusion of ?Cp in the correction from VPsubcooled liquid to VPsublimation were estimated and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp invariably makes ?GS more positive. To extend the set of compounds for which the solvation energy could be calculated we explored the use of boiling point (b.p.) data from Reaxys/Beilstein as a substitute for studies of the VP as a function of temperature. B.p. data are not always reliable so it was necessary to develop a criterion for rejecting outliers. For two compounds (chlorinated guaiacols) it became clear that inclusion represented overreach; for each there were only two independent pressure, temperature points, which is too little for a trustworthy extrapolation. For a number of compounds the extrapolation from lowest temperature at which the VP was reported to 25 °C was long (sometimes over 100°) so that it was necessary to consider whether ?Cp might have significant effects. The problem is that there are no experimental values and possible intramolecular hydrogen bonds make estimation uncertain in some cases. The approximate sizes of the effects of ?Cp were estimated, and it was noted that inclusion of ?Cp in the extrapolation of VP down to room temperature invariably makes ?Gs more negative. PMID:24706106

  19. Postmetamorphic CO 2 -rich fluid inclusions in granulites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Lamb; John W. Valley; Philip E. Brown

    1987-01-01

    In granulite-facies samples from the Adirondack Mountains, NY, estimates of peak-metamorphic CO2 fugacities based on mineral equilibria are not consistent with estimates based on data for high-density, CO2-rich fluid inclusions. Of the 21 Adirondack samples investigated for this study, all contain CO2-rich inclusions. Inclusions occur in quartz, apatite, and garnet. They range in size from 3 to 50 µm and

  20. Petrology of mafic inclusions from Itinome-gata, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-Ichiro Aoki

    1971-01-01

    Various types of mafic inclusions up to 30 cm in size occur in lapilli tuff of alkali basalt at Itinome-gata crater, northeastern Japan. They are divided into the following four groups: amphibolite, hornblendite—hornblende gabbro, leucogabbro, and pyroxene gabbro. Also occurring with the mafic inclusions are lherzolite and websterite inclusions and megacrysts of Mg-rich olivine and chromian diopside. New analyses are

  1. Interactions between N circular cylindrical inclusions in a piezoelectric matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-H. Yang; C.-F. Gao; N. Noda

    2008-01-01

    Summary  This paper studies the interactions between N randomly-distributed cylindrical inclusions in a piezoelectric matrix. The inclusions are assumed to be perfectly bounded\\u000a to the matrix, which is subjected to an anti-plane shear stress and an in-plane electric field at infinity. Based on the complex\\u000a variable method, the complex potentials in the matrix and inside the inclusions are first obtained in

  2. Edge dislocation climb over non-deformable circular inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Holbrook; W. D. Nix

    1974-01-01

    Edge dislocation climb over non-deformable circular inclusions is studied as a possible rate limiting mechanism for creep\\u000a of dispersion strengthened metals. The inclusion and matrix are assumed to exhibit no misfit and to be elastically isotropic,\\u000a with the inclusion, more rigid than the matrix. The climb motion of the dislocation is assumed to be diffusion controlled\\u000a and very much slower

  3. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  4. University of Wisconsin-Fluid and Melt Inclusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Philip E.

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison created this website "for people interested in the properties, behaviors and origins of fluid and melt inclusions in natural and synthetic materials." The website offers downloads of publications in _The Canadian Mineralogist_ journal and other rock and mineral papers. Students and researchers can find out about meetings and work shops. The website fosters discussion of hot topics in the field of fluid inclusion. Users have a chance to join the fluid inclusion electronic mailing list.

  5. Intragranular deformation and submicron inclusion re-equilibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Thomas; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Rhede, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Pegmatitic almandine-spessartine garnets from the Saualpe-Koralpe crystalline basement complex (Eastern Alps, locality Wirtbartl, Austria) possess extremely high abundances of micro- to nano-inclusions (

  6. Inclusive $A_{LL}$ Measurements at STAR

    E-print Network

    Adam Kocoloski; for the STAR Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    One of the primary goals of the RHIC Spin program is to determine the gluon polarization distribution within the proton. At leading order, $pp$ collisions involve a mixture of quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon scattering. In RHIC, the gluon-gluon and quark-gluon contributions dominate, making the accelerator an ideal tool to explore gluon polarization. The STAR experiment has measured the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for inclusive production of jets and pions, and for charged pion production opposite a jet, at $\\sqrt{s} = 200 GeV$. The results provide valuable new constraints on the gluon polarization in the proton when included in a next-to-leading-order global analysis. The current status of the STAR measurements and the plans for future measurements will be discussed.

  7. Inclusive W/Z Production at CMS

    E-print Network

    P. Tan

    2009-10-12

    At the LHC, the production cross sections of W/Z bosons are tens to hundreds of nanobarns. The production mechanism of these processes is well established in the Standard Model and these processes can be used as "standard candles" to help commission the CMS detector for physics. Leptonic decays of W/Z bosons are expected to have very high trigger efficiency and signal to background ratio. Therefore they are ideal channels to study the properties of W/Z bosons in detail, such as cross sections and charge asymmetry. In this paper early CMS results on inclusive W/Z production at 10 TeV center-of-mass energy are discussed.

  8. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

    2008-04-25

    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

  9. Inclusive Inelastic Electron Scattering from Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, Nadia [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2007-10-26

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and Q{sup 2} is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi-elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark consitituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the infiuence of final state interactions and the approach to y-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to x-scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  10. Inclusive decays of B mesons to charmonium

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.

    1995-09-01

    of the mass difFerence between the y, and J/g candidates was fitted to expectation for the decay chain B~y X, y, ~J/Itp, J/vg~g+/ . We demanded the mass of the J/g candidate for the y, search to be within two standard deviations of the nominal J/Q mass... to charmonium [8—13]. In this paper we report on the inclusive decays of B mesons to J/Q, Q', X„and g, where the "B"represents the mixture of B and B+ in T(4S) decays. (This mixture is expected to be roughly equal, based on the very small mass difference between...

  11. [Inclusion body myositis (IBM) -- a review].

    PubMed

    Czaplinski, A; Renaud, S; Fuhr, P

    2003-04-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is characterized by the insidious onset of slowly progressive proximal and distal weakness. The clinical hallmark of IBM are atrophy and weakness of the quadriceps and the wrist and finger flexors. Although frequently misdiagnosed, IBM is the most common inflammatory myopathy in patients over the age of 50 years. The diagnosis of IBM can be made, even in absence of a typical clinical history, exclusive on the basis of muscle biopsy when all of the characteristic histopathological findings are present (inflammation, rimmed vacuoles, protein deposits, and 15-18 nm tubofilaments). Apart from sporadic IBM there is a group of heterogeneous inherited myopathies with histopathologic similarities to sporadic IBM. Although some immunomodulating therapies may exert transient and mild benefits, there is no effective treatment for IBM. PMID:12723314

  12. Inclusive radiative {psi}(2S) decays

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mendez, H. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ecklund, K. M. [Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-10-01

    Using e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct photon spectrum in the decay {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}gg. We determine the ratio of the inclusive direct photon decay rate to that of the dominant three-gluon decay rate {psi}(2S){yields}ggg (R{sub {gamma}}{identical_to}{gamma}({gamma}gg)/{gamma}(ggg)) to be R{sub {gamma}}(z{sub {gamma}}>0.4)=0.070{+-}0.002{+-}0.019{+-}0.011, with z{sub {gamma}} defined as the scaled photon energy relative to the beam energy. The errors shown are statistical, systematic, and that due to the uncertainty in the input branching fractions used to extract the ratio, respectively.

  13. Abstracts of Bulletins 305 to 327, Inclusive

    E-print Network

    Jackson, A. D.

    1926-01-01

    must be less than the potash removed by the crops. Bulletin No. 326-Breeding Experiments with Blackberries and . Raspberries. This is an account of sixteen years of breeding experiments with-black- berries and raspberries. This bulletin contains... descriptions of the behavior of seedlings, hybrids, and compound hybrids of various berries; experi- ments leading to the development of the Nessberry, an outgrowth of a cross between a raspberry and dewberry, are described; and the horti- cultural...

  14. Synthetic fluid inclusions. XV. TEM investigation of plastic flow associated with reequilibration of fluid inclusions in natural quartz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxim O. Vityk; Robert J. Bodnar; Jean-Claude Doukhan

    2000-01-01

    The nature and abundance of dislocations in quartz surrounding fluid inclusions were studied to obtain a better understanding\\u000a of processes associated with fluid inclusion reequilibration. Synthetic fluid inclusions containing 10 wt% NaCl aqueous solution\\u000a were formed in three samples at 700?°C and 5?kbar. One of the samples was quenched along an isochore to serve as a reference\\u000a sample. The other

  15. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  16. ATMOSPHERIC FREONS AND HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of atmospheric Freons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and SF6 were measured at various locations in the U.S.A. Compounds such as CCl3F, CCl2F2, CH3-CCl3, and CCl4 were ubiquitious and generally measured at sub ppb levels. Tropospherically reactive compounds such as C2Cl...

  17. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  18. Video: Focusing a Compound Microscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to focus a compound microscope. The brief clip, available for viewing on YouTube, would be most useful for students with a basic understanding of the parts of a compound microscope and how to use it. Running time for the video is 0:55.

  19. Butyltin Compounds in Human Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper B. Nielsen; Jakob Strand

    2002-01-01

    Intake of marine food is the main source of butyltin exposure in humans. Health effects following exposure to butyltin compounds are usually in the immune system, but endocrine effects of butyltin from a variety of marine species have been documented. The information on human exposure to butyltin compounds and hepatic deposition is limited. The present study include 18 consecutively sampled

  20. Macrocyclic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Quraishi; J. A. Rawat; M. A. Ajmal

    1998-01-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature,

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORG FUCHS

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic compounds comprise a wide variety of natural and synthetic compounds that can serve as substrates for bacterial growth. So far, four types of aromatic metabolism are known. (1) The aerobic aromatic metabolism is characterized by the extensive use of molecular oxygen as co- substrate for oxygenases that introduce hydroxyl groups and cleave the aromatic ring. (2) In the presence

  2. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for basaltic glasses; compositional trends with melt inclusion size observed in the Siqueiros melt inclusions are described well by this simple single-stage linear cooling model. Despite the overall success of the modeling of MgO concentration profiles using a single-stage cooling history, MgO concentration profiles in some melt inclusions are better fit by a two-stage cooling history with a slower-cooling first stage followed by a faster-cooling second stage; the inferred total duration of cooling from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C ranges from 40 s to just over 1 h. Based on our observations and models, compositions of zoned melt inclusions (even if measured at the centers of the inclusions) will typically have been diffusively fractionated relative to the initially trapped melt; for such inclusions, the initial composition cannot be simply reconstructed based on olivine-addition calculations, so caution should be exercised in application of such reconstructions to correct for post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on inclusion walls. Off-center analyses of a melt inclusion can also give results significantly fractionated relative to simple olivine crystallization. All melt inclusions from the Siqueiros and Galapagos sample suites exhibit zoning profiles, and this feature may be nearly universal in glassy, olivine-hosted inclusions. If so, zoning profiles in melt inclusions could be widely useful to constrain late-stage syneruptive processes and as natural diffusion experiments.

  3. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  4. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  5. Fluid inclusion analyses of detrital quartz grains - new Provenance Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    Preliminary analyses by microthermometry of fluid inclusions in detrital quartz of the Upper Cambrian Lamotte Sandstone revealed the occurrence of 2 distinct groups of aqueous fluid inclusions. Specific salinity signatures and homogenization temperatures may be used to distinguish specific granite types of the source rock terrain. The inclusions chosen for analysis occur in isolated clusters or are randomly distributed within a grain, commonly in association with mineral inclusions of zircon, sphene, rutile, and/or tourmaline. Secondary inclusions are present in the Lamotte but are not included in this study. The first group of inclusions is characterized by low salinities (< 1.0-8.0 wt.% eq. NaCl), the second by high salinities (12.1-29.6 wt. % eq. NaCl). Final melting temperatures as low as -30.6/sup 0/C indicate the presence of divalent ions in these inclusions. Both groups yield homogenization temperatures of between 150/sup 0/C and 220/sup 0/C. The low-salinity inclusions occur predominantly in subrounded to well-rounded sand less than 1.0 mm in size that is derived from a distal source. The brine inclusions occur exclusively in subangular to angular gravel 2.0-3.0 mm in size, implying a more proximal source area. A comparison of these inclusions with inclusions found in the granites of the apparent source terrain indicates that a medium-silica amphiboleorthoclase granite (Slabtown type) or a low-silica amphibole-plagioclase granite (Sivermines type) or both are the primary source rocks for this quartz. These granite types have limited areal distribution in the present day St. Francois mountains and the identification of these granite types as the source rock for the locally derived quartz has broad implications for reconstructing Cambrian depositional environments and paleostructure of the ancient St. Francois mountains.

  6. Process Dependence and the Sivers Effect in Inclusive and Semi-Inclusive Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gamberg, Leonard P. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Kang, Zhong-Bo [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the the spin asymmetry for single inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions collected by AnDY experiment and the Sivers asymmetry data from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments. In particular, we consider the role color gauge invariance plays in determining the process-dependence of the Sivers effect. We find that after carefully taking into account the initial-state and final-state interactions between the active parton and the remnant of the polarized hadron, the calculated jet spin asymmetry based on the Sivers functions extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experiments is consistent with the AnDY experimental data. This provides a first indication for the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in different processes. We also make predictions for both direct photon and Drell-Yan spin asymmetry, to further test the process-dependence of the Sivers effect in future experiments.

  7. Interaction of cracks with rigid inclusions in longitudinal shear deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Sendeckyj; Wright-Patterson AFB

    1974-01-01

    The interaction of a crack with rigid circular cylindrical inclusions is considered for the case of longitudinal shear deformation. General representations of the solutions for a radial crack near a single and midway between two inclusions are given. The particular case of uniform shearing stress applied at infinity is discussed in detail.

  8. Inclusion, Diversity and Leadership: Perspectives, Possibilities and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Elizabeth; Barton, Len

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on research from a longitudinal case study of a large urban secondary school, this article examines senior leadership of and in a school struggling to be inclusive. The analysis focuses on the effect of senior leadership on: the ways in which inclusion is conceptualized and practised in this school, in particular by teachers; student…

  9. May 11, 2012 Creating a More Inclusive Workplace

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    of personalities, talents, skills, diversity, and unique individual traits that make up the workplace May 11, 2012 Creating a More Inclusive Workplace Training and Development is proud to offer a class called, Creating a More Inclusive Workplace. This class will cover the multitude

  10. From Special to Inclusive Education in Macau (SAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The education for learners with special education needs (SEN) in Macau (SAR), China, has gradually transitioned over the past 30 years from a completely segregated approach to a more inclusive one. Following a review of the development of special education and the transition towards inclusion in Macau, consideration is given to the enactment of…

  11. On the Existence of Eshelby's Equivalent Ellipsoidal Inclusion Solution

    E-print Network

    Cai, Wei

    .e. the actual strain of the inclusion when embedded in the matrix), associated with the equivalent transformed and Eshelby's equivalent ellipsoidal inclusion method can be used to find the stress and strain fields in both), which is unknown and different from the actual transformation strain (e ij) prescribed

  12. Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Casting Antonio J. Melendez, Kent D. Carlson and Christoph Beckermann Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering The University of Iowa, Iowa City the formation of reoxidation inclusions in carbon and low-alloy steel castings. A model is developed

  13. A Platform for Change? Inclusive Research about "Choice and Control"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Val; Ponting, Lisa; Ford, Kerrie

    2015-01-01

    Participation, voice and control have long been central concerns in the research at Norah Fry. This paper focuses on inclusive research relating to choice and control, as experienced by people with learning disabilities who use personal budgets and direct payments, and aims to question how the process of inclusive research can be linked to wider…

  14. Novel Method for Growing Te-Inclusion-Free CZT

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov,A.

    2008-06-17

    The authors propose a new method for growth of detector-grade CdZnTe (CZT) with reduced concentration and sizes of Te inclusions. The method is designed to impede the formation of Te-rich inclusions in crystals due to the use of new CZT growth method and a unique ampoule design.

  15. Perspectives on Inclusive Education: Learning from Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron; Rix, Jonathan; Nind, Melanie; Simmons, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Many courses of study are currently available that address inclusive education and, increasingly, distance education is seen as a flexible and appropriately inclusive way to deliver such courses. In this article a team of colleagues, Kieron Sheehy, Jonathan Rix, Melanie Nind and Katy Simmons, discusses the development of an Open University course,…

  16. Strategies for Teaching Exceptional Children in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this book on teaching students with disabilities in inclusive settings are arranged into four parts on curriculum and instruction, assessment, classroom management, and collaboration. Individual chapters and their authors are: (1) "Curriculum Considerations in an Inclusive Environment" (Cynthia D. Warger and Marleen C. Pugach);…

  17. Inclusive Education in Canada: Issues in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) is widely adopted in Canadian educational systems. However, few Canadian universities require students in undergraduate teacher preparation programs to complete coursework on the topic of IE, and the few courses on this topic do not adequately prepare future teachers to work in inclusive classrooms with students with…

  18. Hepatic cytomembranous inclusions in patients with type C chronic hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seishiro Watanabe; Mutsunori Shirai; Keiji Arima; Mikio Nishioka; Miyuki Ohbayashi; Eugene R. Schiff

    1995-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of the liver biopsy specimens from two patients with chronic type C hepatitis revealed cytomembranous structures. Cylindrical confronting cisternae were identified for the first time in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the specimen which was taken during ?-interferon therapy. Tubuloreticular inclusions were observed in both patients with and without therapy. Although the cytomembranous inclusions are not specific

  19. Inclusion Classrooms and Teachers: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilanowski-Press, Lisa; Foote, Chandra J.; Rinaldo, Vince J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the current state of inclusion practices in general education classrooms via survey of 71 inclusion teachers currently serving as special educators across the state of New York. Specifically, small group instruction, co-teaching, one-to-one instruction, and planning support are explored in relationship to class size, number…

  20. Schools as Agents of Social Exclusion and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.; Warshofsky, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Although schools are usually regarded as important agents for social inclusion, research has shown that they may also function as agents of exclusion itself. The goal of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how schools function as agents of exclusion and how they can become more effective agents of inclusion. It is based on action research…

  1. Identify a Se niorLevelInclusionExecutive

    E-print Network

    Crilly, Nathan

    Designing Our Tomorrow: 10 Principles for the Development of Inclusive Design Practice Sponsored by #12;Sponsored by PROCESS Designing Our Tomorrow: 10 Principles for the Development of Inclusive Design Practice of designers, developers, internal and external experts and real users. Collaboration helps people

  2. Teacher Stress and Inclusion: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenreed, Darlene; Barnett, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding the management of behaviours in inclusive classrooms. An additional purpose was to gather data on the relationships between the teacher candidates' demographic information and their beliefs about managing misbehaviours in inclusive school environments. Survey…

  3. "A Disability Rights in Education Model" for Evaluating Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Susan; Johnstone, C.; Ferguson, P.

    2005-01-01

    Current models for evaluating inclusive education programs tend to examine surface-level stricture of day-to-day practices in the organization and operation of schools and also lack significant input from disabled people. In response, the authors have developed a DRE Model to understand and evaluate effective Inclusive Education that is derived…

  4. Towards a more inclusive and precautionary indicator of global sustainability

    E-print Network

    Pezzey, Jack

    1 Towards a more inclusive and precautionary indicator of global sustainability John C.V. Pezzeya of the sustainability of global well-being, which is more inclusive than existing indicators and incorporates an environmentally pessimistic, physical constraint on global warming. Our methodology extends the World Bank

  5. Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate by comparing the simulation results to measurements made on production steel sand castings. Good overall

  6. Interdisciplinary engagement with inclusive design - the Challenge Workshops model.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Julia; Dong, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The DBA Inclusive Design Challenge and the Challenge Workshops organised by the lead author has exposed numerous design teams to the benefit of working with extreme users - this paper will analyse the challenges and benefits of this approach to inclusive design and suggest how the lessons learned from competition can be transferred into design practice. PMID:23706574

  7. Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

  8. The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion

    E-print Network

    1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2009 ­ September 30, 2010) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

  9. The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion

    E-print Network

    1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2008 ­ September 30, 2009) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

  10. The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion

    E-print Network

    1 The Graduate School Annual Report on Diversity and Inclusion (October 01, 2007 ­ September 30, 2008) The Graduate School continued activities and began new initiatives to encourage graduate programs of training and retention of graduate students contain a core emphasis upon inclusion. The Graduate School

  11. Pedagogic Voicing: The Struggle for Participation in an Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naraian, Srikala

    2011-01-01

    Within inclusive education research, the call to foster participation stems from a generalized vision for promoting democratic practices within classrooms, prompting the concern for eliciting student "voices." In this ethnographic study, I explore the utility of "voice" as a workable construct in securing participation within inclusive classrooms.…

  12. Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

  13. Instructional Variables of Inclusive Elementary Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Nimet Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Pinar, Elif Sazak

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to determine the instructional variables of the inclusive classrooms in Turkey and to investigate to what extent the student behaviors change according to eco-behavioral characteristics of inclusive classrooms. The study group consisted of 44 students between the ages of six and 12 with mild disabilities who…

  14. Local Special Education Administrators' Understanding of Inclusive Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Meng; Guo, Ling

    2007-01-01

    China's inclusive education initiative began in mid-1980s under the name of "Learning in Regular Classrooms". The purpose of this research is to examine how Chinese Local Special Education Administrators understand the ideology of inclusive education and LRC model by using a qualitative investigation. The results indicate that the Chinese…

  15. Essential Inclusive Education-Related Outcomes for Alberta Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs) that Alberta preservice teachers need to develop over the course of their teacher preparation programs in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms. Inclusive classrooms are those where all students regardless of diversity learn in the same contexts. These KSAs are…

  16. School Counselors and Full Inclusion for Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.; Sullivan, James

    1998-01-01

    Counselors must become active participants in the practice of full inclusion of children with disabilities into classrooms with nondisabled youngsters. Full inclusion is distinguished from mainstreaming; successful models are reviewed. Topics of collaboration and consultation among counselors and teachers, building social adjustment, and…

  17. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the 21st Century Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bridgie A.; Stuart, Denise H.; Vakil, Shernavaz

    2014-01-01

    As the U.S. population grows more varied, public schools face the challenge of meeting the needs of an increasing population of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with exceptionalities in inclusive classrooms. This is especially evident in the urban inclusive classrooms. There is a strong connection between culture and learning.…

  18. Providing Appropriate Education in Inclusive Settings: A Rural Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Christine; Demchak, MaryAnn

    This paper provides special educators with effective strategies for successfully implementing full inclusion of disabled students in general education classrooms. The starting point for inclusion is the Individualized Education Plan (IEP), which develops goals and objectives and considers appropriate student placement. Frequently, IEP objectives…

  19. A Story of High School Inclusion: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    This is an ethnographic case study of the inclusion of a fifteen-year-old male with severe disabilities in general education classes in a four-year high school in a medium-sized Midwestern city. The study took place during the student's freshman and sophomore years. The investigator interviewed 17 of the participants in the student's inclusion;…

  20. Educators' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 43 principals and 230 teachers in western Australia examined 3 aspects of the policy of inclusion of students with disabilities: (1) severity of teacher stress when asked to include a child with a mild intellectual disability; (2) degree of perceived teacher control over placement decisions; and (3) acceptance of the inclusion

  1. Forms of Leadership that Promote Inclusive Education in Cypriot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of many educational systems in different countries of the world is the offering of equal opportunities in education. My engagement with the literature that relates to inclusive education as well as the literature that relates to educational leadership leads to the conclusion that if we are interested in moving towards more inclusive

  2. It Takes Two to Tango: Inclusive Schooling in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jeremy H.; Greenberg, J. Christine

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of students with autism and other special needs into the general education curriculum continues to be a challenging process for school communities in the United States of America (US) and, increasingly, abroad. Although inclusion continues to be a challenging process for those involved, the global demand is growing. Traditionally,…

  3. Promoting Inclusive Schooling Practices through Practitioner Directed Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Christine L.; Wilson, Linda L.; Palombaro, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated use of practitioner directed inquiry (PDI) by 45 different practitioners who designed, implemented, and evaluated solutions to educational issues affecting the inclusion of students with disabilities. Results indicate positive changes in attitudes and knowledge about inclusive practices and students with disabilities,…

  4. The effect of the interphase on crack-inclusion interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Cheeseman; M. H. Santare

    2001-01-01

    The problem of a radial or circumferential matrix crack interacting with a circular inclusion surrounded by an interphase region is investigated. The problem is formulated using Kolosov-Muskhelishvili complex potentials where the crack is modeled as a distribution of dislocations. The complex potentials for a dislocation interacting with a circular inclusion with an interphase are first rederived and then used in

  5. Interaction between a surface crack and a subsurface inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Andreasen; B. L. Karihaloo

    1993-01-01

    A numerical method for the integration of the singular integral equation resulting from the interaction of a surface crack with a subsurface inclusion is presented. The crack is modelled as a pile-up of dislocations, and the dislocation density function is partitioned into three parts: A singular term due to the load discontinuity imposed by the inclusion, a square root singular

  6. Mineralogy and petrology of silicate inclusions in iron meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Bunch; Klaus Keil; E. Olsen

    1970-01-01

    Silicate inclusions in 17 iron meteorites have been analyzed by the electron microprobe and classified, according to their phase assemblages, compositions, and textures, into three major types: Odessa, Copiapo, and Weekeroo Station, and three miscellaneous types: Enon, Kendall County, and Netschaëvo. Phase compositions in both Odessa- and Copiapo-type inclusions are very similar, but the two types are different in texture

  7. Unifying the Theories of Inclusive Fitness and Reciprocal Altruism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Zwick

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism are widely thought to be distinct explanations for how altruism evolves. Here we show that they rely on the same underlying mechanism. We demonstrate this commonality by applying Hamilton's rule, normally associated with inclusive fitness, to two simple models of reciprocal altruism: one, an iterated prisoner's dilemma model with conditional behavior; the other, a mutualistic

  8. Embracing inclusion: the critical role of the library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briony Train; Pete Dalton; Judith Elkin

    2000-01-01

    Social inclusion is high on the Government’s agenda but the role of public libraries in this area has not always been clearly defined. This paper first examines the issue of social exclusion, attempting to define the inclusive society. Drawing on recent work by the Library and Information Commission (2000), it then proposes that research conducted by the University of Central

  9. CHAPTER 8. REEQUILIBRATION OF FLUID INCLUSIONS Robert J. Bodnar

    E-print Network

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA rjb@vt.edu INTRODUCTION A fluid inclusion provides microthermo - metric minerals. Any material that is lost from the inclusion occurs as a result of diffusion or leakage along, before the development of microscope heating/cooling stages and high- quality long-working distance

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate inclusion-body growth and proliferation in Bacillus megaterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel J. McCool; Tania Fernandez; Ning Li; Maura C. Cannon

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation and the morphology of PHA inclusion bodies were examined in Bacillus megaterium, strain 11561. Our results show a pattern of PHA degradation and synthesis, and of inclusion body growth and proliferation not previously reported. Degradation of PHA in the lag phase was followed by synthesis of PHA at an accelerating rate during exponential growth. PHA accumulation reached

  11. Assessing Inclusion: Strategies for Success. Hot Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipsen, Maike, Ed.

    This collection of 16 readings focuses on the implementation and evaluation of efforts to include students with special needs in general education classrooms. The readings are: (1) "From Segregation to Integration: A Brief History of Special Education and Inclusion" (Katie Blenk and Doris Landau Fine); (2) "National Study on Inclusion: Overview…

  12. Inclusive Schools Movement and the Radicalization of Special Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    1994-01-01

    This article compares the inclusive schools movement and the Regular Education Initiative in terms of advocates, goals, tactics, and understanding of and links to general education. The article finds that the inclusive schools movement has become increasingly strident, and its perspective has become increasingly insular and disassociated from…

  13. Time to End the Bias towards Inclusive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runswick-Cole, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The UK coalition Government's call to end the "bias" towards inclusion represents a shift in "policy speak" as the new administration attempts to re-narrate special education by putting forward a "reasonable and sensible" solution to the "problem of inclusion". However, implicit in the call is the assumption that there has, in fact, been a "bias…

  14. Inclusive decays B>DX and B>D*X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gibbons; S. D. Johnson; Y. Kwon; S. Roberts; E. H. Thorndike; C. P. Jessop; K. Lingel; H. Marsiske; M. L. Perl; S. F. Schaffner; D. Ugolini; R. Wang; X. Zhou; T. E. Coan; V. Fadeyev; I. Korolkov; Y. Maravin; I. Narsky; V. Shelkov; J. Staeck; R. Stroynowski; I. Volobouev; J. Ye; M. Artuso; A. Efimov; F. Frasconi; M. Gao; M. Goldberg; D. He; S. Kopp; N. Horwitz; G. C. Moneti; Y. Mukhin; S. Schuh; T. Skwarnicki; S. Stone; M. Thulasidas; G. Viehhauser; X. Xing; J. Bartelt; S. E. Csorna; V. Jain; S. Marka; A. Freyberger; R. Godang; K. Kinoshita; I. C. Lai; P. Pomianowski; S. Schrenk; G. Bonvicini; D. Cinabro; R. Greene; L. P. Perera; B. Barish; M. Chadha; S. Chan; G. Eigen; J. S. Miller; C. O'Grady; M. Schmidtler; J. Urheim; A. J. Weinstein; F. Würthwein; D. M. Asner; D. W. Bliss; W. S. Brower; G. Masek; H. P. Paar; V. Sharma; J. Gronberg; R. Kutschke; D. J. Lange; S. Menary; R. J. Morrison; H. N. Nelson; T. K. Nelson; C. Qiao; J. D. Richman; D. Roberts; A. Ryd; M. S. Witherell; R. Balest; B. H. Behrens; K. Cho; W. T. Ford; P. Rankin; J. Roy; J. G. Smith; J. P. Alexander; C. Bebek; B. E. Berger; K. Berkelman; K. Bloom; D. G. Cassel; H. A. Cho; D. M. Coffman; D. S. Crowcroft; M. Dickson; P. S. Drell; K. M. Ecklund; R. Ehrlich; R. Elia; A. D. Foland; P. Gaidarev; B. Gittelman; S. W. Gray; D. L. Hartill; B. K. Heltsley; J. Kandaswamy; N. Katayama; P. C. Kim; D. L. Kreinick; T. Lee; Y. Liu; G. S. Ludwig; J. Masui; J. Mevissen; N. B. Mistry; C. R. Ng; E. Nordberg; M. Ogg; J. R. Patterson; D. Peterson; D. Riley; A. Soffer; C. Ward; M. Athanas; P. Avery; C. D. Jones; M. Lohner; C. Prescott; S. Yang; J. Yelton; J. Zheng; G. Brandenburg; R. A. Briere; Y. S. Gao; D. Y.-J. Kim; R. Wilson; H. Yamamoto; T. E. Browder; F. Li; Y. Li; J. L. Rodriguez; T. Bergfeld; B. I. Eisenstein; J. Ernst; G. E. Gladding; G. D. Gollin; R. M. Hans; E. Johnson; I. Karliner; M. A. Marsh; M. Palmer; M. Selen; J. J. Thaler; K. W. Edwards; A. Bellerive; R. Janicek; D. B. Macfarlane; K. W. McLean; P. M. Patel; A. J. Sadoff; R. Ammar; P. Baringer; A. Bean; D. Besson; D. Coppage; C. Darling; R. Davis; N. Hancock; S. Kotov; I. Kravchenko; N. Kwak; S. Anderson; Y. Kubota; M. Lattery; J. J. O'Neill; S. Patton; R. Poling; T. Riehle; V. Savinov; A. Smith; M. S. Alam; S. B. Athar; Z. Ling; A. H. Mahmood; H. Severini; S. Timm; F. Wappler; A. Anastassov; S. Blinov; J. E. Duboscq; K. D. Fisher; D. Fujino; R. Fulton; K. K. Gan; T. Hart; K. Honscheid; H. Kagan; R. Kass; J. Lee; M. B. Spencer; M. Sung; A. Undrus; R. Wanke; A. Wolf; M. M. Zoeller; B. Nemati; S. J. Richichi; W. R. Ross; P. Skubic; M. Wood; M. Bishai; J. Fast; E. Gerndt; J. W. Hinson; N. Menon; D. H. Miller; E. I. Shibata; I. P. Shipsey; M. Yurko

    1997-01-01

    We report new measurements of the differential and total branching ratios for inclusive B decay to D0, D+, and D*+ and the first measurement of the same quantities for inclusive B decay to D*0. Here B is the mixture of Bd and Bu from Upsilon(4S) decay. Furthermore, since more than one charm particle (or antiparticle) of the same kind can

  15. Inclusive Research: Making a Difference to Policy and Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background: While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research…

  16. Regulation of the Packaging of Bacillus thuringiensisdelta -Endotoxins into Inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LILY CHANG; RIAN GRANT; ARTHUR ARONSON

    2001-01-01

    During sporulation, many Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies synthesize several related -endotoxins which are packaged into bipyramidal intracellular inclusions. These inclusions are solubilized in the alkaline, reducing conditions of the midguts of susceptible insect larvae and are converted by proteolysis to active toxins. The toxins insert into the membranes of cells lining the midgut and form cation-selective channels, which results in lethality.

  17. Regular and singular perturbations of upper semicontinuous differential inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzanko Donchev; Vasil Angelov

    1997-01-01

    In the paper we study the continuity properties of the solution set of upper semicontinuous differential inclusions in both regularly and singularly perturbed case. Using a kind of dissipative type of conditions introduced in (1) we obtain lower semicontinuous dependence of the solution sets. Moreover new existence result for lower semicontinuous differential inclusions

  18. Developing Social Competence in the Inclusive Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCay, Lauren O.; Keyes, Denis W.

    2002-01-01

    Helps elementary educators understand and promote social interactions and social competence in inclusive settings, specifically those that include students with learning disabilities and mild to moderate levels of mental retardation. Focuses on social outcomes of inclusion, teacher's attitudes, theoretical perspectives, and areas of social…

  19. Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses the inclusion of technology resources in early childhood music education. Successful technology inclusion in music for young children depends on the physical, mental, and social readiness of each individual child. Learning providers involved with young children should constantly review the child's capabilities and …

  20. Special Education Inclusion. Center for School Success Promising Practices Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbimbo, Josephine; Knopf, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    This publication focuses on special education inclusion. Inclusion is a term that expresses commitment to providing specially designed instruction and support for students with special needs in the context of a general education classroom. All students in the school are full members of the community, participating equitably in the opportunities…

  1. Implementation Strategies of Inclusive Education in Cypriot Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Panayiotis; Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the implementation strategies used by the participant teachers in order to practice inclusion in their classrooms. To this end, we investigated the participant teachers' perceptions of their roles and the barriers faced in the implementation of inclusion. Interviews and observations were carried out with four teachers…

  2. Zambian Pre-Service Teachers' Voices about Successful Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muwana, Florence C.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2014-01-01

    While inclusion has been studied in many parts of the world, there is a dearth of research on this topic in Zambia. This study investigated the perceptions of pre-service teachers about the benefits of inclusion and the resources needed to successfully include students with disabilities in general education settings in Zambia. Participants…

  3. Questions to Assess Learning as a Communicative Routine for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Bhroin, Órla

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid policy transformation from segregation to inclusion in the education of children with special educational needs in Ireland, a study was conducted to investigate the interplay between policy and principles of inclusion, resource teachers' and class teachers' interpretations of this and the manner in which policy…

  4. Differentiating Instruction for Disabled Students in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Alicia; Mehta-Parekh, Heeral; Reid, D. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Differentiating instruction, a comprehensive approach to teaching, enables the successful inclusion of all students, including the disabled, in general-education classrooms. As inclusive educators, we argue that disability is an enacted, interactional process and not an empirical, stable fact or condition. We recommend planning responsive lessons…

  5. Preparing Early Childhood Special Educators for Inclusive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Belinda Bourne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe experienced practitioners' beliefs about inclusion and their perceptions of what early childhood special education (ECSE) preservice teachers need to know and be able to do to effectively support early childhood inclusion. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to describe the…

  6. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  7. Dynamic gas-inclusion in a single crystal.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    In solid-state science, most changing phenomena have been mysterious. Furthermore, the changes in chemical composition should be added to mere physical changes to also cover the chemical changes. Here, the first success in characterizing the nature of gas inclusion in a single crystal is reported. The gas inclusion process has been thoroughly investigated by in?situ optical microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and gas adsorption measurements. The results demonstrated an inclusion action of a first-order transition behavior induced by a critical concentration on the phase boundary. The transfer of phase boundary and included gas are strongly related. This relationship can generate the dynamic features hidden in the inclusion phenomena, which can lead to the guest capturing and transfer mechanism that can apply to spatiotemporal inclusion applications by using host solids. PMID:25925283

  8. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  9. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  10. Inclusion Bodies Are a Site of Ebolavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Thomas; Shabman, Reed S.; Groseth, Allison; Herwig, Astrid; Weber, Michaela; Schudt, Gordian; Dolnik, Olga; Basler, Christopher F.; Becker, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Inclusion bodies are a characteristic feature of ebolavirus infections in cells. They contain large numbers of preformed nucleocapsids, but their biological significance has been debated, and they have been suggested to be aggregates of viral proteins without any further biological function. However, recent data for other viruses that produce similar structures have suggested that inclusion bodies might be involved in genome replication and transcription. In order to study filovirus inclusion bodies, we fused mCherry to the ebolavirus polymerase L, which is found in inclusion bodies. The resulting L-mCherry fusion protein was functional in minigenome assays and incorporated into virus-like particles. Importantly, L-mCherry fluorescence in transfected cells was readily detectable and distributed in a punctate pattern characteristic for inclusion bodies. A recombinant ebolavirus encoding L-mCherry instead of L was rescued and showed virtually identical growth kinetics and endpoint titers to those for wild-type virus. Using this virus, we showed that the onset of inclusion body formation corresponds to the onset of viral genome replication, but that viral transcription occurs prior to inclusion body formation. Live-cell imaging further showed that inclusion bodies are highly dynamic structures and that they can undergo dramatic reorganization during cell division. Finally, by labeling nascent RNAs using click technology we showed that inclusion bodies are indeed the site of viral RNA synthesis. Based on these data we conclude that, rather than being inert aggregates of nucleocapsids, ebolavirus inclusion bodies are in fact complex and dynamic structures and an important site at which viral RNA replication takes place. PMID:22915810

  11. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  12. The interaction of an edge dislocation with an inclusion of arbitrary shape analyzed by the Eshelby inclusion method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-Y. Shi; Z.-H. Li

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?The interaction of an edge dislocation with an inclusion of arbitrary shape is analyzed based on the Eshelby equivalent inclusion\\u000a method. A general solution to determine the force on the dislocation is obtained, from which a set of simple approximate formulae\\u000a is also suggested.

  13. Inclusive radiative J/{psi} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Besson, D. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Pedlar, T. K. [Luther College, Decorah, Iowa 52101 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A. [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ecklund, K. M. [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Love, W. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-01

    Using data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct-photon momentum spectrum in the decay J/{psi}(1S){yields}{gamma}gg, via the ''tagged'' process: e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{psi}(2S); {psi}(2S){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}; J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}+X. Including contributions from two-body radiative decay processes, we find the ratio of the inclusive direct-photon branching fraction to that of the dominant three-gluon branching fraction [R{sub {gamma}}=B(gg{gamma})/B(ggg)] to be R{sub {gamma}}=0.137{+-}0.001{+-}0.016{+-}0.004, where the errors shown are statistical, systematic, and the model-dependent uncertainty related to the extrapolation to zero photon energy. The shape of the scaled photon energy spectrum in J/{psi}{yields}gg{gamma} is observed to be very similar to that of {upsilon}{yields}gg{gamma}. The R{sub {gamma}} value obtained is roughly consistent with that expected by a simple quark-charge scaling [R{sub {gamma}}{approx}(q{sub c}/q{sub b}){sup 2}] of the value determined at the {upsilon}(1S), but somewhat higher than the value expected from the running of the strong coupling constant.

  14. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  15. Compound Independent and Dependent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probability of a compound independent event by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  16. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  17. The Magic of Compound Interest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Gordon

    2006-10-19

    The most powerful force in the universe is compound interest - Albert Einstein - Compound interest is the underlying concept that allows your money to grow on its own and that\\'s what leads to a lucrative future. It\\'s the interest you earn off of your original investment plus the interest you\\'ve already accrued. It\\'s interest on interest. And what it can do is amazing. Compound interest\\'s a cyclical monster that feeds itself and keeps growing at an exponential rate. And the best part about compound interest is that young people have the advantage. Young, first-time investors have an upper hand on older, wiser, Wall Street investors and stock market gurus because young people have ...

  18. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P

    2006-04-28

    This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye. PMID:16645090

  19. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  20. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The five WebWare Molecules for December derive from the article Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications by Joseph E. Saavedra and Larry K. Keefer.

  1. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  2. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  3. Proterozoic oil in fluid inclusions in the midcontinent rift: Implications for the origin of oil at White Pine, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, R.C. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Mauk, J.L. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Oil-filled fluid inclusions, some of which are primary, were trapped in calcite veins in the Nonesuch Formation during second-stage copper mineralization related to a 1.05-Ga compressional event in the Midcontinent rift at White Pine. Yellow to orange fluorescent inclusions in 14 samples of calcite were analyzed by a crushing-cell, capillary gas chromatographic method capable of resolving C[sub 1] to > C[sub 30] hydrocarbons. The inclusions contain an n-alkane-rich liquid petroleum that includes a homologous series of monomethylalkanes and is generally similar to previously reported oils from seeps in the White Pine mine. The C[sub 1] to C[sub 17] fraction of the oils shows extensive but variable loss of normal, branched, cyclic, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Patterns of depletion are consistent with published laboratory simulations of water-washing and are different from patterns due to devolatilization or biodegradation. Water/oil ratios necessary to produce the alteration range from 10[sup 3] to greater than 10[sup 6], suggesting that only very small amounts of liquid hydrocarbons migrated with 100 C hydrothermal fluids during second-stage copper mineralization at White Pine. C[sub 4]-C[sub 7] compound ratios in the least altered samples suggest generation of crude oils from kerogen with aliphatic characteristics similar to that found in the Nonesuch Fm. outside the mine locality. The estimates of thermal maturity from C[sub 4]-C[sub 7] compound ratios imply oil generation at an equivalent vitrinite reflectance > 1.0, which is higher than that estimated for the hydrothermally altered sediments at White Pine. The authors conclude that the oil in inclusions was generated from the Nonesuch Formation outside the mine locality in more thermally mature parts of the Midcontinent rift, was extensively water-washed during migration and interaction with Cu-bearing hydrothermal fluids, and was not biodegraded.

  4. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  5. [Study on compound levonorgestrel microspheres].

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Lu, B

    1993-12-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) were mixed in the ratio of 5:2 by weight. Compound LNG gelatin-microspheres were prepared by phase-separation method, natural biodegradable gelatin being used as the core material. The experimental conditions were optimized, the mean diameter of the microspheres obtained being 10-40 microns, and the rate of encapsulation 65-75%. Storage observations and acceleration tests of the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection prepared showed that the microspheres have good stability. The thermal degradation activation energy of the injection was determined to be 134.4 kJ/mol, based on differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). T1/2 values for dissolution in vitro of LNG and E2 from the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection and from the unencapsulated injection showed significant difference (P < 0.01), indicating that the microspheres have good sustained release action. Effects of the pure LNG microsphere injection and compound LNG microsphere injection on the mouse ovary were compared histologically. The results showed that the compound LNG microsphere injection reduced some of the side effects such as ovary congestion. This points out that the compound dosage form can clinically alleviate the irregular bleeding caused by the administration of LNG alone. PMID:8150435

  6. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  7. Inclusion Behavior During the Electron Beam Button Melting Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, J. P.; Defay, B.; Jourdan, J.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.

    2012-10-01

    The high mechanical performance of alloys developed for the manufacture of turbine disks depend upon the size and the number density of the inclusions. The electron beam button method has been practiced since the 1980s as a technique to quantify the cleanliness of the superalloys as well as to identify the nature and the size of the inclusions. The technique involves melting the sample into a hemispherical water-cooled crucible and the low density inclusions (mainly oxides) are concentrated by a combination of Marangoni and buoyancy forces into an area at the top surface of the button referred to as the raft. We have experimentally studied the behavior of oxide inclusions in special steels using both high definition video and infrared cameras. We have observed the inversion of the Marangoni effect due to the presence of sulfur, which leads to a positive temperature coefficient of the surface tension. A mathematical modeling has been carried out to simulate the turbulent fluid flow associated with the temperature field in the metallic pool of the button. The surface temperature profile has been successfully compared with the measured data. A post-processor numerical tool calculates the inclusion trajectories taking into account the turbulent fluctuation velocity by a stochastic approach. Hence, the behavior of a population of inclusions has been statistically studied, and the dependence of the capture efficiency on the inclusion size has been analyzed.

  8. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends do exist. Inclusion mineralogy progresses from graphite-troilite nodules in low Ni IAB's, to silicate-dominated inclusions in high Ni IAB's. With increasing Ni abundance in the metal, systematic variations are found in several properties. Two groups are delineated on a Ni vs Fa content plot and both are positively correlated with Ni content. Graphite abundance noticeably decreases with increasing Ni content [7]. Graphite location also varies with Ni: graphite is primarily found interstitial to the silicates in low Ni IAB's, but is located at metal-silicate boundaries in those with higher Ni abundances. With increasing Ni, daubreelite disappears. Inclusion shape also varies [7]: more angular inclusions are associated with low Ni, while more rounded inclusions exist at high Ni contents. These systematic changes suggest interaction between the silicate inclusions and an evolving metallic magma. Troilite and graphite abundances may be related to early nucleation on silicates, hence their depletion in high Ni (later crystallizing) irons. The presence of abundant graphite creates reducing conditions which would result in the formation of daubreelite. Conditions become more oxidizing with loss of graphite, evidenced by lack of daubreelite and more FeO-rich silicates in high Ni irons. Although an overall trend exists, the story is complicated by heterogeneities. Significant variations are found between paired samples (e.g., Toluca and Tacubaya), as well as within individual inclusions (daubreelite and chromite in same inclusion). Local oxidation conditions may be controlled by graphite abundance. Heterogeneities within specific meteorites need documentation. Most of the inclusions exhibit similar textural (metamorphic) features, but a few show evidence of partial melting and melt migration, further complicating the parent body history. While a variety of processes (oxidation-reduction, metamorphism, partial melting) affected the inclusions during formation, systematic changes observed here indicate that the silicates were interacting with a single evolving metallic ma

  9. The eukaryotic signal sequence, YGRL, targets the chlamydial inclusion

    PubMed Central

    Kabeiseman, Emily J.; Cichos, Kyle H.; Moore, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how host proteins are targeted to pathogen-specified organelles, like the chlamydial inclusion, is fundamentally important to understanding the biogenesis of these unique subcellular compartments and how they maintain autonomy within the cell. Syntaxin 6, which localizes to the chlamydial inclusion, contains an YGRL signal sequence. The YGRL functions to return syntaxin 6 to the trans-Golgi from the plasma membrane, and deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 also prevents the protein from localizing to the chlamydial inclusion. YGRL is one of three YXXL (YGRL, YQRL, and YKGL) signal sequences which target proteins to the trans-Golgi. We designed various constructs of eukaryotic proteins to test the specificity and propensity of YXXL sequences to target the inclusion. The YGRL signal sequence redirects proteins (e.g., Tgn38, furin, syntaxin 4) that normally do not localize to the chlamydial inclusion. Further, the requirement of the YGRL signal sequence for syntaxin 6 localization to inclusions formed by different species of Chlamydia is conserved. These data indicate that there is an inherent property of the chlamydial inclusion, which allows it to recognize the YGRL signal sequence. To examine whether this “inherent property” was protein or lipid in nature, we asked if deletion of the YGRL signal sequence from syntaxin 6 altered the ability of the protein to interact with proteins or lipids. Deletion or alteration of the YGRL from syntaxin 6 does not appreciably impact syntaxin 6-protein interactions, but does decrease syntaxin 6-lipid interactions. Intriguingly, data also demonstrate that YKGL or YQRL can successfully substitute for YGRL in localization of syntaxin 6 to the chlamydial inclusion. Importantly and for the first time, we are establishing that a eukaryotic signal sequence targets the chlamydial inclusion. PMID:25309881

  10. Learning in Inclusive Education Research: Re-Mediating Theory and Methods with a Transformative Agenda

    E-print Network

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Dorn, Sherman; Christensen, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In theory, inclusive education is about all students and focuses on student presence, participation, acceptance, and achievement. In practice, inclusive education is multiplicity of discourses and practices. Historically, inclusive education...

  11. Inclusion Complexes of Dyes and Cyclodextrins: Modeling Supermolecules by Rigorous Quantum

    E-print Network

    Entel, P.

    Inclusion Complexes of Dyes and Cyclodextrins: Modeling Supermolecules by Rigorous Quantum. Keywords: -cyclodextrin-pinacyanol dye inclusion complex, density-functional theory. 1. Introduction) simulation for the pinacyanol dimers in water and - cyclodextrin-pinacyanol inclusion complexes

  12. Ceramic Inclusions in Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially in turbine disk applications. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that are inherent to the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have a potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they typically do not reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where known populations of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the "natural" inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface-connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life; therefore, the quantity of ceramic "seeds" added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will intersect the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface area was needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macroscopic slices from extrusions and forgings. Fatigue specimens have been machined from Udimet 720 (a powder metallurgy superalloy) forgings, to determine the effects of the inclusions on fatigue life. The ultimate goal of this study will be to use probabilistic methods to determine the reliability detriment that can be attributed to these ceramic inclusions. This work has been supported by the Ultra Safe and Ultra- Efficient Engine Technologies programs.

  13. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Schmitt, Roman A. (Corvallis, OR)

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  14. Inclusion process of tetracycline in ? and ?-cyclodextrins: A theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Mércia A. S.; Anconi, Cleber P. A.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Nascimento, Clebio S.

    2015-04-01

    The present Letter reports results from a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the inclusion process involving the tetracycline (TC) by ? and ?-cyclodextrin (CD). Structure and stabilization energies were calculated, both in gas phase and aqueous solution, using a sequential methodology based on semiempirical and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. By the results, a qualitative structure-property relationship could be established with two main structural features being relevant for inclusion complex stabilization: (i) the depth of inclusion, which favors the hydrophobic contact inside the cavity of CDs and (ii) the hydrogen bonds established between guest and host molecules.

  15. Effect of Complex Inclusion Particles on the Solidification Structure of Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Changhee; Park, Joo Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The effect of combinations of several deoxidizers, i.e., Mg-Al, Mg-Ti, Al-Ti, and Ce-Al, on the solidification structure of Fe-2 mass pct Ni-1 mass pct Mn-1 mass pct Mo alloy melt was investigated using a melt sampling and quenching method. Using this method, we evaluated the catalytic potency of several complex inclusion particles by taking the inclusion evolution process into account. Fine equiaxed crystals were obtained in the Mg-Ti-deoxidized steel wherein the MgO(MgAl2O4)-TiN complex compounds formed. However, the longer the holding time at high temperatures, the larger the fraction of Ti2O3, and very fine TiN formed because of microsegregation during solidification, resulting in poor equiaxed crystals. When the steel was deoxidized with Mg-Al, the initial structure was dominantly columnar. However, the longer the holding time, the larger the fraction of MgAl2O4 spinel, resulting in the formation of fine equiaxed crystals. Ce-Al complex deoxidation provided a relatively small portion of equiaxed crystals, whereas Ti-Al deoxidation produced the fewest equiaxed crystals because of the formation of alumina. The effectiveness of each inoculant particle for the crystallization of the primary ?-iron was explained well by the lattice disregistry concept.

  16. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  17. Volatile compositions of melt inclusions in Coso Range Rhyolite

    SciTech Connect

    Blouke, K.J. (Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Dissolved water and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite domes and lava flows in the Coso volcanic field to determine pre-eruptive volatile content of the magma. Inclusions roughly 50--100 microns in diameter were analyzed for dissolved water and carbon dioxide using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glasses have a total water concentration ranging from four to six weight percent and no detectable carbon dioxide. Vapor bubbles in the inclusions about 10--40 microns in diameter were also analyzed for their volatile composition. The spectra show no evidence for carbon dioxide, although significant water is observed. If the melt inclusions were saturated at the time of entrapment, then crystallization occurred between 1,200 and 2,100 bars pressure or greater than 4 kilometers depth.

  18. Perceptual binding of sensory events: the inclusive characteristics model.

    PubMed

    Sergin, V Ya

    2003-10-01

    A conceptual model of a perceptual system is proposed, in which each neural level forms characteristics inclusive of the data held in the underlying level. As a result, the stimulus field can be expressed as a hierarchically ordered set of overlying sensory characteristics: from sensory features to higher inclusive characteristics binding sensory data to form whole images and scenes. Specific patterns of electrical activity reflecting inclusive characteristics are transmitted via reverse projections from the upper neural levels to the lower. This forms a downward excitation transmission cascade, stimulating those neural structures whose signals correspond to the higher inclusive characteristics of the given perceptual act. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from psychological and neurophysiological studies and may support the binding of sensory events at all perceptual levels. PMID:14635989

  19. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, HOUSE, AND OUTBUILDINGS FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Thermal transparency with the concept of neutral inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi

    2013-09-01

    The concept of the electromagnetic wave transparency is introduced into the thermal field. The conditions of the thermal transparency for a multilayered sphere with isotropic coatings, a coated spheroid with an isotropic coating, and a coated sphere with a radial anisotropic core or a radial anisotropic coat are deduced with the help of the idea of the neutral inclusion. The thermal transparency can be achieved by making the effective thermal conductivity of the composite inclusion equal to the thermal conductivity of the surrounding matrix. The validity of the theoretical analysis is checked by the corresponding simulated results, which indicate that the designed neutral inclusion can be transparent perfectly. A specific case of interest of the thermal transparency is its application to cancel the thermal stress concentration resulting from the existence of the inclusions in the particle (even the thermal-insulated particle) -reinforced composites.

  2. Mineralogy of Olivine-hosted Inclusions from the Omolon Pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharygin, V. V.; Kovyazin, S. V.; Podgornykh, N. M.

    2006-03-01

    This paper is concerning mineralogy of olivine-hosted inclusions from the Omolon pallasite. Troilite, kamacite, nickelphosphide, taenite, stanfieldite, chromite, whitlockite, eskolaite and Si-O-bearing phase were found in metal-sulfide blebs.

  3. An asymptotic inclusion speed for the Douglas-Rachford splitting ...

    E-print Network

    2014-12-29

    Keywords Monotone inclusion · Douglas-Rachford splitting · Proximal point ..... Lawrence J., Spingarn J.E.: On fixed points of non-expansive piecewise ... Dong Y.D.: Comments on ”The proximal point algorithm revisited”. J. Optim. Theory.

  4. Office for Diversity and Inclusion |VirginiaTech SUMMER 2013

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Facebook page as part of an Upward Bound work study position in the Office for Diversity and Inclusion's basketball team, who were staying at The Inn and heard about the fire. The team took up a collection

  5. Low frequency locally resonant metamaterials containing composite inclusions.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Guy; Monchiet, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    One main feature of metamaterials is the occurrence of a negative dynamic mass density that is produced when an inner local resonance is present. The inner resonance can be obtained in composite materials containing composite inclusions. For suitable ratios of the physical properties of the constituting materials, the composite inclusions act as spring-mass systems. The scaling of physical properties leading to such an inner resonance and the associated effective dynamic properties of materials containing composite inclusions are briefly recalled. The resonance frequencies and dynamic mass densities are obtained in a closed form for materials containing cylindrical composite fibers or spherical composite inclusions, after solving the related boundary value elasticity problems. PMID:26093416

  6. Reducing the Content of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel for Plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Mel'nik; O. V. Nosochenko; L. S. Lepikhov; O. B. Isaev; V. V. Kislitsa; V. P. Krutikov; I. L. Buzin

    2003-01-01

    The content of nonmetallic inclusions in steel is one of the primary indicators of the quality of the finished product. Customers’ requirements on the overally quality of steel and on its nonmetallic inclusion content in particular have become more stringent. For example, products must conform to class 2?3 under standard SEL072, class 0?1 under standard GOST 22727, and class A

  7. Measurement of the inclusive decay properties of charmed mesons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coffman; F. Dejongh; G. Dubois; G. Eigen; D. G. Hitlin; C. G. Matthews; A. Mincer; J. D. Richman; W. J. Wisniewski; Y. Zhu; Z. Bai; M. Burchell; D. E. Dorfan; J. D. Drinkard; C. Gatto; C. A. Heusch; W. S. Lockman; R. Partridge; H. F. W. Sadrozinski; M. Scarlatella; T. L. Schalk; A. Seiden; A. J. Weinstein; S. Weseler; R. Xu; J. S. Brown; B. I. Eisenstein; T. Freese; G. Gladding; J. M. Izen; C. Simopoulos; I. E. Stockdale; B. Tripsas; U. Mallik; M. Z. Wang; T. Bolton; T. E. Browder; K. O. Bunnell; R. E. Cassell; D. H. Coward; S. Dado; C. Grab; P. C. Kim; J. Labs; A. Odian; D. Pitman; R. H. Schindler; W. Toki; F. Villa; S. Wasserbaech; D. Wisinski; T. H. Burnett; V. Cook; A. D. Li; R. Mir; P. M. Mockett; B. Nemati; L. Parrish; H. J. Willutzki

    1991-01-01

    We report a high statistics study of the inclusive decay properties of the charmed D0 and D+ mesons, and the first inclusive study of the charmed Ds+. The data are collected at sqrt(s)=3.77 GeV and sqrt(s)=4.14 GeV with the Mark III detector at the e+e- storage ring SPEAR. For each charmed meson species, the charged-particle multiplicity, the strangeness content of

  8. Breakdown of QCD factorization theorems for inclusive reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Bodwin, G.T.; Lepage, G.P.

    1982-08-01

    Initial state interactions are shown to violate standard factorization for massive lepton pair production and hadron-induced hard-scattering inclusive reactions order-by-order in QCD perturbation theory. Initial and final state interactions lead to a number of new physical phenomena including K/sub 1/ fluctuations, color correlations, anomalous nuclear number dependence of inclusive cross sections, and induced hadron production in the central rapidity region.

  9. Multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in hereditary inclusion body myopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Jansson; Niklas Darin; Mårten Kyllerman; Tommy Martinsson; Jan Wahlström; Anders Oldfors

    2000-01-01

    We have recently described an autosomal dominant hereditary inclusion body myopathy (h-IBM). Clinically it is is characterized\\u000a by congenital joint contractures and slowly progressive, proximal muscle weakness and ophthalmoplegia. There is deterioration\\u000a of muscle function between 30 and 50?years of age. While young patients show minor pathological changes in muscle, the middle-aged\\u000a and old patients show rimmed vacuoles and inclusions

  10. Calorimetric study on inclusion of some alcohols into ?-cyclodextrin cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kimura; M. Fujisawa; Y. Nakano; T. Kamiyama; T. Otsu; M. Maeda; S. Takagi

    2007-01-01

    The enthalpies of transfer 2-propanol, 1,2-butanediol (BD) and 1-hexanol from aqueous to aqueous ?-cyclodextrin (CD) solutions\\u000a have been determined by microcalorimetry at various mole fractions at 298.15 K. To clarify stabilities of inclusion complexes\\u000a in aqueous solutions, hydration Gibbs energies calculation of inclusion complex of CD-alcohol were performed by using the\\u000a molecular mechanics with the MMFF94s force field in the

  11. Measurement of inclusive production of neutral hadrons from Z decays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Acciarri; A. Adam; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S P Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; Q. An; H. Anderhub; A. L. Anderson; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; L. Antonov; D. Antreasyan; G. Alkhazov; P. Arce; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. V. K. S. Baba; P. Bagnaia; J. A. Bakken; L. Baksay; R. C. Ball; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; J. Bao; R. Barillère; L. Barone; A. Baschirotto; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; Gy. L. Bencze; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; R. Bizzarri; J. J. Blaising; J. J. Bobbink; R K Böck; A. Böhm; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; D. Boutigny; B T Bouwens; Elena Brambilla; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; M. Brooks; A T Bujak; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; C. Burgos; J K Busenitz; A O Buytenhuijs; A. Bykov; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; M. Caria; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; R. Castello; N. Cavallo; M Cerrada-Canales; F. Cesaroni; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; C. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; M. Chen; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; M. T. Choi; S. Chung; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; T. E. Coan; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; N. Colino; A. Contin; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de La Cruz; X. T. Cui; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; A. Degré; K. Deiters; E. Dénes; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; H. R. Dimitrov; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; L. Djambazov; M. T. Dova; E. Drago; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Easo; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; R. Fabbretti; M. Fabre; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; D. Fernandez; G. Fernandez; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; W. Friebel; M. Fukushima; M. Gailloud; Yu. Galaktionov; E. Gallo; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; Z. F. Gong; E. Gonzalez; A. Gougas; D. Goujon; G. Gratta; M. Gruenewald; C. Gu; M. Guanziroli; J. K. Guo; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; H. R. Gustafson; L. J. Gutay; K. Hangarter; A. Hasan; D. Hauschildt; C. F. He; J. T. He; T. Hebbeker; M. Hebert; A. Hervé; K. Hilgers; H. Hofer; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; B. Ille; M. M. Ilyas; V. Innocente; H. Janssen; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; Yu. Kamyshkov; P. Kapinos; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; S. Khokhar; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; S. Kirsch; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; E. Koffeman; O. Kornadt; V. Koutsenko; A. Koulbardis; R. W. Kraemer; T. Kramer; V. R. Krastev; W. Krenz; H. Kuijten; K. S. Kumar; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; G. Landi; D. Lanske; S. Lanzano; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Le Coultre; D. M. Lee; J. S. Lee; K. Y. Lee; I. Leedom; C. Leggett; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; M. Lenti; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; H. T. Li; P. J. Li; J. Y. Liao; W. T. Lin; Z. Y. Lin; F. L. Linde; B. Lindemann; L. Lista; Y. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; J. M. Lubbers; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Ludovici; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; J. M. Ma; W. G. Ma; M. MacDermott; L. Malgeri; R. Malik; A. Malinin; C. Maña; M. Maolinbay; P. Marchesini; F. Marion; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; K. Mazumdar; P. McBride; T. McMahon; D. McNally; M. Merk; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; G. B. Mills; Y. Mir; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; M. Möller; B. Monteleoni; R. Morand; S. Morganti; N. E. Moulai; R. Mount; S. Müller; E. Nagy; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; M. A. Niaz; A. Nippe; H. Nowak; G. Organtini; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; Y. J. Pei; D. Perret-Gallix; J. Perrier; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; F. Plasil; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; Z. D. Qi; J. M. Qian; K. N. Qureshi; R. Raghavan; G. Rahal-Callot; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; M. Redaelli; D. Ren; Z. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; A. Ricker; S. Riemann; B. C. Riemers; K. Riles; O. Rind; H. A. Rizvi; S. Ro; A. Robohm; F. J. Rodriguez; B. P. Roe; M. Röhner; S. Röhner; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; R. Rosmalen; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; A. Rubbia; J. A. Rubio; H. Rykaczewski; M. Sachwitz; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; G. S. Sanders; A. Santocchia; M. S. Sarakinos; G. Sartorelli; M. Sassowsky; G. Sauvage; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; M. Schneegans; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; S. Shotkin; H. J. Schreiber; J. Shukla; R. Schulte; K. Schultze; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; I. Scott; R. Sehgal; P. G. Seiler; J. C. Sens; L. Servoli; I. Sheer; D. Z. Shen

    1994-01-01

    We present a study of the inclusive production of pi0, eta, Ks0 and Lambda based on 929,000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the L3 detector at LEP. The measured inclusive momentum distributions have been compared with predictions from parton shower models as well as an analytical Quantum Chromodynamics calculation. Comparing to low energy e+e- data, we find that QCD describes

  12. Inclusion formation in low-alloy steel welds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Babu; S. A. David; T. DebRoy

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes four models for describing inclusion formation in steel welds. These methods include simple fixed oxidation sequence model, thermodynamic model, thermodynamic-kinetic model, and thermodynamic-kinetic-fluid flow model. Complexities of these models increase with a need to describe details of the inclusion formation. The applicability of the models was illustrated with two examples. In one of the examples, thermodynamic calculations

  13. Diffusionally modified elastic interaction of edge dislocations with circular inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Wang

    This research contains two relevant parts. In the first part, we investigate the problem of an edge dislocation interacting\\u000a with a thickly coated circular inclusion. Both interface slip and diffusion occur on the inclusion\\/coating and coating\\/matrix\\u000a interfaces. We further assume that all these stress relaxation processes on the two interfaces have come to an end. A closed-form\\u000a solution to the

  14. A magnetoelectric screw dislocation interacting with a circular layered inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Ho Shen

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of the linear theory of magnetoelectroelasticity, the problem of a circular layered inclusion interacting with a generalized screw dislocation under remote anti-plane shear stress and in-plane magnetoelectric loads is investigated in this paper. The generalized dislocation can be located either in the matrix or in the circular layered inclusion. The layers are coaxial cylinders of annular cross-sections

  15. Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions from Izu-Hakone Region, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Aoki; H. Kuno

    1972-01-01

    Gabbro — quartz diorite inclusions, angular to rounded and up to 20 cm in size, have been found as accidental fragments in\\u000a a mud flow of the Okata basalt group, O-shima Island and in a tuff breccia, Hakone. New analyses are represented for seventeen\\u000a inclusions and three pyroxenes.\\u000a \\u000a It is reasonable to conclude from petrographic and chemical features that the

  16. Phenolic compounds from Hypericum perforatum.

    PubMed

    Jürgenliemk, Guido; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2002-01-01

    During a re-investigation of phenolic compounds from the dried crude drug material of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) 22 phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC; 14 of them were quantified using the same system. Twelve phenolic compounds were isolated from the plant material and their structures identified mainly by spectroscopic methods, among them quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-galactoside as a new natural product. Cryptochlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3-O-[Z]-p-coumaroylquinic acid, isoorientin, cyanidin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside, and astilbin were obtained for the first time from this source; the earlier suspected neochlorogenic acid, 3-O-[E]-p-coumaroylquinic acid, mangiferin, miquelianin and guaijaverin were confirmed. PMID:11842341

  17. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogenation of alkynes by the heterobimetallic compound C{sub 5}H{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re({mu}-H)Pt(H)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} is being studied. The compound C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}(CO){sub 2}Re{double bond}Re(CO){sub 2}C{sub 5}Me{sub 5} was synthesized; its chemistry is being studied. Compounds discovered in a reinvestigation of a spurious report of (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})Co{double bond}Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}), are being studied. The deuterioformylation of alkenes using wide bite angle phosphines will be studied.

  18. Petroleum inclusions in sedimentary basins: systematics, analytical methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Ingrid Anne

    2001-01-01

    Fluid dynamics in sedimentary basins is of tremendous interest, both from a scientific and an economic point of view. Integration between fluid inclusion and present-day fluid data provides the time aspect necessary for reconstruction of fluid flow paths, and can be used for mapping fluid dynamics both on a regional basin scale or on the more local scale of petroleum reservoirs. This paper presents a review of analytical and modelling methods for petroleum in fluid inclusions. Essentially, four types of data for petroleum inclusions can be established through analysis and modelling: (1) textures (which give indirect information of the time aspect), (2) fluid composition, (3) fluid properties and (4) pressure-temperature of trapping. During the last decade, development of analytical methods for determination of inclusion fluid compositions has taken place. Traditional correlation studies for characterisation of maturity and source facies may now therefore include fluid inclusion data. The development has also been directed towards an improved understanding of the physical properties of petroleum inclusions. Although these methods are in their early stages concerning precision and accuracy, data necessary for fluid flow modelling, such as fluid densities, viscosities, pressure and temperature, can be estimated.

  19. Basics of compounding with tars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    Tar has been used throughout history for numerous purposes; from sealing the hulls of ships to sealing roofs of dwellings and even for medical purposes. Produced by destructive distillation, commonly used tars are prepared from coal and wood. Coal tar, juniper tar, and pine tar are used for various medical purposes as described in the article. Also presented are the various characteristics and uses of each tar, along with commercial products and numerous compounding formulas. Techniques used to compound with tars are also presented. PMID:24459787

  20. Novel inhibitors of HIV discovered among existing classes of pharmaceutical compounds indicated for unrelated clinical indications.

    PubMed

    Kucherov, I I; Rytik, P G; Podol'skaya, I A; Mistryukova, L O; Korjev, M O

    2009-01-01

    In vitro screening of 307 drugs with various clinical indications (cardiotropic, neurotropic, antibacterial, etc.) has revealed 6 compounds which displayed remarkable antiretroviral activity. Three of these drugs had a tendency to have undesirable side effects and were thus excluded from further consideration. Remaining three, i.e., Xantinol Nicotinate, Tardiferon, and Trental may become valid candidates for inclusion into antiviral regimens such as HAART. In vitro tests have shown that xantinol and trental display synergistic effect with azidothymidine, inhibit the replication AZT-resistant strains of HIV, and have no competing undesirable activities. These compounds should be evaluated in safety studies to determine optimal doses for patients with HIV. If these studies confirm in vitro results these compounds may become valid candidates as safe and affordable means to be added into the arsenal of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:19355959

  1. Author's personal copy Coexisting silicate melt inclusions and H2O-bearing, CO2-rich fluid inclusions in mantle

    E-print Network

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    inclusions in mantle peridotite xenoliths from the Carpathian­Pannonian region (central Hungary) Károly Hidas in revised form 15 March 2010 Accepted 16 March 2010 Editor: D.B. Dingwell Keywords: Carpathian

  2. Inorganic lead compounds in electroceramics and glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, N.; Bhalla, A.; Roy, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lead-based compounds are numerous. When the toxicological effects of lead compounds are studied, a distinction between organic and inorganic lead compounds appears because each group behaves differently in biological systems. Examination of inorganic lead compounds exposes additional differences in their stability, modes of human exposure and socioeconomic importance. Lead-based electroceramics and glasses include inorganic lead compounds that can be controlled in the future when restrictions on lead use are enacted. The compounds widely used in electronics pose minimal health risks because of their stability. The socioeconomic impact of restricting these compounds could be significant because of their widespread use and the difficulty of locating replacement materials.

  3. Compounds Generate Optical Second Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Newly synthesized organic salts found to generate relatively large second-harmonic signals when illuminated by fundamental signals in near-infrared spectrum. Made by crystallizing, with appropriate counterions, organic ions having large molecular hyperpolarizibilities. Large second-order nonlinear susceptibilities observed. These and other compounds having large nonlinear optical properties used in electro-optical modulators, switches, and signal-processing equipment.

  4. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVER BOTTAand; Jeffrey L. Bada

    2002-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursorsfound in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellarmedium and were later incorporated intoplanetesimals during the formation of thesolar system. There they either survivedintact or underwent further processing tosynthesize secondary products on themeteorite parent body.The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceouschondrites, two typesof stony meteorites, is their high carbon content(up to 3% of

  5. Adaptive control of compound manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pittman; R. Colbaugh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the motion control of a kinematically redundant manipulator. The controller is a direct adaptive control strategy that is stable and is applied through computer simulations with a nine degree-of-freedom compound manipulator consisting of a small, fast six DOF manipulator mounted on a large three DOF positioning device

  6. Microwave diagnosis of rubber compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stoyan I. Ganchev; Jay Bhattacharyya; Sasan Bakhtiari; Nasser Qaddoumi; Deborah Brandenburg; Reza Zoughi

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study investigating the dielectric properties of rubber compounds and their constituents in the frequency range of 5 to 24 GHz are presented. A completely filled short circuited waveguide technique was used to conduct these dielectric measurements. The influence of carbon black content in rubber was investigated for carefully prepared rubber samples. The results showed that for

  7. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  8. Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Edward A.

    Compounded Perturbations Yield Ecological Surprises Robert T. Paine,1* Mia J. Tegner,2 and Edward A or age to first reproduction of the species of interest seem to be the important metrics for scaling/infrequent catastrophes, to be central to much traditional ecology; such directional or cyclical changes stimulated

  9. Using melt inclusions and fluid inclusions to track ore-metal behavior in magma-hydrothermal systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Audétat, A.

    2013-12-01

    Melt and fluid inclusions yield important clues to the history of igneous melts and their related hydrothermal ore deposits (1). Under ideal conditions, melt inclusions in volcanic rocks yield data on the actual concentrations of ore metals and volatiles during instantaneous snapshots of crystallization and degassing. Their varying compositions can directly reflect sequestration of ore-metals in fractionating minerals and/or exsolving brines and vapors. Frequently, scientists compare the concentration of volatile elements in melt inclusions with their abundance in devolatilized matrix glass. Though this provides an informative qualitative overview of volatility, it is essentially impossible to use such data to calculate thermodynamically relevant partition coefficients. The resulting partitioning ratio instead represents fractionation over a wide range of pressures, and compositions (for both exsolved fluid and silicate melt). Ideally, workers should identify co-entrapped fluid and glass inclusions to provide more thermodynamically meaningful partitioning ratios for volatile metals and gases (2,3). Unfortunately, the occurrence of fluid inclusions co-entrapped with silicate melt is relatively rare, and studies of synthetic fluid and melt inclusions may be the most practical means of exploring the effect of crystallization and degassing in 'natural' systems. As with melt inclusions, under ideal conditions, fluid inclusions in intrusive rocks represent the compositions of fluids generated within associated magmatic-hydrothermal fluid systems. Multiple generations of cross-cutting fractures may be generated, resulting in trails of secondary and pseudosecondary inclusions in igneous minerals, and primary and secondary inclusions in hydrothermal assemblages. Chemistry of the fluids preserved within different inclusion generations will change markedly due to changes in magmatic temperature and pressure and mixing of diverse external fluids from meteoric and metamorphic sources. For example, ore elements sequestered by magmatic crystallization at high temperature may be liberated and re-transported by fluids upon magma cooling due to breakdown and dissolution of oxides and sulfides at low temperature. Both fluid and melt inclusions can be open to modification between initial formation and ultimate petrographic inspection. In melt inclusions, bubbles separate from glass and variably re-hydrate the glass during cooling. In addition, crystals can form and elements can diffuse between glass and host mineral. These problems are yet more exaggerated in intrusive rocks, but workers are still able to obtain useful information through meticulous inspection, categorization and analysis through diverse techniques. This presentation will review a variety of recent studies that illustrate these concepts and demonstrate how to extract useful information from inclusions from a variety of deposit types. (1) Audétat, A. & Lowenstern, J.B. (in press) Melt Inclusions. In Scott. S. (ed.) Geochemistry of Mineral Resources: Treatise of Geochemistry, 2nd edition. (2) Zajacz Z, et al. (2008) Geochim et Cosmochim.Acta, 72: 2169-2197. (3) Lerchbaumer, L. & Audétat, A., (2013) Econ. Geol. v. 108, p. 987-1013.

  10. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of volatile organic compounds in a binary polydimethylsiloxane-permethylated ?-cyclodextrin stationary phase, as measured by gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchak, L. A.; Platonov, V. I.; Kuraeva, Yu. G.

    2013-05-01

    The sorption behavior of 29 organic compounds in a binary polydimethylsiloxane-permethylated ?-cyclodextrin stationary phase is investigated using gas chromatography. The effect of the sorbates' polarity, shape, and chirality on the formation of sorbate-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes is studied.

  11. Effect of inclusion density on ductile fracture toughness and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Ponson, L.; Osovski, S.; Bouchaud, E.; Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    2014-02-01

    Three dimensional calculations of ductile fracture under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating solid with two populations of void nucleating second phase particles. Larger inclusions that result in void nucleation at an early stage are modeled discretely while smaller particles that require large strains to nucleate voids are homogeneously distributed. Full field solutions are obtained for eight volume fractions, ranging from 1% to 19%, of randomly distributed larger inclusions. For each volume fraction calculations are carried out for seven random distributions of inclusion centers. Crack growth resistance curves and fracture surface roughness statistics are calculated using standard procedures. The crack growth resistance is characterized in terms of both JIC and the tearing modulus TR. For all volume fractions considered, the computed fracture surfaces are self-affine over a size range of nearly two orders of magnitude with a microstructure independent roughness exponent of 0.53 with a standard error of 0.0023. The cut-off length of the scale invariant regime is found to depend on the inclusion volume fraction. Consideration of the full statistics of the fracture surface roughness revealed other parameters that vary with inclusion volume fraction. For smaller values of the discretely modeled inclusion volume fraction (?7%), there is a linear correlation between several measures of fracture surface roughness and both JIC and TR. In this regime crack growth is dominated by a void-by-void process. For greater values of the discretely modeled inclusion volume fraction, crack growth mainly involves multiple void interactions and no such correlation is found.

  12. Effect of torsional isomerization and inclusion complex formation with cucurbit[7]uril on the fluorescence of 6-methoxy-1-methylquinolinium.

    PubMed

    Miskolczy, Zsombor; Harangozó, József G; Biczók, László; Wintgens, Véronique; Lorthioir, Cédric; Amiel, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Inclusion of 6-methoxy-1-methylquinolinium (C1MQ) in the cavity of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) was studied by absorption, fluorescence, NMR and isothermal calorimetric methods in aqueous solution at 298 K. The free C1MQ exhibited dual-exponential fluorescence decay kinetics due to the two torsional isomers differing in the orientation of the methoxy moiety relative to the heterocyclic ring. The enthalpy-driven encapsulation of the heterocycle in CB7 led to a very stable 1?:?1 complex with a binding constant of (2.0 ± 0.4) × 10(6) M(-1). The rate of C1MQ-CB7 complex dissociation was found to be comparable to the NMR timescale. Because the methoxy moiety is oriented outward from the host, its s-cis-s-trans isomerization is slightly affected by the confinement. Inclusion complex formation significantly slowed down the photoinduced electron transfer from I(-) and N3(-) to the singlet-excited C1MQ, but did not preclude the reaction because long distance electron transfer occurred through the wall of the CB7 macrocycle. Due to the large difference in the quenching rate constant for free and encapsulated forms, C1MQ is an excellent probe for the study of the inclusion of nonfluorescent compounds in CB7 in the presence of Cl(-) or Br(-). PMID:24346633

  13. A New Purge and Trap Headspace Technique to Analyse Volatile Organohalogens from Fluid Inclusions of Rocks and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, I.; Huber, S.; Krause, T.; Zetzsch, C.; Dultz, S.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, advances were made in the detection of low boiling point volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at trace gas concentrations of air samples employing sophisticated and complex experimental setups [1-3]. Conventional fluid inclusion gas analyses via GC-MS do not comprise halogenated VOCs in their analytical routine [4]. Svensen et al. [5] have confirmed the release of chlorinated and brominated VOCs from halites after heat treatment using thermodesorption-GC-MS. Already in 1998, Harnisch and Eisenhauer [6] reported the liberation of CF4 and SF6 from natural fluorite and granite samples after milling. In this work, a new method for the analysis of trace gases from fluid inclusions of minerals has been developed. The involved purge and trap GC-MS system is based on the system described by Nolting et al. [7] and was optimized for the analyses of halogenated VOCs at boiling points as low as -128 °C (carbon tetrafluoride). In this study, a special air-tight grinding device was developed in which samples ranging from soft halite (hardness 2, Moh's scale) to hard quartz (hardness 7) are effectively ground to average diameters of 1000 nm or below, thereby releasing gases from fluid inclusions of minerals. The gases are then purged from the grinding chamber with a He carrier gas flow corresponding to a standard headspace technique. This method has already been used to detect gases such as SF6 and CF4 released from fluorites and CHCl3 from halite samples.

  14. Inclusive study of high-energy multiparticle production and two-body correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Foà

    1975-01-01

    The present experimental information on multibody hadron production is examined in the framework of an inclusive and semi-inclusive approach. In the first part, the trends towards possible asymptotic limits is briefly discussed. The main part of this review is then devoted to the study of inclusive and semi-inclusive two-particle correlations.

  15. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  16. Explicit Determination of Piezoelectric Eshelby Tensors for a Spheroidal Inclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yozo Mikata

    2001-06-21

    In this paper, by systematically treating the integrals involved in the piezoelectric inclusion problem, explicit results were obtained for the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors for a spheroidal inclusion aligned along the axis of the anisotropy in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material. This problem was first treated by Dunn and Wienecke (1996) using a Green's function approach, which closely follows Withers' approach (1989) for an ellipsoidal inclusion problem in a transversely isotropic elastic medium. The same problem was recently treated by Michelitsch and Levin (2000) also using a Green's function approach. In this paper, a different method was used to obtain the explicit results for the piezoelectric Eshelby tensors for a spheroidal inclusion. The method is a direct extension of a more unified approach, which has been recently developed by Mikata (2000), which is based on Deeg's results (1980) on a piezoelectric inclusion problem. The main advantage of this method is that it is more straightforward and simpler than Dunn and Wienecke (1996), or Michelitsch and Levin (2000), and the results are a little bit more explicit than their solutions. The key step of this paper is an analytical closed form evaluation of several integrals, which was made possible after a careful treatment of a certain bi-cubic equation.

  17. Thermodynamic study on the effects of ?-cyclodextrin inclusion with berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Sheng; Wei, Fang-Di; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Chang-Chun

    2002-01-01

    The fluorescence enhancement of berberine (Berb) as a result of complex with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is investigated. The association constants of ?-CD and ?-CD with Berb are 60 and 137 M -1 at 20 °C in pH 7.20 aqueous solution. Effects of temperature on the forming inclusion complexes of ?-CD with Berb have been examined through using fluorescence titration. Enthalpy and entropy values calculated from fluorescence data are -33.7·kJ mol -1 and 74.3 J·mol -1·K -1, respectively. It was found that the dielectric constant of ?-CD cavity is about 24 in a rough analogy with absolute alcohol. These results suggest that the extrusion of 'high energy water' molecules from the cavity of ?-CD and hydrophobic interaction upon the inclusion complex formation are the main forces of the inclusion reaction. Effect of pH on the association of ?-CD with Berb was also studied. Mechanism of the inclusion of ?-CD with Berb is further studied by absorption and NMR measurements. Results show that ?-CD forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with Berb.

  18. Being and feeling liked by others: How social inclusion impacts health.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Sproesser, Gudrun; Renner, Britta

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived and actual social inclusion on health across and within individuals from a network perspective. During the first semester, 75 freshmen students provided bi-weekly ratings on their perceived social inclusion and health. To capture actual social inclusion, each student nominated liked and disliked fellow students. Perceived social inclusion mediated the effect of actual social inclusion on health. Specifically, students with more 'likes' perceived more social inclusion and those with higher perceived inclusion reported a better health status (between-person effect). In addition, at time points, when students received more 'likes' they also perceived more social inclusion. They reported better health at times when they felt more included (within-person effect). Thus, the perception of social inclusion is rooted in reality and actual social inclusion has an impact on health when passing the filter of perception. PMID:25790321

  19. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  20. Percutaneous absorption of uranium compounds.

    PubMed

    de Rey, B M; Lanfranchi, H E; Cabrini, R L

    1983-04-01

    Percutaneous absorption of soluble and insoluble uranium compounds has been induced in order to obtain information on penetration routes and the tissue injury produced by uranium salts. The high electron density of uranium provided a reliable way to visualize, by electron microscopy, the precise localization of the heavy compounds within the tissues. Few minutes after topical application of uranyl nitrate, dense deposits of uranium were observed at the epidermal barrier level. A few hours later, dense deposits were seen filling the intercellular spaces and were also scattered in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mortality and body weight measurements indicated the high toxicity of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate; uranyl acetate and ammonium diuranate were less toxic. As no penetration was achieved after uranium dioxide, no variations were detected on these parameters. PMID:6832127