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1

5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.  

PubMed

The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population. PMID:23959833

Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

2013-11-01

2

Evaluation of the MTHFR A1298C variant in leukoaraiosis.  

PubMed

Vascular demyelinization of the white matter of the brain is referred to as leukoaraiosis (LA). This very frequent entity is associated with a cognitive decline, thereby resulting in a deteriorating quality of life. Besides poorly controlled hypertension and aging, its development is reported to be associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level. Although the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic variant is associated with an elevated serum homocysteine level, it has not been proved to be an independent risk factor for LA. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the MTHFR A1298C genetic variant, which is also believed to be unfavorable, is associated with the presence of LA. The clinical and genetic data on 198 LA patients and 235 neuroimaging alteration-free controls were analyzed. The presence of the A1298C or the 1298CC variant was calculated to be a risk factor for LA, as compared with the absence of both of them. The clustering of the heterozygous A1298C and C677T variants was proved to involve the risk of LA. Our results suggest that the MTHFR A1298C variant confers an independent genetic risk of LA, and this pathological role may be amplified by the MTHFR C677T variant. PMID:21845428

Szolnoki, Zoltan; Szaniszlo, Istvan; Szekeres, Marta; Hitri, Krisztina; Kondacs, Andras; Mandi, Yvette; Nedo, Erika; Somogyvari, Ferenc

2012-03-01

3

Homocysteine Level and Mechanisms of Injury in Parkinson's Disease as Related to MTHFR, MTR, and MTHFD1 Genes Polymorphisms and L-Dopa Treatment.  

PubMed

An elevated concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is considered to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Homocysteine (Hcy) levels are influenced by folate concentrations and numerous genetic factors through the folate cycle, however, their role in the pathogenesis of PD remains controversial. Hcy exerts a neurotoxic action and may participate in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, calcium accumulation, and apoptosis. Elevated Hcy levels can lead to prooxidative activity, most probably through direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Several studies have shown that higher concentration of Hcy in PD is related to long-term administration of levodopa (L-dopa). An elevation of plasma tHcy levels can also reflect deficiencies of cofactors in remethylation of Hcy to methionine (Met) (folates and vitamin B12) and in its transsulfuration to cysteine (Cys) (vitamin B6). It is believed that the increase in the concentration of Hcy in PD can affect genetic polymorphisms of the folate metabolic pathway genes, such as MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and G1793A), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), whose frequencies tend to increase in PD patients, as well as the reduced concentration of B vitamins. In PD, increased levels of Hcy may lead to dementia, depression and progression of the disease. PMID:24532985

Rozycka, Agata; Jagodzinski, Pawel P; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

2013-12-01

4

Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 +/- 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major...

5

Comparing techniques for the identification of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism.  

PubMed

The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique with the MboII enzyme is used by a number of researchers as a methodology for the identification of the genetic polymorphism MTHFR A1298C. However, the reliability of this enzyme for genotyping this polymorphism has been questioned, since the silent polymorphism T1317C, located close to the polymorphic region A1298C on gene MTHFR, also has a recognition site for MboII. Thus, the fragments formed by the digestion of MboII present similar sizes, making it difficult to differentiate the allele MTHFR 1298A in the presence of the allele MTHFR 1317C. Hence, we investigated the A1298C polymorphism in a Brazilian population of renal transplant patients, using the RFLP technique with digestion by Mbo II and using sequencing, in order to examine the concordance between the two techniques. Our results showed an 8.6% difference in genotyping between RFLP and sequencing, but the statistical concordance test presented a kappa coefficient equal to 0.81 (CI 95% 0.74-88), which indicates a virtually perfect concordance, according to the criterion of Landis and Koch. Therefore, we concluded that the RFLP technique is concordant with automated sequencing in the detection of polymorphism A1298C under our laboratory conditions. PMID:19137091

de Alvarenga, Maria Paula Sanches; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

2008-04-01

6

Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility  

PubMed Central

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR?=?3.372, 95% confidence interval CI?=?1.27–8.238; p?=?0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

2012-01-01

7

MTHFR, MTR, and MTHFD1 gene polymorphisms compared to homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and their metabolites in epileptic patients treated with antiepileptic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of polymorphisms of genes MTHFR (C677T), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), as well as to analyze the concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), methionine (Met), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and arginine (Arg) in epileptics treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and controls.

Aleksandra Sniezawska; Jolanta Dorszewska; Agata Rozycka; Elzbieta Przedpelska-Ober; Margarita Lianeri; Pawel P. Jagodzinski; Wojciech Kozubski

2011-01-01

8

Is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphism related with varicocele risk?  

PubMed

Varicocele is one of the main reasons for male infertility the exact aetiology of which remains unclear. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for DNA synthesis and methylation, which has a key role during spermatogenesis. Numerous literature suggests that the MTHFR polymorphism may be genetic risk factors for male infertility. In this study, we evaluated C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphism frequency in patients with varicocele and normal men. A total of 107 varicocele patients and 109 fertile healthy individuals were included. Genotyping of the MTHFR gene in C677T and A1298C base pairs carried out by using real-time PCR technique and afterwards, the statistical analysis accomplished. There is a statistical difference for the frequency of 1298AA genotype in patients with varicocele compared with normal controls (P = 0.0051, OR = 2.2750). Instead, subsequently, 1298/A allel frequency in patient group was significantly higher in comparison with control group (P = 0.0174). According to our results, 1298AA genotype in MTHFR gene raises the risk of varicocele approximately 2.3 times more compared with men carrying other genotypes. The results show that genetic factors have an important role in the molecular basis of varicocele. PMID:24456105

Ucar, V B; Nami, B; Acar, H; Kilinç, M

2015-02-01

9

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism in pediatric stroke--case-control and family-based study.  

PubMed

Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors of pediatric stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme, which regulates homocysteine metabolism, and some polymorphisms of gene encoding this enzyme are associated with a decreased activity of the enzyme. The aim of the study was to assess an association between the A1298C polymorphism and pediatric stroke. We also evaluated a possible synergistic effect of A1298C and C677T polymorphisms of this gene. The study group consisted of 88 children after ischemic stroke, 142 of their parents and 111 controls. The A1298C polymorphism was genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used 2 study designs: a case-control model and a family-based association test. The Statistica 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares were used in all analyses. We did not observe any statistically significant differences either in the transmission of the A allele in the family-based test or in the frequency of the A allele in the patients group compared with the controls. We also did not notice any significant additive or synergistic effects between the A1298C and C677T polymorphisms. An analysis of the results obtained in this study and a critical review of previously published studies indicate that the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is not related to ischemic stroke in children. PMID:25440348

Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Pawe?; Kopyta, Ilona; Emich-Widera, Ewa; Pilarska, Ewa; Pienczk-R?c?awowicz, Karolina; Kaci?ski, Marek; Wendorff, Janusz; ?ak, Iwona

2015-01-01

10

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 33 Studies  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89–1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90–1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91–1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk. PMID:25506474

Rai, V

2014-01-01

11

No association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Various studies have demonstrated that the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of prostate cancer, while other studies have provided conflicting findings. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis with the aim of determining whether there is a significant association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the susceptibility of prostate cancer. Studies on the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer were retrieved using the electronic PubMed database without any restriction on language through Aug 21, 2011. Data were abstracted by a standardized protocol. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of association. The analyses were conducted with Review Manager software version 4.2. Nine case-control studies were identified, including 2,723 prostate cancer patients and 3,442 controls. Overall, no significant associations were found between the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer (codominant models: CC vs. AA, OR=1.03, 95% CI 0.79–1.34, P=0.84; AC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.93–1.16, P=0.46; dominant model: AC + CC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.94–1.15, P=0.48; recessive model: CC vs. AC + AA, OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.76–1.35, P=0.91; allele model: C vs. A, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.90–1.19, P=0.61). Similarly, in the subgroup analyses by DNA source, ethnicity, control source, pathological stage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, no significant associations were observed. Our meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism is not associated with the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:22969917

LI, DAWEI; TIAN, TIAN; GUO, CHUNHUI; REN, JUCHAO; YAN, LEI; LIU, HAINAN; XU, ZHONGHUA

2012-01-01

12

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphism in Iranian Women With Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Losses  

PubMed Central

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a serious problem for pregnancy. There is evidence that vascular complications play a principal role in RPL. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) of MTHFR gene are associated with decreased MTHFR activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association between MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, blood samples were obtained from patients who had three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before the 22nd week of pregnancy (n = 204). The control group consisted of 116 age-matched women with at least one alive child and without any history of pregnancy loss or other gestational complications (n = 116). Following DNA extraction, samples were tested for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using the reverse hybridization method. Results: The prevalence of 677TT mutation was 8.8% (18/204) in the patient group and 8.6% (10/116) in the control group (P = 0.434). The prevalence of 1298CC mutation was 12.3 % (25/204) in the patient group and 8% (9/116) in the control group (P = 0.155). Investigation of the distributions of various genotypes of MTHFR C677T and A1298C did not indicate a significant difference between patients with RPL and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that MTHFR mutations might not be associated with RPL in the examined population. PMID:25237572

Yousefian, Elham; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Allahveisi, Azra

2014-01-01

13

MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C and associations with IVF outcomes in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in Brazilian women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. A prospective study was conducted in the Human Reproduction Department at the ABC University School of Medicine and the Ideia Fertility Institute between December 2010 and April 2012. The patient population was 82 women undergoing assisted reproduction cycles. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C were evaluated and compared with laboratory results and pregnancy rates. The C677T variant was associated with proportions of mature (P=0.006) and immature (P=0.003) oocytes whereas the A1298C variant was associated with number of oocytes retrieved (P=0.044). The polymorphisms, whether alone or in combination, were not associated with normal fertilization, good-quality embryo or clinical pregnancy rates. This study suggests that the number and maturity of oocytes retrieved may be related to the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C. It is believed that folate has a crucial function in human reproduction and that folate deficiency can compromise the function of the metabolic pathways it is involved in, leading to an accumulation of homocysteine. The gene MTHFR encodes the 5-MTHFR enzyme, which is involved in folate metabolism, and C677T/A1298C polymorphisms of this gene are related to decreased enzyme activity and consequent changes in homocysteine concentration. Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia can also compromise fertility and lead to pregnancy complications by affecting the development of oocytes, preparation of endometrial receptivity, implantation of the embryo and pregnancy. In folliculogenesis, hyperhomocysteinaemia can activate apoptosis, leading to follicular atresia and affecting the maturity of oocytes and the quality of embryos cultured in vitro. This study was performed to investigate the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and IVF outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. PMID:24746944

D'Elia, Priscila Queiroz; dos Santos, Aline Amaro; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Aoki, Tsutomu

2014-06-01

14

Screening for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in patients with epilepsy and risk of hyperhomocysteinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia can result from decreased methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme activity, owing to genetic\\u000a polymorphisms and\\/or inadequate folate intake. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of C677T and A1298C MTHFR\\u000a polymorphisms, and their impact on hyperhomocysteinemia in 95 epileptic patients and 98 controls. Double gradient-denaturing\\u000a gradient gel electrophoresis screening revealed that the frequency of T677 polymorphic allele was similar

D. Caccamo; S. Condello; G. Gorgone; G. Crisafulli; V. Belcastro; S. Gennaro; P. Striano; F. Pisani; R. Ientile

2004-01-01

15

MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P = 0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P = 0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR = 1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P = 0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR = 1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P = 0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR = 1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P = 0.024; OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P = 0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy. PMID:24966971

Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

2014-01-01

16

No association between MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms, and MS in an Australian cohort.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in debilitating neuropathology. Pathogenesis is primarily defined by CNS inflammation and demyelination of nerve axons. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine via cobalamin and folate dependant reactions. Cobalamin acts as an intermediate methyl carrier between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Hcy. MTRR plays a critical role in maintaining cobalamin in an active form and is consequently an important determinant of total plasma Hcy (pHcy) concentrations. Elevated intracellular pHcy levels have been suggested to play a role in CNS dysfunction, neurodegenerative, and cerebrovascular diseases. Our investigation entailed the genotyping of a cohort of 140 cases and matched controls for MTRR and MTHFR, by restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Two polymorphisms: MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C were investigated in an Australian age and gender matched case-control study. No significant allelic frequency difference was observed between cases and controls at the alpha = 0.05 level (MTRR chi2 = 0.005, P = 0.95, MTHFR chi2 = 1.15, P = 0.28). Our preliminary findings suggest no association between the MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and MS. PMID:17113603

Szvetko, A L; Fowdar, J; Nelson, J; Colson, N; Tajouri, L; Csurhes, P A; Pender, M P; Griffiths, L R

2007-01-15

17

MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease in North Indians.  

PubMed

The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease and in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on hemodialysis has not been examined. The aim of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms of MTHFR gene with homocysteine (Hcy) and intimal medial thickness (IMT) in patients on hemodialysis. We performed case-control study involving107 patients with ESRD and 103 healthy controls. Plasma Hcy was measured in all the subjects and these subjects were genotyped for three MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C, and G1793A). We observed significantly higher Hcy levels in patients as compared to controls. The frequency of MTHFR 1298CC genotype was significantly higher in ESRD patients than in controls (21.4% vs. 2.9%); the frequency of the MTHFR C677T genotypes did not differ between groups (26.1% vs. 17.4%). Compound heterozygous MTHFR 677CT/1298AC genotypes showed maximum association with the risk of ESRD (OR: 12.8; 5%CI: 1.64-10.01, P < 0.05). Concurrent occurrence of MTHFR 677CC wild genotype with either 1298CC or 1793GA significantly increased the risk of disease (OR: 7.20; 95%CI: 2.06-2.51, P < 0.001 and OR: 7.60; 95%CI: 1.68-34.35; P < 0.05, respectively). MTHFR 1298CC genotype was associated with higher Hcy levels. IMT was also significantly higher in patients with the 1298CC genotype (P < 0.05). Thus, A1298C polymorphism of MTHFR gene appears to be associated with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and co-occurrence of MTHFR polymorphisms may be a risk factor for CVD in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:17899317

Poduri, Aruna; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Sud, Kamal; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sakhuja, Vinay; Khullar, Madhu

2008-01-01

18

Genetic Variant in MTRR, but Not MTR, Is Associated with Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: An Integrated Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects and the leading cause of deaths among individuals with congenital structural abnormalities worldwide. Both Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and Methionine synthase (MTR) are key enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine, which are significant in the earlier period embryogenesis, particularly in the cardiac development. Evidence is mounting for the association between MTRR A66G (rs1801394)/MTR A2756G (rs1805087) and the CHD risk, but results are controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis integrating case-control and transmitted disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to obtain more precise estimate of the associations of these two variants with the CHD risk. Methods To combine case-control and TDT studies, we used the Catmap package of R software to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 9 reports were included in the final meta-analysis. Eight of them comprised of 914 cases, 964 controls, and 441 families that were germane to MTRR A66G polymorphism; and 4 reports comprised of 250 cases, 205 controls, and 53 families that were relevant to MTR A2756G polymorphism. The pooled OR for the MTRR 66 G allele versus A allele was 1.35 (95% CI?=?1.14–1.59, P<0.001, Pheterogeneity?=?0.073). For MTR A2756G, the G allele conferred a pooled OR of 1.10 (95% CI?=?0.78–1.57, P?=?0.597, Pheterogeneity?=?0.173) compared with the A allele. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to asses the effects of each individual study on the pooled OR, indicating the stability of the outcome. Moreover, positive results were also obtained in all subgroups stratified by study type and ethnicity except the subgroup of TDT studies in MTRR A66G variant. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated a suggestive result that the A66G variant in MTRR, but not the A2756G in MTR, may be associated with the increase of CHD risks. PMID:24595101

Zhong, Rong; Zou, Li; Zhu, Beibei; Chen, Wei; Shen, Na; Ke, Juntao; Lou, Jiao; Wang, Zhenling; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lifeng; Song, Ranran

2014-01-01

19

Genotypes of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene as a cause of human spontaneous embryo loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene have been implicated in fetal viability. In this study, we determined the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in different populations, includ- ing spontaneous abortion (SA) fetal tissues, with the objective of evaluating their impact on fetal viability. METHODS: 342 samples of fetal tissues, selected from SA occurring during the

G. Callejon; A. Mayor-Olea; A. J. Jimenez; M. J. Gaitan; A. R. Palomares; F. Martinez; M. Ruiz; Armando Reyes-Engel

2007-01-01

20

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Mutations in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions in the Northwest of Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a significant obstetrical complication that may occur during pregnancy. Various studies in recent years have indicated that two common mutations (C677T and A1298C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are risk factor for RSA. This study was carried out to determine the influence of (C677T and A1298C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations with RSA. Materials and Methods. A total of 139 women were included in this study: 89 women with two or more consecutive miscarriages and 50 healthy controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. To determine the frequency of the two common C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene mutations in the patients and controls, we used two methods, amplification refractory mutation system-PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results. There is no significant difference in the prevalence of 677T/T genotype among women with RSA and healthy controls (P = 0.285). Also no statistically significant difference in the frequency of A1298C MTHFR gene mutation was detected between the two groups (P = 0.175 ). Conclusion. In conclusion, the results indicate that the Amplification Refractory Mutation System-PCR method was in complete concordance with the results obtained by standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The results also show no significant difference in MTHFR C677T/A1298C genotype distribution among the two groups; therefore, further studies on larger population and other genetic variants to better understand the pathobiology of RSA are needed. PMID:23209927

Poursadegh Zonouzi, Ahmad; Chaparzadeh, Nader; Asghari Estiar, Mehrdad; Mehrzad Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Farzadi, Laya; Ghasemzadeh, Alieh; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

2012-01-01

21

Association between SNPs in genes involved in folate metabolism and preterm birth risk.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes involved in folate metabolic and preterm birth. A subset of SNPs selected from 11 genes/loci involved in the folic acid metabolism pathway were subjected to SNaPshot analysis in a case-control study. Twelve SNPs (CBS-C699T, DHFR-c594+59del19, GST01-C428T, MTHFD-G1958A, MTHFR-C677T, MTHFR-A1298C, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, RFC1-G80A, TCN2-C776G, and TYMS-1494del6) in 503 DNA samples were simultaneously tested, and included 315 preterm births and 188 controls. None of the 12 SNP genotype distributions related to the folic acid metabolism pathway showed a significant difference between preterm and term babies. The frequency of the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G and RFC1-G80A in preterm babies was 7.3%, which was significantly higher than the 2.7% in term babies. Seven babies carried the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, but this was not observed in term babies. The frequency of the combined wild-type genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1- G80A in preterm babies was 3.17%, which was significantly lower than the 7.4% in term babies. The 12 SNPs screened in this study were not independent risk factors of preterm birth. Compound mutation genotypes, including MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and RFC1- G80A and MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, may increase the risk of preterm birth. The combined wild-type genotype MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1-G80A may decrease the risk of preterm birth. PMID:25730024

Wang, B J; Liu, M J; Wang, Y; Dai, J R; Tao, J Y; Wang, S N; Zhong, N; Chen, Y

2015-01-01

22

Meta and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: A Huge-GSEC review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms (the former being associated with low folate serum levels) and gastric cancer (meta-analyses: 16 studies, 2,727 cases and 4,640

Stefania Boccia; Rayjean Hung; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Francesco Gianfagna; Matthias P. A. Ebert; Jing-Yuan Fang; Chang-Ming Gao; T. Götze; Francesco Graziano; M. Lacasaña-Navarro; Dongxin Lin; L. López-Carrillo; You-Lin Qiao; Hongbing Shen; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Toshiro Takezaki; Yu-Rong Weng; Fang Fang Zhang; P. Tikka-Kleemola; Paolo Boffetta; Emanuela Taioli

2008-01-01

23

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C genotypes are associated with the risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and chronic myelogenous leukaemia in the Korean population.  

PubMed

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism, DNA methylation and synthesis. We investigated the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risks of acute and chronic leukaemias. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were genotyped in 396 Korean individuals using multiplex polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment-length polymorphism. They were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, n = 89), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, n = 55), biphenotypic acute leukaemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML, n = 40), and normal controls (n = 200). C677T genotypes were not associated with the risk of each disease. A1298C variants, however, significantly decreased the risks of ALL and CML compared with 1298AA. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1298AC and 1298AC + CC were 0.53 (0.31-0.93) and 0.54 (0.31-0.93) in ALL, and 0.34 (0.14-0.80) and 0.40 (0.18-0.89) in CML, respectively, compared with 1298AA. These findings demonstrate that the development of ALL and CML is more dependent on folate status, and more susceptible to DNA instability than that of AML. In addition, A1298C rather than C677T may be a more important genetic risk modifier in leukaemogenesis at least in the Korean population. PMID:16706930

Hur, M; Park, J Y; Cho, H C; Lee, K M; Shin, H Y; Cho, H I

2006-06-01

24

Genetic interactions between MTHFR (C677T), methionine synthase (A2756G, C2758G) variants with vitamin B12 and folic acid determine susceptibility to premature coronary artery disease in Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: Researchers have determined that Indians face a higher risk of heart disease, despite the fact that nearly half of them are vegetarians and lack many of the other traditional risk factors. In the below-30 age group, coronary artery disease mortality among Indians is three-fold higher than in the whites in United Kingdom and ten-fold higher than the Chinese in Singapore. High levels of homocysteine have been widely linked to the early onset of heart diseases in other populations, although a definite proof among Indians is lacking, which needs to be investigated by way of screening for factors responsible for high homocysteine levels. Objective: To screen for genetic factors responsible for hyperhomocysteinemia and the risk for premature coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 individuals with proven premature coronary artery disease and 200 age-and-sex matched controls were screened for polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T) Methionine synthase (MS) genes (A2756G, C2758G), and the B12 and Folate levels were estimated. Results: Results from the mutational analysis revealed that in the study group, seven individuals had a polymorphism for the C677T allele in the MTHFR gene (one homozygous and six heterozygous) (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.046) (OR: 0.2711 95% CI 0.0774 to 0.9491). Six were heterozygous for the A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene (Fischer's Exact test P > 0.0012). None showed a polymorphism at the C2758G allele in the MS gene. Four controls showed heterozygosity for the C677T polymorphism and none for the MS gene. The B12 and Folate levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: It is important to know which factors determine the total homocysteine concentrations. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the total homocysteine concentrations, but more research is necessary to elucidate whether these relations are not originating from residual confounding due to other lifestyle factors. PMID:22022143

Kanth, V. V. Ravi; Golla, Jaya Prakash; Sastry, B. K. S; Naik, Sudhir; Kabra, Nitin; Sujatha, Madireddi

2011-01-01

25

Association of methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with the susceptibility of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahytrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods A case–control study was conducted among 98 children with ALL and 93 age- and sex- matched non-ALL controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The odds ratios (ORs) of MTHFR genotypes were used to assess the associations of these polymorphisms with childhood ALL susceptibility. Results No significant differences were observed for frequencies of the 677CC, 677CT and 677TT genotypes between patients and controls. Frequencies of the 1298AA, 1298 AC and 1298CC genotypes between the two groups were significantly different. The risk of ALL with the 1298C allele carriers (AC?+?CC) was elevated by 1.1 times compared with the AA genotype [OR?=?2.100; 95% CI (1.149; 3.837); P?=?0.015]. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to childhood ALL in the Chinese population. PMID:24476575

2014-01-01

26

Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and NSCL/P Risk in Asians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Results Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23–1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19–2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. PMID:24658649

Zhao, Mengmeng; Ren, Yangwu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Baosen

2014-01-01

27

Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: ?190.26 to ?7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: ?180.00 to ?33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight. PMID:22277790

Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

2012-01-01

28

MTHFR Gene variants C677T, A1298C and association with Down syndrome: A Case-control study from South India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and low folate levels are associated with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase and consequently DNA hypomethylation. The expanding spectrum of common conditions linked with MTHFR polymorphisms includes certain adverse birth outcome, pregnancy complications, cancers, adult cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders, with several of these associations remaining still controversial. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. It stems predominantly from the failure of chromosome 21 to segregate normally during meiosis. Despite substantial research, the molecular mechanisms underlying non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two common variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene were screened in 36 parents with DS children and 60 healthy couples from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The MTHFR genotypes were studied by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified products and confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: The CT genotype was seen in three each (8.3%) of case mothers and fathers. One case father showed TT genotype. All the control individuals exhibited the wild type CC genotype. A similar frequency for the uncommon allele C of the second polymorphism was recorded in case mothers (0.35) and fathers (0.37) in comparison with the control mothers (0.39) and fathers (0.37). CONCLUSION: This first report on MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in trisomy 21 parents from south Indian population revealed that MTHFR 677CT polymorphism was associated with a risk for Down syndrome. PMID:20680153

Cyril, Cyrus; Rai, Padmalatha; Chandra, N.; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2009-01-01

29

Hyperhomocysteinemia and related genetic polymorphisms correlate with ulcerative colitis in Chinese Han population in Central China [corrected].  

PubMed

Increased levels of homocysteine are found systemically and in intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and, specifically, in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, there are controversial reports regarding the factors contributing to increased levels of homocysteine in UC. Furthermore, little information is available regarding the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), vitamin status, and genetic polymorphisms of homocysteine-related enzymes in these patients. This study examined four functional polymorphisms linked to homocysteine metabolism (MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G), and evaluated plasma levels of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B(12) in 310 consecutive patients with UC and 936 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from southeast China. The variant allele and genotypic frequencies in MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G genes were significantly higher in patients with UC compared to healthy controls. Further, HHcy and low levels of folate and vitamin B(12) were more frequent in patients with UC. The MTR 2756G allele, extent of the disease, and gender were the independent determinants of HHcy in these patients. These findings suggest that genetic and nutritional factors have a synergetic effect on HHcy in patients with UC. In conclusion, our data highlight a prevention strategy for moderation of HHcy and supplementation with folate and vitamine B(12) in patients with UC from Southeast China. PMID:21947961

Jiang, Yi; Xia, Xuanping; Wang, Wenxing; Lin, Limiao; Xu, Changlong; Cai, Zhenzai; Zheng, Bo; Pei, Jihua; Shen, Sujian; Xia, Bing

2012-01-01

30

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism A1298C (Glu429Ala) predicts decline in renal function over time in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial and Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC)  

PubMed Central

Background. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with increased homocysteine levels and risks of CVD in various populations including those with kidney disease. Here, we evaluated the influence of MTHFR variants on progressive loss of kidney function. Methods. We analyzed 821 subjects with hypertensive nephrosclerosis from the longitudinal National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial to determine whether decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over ?4.2 years was predicted by common genetic variation within MTHFR at non-synonymous positions C677T (Ala222Val) and A1298C (Glu429Ala) or by MTHFR haplotypes. The effect on GFR decline was then supported by a study of 1333 subjects from the San Diego Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC), followed over ?4.5 years. Linear effect models were utilized to determine both genotype [single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and genotype (SNP)-by-time interactions. Results. In AASK, the polymorphism at A1298C predicted the rate of GFR decline: A1298/A1298 major allele homozygosity resulted in a less pronounced decline of GFR, with a significant SNP-by-time interaction. An independent follow-up study in the San Diego VAHC subjects supports that A1298/A1298 homozygotes have the greatest estimated GFR throughout the study. Haplotype analysis with C677T yielded concurring results. Conclusion. We conclude that the MTHFR-coding polymorphism at A1298C is associated with renal decline in African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and is supported by a veteran cohort with a primary care diagnosis of hypertension. Further investigation is needed to confirm such findings and to determine what molecular mechanism may contribute to this association. PMID:21613384

Salem, Rany M.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Pandey, Braj; Schork, Nicholas J.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

31

Detection of Thrombophilic Mutations Related to Spontaneous Abortions by a Multiplex SNaPshot Method  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous abortion is a significant clinical problem of different etiologies. Certain thrombophilia gene mutations have been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Also, mutations in folate-related genes can lead to abnormal chromosomal segregation during meiosis which is the most common cause of spontaneous abortion. We have developed a multiplex single-base extension reaction assay that allows simultaneous analysis of 10 different mutations in thrombophilia- and folate-related genes (Factor V Leiden G1691A, Factor V H1299R, Factor II G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, PAI-I -675 4G/5G, FGB -455G/A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G). Using this method we have studied 232 women who had a spontaneous abortion and 209 of their male partners. Prevalence of Factor II G20210A and Factor V H1299R mutations was significantly higher in the women than in their male partners (2.4% and 0.7%, respectively [p=0.0499] for the Factor II mutation and 9.3% and 5.7%, respectively [p=0.0485] for the Factor V mutation). The prevalence of MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G mutations did not differ between the studied groups. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid, simple, reliable, and inexpensive multiplex SNaPshot method for determination of 10 thrombophilic mutations that may result in spontaneous abortions. PMID:22023244

Madjunkova, Svetlana; Volk, Marija; Peterlin, Borut

2012-01-01

32

Septal Localization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB Sensor Kinase Promotes MtrA Regulon Expression*  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms responsible for activation of the MtrAB two-component regulatory signal transduction system, which includes sensor kinase MtrB and response regulator MtrA, are unknown. Here, we show that an MtrB-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell membrane, the septa, and the poles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. This localization was independent of MtrB phosphorylation status but dependent upon the assembly of FtsZ, the initiator of cell division. The M. smegmatis mtrB mutant was filamentous, defective for cell division, and contained lysozyme-sensitive cell walls. The mtrB phenotype was complemented by either production of MtrB protein competent for phosphorylation or overproduction of MtrAY102C and MtrAD13A mutant proteins exhibiting altered phosphorylation potential, indicating that either MtrB phosphorylation or MtrB independent expression of MtrA regulon genes, including those involved in cell wall processing, are necessary for regulated cell division. In partial support of this observation, we found that the essential cell wall hydrolase ripA is an MtrA target and that the expression of bona fide MtrA targets ripA, fbpB, and dnaA were compromised in the mtrB mutant and partially rescued upon MtrAY102C and MtrAD13A overproduction. MtrB septal assembly was compromised upon FtsZ depletion and exposure of cells to mitomycin C, a DNA damaging agent, which interferes with FtsZ ring assembly. Expression of MtrA targets was also compromised under the above conditions, indicating that MtrB septal localization and MtrA regulon expression are linked. We propose that MtrB septal association is a necessary feature of MtrB activation that promotes MtrA phosphorylation and MtrA regulon expression. PMID:22610443

Plocinska, Renata; Purushotham, Gorla; Sarva, Krishna; Vadrevu, Indumathi S.; Pandeeti, Emmanuel V. P.; Arora, Naresh; Plocinski, Przemyslaw; Madiraju, Murty V.; Rajagopalan, Malini

2012-01-01

33

Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence suggests that folate is involved in colorectal neoplasia. Some polymorphic genes involved in folate metabolism--methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS exon 8, 68-base-pair insertion), and thymidylate synthase (TS enhancer region and 3' untranslated region)--have been investigated in colorectal neoplasia. For MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the variant allele is associated with reduced enzyme activity in vitro. For the other polymorphisms, functional data are limited and/or inconsistent. Genotype frequencies for all of the polymorphisms show marked ethnic and geographic variation. In most studies, MTHFR 677TT (10 studies, >4,000 cases) and 1298CC (four studies, >1,500 cases) are associated with moderately reduced colorectal cancer risk. In four of five genotype-diet interaction studies, 677TT subjects who had higher folate levels (or a "high-methyl diet") had the lowest cancer risk. In two studies, 677TT homozygote subjects with the highest alcohol intake had the highest cancer risk. Findings from six studies of MTHFR C677T and adenomatous polyps are inconsistent. There have been only one or two studies of the other polymorphisms; replication is needed. Overall, the roles of folate-pathway genes, folate, and related dietary factors in colorectal neoplasia are complex. Research priorities are suggested. PMID:14977639

Sharp, Linda; Little, Julian

2004-03-01

34

MTR plates modeling with MAIA  

SciTech Connect

MAIA is a thermo-mechanical code dedicated to the modeling of MTR fuel plates. The main physical phenomena modeled in the code are the cladding oxidation, the interaction between fuel and Al-matrix, the swelling due to fission products and the Al/fuel particles interaction. The creeping of the plate can be modeled in the mechanical calculation. MAIA has been validated on U-Mo dispersion fuel experiments such as IRIS 1 and 2 and FUTURE. The results are in rather good agreement with post-irradiation examinations. MAIA can also be used to calculate in-pile behavior of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates as in the SHARE experiment irradiated in the SCK/Mol BR2 reactor. The main outputs given by MAIA throughout the irradiation are temperatures, cladding oxidation thickness, interaction thickness, volume fraction of meat constituents, swelling, displacements, strains and stresses. MAIA is originally a two-dimensional code but a three-dimensional version is currently under development. (author)

Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Ripert, M.; Noirot, J. [DEN/DEC, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemoine, P. [DEN/DSOE, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-07-15

35

MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED OUTSIDE OF MTR FOR EXPERIMENTS. THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROJECT DOMINATED THE USE OF THIS PART OF THE MTR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7225. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

36

MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

37

ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP: ETR COOLING TOWER, ELECTRICAL BUILDING AND LOW-BAY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH U SHAPED YARD), COMPRESSOR BUILDING. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR. WING A IS ATTACHED TO BALCONY FLOOR OF MTR. NEAR UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW IS MTR PROCESS WATER BUILDING. WING B IS AT FAR WEST END OF COMPLEX. NEAR MAIN GATE IS GAMMA FACILITY, WITH "COLD" BUILDINGS BEYOND: RAW WATER STORAGE TANKS, STEAM PLANT, MTR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE AND COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4101. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

38

MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA-603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR BUILDING SHOWING NORTH SIDES OF THE HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING, ITS SECOND/THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LEVEL, AND THE ATTACHED ONE-STORY OFFICE/LABORATORY BUILDING, TRA-604. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. VERTICAL CONCRETE-SHROUDED BEAMS SUPPORT PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. CONCRETE PROJECTION FORMED AS A BUNKER AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-657, PLUG STORAGE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

39

Analysis of Structural MtrC Models Based on Homology with the Crystal Structure of MtrF  

SciTech Connect

The outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome MtrC is part of the transmembrane MtrCAB complex required for mineral respiration by Shewanella oneidensis. MtrC has significant sequence similarity to the paralogous decahaem cytochrome MtrF, which has been structurally solved through X-ray crystallography. This now allows for homology-based models of MtrC to be generated. The structure of these MtrC homology models contain ten bis-histidine-co-ordinated c-type haems arranged in a staggered cross through a four-domain structure. This model is consistent with current spectroscopic data and shows that the areas around haem 5 and haem 10, at the termini of an octahaem chain, are likely to have functions similar to those of the corresponding haems in MtrF. The electrostatic surfaces around haem 7, close to the ?-barrels, are different in MtrF and MtrC, indicating that these haems may have different potentials and interact with substrates differently.

Edwards, Marcus; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

2012-12-01

40

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF A MONO TILTROTOR (MTR) ARCHITECTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mono Tiltrotor (MTR) is a proposed, innovative heavy-lift rotorcraft architecture. Its capabilities are predi- cated on the combination of an advanced coaxial rotor sys- tem and sophisticated kinematics that morph the aircraft topology for efficient flight over the entire operational en- velope. The MTR rotorcraft integrates a coaxial rotor, a folding lifting wing system, a lightweight airframe and an

Robin Preator; J. Gordon Leishman; G. Douglas Baldwin

41

MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID NOT EXPLAIN DARK CLOUD. MTR WING WILL ATTACH TO GROUND FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1567. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

42

[Development of the high-throughput fluorescence assay detecting SNPs in hemostasis and folate metabolism genes for clinical use].  

PubMed

Genetic predisposition of an individual patient should be taken in account to choose the proper treatment. Implementation to clinical practice requires the development of rapid, high-throughput, and easy assays intended to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. A detection kit intended to identify the hemostasis and folate cycle gene mutations G20210A FII, G1691A FV, G10976A FVII, G103T FXIII, C807T ITGA2, T1565C ITGB3, 5G(-675)4G PAI, G(-455)A FGB, C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, A66G MTRR was suggested in this work. The method is based on the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent melt curve analysis of the complexes of amplicons with specific probe. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms can be identified in one tube using our detection kit that increases the productivity of the analysis in the clinical use. Different types of biological samples (buccal epithelium, saliva, plasma, serum, and urogenital swabs) can be used as the initial material for DNA isolation and further analysis by the method developed in this work. PMID:23785789

Prasolova, M A; Shchepotina, E G; Dymshits, G M

2013-01-01

43

CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT CENTER TOP OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EAST. EXCLUSION GATE HOUSE AT LEFT OF VIEW. BEYOND MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING, THE PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND WORKING RESERVOIR ARE LEFT-MOST. FAN HOUSE AND STACK ARE TO ITS RIGHT. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS RIGHT-MOST STRUCTURE. NOTE FAN LOFT ABOVE MTR BUILDING'S ONE-STORY WING. THIS WAS LATER CONVERTED FOR OFFICES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3610. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

44

MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

45

Clinically feasible MTR is sensitive to cortical demyelination in MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: Presently there is no clinically feasible imaging modality that can effectively detect cortical demyelination in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to determine if clinically feasible magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging is sensitive to cortical demyelination in MS. Methods: MRI were acquired in situ on 7 recently deceased patients with MS using clinically feasible sequences at 3 T, including relatively high-resolution T1-weighted and proton density–weighted images with/without a magnetization transfer pulse for calculation of MTR. The brains were rapidly removed and placed in fixative. Multiple cortical regions from each brain were immunostained for myelin proteolipid protein and classified as mostly myelinated (MMctx), mostly demyelinated (MDctx), or intermediately demyelinated (IDctx). MRIs were registered with the cortical sections so that the cortex corresponding to each cortical section could be identified, along with adjacent subcortical white matter (WM). Mean cortical MTR normalized to mean WM MTR was calculated for each cortical region. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test if mean normalized cortical MTR was significantly lower in demyelinated cortex. Results: We found that mean normalized cortical MTR was significantly lower in cortical tissue with any demyelination (IDctx or MDctx) compared to MMctx (demyelinated cortex: least-squares mean [LSM] = 0.797, SE = 0.007; MMctx: LSM = 0.837, SE = 0.006; p = 0.01, n = 89). Conclusions: This result demonstrates that clinically feasible MTR imaging is sensitive to cortical demyelination and suggests that MTR will be a useful tool to help detect MS cortical lesions in living patients with MS. PMID:23269598

Chen, Jacqueline Tien-Hsiang; Easley, Kathryn; Schneider, Colleen; Nakamura, Kunio; Kidd, Grahame J.; Chang, Ansi; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Fox, Robert J.; Fisher, Elizabeth; Arnold, Douglas L.; Trapp, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

46

The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.  

PubMed

Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes. PMID:24252101

Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawe?; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

2013-12-01

47

The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

2012-01-01

48

MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. PIPE LEADS BELOW GRADE INTO MTR BUILDING. CAMERA FACING WEST, IE, EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1265. Jack L. Larsen, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

49

MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

50

CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES CRITICAL FOR THE FIRST TIME. COMPARE CEILING FIXTURES IN THIS PHOTO AND PHOTO ID-33-G-212 FOR COMMON PERSPECTIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4517. Unknown Photographer, 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

51

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

52

Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1?) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3? results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1?, as the double mutant mal3? mtr1? exhibits longer microtubules than mal3? single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1?. The double-mutant mal3? rps1801? also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3? single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T.

2014-01-01

53

Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time.  

PubMed

The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1(+), a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1?) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3? results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1?, as the double mutant mal3? mtr1? exhibits longer microtubules than mal3? single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1?. The double-mutant mal3? rps1801? also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3? single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T

2014-01-01

54

MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, CONCRETE FLOWS FROM TRUCK INTO DRUM, WHICH IS LOWERED INTO CAISSON AND RELEASED AT BOTTOM OF HOLE. BEYOND, TRUCK-MOUNTED DRILLING RIG DRILLS HOLE FOR ANOTHER CAISSON NEAR EDGE OF EXCAVATION. MATERIAL REMOVED FROM HOLE IS CARRIED BY CONVEYOR TO WAITING TRUCK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 307. Unknown Photographer, 6/1950. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

55

CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT BREAKS IN CLADDING OF FUEL ELEMENTS. COUNT-RATE METER IN TOP PANEL INDICATES AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. LOWER PANELS SUPPLY POWER AND AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNALS GENERATED BY SCINTILLATION COUNTER/PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE COMBINATION IN RESPONSE TO RADIOACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF THE COOLING WATER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-771. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/15/1956. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

56

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING SOUTH. FREIGHT ELEVATOR IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. AT CENTER VIEW IS MTR VAULT NO. 1, USED TO STORE SPECIAL OR FISSIONABLE MATERIALS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

57

WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. FORMS WERE MADE OF STEEL. AFTER AN INCH OF CONCRETE HAD BEEN POURED IN THE FORM, A MAT OF REINFORCING STEEL WAS PLACED ON IT. THE REMAINDER OF THE FORM WAS FILLED, AND THE CONCRETE WAS VIBRATED, STRUCK, AND TROWELED. GROOVES AT CORNER WILL HAVE 1/4 INCH RODS WELDED INTO THE EYE OF THE STEEL MAT FOR GROUNDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 578. Unknown Photographer, 9/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

58

TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

59

Crystal Structure of the Open State of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE Outer Membrane Channel  

PubMed Central

Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel. PMID:24901251

Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A.; Do, Sylvia V.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shafer, William M.; Yu, Edward W.

2014-01-01

60

Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.  

PubMed

Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel. PMID:24901251

Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

2014-01-01

61

Pedestrian route choices between escalator and stairway in MTR stations  

SciTech Connect

Passenger demands on underground stations are always excessive and can cause severe congestion. The study of pedestrian behavior is particularly important in planning and design of the underground stations during peak hours. This paper reports an investigation on the behavior of pedestrians in choosing between escalators and stairways in Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) stations during peak hours. Time-lapse photography surveys were conducted in six selected MTR stations to collect the relevant data. The travel time functions of the vertical pedestrian facilities have been calibrated and are used for developing the pedestrian route choice model. Service levels have been defined for the vertical pedestrian facilities based upon the service levels defined by previous researchers. It was found that the stairway capacities in the ascending and descending directions in the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway stations are higher than in London Underground stations. It was also found that the pedestrians are more sensitive to the relative delays when using the vertical pedestrian facilities in the descending direction than in the ascending direction.

Cheung, C.Y.; Lam, W.H.K. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (Hong Kong). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

1998-05-01

62

Sequence and structure of mtr, an amino acid transport gene of Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

The gene product of the mtr locus of Neurospora crassa is required for the transport of neutral aliphatic and aromatic amino acids via the N system. We have previously cloned three cosmids containing Neurospora DNA that complement the mtr-6(r) mutant allele. The cloned DNAs were tightly linked to restriction fragment length polymorphisms that flank the mtr locus. A 2.9-kbp fragment from one cosmid was subcloned and found to complement the mtr-6(r) allele. Here we report the sequence of the fragment that hybridized to a poly(A)+ mRNA transcript of about 2300 nucleotides. We have identified an 845-bp open reading frame (ORF) having a 59-bp intron as the potential mtr ORF. S1 nuclease analysis of the transcript confirmed the transcript size and the presence of the intron. A second open reading frame was found upstream in the same reading frame as the mtr ORF and appears to be present in the mRNA transcript. The mtr ORF is predicted to encode a 261 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 28 613 Da. The proposed polypeptide exhibits six potential alpha-helical transmembrane domains with an average length of 23 amino acids, does not have a signal sequence, and contains amino acid sequence homologous to an RNA binding motif. PMID:1838345

Koo, K; Stuart, W D

1991-08-01

63

CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. FOREGROUND CORNER CONTAINS OIL STORAGE TANKS. WATER TANKS AND WELL HOUSES ARE BEYOND THEM TO THE LEFT. LARGE LIGHT-COLORED BUILDING IN CENTER OF VIEW IS STEAM PLANT. DEMINERALIZER AND WATER STORAGE TANK ARE BEYOND. SIX-CELL COOLING TOWER AND ITS PUMP HOUSE ARE ABOVE IT IN VIEW. SERVICE BUILDINGS INCLUDING CANTEEN ARE ON NORTH SIDE OF ROAD. "EXCLUSION" AREA IS BEYOND ROAD. COMPARE LOCATION OF EXCLUSION-AREA GATE WITH PHOTO ID-33-G-202. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3608. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

64

ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. CAMERA IS ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACES DUE SOUTH. MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. STEEL FRAMES SHOW BUILDINGS TO BE ATTACHED TO ETR BUILDING. HIGH-BAY SECTION IN CENTER IS REACTOR BUILDING. TWO-STORY CONTROL ROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, TRA-647, IS BETWEEN IT AND MTR SERVICE BUILDING. STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT (WITH NO FRAMING YET) IS COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, AND BEYOND IT WILL BE HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644, GREAT SOUTHERN BUTTE ON HORIZON. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2382. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

65

PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA601. FLOOR PLAN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA-601. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION SHOWING WELL CASING, ROOF FRAMING PLAN. AS BUILT. WELL HOUSE FOR WELL NO. 2, TRA-602, WAS IDENTICAL IN ALL PARTICULARS EXCEPT FLOOR DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT OF PUMP AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT INSIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-601-IDO-1, 12/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0601-00-396-110463, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

66

The Mtr4 ratchet helix and arch domain both function to promote RNA unwinding.  

PubMed

Mtr4 is a conserved Ski2-like RNA helicase and a subunit of the TRAMP complex that activates exosome-mediated 3'-5' turnover in nuclear RNA surveillance and processing pathways. Prominent features of the Mtr4 structure include a four-domain ring-like helicase core and a large arch domain that spans the core. The 'ratchet helix' is positioned to interact with RNA substrates as they move through the helicase. However, the contribution of the ratchet helix in Mtr4 activity is poorly understood. Here we show that strict conservation along the ratchet helix is particularly extensive for Ski2-like RNA helicases compared to related helicases. Mutation of residues along the ratchet helix alters in vitro activity in Mtr4 and TRAMP and causes slow growth phenotypes in vivo. We also identify a residue on the ratchet helix that influences Mtr4 affinity for polyadenylated substrates. Previous work indicated that deletion of the arch domain has minimal effect on Mtr4 unwinding activity. We now show that combining the arch deletion with ratchet helix mutations abolishes helicase activity and produces a lethal in vivo phenotype. These studies demonstrate that the ratchet helix modulates helicase activity and suggest that the arch domain plays a previously unrecognized role in unwinding substrates. PMID:25414331

Taylor, Lacy L; Jackson, Ryan N; Rexhepaj, Megi; King, Alejandra Klauer; Lott, Lindsey K; van Hoof, Ambro; Johnson, Sean J

2014-12-16

67

The Mtr4 ratchet helix and arch domain both function to promote RNA unwinding  

PubMed Central

Mtr4 is a conserved Ski2-like RNA helicase and a subunit of the TRAMP complex that activates exosome-mediated 3?-5? turnover in nuclear RNA surveillance and processing pathways. Prominent features of the Mtr4 structure include a four-domain ring-like helicase core and a large arch domain that spans the core. The ‘ratchet helix’ is positioned to interact with RNA substrates as they move through the helicase. However, the contribution of the ratchet helix in Mtr4 activity is poorly understood. Here we show that strict conservation along the ratchet helix is particularly extensive for Ski2-like RNA helicases compared to related helicases. Mutation of residues along the ratchet helix alters in vitro activity in Mtr4 and TRAMP and causes slow growth phenotypes in vivo. We also identify a residue on the ratchet helix that influences Mtr4 affinity for polyadenylated substrates. Previous work indicated that deletion of the arch domain has minimal effect on Mtr4 unwinding activity. We now show that combining the arch deletion with ratchet helix mutations abolishes helicase activity and produces a lethal in vivo phenotype. These studies demonstrate that the ratchet helix modulates helicase activity and suggest that the arch domain plays a previously unrecognized role in unwinding substrates. PMID:25414331

Taylor, Lacy L.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Rexhepaj, Megi; King, Alejandra Klauer; Lott, Lindsey K.; van Hoof, Ambro; Johnson, Sean J.

2014-01-01

68

Mtr Extracellular Electron Transfer Pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria: A Genomic Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), the Mtr (i.e., metal-reducing) pathway exists in all characterized strains of metal-reducing Shewanella. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multi-heme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like, outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner-membrane to the Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes revealed homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of Fe. Their distribution in these two different functional groups of bacteria also emphasizes the bi-directional nature of electron transfer reactions carried out by the Mtr pathways. The characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by microorganisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.

Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2012-12-01

69

MTR and In-vivo 1H-MRS studies on mouse brain with parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram are related to specific characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate whether the MTR histogram parameters are associated with neurochemical dysfunction by performing in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS studies were performed on control mice (n = 10) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxicated mice (n = 10). All the MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 9.4 T MRI/MRS system (Bruker Biospin, Germany) using a standard head coil. The protondensity fast spin echo (FSE) images and the T2-weighted spin echo (SE) images were acquired with no gap. Outer volume suppression (OVS), combined with the ultra-short echo-time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), was used for the localized in-vivo 1H-MRS. The quantitative analysis of metabolites was performed from the 1H spectra obtained in vivo on the striatum (ST) by using jMRUI (Lyon, France). The peak height of the MTR histograms in the PD model group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The midbrain MTR values for volume were lower in the PD group than the control group(p < 0.05). The complex peak (Glx: glutamine+glutamate+ GABA)/creatine (Cr) ratio of the right ST in the PD group was significantly increased as compared to that of the control group. The present study revealed that the peak height of the MTR histogram was significantly decreased in the ST and substantia nigra, and a significant increase in the Gl x /Cr ratio was found in the ST of the PD group, as compared with that of the control group. These findings could reflect the early phase of neuronal dysfunction of neurotransmitters.

Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

2012-12-01

70

Role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the Nuclear Export of 40S Pre-Ribosomes  

PubMed Central

Nuclear export of mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits (pre40S and pre60S) is fundamental to all eukaryotes. While genetic approaches in budding yeast have identified bona fide export factors for mRNAs and pre60S subunits, little is known regarding nuclear export of pre40S subunits. The yeast heterodimeric transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15 in humans) binds mRNAs and pre60S subunits in the nucleus and facilitates their passage through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm by interacting with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins that line its transport channel. By exploiting a combination of genetic, cell-biological, and biochemical approaches, we uncovered an unanticipated role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the nuclear export of 40S pre-ribosomes. We show that recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to pre40S subunits requires loops emanating from its NTF2-like domains and that the C-terminal FG-rich nucleoporin interacting UBA-like domain within Mex67 contributes to the transport of pre40S subunits to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the same loops also recruit Mex67-Mtr2 to pre60S subunits and to the Nup84 complex, the respective interactions crucial for nuclear export of pre60S subunits and mRNAs. Thus Mex67-Mtr2 is a unique transport receptor that employs a common interaction surface to participate in the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits and mRNAs. Mex67-Mtr2 could engage a regulatory crosstalk among the three major export pathways for optimal cellular growth and proliferation. PMID:22956913

Occhipinti, Laura; Kemmler, Stefan; Panse, Vikram G.

2012-01-01

71

The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing  

SciTech Connect

The essential RNA helicase, Mtr4, performs a critical role in RNA processing and degradation as an activator of the nuclear exosome. The molecular basis for this vital function is not understood and detailed analysis is significantly limited by the lack of structural data. In this study, we present the crystal structure of Mtr4. The structure reveals a new arch-like domain that is specific to Mtr4 and Ski2 (the cytosolic homologue of Mtr4). In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that the Mtr4 arch domain is required for proper 5.8S rRNA processing, and suggest that the arch functions independently of canonical helicase activity. In addition, extensive conservation along the face of the putative RNA exit site highlights a potential interface with the exosome. These studies provide a molecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases.

Jackson, R.N.; Robinson, H.; Klauer, A. A.; Hintze, B. J.; van Hoof, A.; Johnson, S. J.

2010-07-01

72

MTR,TRA603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR,TRA-603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED CUBICLES WERE IDENTIFIED BY SPONSORING LABORATORY AND ITS TEST HOLE NUMBER IN THE REACTOR, IE, "KAPL HB-1" SIGNIFIED KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY, HORIZONTAL BEAM NO. 1. "WAPD" WAS WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIVISION. CATCH TANKS AND SAMPLE STATIONS FOR TEST LOOPS WERE ASSOCIATED WITH THESE CUBICLES. NOTE DESKS, STORAGE CABINETS, SWITCH GEAR, INSTRUMENT PANELS. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY MTR-E-5205, 4/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-706-009757, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

73

MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION IN WEST CORRIDOR AS PHOTO ID-33-G-42 BUT CAMERA FACES SOUTH. SIGN ON DOOR FOR "PIPE TUNNEL" WARNS OF RADIOLOGICAL AND ASBESTOS HAZARDS. DOOR HAS METAL HASPS. SIGN ON OVERHEAD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PIPES SAYS THEY CONTAIN "ASBESTOS FREE INSULATION." FIRE DOOR AT LEFT LEADS TO STAIRWAY TO FIRST FLOOR. DOOR AT RIGHT LEADS TO ROOM WHICH ONCE CONTAINED MTR LIBRARY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

74

Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. Results In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. PMID:25625218

Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

2015-01-01

75

MTR WING, TRA604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING, TRA-604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND SERVICE STRIP DOWN CENTER OF ROOM. CARD IN LEFT CORNER OF VIEW WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3817. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

76

Structure and Function of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrF Illuminates a Class of Antimetabolite Efflux Pumps.  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. N. gonorrhoeae MtrF is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information is available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of MtrF, revealing a dimeric molecule with architecture distinct from all other families of transporters. MtrF is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to halfway across the membrane bilayer. Each subunit of the transporter contains nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins, posing a plausible pathway for substrate transport. A combination of the crystal structure and biochemical functional assays suggests that MtrF is an antibiotic efflux pump mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs. PMID:25818299

Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

2015-04-01

77

MTR STACK, TRA710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR STACK, TRA-710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY FENCE AND SECURITY LIGHTING IN VIEW AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

78

MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR 2 (BETWEEN ROOMS ON WEST WALL AND IN CENTER OF FLOOR). CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

79

MTR STACK, TRA71, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR STACK, TRA-71-, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT BASE OF STACK. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

80

Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations and Molecular Conductance Measurements of the Bacterial Decaheme Cytochrome MtrF  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms overcome the considerable hurdle of respiring extracellular solid substrates by deploying large multiheme cytochrome complexes that form 20 nanometer conduits to traffic electrons through the periplasm and across the cellular outer membrane. Here we report the first kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and single-molecule scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrF, which can perform the final electron transfer step from cells to minerals and microbial fuel cell anodes. We find that the calculated electron transport rate through MtrF is consistent with previously reported in vitro measurements of the Shewanella Mtr complex, as well as in vivo respiration rates on electrode surfaces assuming a reasonable (experimentally verified) coverage of cytochromes on the cell surface. The simulations also reveal a rich phase diagram in the overall electron occupation density of the hemes as a function of electron injection and ejection rates. Single molecule tunneling spectroscopy confirms MtrF's ability to mediate electron transport between an STM tip and an underlying Au(111) surface, but at rates higher than expected from previously calculated heme-heme electron transfer rates for solvated molecules.

Byun, H. S.; Pirbadian, S.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shi, Liang; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

2014-09-05

81

DTI and MTR abnormalities in schizophrenia: Analysis of white matter integrity  

E-print Network

DTI and MTR abnormalities in schizophrenia: Analysis of white matter integrity M. Kubicki,a,b,* H in schizophrenia demonstrate lower anisotropic diffusion within white matter due either to loss of coherence studies. The aim of this study is to localize and to specify further DTI abnormalities in schizophrenia

82

Analysis of loss of coolant accident in MTR pool type research reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In MTR research reactors, heat removal is, safely performed by forced convection during normal operation and by natural convection after reactor shutdown for residual decay heat removal. However, according to the duration time of operation at full power, it may be required to maintain the forced convection, for a certain period of time after the reactor shutdown. This is among

Tewfik Hamidouche; El-Khider Si-Ahmed

2011-01-01

83

SOUTH WING, MTR661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 127. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH WING, MTR-661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 127. CAMERA FACES WEST, LOOKING DIRECTLY AT A PAIR OF HOT CELLS, THEIR WINDOWS, AND MASTER/SLAVE MANIPULATORS. CABINET AT LEFT IS ABOVE GLOVE BOX. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-8-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

84

MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE LABORATORY 114. CAMERA FACING NORTH. DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IS UNDERWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

85

MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT OF VIEW ON RIGHT WERE TWO INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS. NOTE FRAME STRUCTURE OF METAL-SIDING BUILDING. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-4. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1257. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

86

MTR WING, TRA604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING, TRA-604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, INSTRUMENT SHOP, COUNTING ROOM, HEALTH PHYSICS LAB, LABS AND OFFICES, STORAGE, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING. BLAW-KNOX 3150-4-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 053-604-00-099-100008, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

87

MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON WEST SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. BLAW-KNOX 3150-10-2, 6/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100021, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

88

MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. AIR DUCT DETAILS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. AIR DUCT DETAILS AND EQUIPMENT FOUNDATIONS. SECTION THROUGH AIR DUCT CHANNELS FROM ENTRY TO BUILDING TO EXIT INTO STACK. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100690, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

89

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT OF BASEMENT AND FACING NORTHEAST. PANEL DISPLAYS DATA READOUTS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

90

Mtr10p functions as a nuclear import receptor for the mRNA-binding protein Npl3p.  

PubMed Central

MTR10, previously shown to be involved in mRNA export, was found in a synthetic lethal relationship with nucleoporin NUP85. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Mtr10p localizes preferentially inside the nucleus, but a nuclear pore and cytoplasmic distribution is also evident. Purified Mtr10p forms a complex with Npl3p, an RNA-binding protein that shuttles in and out of the nucleus. In mtr10 mutants, nuclear uptake of Npl3p is strongly impaired at the restrictive temperature, while import of a classic nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing protein is not. Accordingly, the NLS within Npl3p is extended and consists of the RGG box plus a short and non-repetitive C-terminal tail. Mtr10p interacts in vitro with Gsp1p-GTP, but with low affinity. Interestingly, Npl3p dissociates from Mtr10p only by incubation with Ran-GTP plus RNA. This suggests that Npl3p follows a distinct nuclear import pathway and that intranuclear release from its specific import receptor Mtr10p requires the cooperative action of both Ran-GTP and newly synthesized mRNA. PMID:9545233

Senger, B; Simos, G; Bischoff, F R; Podtelejnikov, A; Mann, M; Hurt, E

1998-01-01

91

Shewanella putrefaciens mtrB Encodes an Outer Membrane Protein Required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) Reduction  

PubMed Central

Iron and manganese oxides or oxyhydroxides are abundant transition metals, and in aquatic environments they serve as terminal electron acceptors for a large number of bacterial species. The molecular mechanisms of anaerobic metal reduction, however, are not understood. Shewanella putrefaciens is a facultative anaerobe that uses Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutants of S. putrefaciens, and one such mutant, SR-21, was analyzed in detail. Growth and enzyme assays indicated that the mutation in SR-21 resulted in loss of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction but did not affect its ability to reduce other electron acceptors used by the wild type. This deficiency was due to Tn5 inactivation of an open reading frame (ORF) designated mtrB. mtrB encodes a protein of 679 amino acids and contains a signal sequence characteristic of secreted proteins. Analysis of membrane fractions of the mutant, SR-21, and wild-type cells indicated that MtrB is located on the outer membrane of S. putrefaciens. A 5.2-kb DNA fragment that contains mtrB was isolated and completely sequenced. A second ORF, designated mtrA, was found directly upstream of mtrB. The two ORFs appear to be arranged in an operon. mtrA encodes a putative 10-heme c-type cytochrome of 333 amino acids. The N-terminal sequence of MtrA contains a potential signal sequence for secretion across the cell membrane. The amino acid sequence of MtrA exhibited 34% identity to NrfB from Escherichia coli, which is involved in formate-dependent nitrite reduction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genes encoding proteins involved in metal reduction. PMID:9829939

Beliaev, Alexander S.; Saffarini, Daad A.

1998-01-01

92

Experimental performance comparison of FDTS\\/DF detectors: 8\\/9 (0,k) vs. 4\\/5 MTR codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an FDTS\\/DF detector is compared using two different RLL coding techniques. The new Maximum Transition Run (MTR) codes have been proposed for use with FDTS\\/DF detectors because of demonstrated coding gains. This work compares the performance of an 8\\/9 (0,4\\/4) code to a 4\\/5 MTR code using actual MR head signals captured from a spinstand. The coding

Zachary A. Keirn; S. G. McCarthy

1997-01-01

93

Crystal Structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrD Inner Membrane Multidrug Efflux Pump  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually-transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. The MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of the inner membrane MtrD multidrug efflux pump, which reveals a novel structural feature that is not found in other RND efflux pumps. PMID:24901477

Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Long, Feng; Chou, Tsung-Han; Delmar, Jared A.; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shafer, William M.; Yu, Edward W.

2014-01-01

94

Crystal structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrD inner membrane multidrug efflux pump.  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually-transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. The MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here report the crystal structure of the inner membrane MtrD multidrug efflux pump, which reveals a novel structural feature that is not found in other RND efflux pumps. PMID:24901477

Bolla, Jani Reddy; Su, Chih-Chia; Do, Sylvia V; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Kumar, Nitin; Long, Feng; Chou, Tsung-Han; Delmar, Jared A; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

2014-01-01

95

MTR BUILDING, TRA603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. LIGHT-COLORED PROJECTION AT LEFT IS ENGINEERING SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. SMALL CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING AT CENTER OF VIEW IS FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

96

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED BY REACTOR (LEFT OF VIEW) AND WEST WALL ON RIGHT. BRIDGE OVERHEAD PROVIDED ACCESS TO TOP OF REACTOR FROM BALCONY. NOTE WIDTH OF BRIDGE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH TOWARDS OPEN DOOR OF REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

97

MTR BUILDING, TRA603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON BUILDING MARKED WITH "X" IS TRA-651. TRA-626, TO ITS RIGHT, HOUSED COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT FOR THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM. LATER, IT WAS USED FOR STORAGE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, April 2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

98

MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A19 LAB ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A-19 LAB AREA ALONG SOUTH WALL. SIGN ON FLOOR DIRECTS WORKERS TO OBTAIN WHOLE BODY FRISK UPON LEAVING AREA. SIGN ON EQUIPMENT IN CENTER OF VIEW REQUESTS WORKERS TO "NOTIFY HEALTH PHYSICS BEFORE WORKING ON THIS SYSTEM." CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

99

A novel approach with "skeletonised MTR" measures tract-specific microstructural changes in early primary-progressive MS.  

PubMed

We combined tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to assess white matter (WM) tract-specific short-term changes in early primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and their relationships with clinical progression. Twenty-one PPMS patients within 5 years from onset underwent MT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline and after 12 months. Patients' disability was assessed. DTI data were processed to compute fractional anisotropy (FA) and to generate a common WM "skeleton," which represents the tracts that are "common" to all subjects using TBSS. The MT ratio (MTR) was computed from MT data and co-registered with the DTI. The skeletonization procedure derived for FA was applied to each subject's MTR image to obtain a "skeletonised" MTR map for every subject. Permutation tests were used to assess (i) changes in FA, principal diffusivities, and MTR over the follow-up, and (ii) associations between changes in imaging parameters and changes in disability. Patients showed significant decreases in MTR over one year in the corpus callosum (CC), bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), thalamic radiations, and superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. These changes were located both within lesions and the normal-appearing WM. No significant longitudinal change in skeletonised FA was found, but radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased in several regions, including the CST bilaterally and the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. MTR decreases, RD increases, and axial diffusivity decreases in the CC and CST correlated with a deterioration in the upper limb function. We detected tract-specific multimodal imaging changes that reflect the accrual of microstructural damage and possibly contribute to clinical impairment in PPMS. We propose a novel methodology that can be extended to other diseases to map cross-subject and tract-specific changes in MTR. PMID:23616276

Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Toosy, Ahmed; De Stefano, Nicola; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

2014-02-01

100

MTR, TRA603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTYMETER CHOPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR, TRA-603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTY-METER CHOPPER HOUSE. COFFIN TURNING ROLLS. REMOVABLE PANEL OVER CANAL ON EAST SIDE. NEW PLUG STORAGE ACCESS. DOOR SCHEDULE INDICATES STEEL (FOR VAULT), WIRE MESH, AND HOLLOW METAL TYPES. STORAGE AND ISSUE ROOM. SAFETY SHOWERS. DOORWAY TO WING, TRA-604. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100561, REV. 10. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

101

WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

102

MTR WING, TRA604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR WING, TRA-604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE WALL. NOTE SINK, CABINET, TABLE, AND HOOD UNITS. DUCT ABOVE RECEIVES CONTAMINATED AIR AND SENDS IT TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. NOTE PARTITION WALL BEHIND WORK UNITS. THE HEALTH PHYSICS LAB WAS SIMILARLY EQUIPPED. WINDOW AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4225. Unknown Photographer, 2/13/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

103

Haplotype analysis of the folate-related genes MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR and migraine with aura  

PubMed Central

Aims The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 1.5.1.20) enzyme, a key player in the folate metabolic pathway, has been associated with increased risk of migraine with aura. Other genes encoding molecular components of this pathway include Methionine synthase (MTR; EC 2.1.1.13), and Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR; EC 2.1.1.135) among others. We performed a haplotype analysis of migraine risk and MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR. Methods Study participants are from a random sub-sample participating in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study, including subjects with non-migraine headache (n=367), migraine without aura (n=85), migraine with aura (n=167), and no headache (n=1347). Haplotypes spanning each gene were constructed using Haploview. Association testing was performed on single SNPs and haplotypes using logistic regression, controlling for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors and correcting for multiple testing Results Haplotype analysis suggested an association between MTRR haplotypes and reduced risk of migraine with aura. All other associations were not significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions These results suggest that MTRR variants may protect against migraine with aura in an older population. PMID:23430981

Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Scher, Ann I.; Smith, Albert; Harris, Tamara; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa; Gudnason, Villi; Launer, Lenore J.

2014-01-01

104

Domain organization within the nuclear export factor Mex67:Mtr2 generates an extended mRNA binding surface  

PubMed Central

The Mex67:Mtr2 complex is the principal yeast nuclear export factor for bulk mRNA and also contributes to ribosomal subunit export. Mex67 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that have been thought to be joined by flexible linkers like beads on a string, with the RRM and LRR domains binding RNAs and the NTF2-like and UBA domains binding FG-nucleoporins to facilitate movement through nuclear pores. Here, we show that the NTF2-like domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mex67:Mtr2 also contributes to RNA binding. Moreover, the 3.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the Mex67?UBA:Mtr2 complex, supplemented with small angle X-ray scattering data, indicated that the LRR domain has a defined spatial relationship to the Mex67NTF2L:Mtr2 region. Conversely, the RRM domain and especially the UBA domain are more mobile. The conformation assumed by the LRR and NTF2-like domains results in clusters of positively-charged residues on each becoming arranged to form a continuous interface for binding RNA on the opposite side of the complex to the region that interacts with FG-nucleoporins to facilitate passage through nuclear pores. PMID:25618852

Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert; Stewart, Murray

2015-01-01

105

Mutagenesis of the C1 Oxidation Pathway in Methanosarcina barkeri: New Insights into the Mtr/Mer Bypass Pathway?  

PubMed Central

A series of Methanosarcina barkeri mutants lacking the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway were constructed. Mutants lacking the methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT):coenzyme M (CoM) methyltransferase-encoding operon (?mtr), the methylene-H4MPT reductase-encoding gene (?mer), the methylene-H4MPT dehydrogenase-encoding gene (?mtd), and the formyl-methanofuran:H4MPT formyl-transferase-encoding gene (?ftr) all failed to grow using either methanol or H2/CO2 as a growth substrate, indicating that there is an absolute requirement for the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway for hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogenesis. The mutants also failed to grow on acetate, and we suggest that this was due to an inability to generate the reducing equivalents needed for biosynthetic reactions. Despite their lack of growth on methanol, the ?mtr and ?mer mutants were capable of producing methane from this substrate, whereas the ?mtd and ?ftr mutants were not. Thus, there is an Mtr/Mer bypass pathway that allows oxidation of methanol to the level of methylene-H4MPT in M. barkeri. The data further suggested that formaldehyde may be an intermediate in this bypass; however, no methanol dehydrogenase activity was found in ?mtr cell extracts, nor was there an obligate role for the formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Fae), which has been shown to catalyze the condensation of formaldehyde and H4MPT in vitro. Both the ?mer and ?mtr mutants were able to grow on a combination of methanol plus acetate, but they did so by metabolic pathways that are clearly distinct from each other and from previously characterized methanogenic pathways. PMID:18178739

Welander, Paula V.; Metcalf, William W.

2008-01-01

106

Antibody Recognition Force Microscopy Shows that Outer Membrane Cytochromes OmcA and MtrC Are Expressed on the Exterior Surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1?  

PubMed Central

Antibody recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells when Fe(III), including solid-phase hematite (Fe2O3), was the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface between the cell and mineral. MtrC displayed a more uniform distribution across the cell surface. Both cytochromes were associated with an extracellular polymeric substance. PMID:19286784

Lower, Brian H.; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Boily, Jean-François; Lower, Steven K.

2009-01-01

107

A study of reduction in fuel requirement and enhancement of neutron flux in typical MTR type research reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) is a typical swimming pool type MTR utilizing low enriched uranium (19.99% in 235U) silicide dispersion fuel of density 3.28gU\\/cm3. The benefits of loading available and upcoming higher density fuels in the existing PARR-1 core have been explored in this study with constraints of no change in the existing moderator\\/coolant channel width and existing reactor systems.

Rizwan Ahmed; Aslam; Nasir Ahmad; Mohammad Javed Khan; Abdul Manan

2007-01-01

108

Utilization of high-density fuel and beryllium elements for the neutron flux enhancement in typical MTR type research reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) is a typical MTR type swimming pool reactor utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU), i.e. 19.99% enriched in 235U, silicide dispersion fuel of density 3.28gU\\/cm3. This simulation study was conducted by employing the standard reactor physics simulation codes WIMS-D\\/4, CITATION, and a burnup analysis code FCAP along with a reactor thermal hydraulic simulation code PARET. The present

Rizwan Ahmed; Aslam; Nasir Ahmad; Mohammad Javed Khan; Mujahid Tanvir

2007-01-01

109

Enhancement of the dissolution of albendazole from pellets using MTR technique  

PubMed Central

Albendazole (ABZ), a broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent, is poorly absorbed after oral administration due to its low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to improve albendazole dissolution rate by formulating avicel pellets loaded with 10% w/w drug using extrusion/spheronization technique. In addition the wet masses were characterized by mix torque rheometry (MTR) prior to pelletization process. Different additives (i.e., lactose, Tween 80 and low molecular weight chitosan) were formulated with avicel to enhance the dissolution rate of ABZ from the produced pellets. Moreover, mix torque rheometer was used to quantitatively determine the suitable moisture content in the pastes before the extrusion process. The produced pellets were characterized for their ABZ content, particle size, particle shape, dissolution profile and thermal behaviors. The maximum consistencies (the peak torques) of the wet granules were obtained using 0.667–1.333 ml/g of water or water containing surfactant. Also, the produced pellets have size range from 1036 to 1246 ?m. The calculated drug RDR30 for 10%, 30% and 50% lactose concentrations were 1.08, 1.08 and 2.03, respectively, while that calculated for 10%, 30% and 50% w/w chitosan concentrations were 1.71, 3.62 and 3.62, respectively. The results revealed also that increasing the weight ratio of lactose and chitosan was accompanied by a significant reduction of the peak torque magnitude and this was accompanied by an enhanced ABZ dissolution rate. PMID:23960837

Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Al-Anazi, Fars K.

2012-01-01

110

The RNA Helicases AtMTR4 and HEN2 Target Specific Subsets of Nuclear Transcripts for Degradation by the Nuclear Exosome in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The RNA exosome is the major 3?-5? RNA degradation machine of eukaryotic cells and participates in processing, surveillance and turnover of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA. In both yeast and human, all nuclear functions of the exosome require the RNA helicase MTR4. We show that the Arabidopsis core exosome can associate with two related RNA helicases, AtMTR4 and HEN2. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation shows that each of the RNA helicases co-purifies with the exosome core complex and with distinct sets of specific proteins. While AtMTR4 is a predominantly nucleolar protein, HEN2 is located in the nucleoplasm and appears to be excluded from nucleoli. We have previously shown that the major role of AtMTR4 is the degradation of rRNA precursors and rRNA maturation by-products. Here, we demonstrate that HEN2 is involved in the degradation of a large number of polyadenylated nuclear exosome substrates such as snoRNA and miRNA precursors, incompletely spliced mRNAs, and spurious transcripts produced from pseudogenes and intergenic regions. Only a weak accumulation of these exosome substrate targets is observed in mtr4 mutants, suggesting that MTR4 can contribute, but plays rather a minor role for the degradation of non-ribosomal RNAs and cryptic transcripts in Arabidopsis. Consistently, transgene post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is marginally affected in mtr4 mutants, but increased in hen2 mutants, suggesting that it is mostly the nucleoplasmic exosome that degrades aberrant transgene RNAs to limit their entry in the PTGS pathway. Interestingly, HEN2 is conserved throughout green algae, mosses and land plants but absent from metazoans and other eukaryotic lineages. Our data indicate that, in contrast to human and yeast, plants have two functionally specialized RNA helicases that assist the exosome in the degradation of specific nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA populations, respectively. PMID:25144737

Lange, Heike; Zuber, Hélène; Sement, François M.; Chicher, Johana; Kuhn, Lauriane; Hammann, Philippe; Brunaud, Véronique; Bérard, Caroline; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Vaucheret, Hervé; Gagliardi, Dominique

2014-01-01

111

The RNA helicases AtMTR4 and HEN2 target specific subsets of nuclear transcripts for degradation by the nuclear exosome in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The RNA exosome is the major 3'-5' RNA degradation machine of eukaryotic cells and participates in processing, surveillance and turnover of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA. In both yeast and human, all nuclear functions of the exosome require the RNA helicase MTR4. We show that the Arabidopsis core exosome can associate with two related RNA helicases, AtMTR4 and HEN2. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation shows that each of the RNA helicases co-purifies with the exosome core complex and with distinct sets of specific proteins. While AtMTR4 is a predominantly nucleolar protein, HEN2 is located in the nucleoplasm and appears to be excluded from nucleoli. We have previously shown that the major role of AtMTR4 is the degradation of rRNA precursors and rRNA maturation by-products. Here, we demonstrate that HEN2 is involved in the degradation of a large number of polyadenylated nuclear exosome substrates such as snoRNA and miRNA precursors, incompletely spliced mRNAs, and spurious transcripts produced from pseudogenes and intergenic regions. Only a weak accumulation of these exosome substrate targets is observed in mtr4 mutants, suggesting that MTR4 can contribute, but plays rather a minor role for the degradation of non-ribosomal RNAs and cryptic transcripts in Arabidopsis. Consistently, transgene post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is marginally affected in mtr4 mutants, but increased in hen2 mutants, suggesting that it is mostly the nucleoplasmic exosome that degrades aberrant transgene RNAs to limit their entry in the PTGS pathway. Interestingly, HEN2 is conserved throughout green algae, mosses and land plants but absent from metazoans and other eukaryotic lineages. Our data indicate that, in contrast to human and yeast, plants have two functionally specialized RNA helicases that assist the exosome in the degradation of specific nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA populations, respectively. PMID:25144737

Lange, Heike; Zuber, Hélène; Sement, François M; Chicher, Johana; Kuhn, Lauriane; Hammann, Philippe; Brunaud, Véronique; Bérard, Caroline; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Vaucheret, Hervé; Gagliardi, Dominique

2014-08-01

112

Transcriptional regulation of mithramycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces argillaceus: dual role as activator and repressor of the PadR-like regulator MtrY.  

PubMed

The mithramycin biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces argillaceus ATCC 12956 contains 34 ORFs and includes two putative regulatory genes (mtmR and mtrY), which encode proteins of the SARP (Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein) and PadR transcriptional regulator families, respectively. MtmR was proposed to behave as a positive regulator of mithramycin biosynthesis. Inactivation and overexpression of mtrY indicated that it is also a positive regulator of mithramycin biosynthesis, being non-essential but required to maintain high levels of mithramycin production in the producer strain. Transcriptional analyses by reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR of mithramycin genes, and promoter-probe assays in S. argillaceus polyketide synthase and regulatory mutants and the WT strain, and in the heterologous host Streptomyces albus, were carried out to analyse the role of MtmR and MtrY in the regulation of the mithramycin gene cluster. These experiments revealed that MtmR had a positive role, activating expression of at least six polycistronic units (mtmR-mtmE, mtmQ-mtmTII, mtmX-mtmY, mtmV-mtmTIII, mtmW-mtmMI and mtmGI-mtrB) and one monocistronic unit (mtmGII) in the mithramycin gene cluster. However, MtrY played a dual role in the mithramycin gene cluster: (i) repressing the expression of resistance genes and its coding gene itself by controlling the activity of the mtrYp promoter that directs expression of the regulator mtrY and resistance genes, with this repression being released in the presence of mithramycin; and (ii) enhancing the expression of mithramycin biosynthesis genes when mithramycin is present, by interacting with the mtmRp promoter that controls expression of the mtmR regulator, amongst others. PMID:25416691

Flórez, Ana B; Álvarez, Susana; Zabala, Daniel; Braña, Alfredo F; Salas, José A; Méndez, Carmen

2015-02-01

113

Missense mutations that alter the DNA-binding domain of the MtrR protein occur frequently in rectal isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are resistant to faecal lipids.  

PubMed

Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to structurally diverse hydrophobic agents (HAs) has been associated with missense or deletion mutations in the mtrR (multiple transferable resistance Regulator) gene of laboratory-derived strains but their prevalence in clinical isolates was heretofore unknown. Since faecal lipids provide strong selective pressure for the emergence of variants resistant to HAs (HAR), the nucleotide sequence of the mtrR gene from rectal isolates of N. gonorrhoeae, which displayed different levels of HAR, was determined. Compared to the mtrR gene possessed by the HA-sensitive strain FA19, each clinical isolate contained mutations in the coding and/or promoter regions of their mtrR gene. A missense mutation in codon 45 (Gly-45 to Asp) was the most common mutation found in the strains studied and impacted the structure of the helix-turn-helix domain of the MtrR protein thought to be important in DNA-binding activity. Two clinical isolates bearing a missense mutation in codon 45 also contained a single basepair deletion in a 13 bp inverted sequence positioned within the mtrR promoter region. Introduction of mtrR sequences amplified from the clinical isolates into strain FA19 revealed that acquisition of the single basepair deletion was correlated with high level HAR while mutations in the mtrR-coding region provided for an intermediate level of HAR. PMID:7773394

Shafer, W M; Balthazar, J T; Hagman, K E; Morse, S A

1995-04-01

114

Overproduction of the MtrCDE efflux pump in Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces unexpected changes in cellular transcription patterns.  

PubMed

The global consequence of drug efflux gene overexpression in bacteria has not been specifically analyzed because strains showing high-level expression typically have mutations in genes encoding regulatory proteins that control other genes. Results from a transcriptional profiling study performed with a strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that is capable of high-level transcription of the mtrCDE efflux pump operon independently of control by cognate regulatory proteins revealed that its overexpression has ramifications for systems other than drug efflux. PMID:25367915

Ohneck, Elizabeth A; Goytia, Maira; Rouquette-Loughlin, Corinne E; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Jerse, Ann E; Shafer, William M

2015-01-01

115

Characterization of Axial and Proximal Histidine Mutations of the Decaheme Cytochrome MtrA from Shewanella sp. Strain ANA-3 and Implications for the Electron Transport System  

PubMed Central

Extracellular respiration of solid-phase electron acceptors in some microorganisms requires a complex chain of multiheme c-type cytochromes that span the inner and outer membranes. In Shewanella species, MtrA, an ?35-kDa periplasmic decaheme c-type cytochrome, is an essential component for extracellular respiration of iron(III). The exact mechanism of electron transport has not yet been resolved, but the arrangement of the polypeptide chain may have a strong influence on the capability of the MtrA cytochrome to transport electrons. The iron hemes of MtrA are bound to its polypeptide chain via proximal (CXXCH) and distal histidine residues. In this study, we show the effects of mutating histidine residues of MtrA to arginine on protein expression and extracellular respiration using Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 as a model organism. Individual mutations to six out of nine proximal histidines in CXXCH of MtrA led to decreased protein expression. However, distal histidine mutations resulted in various degrees of protein expression. In addition, the effects of histidine mutations on extracellular respiration were tested using ferrihydrite and current production in microbial fuel cells. These results show that proximal histidine mutants were unable to reduce ferrihydrite. Mutations to the distal histidine residues resulted in various degrees of ferrihydrite reduction. These findings indicate that mutations to the proximal histidine residues affect MtrA expression, leading to loss of extracellular respiration ability. In contrast, mutations to the distal histidine residues are less detrimental to protein expression, and extracellular respiration can proceed. PMID:22923588

Qian, Fang; Zhang, Alissa; Bondarev, Sergey; Welch, Angel; Thelen, Michael P.

2012-01-01

116

In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA–MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA–MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA–MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel, and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein–protein interactions in cells. PMID:18303833

Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Megan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Bruce, James E.

2008-01-01

117

Exploring the Effects of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Variants C677T and A1298C on the Risk of Orofacial Clefts in 261 Norwegian Case-Parent Triads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folic acid and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have both been implicated in the etiology of orofacial clefts. The authors selected 261 case-parent triads (173 cases with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL\\/P) and 88 cases with cleft palate only (CPO)) from a Norwegian population-based study of orofacial clefts (May 1996-1998). A case-parent triad design was used to

Astanand Jugessur; Allen J. Wilcox; Rolv T. Lie; Jeffrey C. Murray; Jack A. Taylor

2003-01-01

118

Compound heterozygosity for the C677T and A1298C mutations of the MTHFR gene in a case of hyperhomocysteinemia with recurrent deep thrombosis at young age.  

PubMed

We report a case of a young woman with an extensive, recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by CT scan and duplex ultrasound examination. All blood investigations for etiology of recurrent DVT were normal except for serum homocysteine level, which was mildly increased. No other thrombophilic factors could be found. The three main causes of hyperhomocysteinemia are genetic defects, nutritional deficiencies and insufficient elimination. In our case a genetic defect for one of the key enzymes of homocysteine metabolism was found to be the underlying cause. Oral anticoagulation and supplementation with pyridoxine, cyanocobalamine and folate was recommended. Whether therapy with B vitamins and folate can substantially reduce the recurrence of venous thromboembolic disease remains to be established. PMID:19366086

Jurcu?, Ruxandra; Pop, Ioana; Coriu, D; Grasu, M; Zili?teanu, Diana; Giu?c?, S; Ginghin?, Carmen

2008-01-01

119

The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth. PMID:24150725

Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

2013-12-01

120

MtrB Is Required for Proper Incorporation of the Cytochromes OmcA and OmcB into the Outer Membrane of Shewanella putrefaciens MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

to solubilization with Triton X-100 in the presence of Mg2, Triton X-100 readily solubilized these proteins from all subcellular fractions of MTRB1. Together, these data suggest that MtrB is required for the proper localization and insertion of OmcA and OmcB into the OM of MR-1. The inability of MTRB1 to properly insert these, and possibly other, proteins into its OM

Charles R. Myers; Judith M. Myers

2002-01-01

121

Comparative proteomics reveal the impact of OmcA/MtrC deletion on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in response to hexavalent chromium exposure.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a priority pollutant causing serious environmental issues. Microbial reduction provides an alternative strategy for Cr(VI) remediation. The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was employed to study Cr(VI) reduction and toxicity in this work. To understand the effect of membrane cytochromes on Cr(VI) response, a comparative protein profile analysis from S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant of deleting OmcA and MtrC (?omcA/mtrC) was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology. The 2-DE patterns were compared, and the proteins with abundant changes of up to twofold in the Cr(VI) treatment were detected. Using mass spectrometry, 38 and 45 differentially abundant proteins were identified in the wild type and the mutant, respectively. Among them, 25 proteins were shared by the two strains. The biological functions of these identified proteins were analyzed. Results showed that Cr(VI) exposure decreased the abundance of proteins involved in transcription, translation, pyruvate metabolism, energy production, and function of cellular membrane in both strains. There were also significant differences in protein expressions between the two strains under Cr(VI) treatment. Our results suggest that OmcA/MtrC deletion might result in the Cr(VI) toxicity to outer membrane and decrease assimilation of lactate, vitamin B12, and cystine. When carbohydrate metabolism was inhibited by Cr(VI), leucine and sulfur metabolism may act as the important compensatory mechanisms in the mutant. Furthermore, the mutant may regulate electron transfer in the inner membrane and periplasm to compensate for the deletion of OmcA and MtrC in Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:25341401

Wang, Chao; Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Ji-Yun; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Zhao, Feng

2014-12-01

122

Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation and detachment during respiration on hematite  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to an...

123

Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ?omcA/mtrC Mutant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ?omcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells.

Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

2013-11-01

124

Diagnostic Exome Sequencing and Tailored Bioinformatics of the Parents of a Deceased Child with Cobalamin Deficiency Suggests Digenic Inheritance of the MTR and LMBRD1 Genes.  

PubMed

Disorders of cobalamin deficiency are a heterogeneous group of disorders with at least 19 autosomal recessive-associated genes. Familial samples of an infant who died due to presumed cobalamin deficiency were referred for clinical exome sequencing. The patient died before obtaining a blood sample or skin biopsy, autopsy was declined, and DNA yielded from the newborn screening blood spot was insufficient for diagnostic testing. Whole-exome sequencing of the mother, father, and unaffected sister and tailored bioinformatics analysis was applied to search for mutations in underlying disorders with recessive inheritance. This approach identified alterations within two genes, each of which was carried by one parent. The mother carried a missense alteration in the MTR gene (c.3518C>T; p.P1173L) which was absent in the father and the sister. The father carried a translational frameshift alteration in the LMBRD1 gene (c.1056delG; p.L352Lfs*18) which was absent in the mother and present in the heterozygous state in the sister. These mutations in the MTR (MIM# 156570) and LMBRD1 (MIM# 612625) genes have been described in patients with disorders of cobalamin metabolism complementation groups cblG and cblF, respectively. The child's clinical presentation and biochemical results demonstrated overlap with both cblG and cblF. Sanger sequencing using DNA from the infant's blood spot confirmed the inheritance of the two alterations in compound heterozygous form. We present the first example of exome sequencing leading to a diagnosis in the absence of the affected patient. Furthermore, the data support the possibility for potential digenic inheritance associated with cobalamin deficiency. PMID:24664876

Farwell Gonzalez, Kelly D; Li, Xiang; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Lu, Hong; Pellegrino, Joan E; Miller, Ryan T; Zeng, Wenqi; Chao, Elizabeth C

2015-01-01

125

Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated associations among intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A hospital based, case-control study was conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in 388 pairs of patients with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer and age- and area-matched controls selected from medical checkup examinees. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate and other B vitamins were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR (C677T and A1298T) and MTR (A2756G). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the conditional logistical regression model. Median dietary folate intake (microg/day) in the control group was 438.2 (interquartile range: 354.9-542.9). Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor polymorphisms of MTHFR or MTR genes were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Further, no significant interaction was found among nutrients, polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk. Associations of nutrients with breast cancer risk did not differ by hormone receptors status. We conclude that dietary intake of folate and related B vitamins and genotypes of MTHFR or MTR have no overall association with breast cancer risk in Japanese women. PMID:19838916

Ma, Enbo; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2009-01-01

126

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefixime and Ceftriaxone: Association with Genetic Polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA  

Microsoft Academic Search

reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cefi) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequenc- ing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cefi isolates (n 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 g\\/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 g\\/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned

Robert Lindberg; Hans Fredlund; Robert Nicholas; Magnus Unemo

2007-01-01

127

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.  

PubMed

We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0=?1.48, 95 % CI?=?1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR?=?1.42, 95 % CI?=?1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations. PMID:25217320

Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

2014-12-01

128

Role of Outer Membrane C-Type Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Cell Production, Accumulation, and Detachment During Respiration on Hematite  

SciTech Connect

Solid phase iron oxides are considered to be important terminal electron acceptors for microbial respiration in many anoxic environments. Besides the knowledge that cells attach to and reduce these substrates, other aspects of surface-associated cell behavior and the related cell surface components that influence cell-mineral interactions are not well understood. In the present study, wild-type cells of the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed thin biofilms one-to-two cell layers in thickness when respiring on natural specular hematite under flow conditions similar to those which exist in aquatic sediments and subsurface environments. The distribution of cells within the biofilm indicated that direct contact was not required for electron transfer from cells to the mineral surface. Detached biomass in the form of single cells represented >99% of the surface-associated wild-type cell production from respiration on hematite over the biofilm life cycle. A mutant deficient in the outer membrane c35 type cytochrome OmcA, while still able to respire and replicate on hematite, established a lower steady-state cell density on the mineral surface than that of the wild-type strain. A mutant deficient in MtrC, another outer membrane c-type cytochrome, and a mutant deficient in both cytochromes were unable to reduce sufficient amounts of hematite to support detectable growth on the mineral surface. When considered in the context of previous work, the results support a growing body of evidence that the relative importance of OmcA and MtrC to cell respiration and replication depends on the form of iron oxide available as terminal electron acceptor.

Mitchell, Andrew C.; Peterson, L.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Romine, Margaret F.; Geesey, Gill G.

2012-07-01

129

Homocysteine remethylation enzyme polymorphisms and increased risks for neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Folic acid supplementation can effectively reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the mechanism underlying this beneficial effect remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that certain folate pathway genes, as well as those related to homocysteine metabolism might be contributing to this effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gene polymorphisms of methionine synthase (MTR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are involved in the risk for NTDs, specifically spina bifida. We detected MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP analysis in a group of NTD infants, their mothers and normal controls. We found that infants with the MTRR mutant genotype had a 2.6-fold higher risk of NTDs when compared to the AA genotype (OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 1.3-5.3). Mothers with the MTRR mutant genotype also had a 1.9-fold higher risk of having an NTD baby compared to AA genotype (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.1-3.1). Infants who carry mutant alleles for both MTRR and MTR had exceptionally elevated NTD risks, with odds ratios of 5.1 compared to infants with the wild type genotype at both loci (AA + AA) (OR = 5.1, 95%CI = 1.7-15.4). A comparable result was observed in the mothers of NTD cases (OR = 2.1, 95%CI = 1.0-4.7). Our results indicate that MTRR and MTR genes may interact to increase the infants' NTD risks. These results did not appear to be influenced by maternal periconceptional folic acid intake. However,the sample size of this study was limited, and a larger population study is needed to pursue these initial observations. PMID:12649067

Zhu, Huiping; Wicker, Ned J; Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Hendricks, Kate; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark; Finnell, Richard H

2003-03-01

130

Cotranscriptional recruitment of RNA exosome cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and two distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) complexes assists the exonuclease Rrp6p in the targeting and degradation of an aberrant messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) in yeast.  

PubMed

The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs. PMID:24047896

Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A Rachid

2013-11-01

131

Cotranscriptional Recruitment of RNA Exosome Cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and Two Distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 Polyadenylation (TRAMP) Complexes Assists the Exonuclease Rrp6p in the Targeting and Degradation of an Aberrant Messenger Ribonucleoprotein Particle (mRNP) in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs. PMID:24047896

Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A. Rachid

2013-01-01

132

The Mobility System of the Multi-Tasking Rover (MTR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current and planned robotic rovers for space exploration are focused on science and correspondingly carry a science payload. Future missions will need robotic rovers that can demonstrate a wider range of functionality. This paper proposes an approach to offering this greater functionality by employing science and\\/or tool packs aboard a highly mobile robotic chassis. The packs are interchangeable and each

Antonios K. Bouloubasis; Gerard T. Mckee

2007-01-01

133

0 25 50 75 100 150 200 mtr Watersportcomplex ITC  

E-print Network

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 39, 41 Educational Science and Technology; Psychology, Communication Studies; Philosophy housing Bus stop Parking Barrier Closed road MAP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE This map is downloadable

Twente, Universiteit

134

Methotrexate use, MTHFR polymorphisms and traditional risk factors in predicting cardiovascular events in elderly males with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been implicated in the metabolism of methotrexate (MTX) – the most common disease modifying antirheumatic drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms have been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events in non-RA populations. We explored the potential associations of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTX with decreased time-to-CV event in

Lisa A Davis; Grant W Cannon; Lauren M Pointer; Roger K Wolff; Ted R Mikuls; Leah Haverhals; Andreas M Reimold; Gail S Kerr; J Steuart Richards; Dannette S Johnson; Liron Caplan

2011-01-01

135

28 MTR October 2009 Ocean gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that  

E-print Network

, and dissolved oxygen. Contour plots of these variables, as a function of depth and time (posi- tion), can offer, other common- ly measured variables include optical backscatter, chloro- phyll fluorescence coordinates. In addition, any sensor added to a glider must be small, light weight, and require very little

Fratantoni, David

136

University MTR Station (Northern Exit)> 1. Fong Yun Wah Hall > 2. Yasumoto International  

E-print Network

Park (escalator)> 3. Wu Ho Man Yuen Building (escalator) > 4. Wen Chih Tang > 5. Lee Shu Pui Tang > 6. Madam S.H. Ho Hall > · To Central Campus 7. Nursery Path > 8. William M.W. Mong Engineering Building (lift to 9/F) > 9. Ho Sin-Hang Engineering Building (footbridge) > 10. Lady Shaw Building (footbridge

Huang, Jianwei

137

The Phylogeny of the Caelifera (Insecta, Orthoptera) as Deduced from mtrRNA Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of both mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes of 32 caeliferan taxa (representing six of the seven superfamilies) and six outgroup Orthopteroids were sequenced. The combined alignment length was 630 bp after removal of all ambiguously aligned positions. Separation of the basal taxa was problematic and analysis using the LogDet transformation indicated that shared base composition biases were a confounding factor.

P. K. Flook; C. H. F. Rowell

1997-01-01

138

Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three la...

139

Mind the gap: diversity and reactivity relationships among multihaem cytochromes of the MtrA/DmsE family  

E-print Network

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the ability to use many external terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration, such as DMSO. The pathway that facilitates this electron transfer includes the decahaem cytochrome ...

Bewley, Kathryn D.

140

THE WAPD 15-1 AND 15-2 PROGRESSIVE FAILURE TESTS IN THE MTR-HT-1 LOOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two PWR-type (Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor) fuel rod bundles, ; each containing one intentionally defected rod, were tested in a Materials ; Testing Reactor loop to study the possibility of progressive failure. ; Progressive failure is the phenomena in which an initial element failure causes ; failure in its neighboring elements as a result of heat concentration induced by ;

Kisiel

1956-01-01

141

Shewanella putrefaciens mtrB Encodes an Outer Membrane Protein Required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and manganese oxides or oxyhydroxides are abundant transition metals, and in aquatic environments they serve as terminal electron acceptors for a large number of bacterial species. The molecular mechanisms of anaerobic metal reduction, however, are not understood. Shewanella putrefaciens is a facultative anaerobe that uses Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. Transposon mutagenesis was used

ALEXANDER S. BELIAEV; DAAD A. SAFFARINI

1998-01-01

142

The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing  

E-print Network

exosome. The molecular basis for this vital func- tion is not understood and detailed analysis with the exosome. These studies provide a mo- lecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases

van Hoof, Ambro

143

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies  

PubMed Central

Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE?=?0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P?=?0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE?=?1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

2012-01-01

144

The Importance of Homozygous Polymorphisms of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene in Romanian Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms have recently raised the interest as a possible thrombophilic factors. Aims: We aimed to assess the frequency of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a Romanian population and the associated risk of VTE. Study Design: We performed a case-control transversal study including 90 patients diagnosed with VTE and 75 sex- and age-matched controls. Methods: MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were detected using PCR-RFLP method. Results: The homozygous MTHFR 677TT genotype, present in 18.8% of patients with VTE versus 6.6% of controls, was significantly associated with VTE (p= 0.021, OR= 3.26, 95%CI (1.141–9.313)). The heterozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype, presenting the highest prevalence in the VTE group (34.4%) as well as in controls (37.3%), was not associated with VTE (p=0.7). No associations were found for heterozygous MTHFR C677T (with a frequency of 32.2% in VTE and 37.3% in controls, p=0.492), respective homozygous MTHFR A1298C genotype (with a frequency of 1.1% in VTE and 2.6% in controls, p=0.456). Conclusion: Among MTHFR polymorphisms, only homozygosity for MTHFR 677TT may be considered a risk factor for VTE; the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is not significantly associated with an increased risk of VTE. PMID:25207100

Hotoleanu, Cristina; Trifa, Adrian; Popp, Radu; Fodor, Daniela

2013-01-01

145

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Turkish children. Study Design: MTHFR gene polymorphisms were assessed in 40 patients with ADHD and 30 healty controls. Two mutations in the MTHFR gene were investigated using polymerase chain reactions and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results: Although there were no statistically significant differences in genotype distributions of the C677T alleles between the ADHD and the control groups (p=0,678) but the genotypic pattern of the distributions of the A1298C alleles was different between the ADHD patients and the controls (p=0,033). Conclusions: Preliminary data imply a possible relationship between A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and the ADHD. PMID:21897766

Gokcen, Cem; Kocak, Nadir; Pekgor, Ahmet

2011-01-01

146

Potential Inherited Causes of Recurrent Prosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis in a Pregnant Patient Suffering from Recurrent Miscarriage  

PubMed Central

An effective anticoagulation is critical in pregnant patients with prosthetic heart valves. Inherited disorders may interfere with the coagulation cascade and may be associated with obstetrical complications as well as with prosthetic valve-derived complications. The patient in the present case had a history of recurrent prosthetic heart valve thrombosis (PHVT) despite an effective anticoagulation. She underwent a thrombolysis with low-dose prolonged infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator for the management of her recurrrent prosthetic valve thrombosis. The genetic testing showed homozygous mutations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A 1298 C and heterozygous mutations of ?-fibrinogen 455 G-A. Inherited disorders such as MTHFR A 1298 C and fibrinogen 455G/A polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent PHVT and/or pregnancy loss. PMID:25089140

Gursoy, M. Ozan; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Yesin, Mahmut; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Mehmet

2014-01-01

147

The Association between MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was inconsistent and underpowered. To clarify the effects of MTHFR gene polymorphisms on the risk of HCC, a meta-analysis of all available studies relating C677T and/or A1298C polymorphisms of MTHFR gene to the risk of HCC was conducted. Methods The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) for the period up to July 2012. Data were extracted by two independent authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Metaregression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Finally, 12 studies with 2,351 cases and 4,091 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1,333 cases and 1,878 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. With respect to A1298C polymorphism, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in the overall population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.660, 95%CI 0.460–0.946, P?=?0.024; recessive model: OR?=?0.667, 95%CI?=?0.470–0.948, P?=?0.024). In subgroup analyses, significantly decreased HCC risk was found in Asian population (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.647, 95%CI?=?0.435–0.963; P?=?0.032) and population-based studies (CC vs. AA: OR?=?0.519, 95%CI?=?0.327–0.823; P?=?0.005). With respect to C677T polymorphism, no significant association with HCC risk was demonstrated in overall and stratified analyses. Conclusions We concluded that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may play a protective role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:23457501

Deng, Yan; Huang, Shan; Xu, Juanjuan; Li, Haiwei; Li, Shan; Zhao, Jinmin

2013-01-01

148

Effect of MTHFR Polymorphisms on Hyperhomocysteinemia in Levodopa-treated Parkinsonian Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

High plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients treated with levodopa. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the effects of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, in association with l-DOPA daily dose and vitamin status, on hyperhomocysteinemia development in PD patients. Plasma homocysteine and folate\\/vitamin\\u000a B12 levels were assayed in 49 l-DOPA-treated PD patients, and compared with those

D. Caccamo; G. Gorgone; M. Currò; G. Parisi; W. Di Iorio; C. Menichetti; V. Belcastro; L. Parnetti; A. Rossi; F. Pisani; R. Ientile; P. Calabresi

2007-01-01

149

Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98–1.04; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92 to 1.09–1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

2014-01-01

150

A second genetic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) associated with decreased enzyme activity.  

PubMed

A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), C677T, results in a thermolabile variant with reduced activity. Homozygous mutant individuals (approximately 10% of North Americans) are predisposed to mild hyperhomocysteinemia, when their folate status is low. This genetic-nutrient interactive effect is believed to increase the risk for neural tube defects and vascular disease. In this communication, we characterize a second common variant in MTHFR (A1298C), an E to A substitution. Homozygosity was observed in approximately 10% of Canadian individuals. This polymorphism was associated with decreased enzyme activity; homozygotes had approximately 60% of control activity in lymphocytes. Heterozygotes for both the C677T and the A1298C mutation, approximately 15% of individuals, had 50-60% of control activity, a value that was lower than that seen in single heterozygotes for the C677T variant. No individuals were homozygous for both mutations. Additional studies of the A1298C mutation, in the absence and presence of the C677T mutation, are warranted, to adequately address the role of this new genetic variant in complex traits. A silent genetic variant, T1317C, was identified in the same exon. It was relatively infrequent (allele frequency 5%) in our study group, but was quite common in a small sample of African individuals (allele frequency 39%). PMID:9719624

Weisberg, I; Tran, P; Christensen, B; Sibani, S; Rozen, R

1998-07-01

151

HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007  

SciTech Connect

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for the Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

K. Winterholler

2007-01-30

152

Solution-Based Structural Analysis of the Decaheme Cytochrome, MtrA, by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Analytical Ultracentrifugation  

E-print Network

The potential exploitation of metal-reducing bacteria as a means for environmental cleanup or alternative fuel is an exciting prospect; however, the cellular processes that would allow for these applications need to be ...

Firer-Sherwood, Mackenzie A.

153

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Susceptibility for Cervical Lesions: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical lesions was unclear. This study was designed to investigate their precise association using a large-scale meta-analysis. Methods The previous 16 studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. The crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to the cervical lesions. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: pathological history, geographic region, ethnicity, source of controls and source of DNA for genotyping. Results Neither of the polymorphisms had a significant association with the susceptibility to the cervical lesions in all genetic models. Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. No association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the cervical lesions in the Asia or the America populations though a significant inverse association was found in the Europe population (additive model: P?=?0.006, OR?=?0.83, 95% CI?=?0.72–0.95; CT vs. CC: P?=?0.05, OR?=?0.83, 95% CI?=?0.69–1.00; TT vs. CC: P?=?0.05, OR?=?0.73, 95% CI?=?0.53–1.00). Interestingly, women with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had a marginally increased susceptibility to invasive cancer (ICC) when compared with no carriers but no statistically significant difference in the dominant model (P?=?0.06, OR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?0.99–1.49) and AC vs. AA (P?=?0.09, OR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?0.97–1.51). Conclusions The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms may not increase the susceptibility to cervical lesions. However, the meta-analysis reveals a negative association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the cervical lesions, especially in the European populations. The marginal association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical cancer requires a further study. PMID:23285018

Liu, Xiaojiao; Yang, Pei

2012-01-01

154

Common Mutations of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lips and Palates Children in North-West of Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cleft lips and cleft palates are common congenital abnormalities in children. Various chromosomal loci have been suggested to be responsible the development of these abnormalities. The present study was carried out to investigate the association between the suspected genes (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] A1298C and C677T) that might contribute into the etiology of these disorders through application of molecular methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and explanatory study was carried out on a study population of 65 affected children, 130 respective parents and 50 healthy individuals between 2009 and 2012 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran. After DNA extraction, amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR were used respectively to investigate the C677T and A1298C mutations for the MTHFR gene. Results: There was a significant difference in the rates of the C677T mutation when affected patients and their fathers were compared with the control group (odds ratio [OR]=0.44) (OR=0.64). However, there was no significant difference observed in the rate of this mutation between the patients’ mothers and the control group (OR=1.35). In addition, the abnormality rate was higher in patients with the A1298C mutation and their parents, when compared with the control group. This abnormality rate was higher for the affected children and their fathers in comparison with their mothers (Fathers, OR=0.26; Mothers, OR=0.65; Children, OR=0.55). No significant difference was seen in the rate of the polymorphism C677T in its CC, when the affected children and their parents were compared with the control group. However, there was a significant difference in the A1298C mutation. Conclusion: An association was seen between the A1298C mutation and cleft lip and cleft palate abnormalities in Iran. However, there seems to be a stronger relationship between the C67TT mutation and these abnormalities in other countries, which could be explained by racial differences. Moreover, this association was more notable between the affected children and their fathers than their mothers. The findings in this study may be helpful in future studies and screening programs.

Abdollahi-Fakhim, Shahin; Asghari Estiar, Mehrdad; Varghaei, Parizad; Alizadeh Sharafi, Mahdi; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

2015-01-01

155

(RE67757), and dCsl4 (RE64677). They were amplified by PCR using the following primers: dRrp6 1F and dRrp6 579R; dMtr3 1F and dMtr3 326R; Rrp4 1F  

E-print Network

­dCsl4. MBP fusions were expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant proteins were purified over, containing the 50 end of hsp70 ORF, was digested with EcoRI to linearize the template, and then 1 mg of linearized template was transcribed in vitro using the MEGAshortscript kit (Ambion). RNAwas 50 -end

Cai, Long

156

Analysis of genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in depressed patients in a Slovak (Caucasian) population.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder where both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play an important role, but the clues are still not fully understood. One carbon metabolism in the CNS plays a critical role in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters which are relevant to depressive disorder. We studied genetic polymorphisms of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in association with major depressive disorder. We genotyped the BDNF G196A, the MTHFR C677T, and A1298C polymorphisms in 134 patients diagnosed with major depression and 143 control subjects in Slovak (Caucasian) cohort of patients and probands. We found no significant association of either the BDNF G196A or MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with major depressive disorder neither in female nor male group of patients. However, the MTHFR A1298C genotype distribution was 36.6% (for AA genotype), 48.5% (AC) and 14.9% (CC) for the depressed patients, and 48.9% (AA), 42.7% (AC) and 8.4% (CC), respectively, for the control subjects. Patients with MDD had a higher prevalence of the CC genotype (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.07-5.32; p = 0.032) and the AC + CC genotype (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.03-2.69; p = 0.037) in comparison with the control subjects. This study shows that CC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C is associated with higher risk of MDD in Slovak population. PMID:23255668

Evinova, Andrea; Babusikova, Eva; Straka, Stanislav; Ondrejka, Igor; Lehotsky, Jan

2012-12-01

157

TPMT and MTHFR genotype is not associated with altered risk of thioguanine-related sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT *3A, *3B, *3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. PMID:24737678

Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

2014-11-01

158

Migraine and genetic polymorphisms: an overview.  

PubMed

The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), ?-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine. PMID:22962564

Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

2012-01-01

159

Migraine and Genetic Polymorphisms: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), ?-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine. PMID:22962564

Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

2012-01-01

160

Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) located within taut bands of skeletal muscle\\u000a fibers. Treating the underlying etiologic lesion responsible for MTrP activation is the most important strategy in MPS therapy.\\u000a If the underlying pathology is not given the appropriate treatment, the MTrP cannot be completely and permanently inactivated.\\u000a Treatment of active MTrPs may be

Chang-Zern Hong

2006-01-01

161

Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

2004-01-01

162

Characterization of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Iron Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of proteins implicated in dissimilatory metal reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (outer membrane (OM) proteins OmcA, MtrB, and MtrC; OM-associated protein MtrA; periplasmic protein CctA; and cytoplasmic membrane protein CymA) were characterized by protein purification, analytical ultracentrif- ugation, and cross-linking methods. Five of these proteins are heme proteins, OmcA (83 kDa), MtrC (75 kDa), MtrA (32 kDa), CctA

Daniel E. Ross; Shane S. Ruebush; Susan L. Brantley; Robert S. Hartshorne; Thomas A. Clarke; David J. Richardson; Ming Tien

2007-01-01

163

Metabolic and genetic risk factors for migraine in children.  

PubMed

Migraine can induce ischaemic stroke, and is considered an independent risk factor for stroke in the young. To date, the nature of the link between migraine and stroke is essentially unknown. Forty-five children were studied. Homocysteine levels (fasting and post methionine load), vitamin B12 and plasma folate levels, factor V Leiden, factor II G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C mutations were examined. Compared with controls, patients with migraine had higher levels of post-methionine load homocysteine values (19.5 +/- 4.9 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.9; P = 0.025) and significantly lower folate levels (5.8 +/- 2.6 vs. 7.5 +/- 2.1; P = 0.002). We found a trend toward an increased risk of migraine in subjects carrying a homozygous mutant genotype for MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms. Genetic prothrombotic conditions do not seem to be related to migraine in the young, whereas the biochemical differences between migrainous patients and controls are an appealing topic for further investigation. PMID:16686913

Bottini, F; Celle, M E; Calevo, M G; Amato, S; Minniti, G; Montaldi, L; Di Pasquale, D; Cerone, R; Veneselli, E; Molinari, A C

2006-06-01

164

Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.  

PubMed

The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility. PMID:25412139

Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

2014-11-21

165

Hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR Polymorphisms as Antenatal Risk Factors of White Matter Abnormalities in Two Cohorts of Late Preterm and Full Term Newborns  

PubMed Central

Higher total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, and C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) polymorphisms, have been reported in preterm or full term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. This study investigated the causal role of tHcy and MTHFR polymorphisms together with other acquired risk factors on the occurrence of brain white matter abnormalities (WMA) detected by cranial ultrasound scans (cUS) in a population of late preterm and full term infants. A total of 171 newborns (81?M, 47.4%), 45 (26.3%) born <37?wks, and 126 (73.7%) born ?37?wks were recruited in the study. cUS detected predominant WMA pattern in 36/171 newborns (21.1%) mainly characterized by abnormal periventricular white matter signal and mild-to-moderate periventricular white matter volume loss with ventricular dilatation (6/36, 16.6%). WMA resulted in being depending on tHcy levels (P < 0.014), lower GA (P < 0.000), lower Apgar score at 1 minutes (P < 0.000) and 5 minutes (P < 0.000), and 1298AC and 677CT/1298AC genotypes (P < 0.000 and P < 0.000). In conclusion, both acquired and genetic predisposing antenatal factors were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcome and WMA. The role of A1298C polymorphism may be taken into account for prenatal assessment and treatment counseling.

Marseglia, Lucia M.; Nicotera, Antonio; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Giaimo, Elisa; Cardile, Giovanna; Bonsignore, Maria; Alibrandi, Angela; Caccamo, Daniela; Manti, Sara; D'Angelo, Gabriella; Mamì, Carmelo; Di Rosa, Gabriella

2015-01-01

166

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white. PMID:24938371

Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

2015-02-01

167

Etiopathogenesis of Sheehan's Syndrome: Roles of Coagulation Factors and TNF-Alpha.  

PubMed

Sheehan's Syndrome (SS) is defined as pituitary hormone deficiency due to ischemic infarction of the pituitary gland as a result of massive postpartum uterine hemorrhage. Herein, we aimed to investigate the roles of Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), PAI-1 4G/5G, and TNF- ? (-308??G > A) gene polymorphisms in the etiopathogenesis of SS. Venous blood samples were obtained from 53 cases with SS and 43 healthy women. Standard methods were used to extract the genomic DNAs. Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms were identified by real-time PCR. PAI-1 4G/5G and TNF- ? (-308??G > A) gene polymorphisms were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. According to statistical analysis, none of the polymorphisms were found to be significantly higher in the SS group compared to the control group. Hence, we suggest that genetic factors other than Factor II, Factor V, MTHFR, PAI-1, and TNF- ? gene polymorphisms should be researched in the etiopathogenesis of SS. PMID:24891849

Diri, Halit; Sener, Elif Funda; Bayram, Fahri; Tascioglu, Nazife; Simsek, Yasin; Dundar, Munis

2014-01-01

168

Etiopathogenesis of Sheehan's Syndrome: Roles of Coagulation Factors and TNF-Alpha  

PubMed Central

Sheehan's Syndrome (SS) is defined as pituitary hormone deficiency due to ischemic infarction of the pituitary gland as a result of massive postpartum uterine hemorrhage. Herein, we aimed to investigate the roles of Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), PAI-1 4G/5G, and TNF-? (?308??G > A) gene polymorphisms in the etiopathogenesis of SS. Venous blood samples were obtained from 53 cases with SS and 43 healthy women. Standard methods were used to extract the genomic DNAs. Factor II (G20210A), Factor V (G1691A), and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms were identified by real-time PCR. PAI-1 4G/5G and TNF-? (?308??G > A) gene polymorphisms were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. According to statistical analysis, none of the polymorphisms were found to be significantly higher in the SS group compared to the control group. Hence, we suggest that genetic factors other than Factor II, Factor V, MTHFR, PAI-1, and TNF-? gene polymorphisms should be researched in the etiopathogenesis of SS. PMID:24891849

Bayram, Fahri; Tascioglu, Nazife; Simsek, Yasin; Dundar, Munis

2014-01-01

169

TRA Closure Plan REV 0-9-20-06 HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007  

SciTech Connect

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump were characterized as having managed hazardous waste. The reactor drain tank and canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

Winterholler, K.

2007-01-31

170

Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana 5-methylthioribose Kinase Reveals a More Occluded Active Site Than its Bacterial Homolog  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic variations exist between the methionine salvage pathway of humans and a number of plants and microbial pathogens. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme required for methionine salvage in plants and many bacteria. The absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that MTR kinase is a good target for the design of specific herbicides or antibiotics. The structure of Arabidopsis thaliana MTR kinase co-crystallized with ATP?S and MTR has been determined at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The structure is similar to B. subtilis MTR kinase and has the same protein kinase fold observed in other evolutionarily related protein kinase-like phosphotransferases. The active site is comparable between the two enzymes with the DXE-motif coordinating the nucleotide-Mg, the D238 of the HGD catalytic loop polarizing the MTR O1 oxygen, and the RR-motif interacting with the substrate MTR. Unlike its bacterial homolog, however, the Gly-rich loop (G-loop) of A. thaliana MTR kinase has an extended conformation, which shields most of the active site from solvent, a feature that resembles eukaryotic protein kinases more than the bacterial enzyme. The G- and W-loops of A. thaliana and B. subtilis MTR kinase adopt different conformations despite high sequence similarity. The ATP?S analog was hydrolyzed during the co-crystallization procedure, resulting in ADP in the active site. This suggests that the A. thaliana enzyme, like its bacterial homolog, may have significant ATPase activity in the absence of MTR. The structure of A. thaliana MTR kinase provides a template for structure-based design of agrochemicals, particularly herbicides whose effectiveness could be regulated by nutrient levels. Features of the MTR binding site offer an opportunity for a simple organic salt of an MTR analog to specifically inhibit MTR kinase.

Ku,S.; Cornell, K.; Howell, P.

2007-01-01

171

Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

2013-01-01

172

Genetic polymorphisms in folate and homocysteine metabolism as risk factors for DNA damage.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies indicated a role for polymorphisms in genes of folate and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease, congenital defects and coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the effect of several polymorphisms [C677 T, A1298C of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and A66G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes] on Hcy levels and DNA damage in 68 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Plasma Hcy concentrations were higher in patients with multivessel disease with respect to monovessel disease and no-CAD patients (19.4+/-2.6 vs 11.6+/-1.2 and 13.7+/-1.4 micromol/l, respectively; P=0.03). 677TT patients had higher Hcy levels than those with 677CC or 677CT genotypes (26.2+/-4.3 vs 13.1+/-1.4 and 13.0+/-1.4 micromol/l, respectively; P=0.0006). No significant associations were found between A1298C and A66G polymorphisms and plasma Hcy levels. Among patients with 677CC genotype, 66GG individuals tended to have higher levels of Hcy than 66AA homozygotes (14.5+/-1.9 vs 8.9+/-0.7 micromol/l, P=0.06). Multivessel disease patients showed an increased frequency of DNA damage, measured by the micronucleus (MN) frequency, as compared to monovessel disease and no-CAD subjects (12.5+/-1.1 vs 8.5+/-0.8 and 8.2+/-0.9, respectively; P=0.006). The MN were positively correlated with Hcy levels (r=0.33, P=0.006) and were significantly higher in subjects with the 677TT genotype compared with the 677CC or 677CT genotypes (14.4+/-2.0 vs 8.8+/-1.2 and 9.5+/-0.7, respectively; P=0.006). A1298C and A66G polymorphisms had no effect on MN frequency. However, among 677TT patients, 66GG subjects tended to have higher levels of MN than those 66AG and 66AA (18.2+/-3.6 vs 13.8+/-4.0 and 10.3+/-1.7, respectively; P=NS). Our results indicate that genetic instability may be associated with increased risk for multiple Hcy-related diseases. PMID:12939653

Botto, Nicoletta; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Samantha; Masetti, Serena; Cocci, Franca; Colombo, Maria Giovanna; Storti, Simona; Rizza, Antonio; Biagini, Andrea

2003-09-01

173

Association between Maternal MTHFR Polymorphisms and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in Offspring, A Meta-Analysis Based on 15 Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study. Materials and Methods A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane’s Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies. Results Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and un- der the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI: 0.567-1.036). Conclusion MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the risk of generating NSCL/P offspring, and being a 677TT homozygote is a risk factor. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not associated with generating NSCL/P offspring. However, further work should be performed to confirm these findings. PMID:25780529

Pan, Xinjuan; Wang, Ping; Yin, Xinjuan; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Li, Di; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Li, Hongle; Yu, Zengli

2015-01-01

174

Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable\\u000a loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred\\u000a pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation\\u000a as a result of excessive

Ta-Shen Kuan

2009-01-01

175

New trends in myofascial pain syndrome.  

PubMed

This review article summarizes recent studies on myofascial trigger point (MTrP) to further clarify the mechanism of MTrP. MTrP is the major cause of muscle pain (myofascial pain) in clinical practice. There are multiple MTrP loci in an MTrP region. An MTrP locus contains a sensory component (sensitive locus) and a motor component (active locus). A sensitive locus is the site from which pain, referred pain (ReP), and local twitch response (LTR) can be elicited by needle stimulation. Sensitive loci are probably sensitized nociceptors based on a histological study. They are widely distributed in the whole muscle, but are concentrated in the endplate zone. An active locus is the site from which spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) can be recorded. Active loci are dysfunctional endplates since SEA is essentially the same as endplate noise (EPN) recorded from an abnormal endplate as reported by neurophysiologists. Both ReP and LTRs are mediated through spinal cord mechanisms, demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The pathogenesis of MTrPs appears to be related to the integration in the spinal cord (formation of MTrP circuits) in response to the disturbance of the nerve endings and abnormal contractile mechanism at multiple dysfunctional endplates. Methods usually applied to treat MTrPs include stretch, massage, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, laser therapy, MTrP injection, dry needling, and acupuncture. The mechanism of acupuncture is similar to dry needling or MTrP injection. The new technique of MTrP injection can also be used to treat neurogenic spasticity. PMID:12583512

Hong, Chang-Zern

2002-11-01

176

Genome-wide expression links the electron transfer pathway of Shewanella oneidensis to chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: By coupling the oxidation of organic substrates to a broad range of terminal electron acceptors (such as nitrate, metals and radionuclides), Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the ability to produce current in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). omcA, mtrA, omcB (also known as mtrC), mtrB, and gspF are some known genes of S. oneidensis MR-1 that participate in the process of

Shang-Kai Tai; GuanI Wu; Shinsheng Yuan; Ker-Chau Li

2010-01-01

177

Congenital IL-12R1? receptor deficiency and thrombophilia in a girl homozygous for an IL12RB1 mutation and compound heterozygous for MTFHR mutations: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in the production of interferon gamma from T cells and natural killer cells and is essential for protection against intra-macrophagic pathogens such as Mycobacterium and Salmonella. Here, we describe a 16-year-old girl with homozygous mutation in exon 12 of the IL12RB1 gene, which causes complete IL-12R?1 deficiency in association with heterozygous mutation (C677T and A1298C) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. She presented with disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection, retroperitoneal fungal abscess and also thrombosis in the superior mesenteric–portal vein junction. This is the first case report of a primary immunodeficiency associated with a genetically determined venous thrombosis. PMID:24678409

Kose, M.; Ceylan, O.; Patiroglu, T.; Bustamante, J.; Casanova, J. L.; Akyildiz, B. N.; Doganay, S.

2014-01-01

178

[The role of homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms in the development of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in the developed countries. Elevated homocysteine level is as an independent risk factor of CVDs. The C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been shown to influence folate and homocysteine metabolisms. However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia has not been well established yet. The gene variants were also reported to be associated with CVDs. In addition, the C677T polymorphisms may play a role in the development of hypertension. Recent research evidence has suggested that MTHFR variants might be independently linked to CVDs and hypertension, because of the involvement of the MTHFR enzyme product (5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate /5-MTHF) in the regulation of endothelial functions. Further research is required to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and CVDs, and to identify the possible role of the relevant gene variants in the molecular pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:22411217

Marosi, Krisztina; Agota, Annamária; Végh, Veronika; Joó, József Gábor; Langmár, Zoltán; Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Nagy, Zsolt B

2012-03-25

179

No Association of Functional Polymorphisms in Methlylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and the Risk and Minor Physical Anomalies of Schizophrenia in Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are controversial. This study investigated the association of the two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, with the risk for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the two polymorphisms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms and minor physical anomaly (MPA), which may represent neurodevelopmental aberrations in 201 schizophrenia patients and 350 normal control subjects. There was no significant association between either of the two polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.001, df = 1, P = 0.971 for C677T; chi-square = 1.319, df = 1, P = 0.251 for A1298C). However, in meta-analysis, the C677T polymorphism showed a significant association in the combined and Asian populations (OR = 1.13, P = 0.005; OR = 1.21, P = 0.011, respectively) but not in the Korean and Caucasian populations alone. Neither polymorphism was associated with MPAs measured by the Waldrop scale (chi-square = 2.513, df = 2, P = 0.285). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that in the Korean population, the MTHFR polymorphisms are unlikely to be associated with the risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to schizophrenia. PMID:22022190

Kim, Su-Gyeong; Song, Joo Yun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Nam Young; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

2011-01-01

180

The Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotypes with the Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent type of pediatric cancer, the causes of which are likely to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. To evaluate the effects of the genotypic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) on childhood ALL risk in Taiwan, two well-known polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed to examine the extent of their associations with childhood ALL susceptibility and to discuss the MTHFR genotypic contribution to childhood ALL risk among different populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 266 patients with childhood ALL and an equal number of non-cancer controls recruited were genotyped utilizing PCR-RFLP methodology. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The CT and TT of MTHFR C677T genotypes were significantly more frequently found in controls than in childhood ALL patients (odds ratios=0.60 and 0.48, 95% confidence intervals=0.42–0.87 and 0.24–0.97, respectively). As for gender, the boys carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype conferred a lower odds ratio of 0.51 (95% confidence interval=0.32–0.81, P=0.0113) for childhood ALL. As for age, those equal to or greater than 3.5 years of age at onset of disease carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype were of lower risk (odds ratio= 0.43 and 95% confidence interval=0.26–0.71, P=0.0016). Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR C677T T allele was a protective biomarker for childhood ALL in Taiwan, and the association was more significant in male patients and in patients 3.5 years of age or older at onset of disease. PMID:25793509

Chang, Wen-Shin; Ji, Hong-Xue; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Miao, Chia-En; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Bau, Da-Tian

2015-01-01

181

"Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC)?= 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC)?= 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC)?= 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD. PMID:25005003

Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

2015-02-01

182

Genetics University of Toronto Thrombophilia Study in Women (GUTTSI): genetic and other risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women  

PubMed Central

Background Women may be at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) as compared with men. We studied the effects of genetic and biochemical markers of thrombophilia in women, in conjunction with other established risk factors for VTE. Method The present retrospective case-control study was conducted in a thrombosis treatment programme at a large Toronto hospital. The cases were 129 women aged 16-79 years with objectively confirmed VTE. Age-matched control individuals were women who were free of venous thrombosis. Neither cases nor control individuals had known cardiovascular disease. Participants were interviewed regarding personal risk factors for VTE, including smoking, history of malignancy, pregnancy, and oestrogen or oral contraceptive use. Blood specimens were analyzed for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of prothrombin, factor V and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T, A1298C and T1317C), and the A66G polymorphism for methionine synthase reductase (MTRR).Fasting plasma homocysteine was also analyzed. Results Women with VTE were significantly more likely than female control individuals to carry the prothrombin polymorphism and the factor V polymorphism, or to have fasting hyperhomocysteinaemia. Homozygosity for the C677T MTHFR gene was not a significant risk factor for VTE, or were the A1298C or T1317C MTHFR homozygous variants. Also, the A66G MTRR homozygous state did not confer an increased risk for VTE. Conclusion Prothrombin and factor V polymorphisms increased the risk for VTE in women, independent from other established risk factors. Although hyperhomocysteinaemia also heightens this risk, common polymorphisms in two genes that are responsible for homocysteine remethylation do not. These findings are consistent with previous studies that included both men and women. PMID:11806787

Ray, Joel G; Langman, Loralie J; Vermeulen, Marian J; Evrovski, Jovan; Yeo, Erik L; Cole, David EC

2001-01-01

183

Sequence variation of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (677C>T and 1298?A>C) and traditional risk factors in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a significant role in the metabolism of methionine. MTHFR deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait that could be a significant risk factor for a number of defects, for example, vascular events, due to lower dietary folate intake among South Indians. To find the incidence of 677 C>T and 1298?A>C in MTHFR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the south Indian population, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were employed among 152 patients with myocardial infarction and 167 controls. The MTHFR 677CT genotype was found among 35 (22.4%) cases and 08 (4.8%) controls, the MTHFR 677CC allele was found among 115 (73.7%) cases and 159 (94.6%) controls. Also, the analysis of the MTHFR 1298A>C SNP identified the MTHFR 1298CC genotype among 16 (10.3%) cases and 01 (0.6%) control, the MTHFR 1298AC genotype was found in 56 (35.9%) cases and 27 (16.2%) controls, and the MTHFR 1298AA genotype was observed in 80 (51.3%) cases and 139 (82.6%) controls. The C vs. A allele also showed significantly higher frequency among the patients in comparison with the controls (p<0.0001). The results of this study indicate that the MTHFR A1298C SNP is more prevalent among south Indians compared with the MTHFR C677T SNP, suggesting a possible role of MTHFR A1298C in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. PMID:21749215

Dayakar, Seetha; Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Reddy, Thavanati Parvathi Kumara; Rao, Seshagiri P; Sesikeran, Shyamala B; Sadhnani, Muralidhar

2011-11-01

184

Patterns in nutrient concentrations and biological quality indices across the upper Thames river basin, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nutrient chemistry and biological quality indices [Mean Trophic Rank (MTR) and Trophic Diatom Index (TDI)] for rivers within the upper Thames basin. The predominant sources of nitrogen within the rivers monitored were diffuse and agricultural in nature. However, phosphorus showed both diffuse and point source signals. MTR surveys undertaken both upstream and downstream of major STWs

Helen P Jarvie; Esther Lycett; Colin Neal; Alison Love

2002-01-01

185

Programming the quorum sensing-based AND gate in Shewanella oneidensis for logic gated-microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells. PMID:25673159

Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao

2015-02-24

186

SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY AND BUILDING END AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-652, ANOTHER MTR OFFICE WING. WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

187

THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat

S. Lee; J. Jordan; S. Hensel

2011-01-01

188

Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

189

ANP COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA626, UNDER CONSTRUCTION ALONG EAST WALL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ANP COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626, UNDER CONSTRUCTION ALONG EAST WALL OF MTR BUILDING. CAMERA FACES SOUTH. AIR RECEIVING TANKS WERE SET UP AND THE WALLS CONSTRUCTED AROUND THEM. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE COMPRESSOR BUILDING AND THE MTR WERE BELOW GROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6089. Unknown Photographer, 6/25/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

190

Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

191

An essential two-component signal transduction system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The bacterial two-component signal transduction systems regulate adaptation processes and are likely to play a role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis. The previous initial characterization of an M. tuberculosis response regulator from one of these systems, mtrA-mtrB, suggested its transcriptional activation during infection of phagocytic cells. In this work, we further characterized the mtrA response regulator from M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Inactivation of mtrA on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv was possible only in the presence of plasmid-borne functional mtrA, suggesting that this response regulator is essential for M. tuberculosis viability. In keeping with these findings, expression of mtrA in M. tuberculosis H37Rv was detectable during in vitro growth, as determined by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension analyses of mRNA levels and mapping of transcript 5' ends. The mtrA gene was expressed differently in virulent M. tuberculosis and the vaccine strain M. tuberculosis var. bovis BCG during infection of macrophages, as determined by monitoring of mtrA-gfp fusion activity. In M. bovis BCG, mtrA was induced upon entry into macrophages. In M. tuberculosis H37Rv, its expression was constitutive and unchanged upon infection of murine or human monocyte-derived macrophages. In conclusion, these results identify mtrA as an essential response regulator gene in M. tuberculosis which is differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent strains during growth in macrophages. PMID:10851001

Zahrt, T C; Deretic, V

2000-07-01

192

Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: A voxel-based analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Methods: A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. Results: MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. PMID:25145689

Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

2015-01-01

193

Metabolism of 5-methylthioribose to methionine  

SciTech Connect

During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine is released as 5'-methylthioadenosine, which is recycled to methionine via 5-methylthioribose (MTR). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted into labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB), as intermediates. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, indicating the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR. Tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract requires an amino donor. Among several potential donors examined, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Anaerobiosis inhibited only partially the oxidation of MTR to formate, KMB/HMB, and methionine by avocado extract. The role of O/sub 2/ in the conversion of MTR to methionine is discussed.

Miyazaki, J.H.; Yang, S.F.

1987-06-01

194

Multiple Sclerosis Normal-Appearing White Matter: Pathology-Imaging Correlations  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the pathologic basis of subtle abnormalities in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters observed in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains. Methods Brain tissues were obtained through a rapid post-mortem protocol that included in situ MRI. Four types of MRI-defined regions of interest (ROIs) were analyzed: (1) Regions that were abnormal on all images (“T2T1MTR lesions”); (2) NAWM regions with slightly-abnormal MTR located close to white matter lesions (“sa-WM Close”); (3) NAWM regions with slightly-abnormal MTR located far from lesions (“sa-WM Far”); and (4) NAWM regions with normal MTR (“NAWM”). Immunohistochemical analysis for each ROI comprised immunostaining for myelin, axonal markers, activated microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, plasma proteins and blood vessels. Results Forty-eight ROIs from four secondary progressive MS brains were analyzed. Sa-WM Close ROIs were associated with significantly more axonal swellings. There were more enlarged MHCII(+) microglia and macrophages detected in sa-WM Far, sa-WM Close, and T2T1MTR lesions than in NAWM. Across all ROIs, MTR and DTI measures were moderately correlated with myelin density, axonal area and axonal counts. Excluding T2T1MTR lesions from analysis revealed that MTR and DTI measures in non-lesional WM were correlated with activated microglia, but not with axonal or myelin integrity. Interpretation The pathologic substrates for MRI abnormalities in NAWM vary based on distance from focal WM lesions. Close to WM lesions, axonal pathology and microglial activation may explain subtle MRI changes. Distant from lesions, microglial activation associated with proximity to cortical lesions might underlie MRI abnormalities. PMID:22162059

Moll, Natalia M.; Rietsch, Anna M.; Thomas, Smitha; Ransohoff, Amy J.; Lee, Jar-Chi; Fox, Robert; Chang, Ansi; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Fisher, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

195

PTRM Class 2008 Inefficient mRNA/mRNP reactions are challenged by  

E-print Network

, Mft1p, Tho2p, Thp1p) TRAMP (Trf4p, Air2p, Mtr4p) DAPI stains DNA Rrp6p: exosome component exonuclease, Mtr4p) Rrp47p: exosome component interacts with Rrp6p TET-Off #12;6 The entire TRAMP complex operates in mRNA surveillance THO (Hpr1p, Mft1p, Tho2p, Thp1p) TRAMP (Trf4p, Air2p, Mtr4p) Rrp47p: exosome

Bedwell, David M.

196

Genetic Mediators of Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive problems, with significant interindividual variability in outcome. This study examined genetic polymorphisms associated with variability in neurocognitive outcome. Patients and Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated at the end of therapy in 243 survivors treated on an institutional protocol featuring risk-adapted chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of antileukemic agents, drug metabolism, oxidative stress, and attention problems in noncancer populations were examined as predictors of outcome, using multiple general linear models and controlling for age at diagnosis, sex, race, and treatment intensity. Results Compared with national norms, the cohort demonstrated significantly higher rates of problems on direct assessment of sustained attention (P = .01) and on parent ratings of attention problems (P = .02). Children with the A2756G polymorphism in methionine synthase (MS) were more likely to demonstrate deficits in attentiveness (P = .03) and response speed (P = .02), whereas those with various polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase demonstrated increased performance variability (P = .01) and reduced attentiveness (P = .003). Polymorphisms in monoamine oxidase (T1460CA) were associated with increased attention variability (P = .03). Parent-reported attention problems were more common in children with the Cys112Arg polymorphism in apoliopoprotein E4 (P = .01). Conclusion These results are consistent with our previous report of association between attention problems and MS in an independent cohort of long-term survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. The results also raise the possibility of an impact from genetic predispositions related to oxidative stress and CNS integrity. PMID:23650422

Krull, Kevin R.; Bhojwani, Deepa; Conklin, Heather M.; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon

2013-01-01

197

Thrombotic genetic risk factors and warfarin pharmacogenetic variants in São Miguel's healthy population (Azores)  

PubMed Central

Background The Azorean population presents the highest standardized mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) when compared to mainland Portugal and other populations. Since thrombosis is a common cause of CVD, we assessed four polymorphisms in three thrombotic risk genes – F5 (G1691A), F2 (G20210A) and MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), in 469 healthy blood donors from São Miguel Island (Azores). We also analysed the CYP2C9 (C430T, A1075C) and VKORC1 (G1639A) variants in fifty-eight individuals with predisposition to thrombosis (possessing at least one variation in F5 or F2 genes and one in MTHFR) to evaluate their warfarin drug response genetic profiles. Results Among the 469 individuals, the data showed that thrombotic risk allele frequencies – 1691A (4.9%), 20210A (1.8%), 677T (41.7%) and 1298C (24.8%) – were similar to other Caucasians, but significantly different from mainland Portuguese (?2, p < 0.001). The combined analysis of these variants identified twenty-two different genetic profiles (genotype order: F5, F2, MTHFR C677T and A1298C). Complete homozygosity for all wild-type alleles (GG GG CC AA) was present in 11.7%, being GG GG CT AA (22.4%) the most frequent profile. The results also demonstrated that 12.4% (58 out of 469) of São Miguel islanders have increased genetic predisposition to thrombosis. Subsequently, we evaluated these individuals for their warfarin response genetic profiles. The data showed that seven out of fifty-eight individuals are poor metabolizers (two with CYP2C9*2/*2 and five with CYP2C9*2/*3 genotypes). VKORC1 polymorphism analysis identified twelve individuals (20.7%) with AA genotype, who probably will require lower doses of warfarin. The joint analysis of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 revealed that 79.3% (46 out of 58) of the individuals carry at least one polymorphism in these genes. Within these, twenty-five individuals (43.1%) need intermediate and/or low doses of warfarin, if treatment is started. Conclusion The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that São Miguel, and possibly the Azores population, shows significant differences on allele frequencies of thrombotic risk factors when compared to mainland Portugal. This research constitutes a primary approach for future studies on CVD, as well as for the implementation of warfarin dosing protocols using the patient's genotypic information. PMID:19538716

Branco, Claudia C; Pereirinha, Tânia; Cabral, Rita; Pacheco, Paula R; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

2009-01-01

198

33 CFR 154.1060 - Submission and approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inland response zone where the EPA Regional Administrator is the predesignated Federal On-Scene Coordinator, the COTP may consult with the EPA Federal On-Scene Coordinator prior to any final approval. (d) For an MTR facility identified...

2010-07-01

199

GENOMICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY 531. (PHRM531) Introduction to Genome Science. (A) J. Hogenesch.  

E-print Network

, epigenomics, systems approaches, and integration and application of these methods. L/L 535. (CIS 535, MTR 535 principles involved in mapping and sequencing genomes, 2) familiarize the students with new instrumentation

Bushman, Frederic

200

February 2009 TIMOTHY K. STANTON  

E-print Network

and transceiver testing of Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (MK50) prototype sonar at various Naval facilities (mostly Torpedo proposal and MK50 contract. Acoustic compatibility design in Mobile Tracking Range (MTR) proposal

Stanton, Tim

201

September 2010 TIMOTHY K. STANTON  

E-print Network

and transceiver testing of Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (MK50) prototype sonar at various Naval facilities (mostly Torpedo proposal and MK50 contract. Acoustic compatibility design in Mobile Tracking Range (MTR) proposal

Stanton, Tim

202

Prof Dr Mr Mrs Ms Prof Dr Mr Mrs Ms  

E-print Network

station at the MTR's East Rail Line which allows a swift passage to Tsimshatsui (15 minutes) and a direct rail link to HK-China border (30 minutes), boasting 443 luxuriously stylish guestrooms and suites

Xu, Jianliang

203

Development of a Proteoliposome Model to Probe Transmembrane Electron-Transfer Reactions  

SciTech Connect

The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system has been developed that contains methyl viologen (MV) as an internalised electron acceptor and valinomycin (V) as a membrane associated cation exchanger. These proteoliposomes can be used as a model system to investigate MtrCAB function.

White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas

2012-12-01

204

Structures of 5-Methylthioribose Kinase Reveal Substrate Specificity and Unusual Mode of Nucleotide Binding  

SciTech Connect

The methionine salvage pathway is ubiquitous in all organisms, but metabolic variations exist between bacteria and mammals. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme in methionine salvage in bacteria and the absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that it is a good target for the design of novel antibiotics. The structures of the apo-form of Bacillus subtilis MTR kinase, as well as its ADP, ADP-PO4, AMPPCP, and AMPPCP-MTR complexes have been determined. MTR kinase has a bilobal eukaryotic protein kinase fold but exhibits a number of unique features. The protein lacks the DFG motif typically found at the beginning of the activation loop and instead coordinates magnesium via a DXE motif (Asp{sup 250}-Glu{sup 252}). In addition, the glycine-rich loop of the protein, analogous to the 'Gly triad' in protein kinases, does not interact extensively with the nucleotide. The MTR substrate-binding site consists of Asp{sup 233} of the catalytic HGD motif, a novel twin arginine motif (Arg{sup 340}/Arg{sup 341}), and a semi-conserved W-loop, which appears to regulate MTR binding specificity. No lobe closure is observed for MTR kinase upon substrate binding. This is probably because the enzyme lacks the lobe closure/inducing interactions between the C-lobe of the protein and the ribosyl moiety of the nucleotide that are typically responsible for lobe closure in protein kinases. The current structures suggest that MTR kinase has a dissociative mechanism.

Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Cornell, K.; Riscoe, M.; Behr, J.; Guillerm, G.; Howell, P.

2007-01-01

205

Molecular Cell Interaction Profiling Identifies  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Article Interaction Profiling Identifies the Human Nuclear Exosome Targeting Complex@mb.au.dk (T.H.J.) DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.06.028 SUMMARY The RNA exosome is a conserved degradation of the yeast nuclear exosome is the RNA helicase Mtr4p, acting in the context of the Trf4p/Air2p/ Mtr4p

Bedwell, David M.

206

Telomere Shortening and Tumor Formation by Mouse Cells Lacking Telomerase RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic growth, the telomerase RNA component (mTR) was deleted from the mouse germline. mTR?\\/? mice lacked detectable telomerase activity yet were viable for the six generations analyzed. Telomerase-deficient cells could be immortalized in culture, transformed by viral oncogenes, and generated tumors in nude mice following transformation. Telomeres were shown to shorten

Maria A. Blasco; Han-Woong Lee; M. Prakash Hande; Enrique Samper; Peter M. Lansdorp; Ronald A. DePinho; Carol W. Greider

1997-01-01

207

Anticancer drug mithramycin interacts with core histones: An additional mode of action of the DNA groove binder.  

PubMed

Mithramycin (MTR) is a clinically approved DNA-binding antitumor antibiotic currently in Phase 2 clinical trials at National Institutes of Health for treatment of osteosarcoma. In view of the resurgence in the studies of this generic antibiotic as a human medicine, we have examined the binding properties of MTR with the integral component of chromatin - histone proteins - as a part of our broad objective to classify DNA-binding molecules in terms of their ability to bind chromosomal DNA alone (single binding mode) or both histones and chromosomal DNA (dual binding mode). The present report shows that besides DNA, MTR also binds to core histones present in chromatin and thus possesses the property of dual binding in the chromatin context. In contrast to the MTR-DNA interaction, association of MTR with histones does not require obligatory presence of bivalent metal ion like Mg(2+). As a consequence of its ability to interact with core histones, MTR inhibits histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18, an important signature of active chromatin, in vitro and ex vivo. Reanalysis of microarray data of Ewing sarcoma cell lines shows that upon MTR treatment there is a significant down regulation of genes, possibly implicating a repression of H3K18Ac-enriched genes apart from DNA-binding transcription factors. Association of MTR with core histones and its ability to alter post-translational modification of histone H3 clearly indicates an additional mode of action of this anticancer drug that could be implicated in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25473595

Banerjee, Amrita; Sanyal, Sulagna; Kulkarni, Kirti K; Jana, Kuladip; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima; Dasgupta, Dipak

2014-01-01

208

ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

209

Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

210

Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches.

Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

2015-01-01

211

A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice  

SciTech Connect

The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M., E-mail: rterns@bmb.uga.edu; Terns, Michael P., E-mail: mterns@bmb.uga.edu

2010-10-15

212

Detection of genomic polymorphisms associated with venous thrombosis using the invader biplex assay.  

PubMed

A multi-site study to assess the accuracy and performance of the biplex Invader assay for genotyping five polymorphisms implicated in venous thrombosis was carried out in seven laboratories. Genotyping results obtained using the Invader biplex assay were compared to those obtained from a reference method, either allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR-mass spectrometry. Results were compared for five loci associated with venous thrombosis: Factor V Leiden, Factor II (prothrombin) G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G. Of a total of 1448 genotypes tested in this study, there were 22 samples that gave different results between the Invader biplex assay and the PCR-based methods. On further testing, 21 were determined to be correctly genotyped by the Invader Assay and only a single discrepancy was resolved in favor of the PCR-based assays. The compiled results demonstrate that the Invader biplex assay provides results more than 99.9% concordant with standard PCR-based techniques and is a rapid and highly accurate alternative to target amplification-based methods. PMID:15096570

Patnaik, Madhumita; Dlott, Jeffrey S; Fontaine, Robert N; Subbiah, M T; Hessner, Martin J; Joyner, Kelly A; Ledford, Marlies R; Lau, Eduardo C; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Amos, Jean; Zhang, Bailing; Williams, Thomas M

2004-05-01

213

Detection of Genomic Polymorphisms Associated with Venous Thrombosis Using the Invader Biplex Assay  

PubMed Central

A multi-site study to assess the accuracy and performance of the biplex Invader assay for genotyping five polymorphisms implicated in venous thrombosis was carried out in seven laboratories. Genotyping results obtained using the Invader biplex assay were compared to those obtained from a reference method, either allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR-mass spectrometry. Results were compared for five loci associated with venous thrombosis: Factor V Leiden, Factor II (prothrombin) G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G. Of a total of 1448 genotypes tested in this study, there were 22 samples that gave different results between the Invader biplex assay and the PCR-based methods. On further testing, 21 were determined to be correctly genotyped by the Invader Assay and only a single discrepancy was resolved in favor of the PCR-based assays. The compiled results demonstrate that the Invader biplex assay provides results more than 99.9% concordant with standard PCR-based techniques and is a rapid and highly accurate alternative to target amplification-based methods. PMID:15096570

Patnaik, Madhumita; Dlott, Jeffrey S.; Fontaine, Robert N.; Subbiah, M.T.; Hessner, Martin J.; Joyner, Kelly A.; Ledford, Marlies R.; Lau, Eduardo C.; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Amos, Jean; Zhang, Bailing; Williams, Thomas M.

2004-01-01

214

MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%), but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism. PMID:25431675

Oztop, Didem Behice; Ozkul, Yusuf

2014-01-01

215

Retinal vein occlusion: genetic predisposition and systemic risk factors.  

PubMed

The role of systemic risk factors (age, smoking, diabetes, arterial hypertension) in the development of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is well established. However, the association of RVO with genetic predisposition to thrombosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess any possible additional effect of genetic predisposition to the already well known 'classical' risk factors of RVO in a cohort of elderly Greek patients. Fifty-one elderly patients with RVO and 51 healthy individuals matched for age and sex were evaluated for systemic risk factors (smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension) and coagulation defects (lupus anticoagulant, natural inhibitors of coagulation). Additionally, genotyping was performed for mutations/polymorphisms involved in haemostasis such as: FV G1691A, FV G4070A, FIIG 20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, PAI-1-675 4G/5G, F XIII exon 2G/T, EPCR A4600G and G4678C. We identified systemic risk factors in the majority of the patients Hypertension (P=0.001), dyslipidemia (P=0.029) and diabetes (P=0.01) are associated with RVO in the majority of the patients. The prevalence of prothrombotic risk factors was not significantly different in the patients with RVO compared to controls. Apart from systemic risk factors, genetic predisposition to thrombosis does not seem to have an important association with RVO in this group of elderly patients. PMID:23337712

Giannaki, Kassiani; Politou, Marianna; Rouvas, Alexandros; Merkouri, Efrossyni; Travlou, Anthi; Theodosiadis, Panayiotis; Gialeraki, Argyri

2013-04-01

216

Folate pathway gene alterations in patients with neural tube defects.  

PubMed

Periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the recurrence and occurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD) by as much as 70%, yet the protective mechanism remains unknown. Inborn errors of folate and homocysteine metabolism may be involved in the aetiology of NTDs. Previous studies have demonstrated that both homozygosity for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and combined heterozygosity for the C677T and for another mutation in the same gene, the A1298C polymorphism, represent genetic risk factors for NTDs. In an attempt to identify additional folate related genes that contribute to NTD pathogenesis, we performed molecular genetic analysis of folate receptors (FRs). We identified 4 unrelated patients out of 50 with de novo insertions of pseudogene (PS)-specific mutations in exon 7 and 3'UTR of the FRalpha gene, arising by microconversion events. All of the substitutions affect the carboxy-terminal amino acid membrane tail, or the GPI anchor region of the nascent protein. Furthermore, among 150 control individuals, we also identified one infant with a gene conversion event within the FRalpha coding region. This study, though preliminary, provides the first genetic association between molecular variations of the FRalpha gene and NTDs and suggests that this gene can act as a risk factor for human NTD. PMID:11102926

De Marco, P; Moroni, A; Merello, E; de Franchis, R; Andreussi, L; Finnell, R H; Barber, R C; Cama, A; Capra, V

2000-11-27

217

The frequent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with a common haplotype in whites, Japanese, and Africans.  

PubMed

The common 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes decreased activity of this enzyme and can be associated with mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in homozygotes, particularly when there is folic acid deficiency, as well as with vascular dementia, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, neural-tube defects, and fetal loss. When folic acid intake is sufficient, homozygotes for MTHFR 677T appear to be protected against colon cancer and acute lymphatic leukemia, and fetuses bearing this genotype have an augmented survival. The distribution of MTHFR 677T is worldwide, but its frequency in different populations varies extensively. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the MTHFR 677T alteration has an ancestral origin or has occurred repeatedly. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the previously described polymorphism A1298C in exon 7 and of three intronic dimorphisms, in white Israelis (Jews and Arabs), Japanese, and Ghanaian Africans. The 677T allele was, remarkably, associated with one haplotype, G-T-A-C, in white and Japanese homozygotes. Among the Africans, analysis of maximum likelihood also disclosed an association with the G-T-A-C haplotype, although none of the 174 subjects examined was homozygous for MTHFR 677T. These results suggest that the MTHFR 677T alteration occurred on a founder haplotype that may have had a selective advantage. PMID:11781870

Rosenberg, Nurit; Murata, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Yasuo; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Zivelin, Ariella; Geffen, Eli; Seligsohn, Uri

2002-03-01

218

Mitochondrial dysfunction by pro-oxidant vanadium: Ex vivo assessment of individual susceptibility.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the individual susceptibility to mitochondrial impairment induced by ex vivo exposure to vanadium, an airborne pro-oxidant pollutant. In lymphocyte cultures V(IV)-treated of forty-five healthy subjects, we evaluated the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and the H2O2 in comparison to background values. As variables, we included both lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants, and C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR). H2O2 mitochondrial content increased significantly (P<0.05) after metal exposure while, in comparison to basal ??m, both depolarisation and hyperpolarisation were recorded. This underlined the mitochondrial dysfunction vanadium-induced that worsens the redox imbalance by endogenous ROS overproduction. Only age was found to contribute significantly to the high inter-individual variability, as assessed by multivariate analysis. In older subjects, the H2O2/??m values underline the organelle impairment and, under V-exposure, ??m values were inversely related to age (R=-0.591; P=0.012). PMID:25473821

Visalli, Giuseppa; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Picerno, Isa; Spataro, Pasquale; Di Pietro, Angela

2015-01-01

219

Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and congenital heart disease: a meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008-1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043-1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096-1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035-2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298 C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

2014-01-01

220

Thrombophilic mutations and polymorphisms, alone or in combination, and recurrent spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

Generally, recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs) have no identifiable cause; yet, vascular alterations during pregnancy may be associated with pregnancy loss. Therefore, we evaluated the association between thrombophilic mutations and RSAs. This case-control study was conducted in 112 patients who had RSAs and 98 health control women. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and polymorphism genotyping was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. The following 6 genetic variants were analyzed: factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutation, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (4G>5G), and factor XIII G103T (V34L). No correlations were found in any of the investigated polymorphisms. Moreover, 35.0% of cases and 25.5% of controls had at least 2 mutations in combination, and 4.8% of cases and 5.1% of controls had 3, but these combinations were not associated with additional risk. In conclusion, we found no association between the polymorphisms studied and the occurrence of RSAs. PMID:24463599

Lino, Fabio L; Traina, Évelyn; Barreto, José Augusto; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Mattar, Rosiane

2015-05-01

221

Controversial roles of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and folate in breast cancer disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Breast cancer (BC) represents a highly heterogeneous tumour at both the clinical and molecular levels. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) may modify the association between folate intake and BC and influence plasma folate concentration. The role of folate in BC is equivocal, association studies between the common MTHFR SNPs C677T and A1298C and BC risk are controversial. In this study, I have reviewed observed associations between folate intake, as well as its blood levels, and BC. The purpose of this review is to analyse the role of folate and the two SNPs associated with reduced enzyme activity in BC. I explored the most relevant and updated work that emphasises positive and negative associations among these variables. My findings indicate that no definitive conclusions can be drawn from the studies on this topic. However, this manuscript highlights variables that could be useful to explore in further association analyses. PMID:25318348

Bravatà, Valentina

2015-02-01

222

Association Between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis based on 9,329 cases and 15,076 controls  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the risk for congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic literature databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before Jun, 2014. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was explored using Begg's test. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the crude results. A total of 35 studies were included in this meta-analysis. For the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, we detected significant association in all genetic models for Asian children and the maternal population. Significant association was also detected in T vs. C for a Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.163, 95% CI: 1.008–1.342) and in both T vs. C (OR = 1.125, 95% CI: 1.043–1.214) and the dominant model (OR = 1.216, 95% CI:b1.096–1.348) for a Caucasian maternal population. For the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, the association was detected in CC vs. AC for the Caucasian paediatric population (OR = 1.484, 95% CI: 1.035–2.128). Our results support the MTHFR -677T allele as a susceptibility factor for CHD in the Asian maternal population and the -1298C allele as a risk factor in the Caucasian paediatric population. PMID:25472587

Xuan, Chao; Li, Hui; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei; Lun, Li-Min

2014-01-01

223

Systemic thrombolysis with the use of tenecteplase for segmental acute renal in-farction potentially associated with multiple thrombophilic gene polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background/aim: The potential association of acute renal infarction with multiple thrombophilic gene polymorphisms and the experience of treatment with tenecteplase are described for the first time in the international literature. Description of the case: The case of a 50-year old male with segmental acute renal infarction potentially associated with multiple thrombophilic gene polymorphisms is presented. He was thrombolysed with a single intravenous bolus of tenecteplase in a weight-adjusted dose (0.53mg/Kg bodyweight). Within 30 minutes after drug administration, the patient’s symptoms were completely relieved. Patient’s clinical course was uneventful with an acceptable renal function outcome eight weeks post-treatment. The following gene polymorphisms were identified: G455A (b-fibrinogen); C677T; A1298C (methylenetetrahydropholate reductase); T196C (platelet glycoprotein IIIa); 4G/5G (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1). Conclusion: Tenecteplase is a safe and simple to use thrombolytic, with favourable pharmacokinetic profile, which might be useful if administered early, especially when local thrombolysis is impossible or unavailable and therefore warrants further investigation in clinical trials. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (1): 67-70. PMID:25125956

Chondros, K; Karpathakis, N; Tsetis, D; Sofras, F; Mamoulakis, C

2014-01-01

224

A Longitudinal Magnetization Transfer Imaging Evaluation of Brain Injury in a Macaque Model of NeuroAIDS.  

PubMed

Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been explored in prior studies of HIV patients and showed the potential capacity to assess brain injury after HIV infection. In the present study, adult pig-tailed macaques were infected with a highly neuropathogenic virus SIVsmmFGb. MT imaging was exploited to examine the monkey brains before simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) inoculation and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-SIV inoculation. Blood samples were collected from each animal for monitoring CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before each MRI scan. The MT ratios (MTR) in several brain regions of interest were evaluated longitudinally. Significant reductions of MTR were observed in whole brain and selected regions of interest (genu, splenium, thalamus, caudate, centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, frontal gray matter, and putamen) in the SIV-infected monkeys, consistent with those reported previously in HIV patients. In particular, the longitudinal results indicate that abnormal MTR reduction can be detected as early as in 2 weeks and MTR may be more sensitive to the brain injury in cortical regions than in subcortical regions during acute SIV infection. In addition, MTR reduction in genu, centrum semiovale, and thalamus significantly correlated with the CD4(+) T cell percentage decrease. Also, the MTR reduction in thalamus correlated with the CD8(+) T cell percentage elevation. Taken together, this study reported the longitudinal evolution of MTR in different brain regions during SIV infection and further validates previous findings in HIV patients. The preliminary results suggest that MT imaging could be a robust and sensitive approach to characterize the neurodegeneration after SIV or HIV infection. PMID:25376011

Li, Chun-Xia; Herndon, James G; Novembre, Francis J; Zhang, Xiaodong

2015-03-01

225

Intra-rater reliability of an experienced physiotherapist in locating myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are considered the principal clinical feature of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). An MTrP consists of spot tenderness within a taut band of muscle fibers and its stimulation can produce both local and referred pain. The clinical diagnosis of MPS depends on correct history taking and a physical examination aimed at identifying the presence of MTrP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a palpation protocol used for locating an MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were examined by an experienced physiotherapist. During each of eight experimental sessions, subjects were examined twice in randomized order using a palpation protocol. An anatomical landmark system was defined and the MTrP location established using X and Y values. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(1,1) values were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.30–0.81) for X and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.61–0.91) for Y. The Bland–Altman plots for X and Y showed a mean of difference of 0.04 and ?0.2 mm, respectively. Limits of agreement for X ranged from ?26.3 to 26.2 mm and for Y from ?27 to 26.4 mm. Discussion: The ICC(1,1) for the observed values revealed a moderate to high correlation and the Bland–Altman analysis showed means of difference very close to zero with narrow limits of agreement. An experienced physiotherapist can reliably identify MTrP locations in upper trapezius muscle using a palpation protocol. PMID:24179324

Barbero, Marco; Bertoli, Paolo; Cescon, Corrado; Macmillan, Fiona; Coutts, Fiona; Gatti, Roberto

2012-01-01

226

Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Suicidal Patients with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) provides a quantitative measure of the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue, as represented by magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). In this study, we utilized MTI to identify biophysical alterations in MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts relative to MDD patients without such history. The participants were 36 medication-free MDD patients, with (N = 17) and without (N = 19) a history of a suicide attempt, and 28 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Whole brain voxel-based analysis was used to compare MTR across three groups and to analyze correlations with symptom severity and illness duration. We identified decreased MTR in left inferior parietal lobule and right superior parietal lobule in suicide attempters relative to both non-attempters and controls. Non-attempters also showed significantly reduced MTR in left inferior parietal lobule relative to controls, as well as an MTR reduction in left cerebellum. These abnormalities were not correlated with symptom severity or illness duration. Depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt showed bilateral abnormalities in parietal cortex compared to nonsuicidal depressed patients and healthy controls. Parietal lobe abnormalities might cause attentional dysfunction and impaired decision making to increase risk for suicidal behavior in MDD. PMID:25853872

Chen, Ziqi; Zhang, Huawei; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhong, Jingjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Du, Mingying; Chen, Lizhou; Kuang, Weihong; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qiyong

2015-01-01

227

Magnetization transfer imaging of suicidal patients with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) provides a quantitative measure of the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue, as represented by magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). In this study, we utilized MTI to identify biophysical alterations in MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts relative to MDD patients without such history. The participants were 36 medication-free MDD patients, with (N = 17) and without (N = 19) a history of a suicide attempt, and 28 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Whole brain voxel-based analysis was used to compare MTR across three groups and to analyze correlations with symptom severity and illness duration. We identified decreased MTR in left inferior parietal lobule and right superior parietal lobule in suicide attempters relative to both non-attempters and controls. Non-attempters also showed significantly reduced MTR in left inferior parietal lobule relative to controls, as well as an MTR reduction in left cerebellum. These abnormalities were not correlated with symptom severity or illness duration. Depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt showed bilateral abnormalities in parietal cortex compared to nonsuicidal depressed patients and healthy controls. Parietal lobe abnormalities might cause attentional dysfunction and impaired decision making to increase risk for suicidal behavior in MDD. PMID:25853872

Chen, Ziqi; Zhang, Huawei; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhong, Jingjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Du, Mingying; Chen, Lizhou; Kuang, Weihong; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

2015-01-01

228

Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 5?8 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F.

2007-02-01

229

2?-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family  

PubMed Central

The 5? cap of human messenger RNA consists of an inverted 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide by a unique 5?–5? triphosphate bond followed by 2?-O-ribose methylation of the first and often the second transcribed nucleotides, likely serving to modify efficiency of transcript processing, translation and stability. We report the validation of a human enzyme that methylates the ribose of the second transcribed nucleotide encoded by FTSJD1, henceforth renamed HMTR2 to reflect function. Purified recombinant hMTr2 protein transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2?-O-ribose of the second nucleotide of messenger RNA and small nuclear RNA. Neither N7 methylation of the guanosine cap nor 2?-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide are required for hMTr2, but the presence of cap1 methylation increases hMTr2 activity. The hMTr2 protein is distributed throughout the nucleus and cytosol, in contrast to the nuclear hMTr1. The details of how and why specific transcripts undergo modification with these ribose methylations remains to be elucidated. The 2?-O-ribose RNA cap methyltransferases are present in varying combinations in most eukaryotic and many viral genomes. With the capping enzymes in hand their biological purpose can be ascertained. PMID:21310715

Werner, Maria; Purta, El?bieta; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Cymerman, Iwona A.; Campbell, David A.; Mittra, Bidyottam; Zamudio, Jesse R.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Jaworski, Jacek; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

2011-01-01

230

Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and silicified microcrystalline cellulose wet masses using a powder rheometer.  

PubMed

A powder rheometer has been used to study the properties of wet powder masses and the results have been compared to the mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Two different microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) grades (Avicel and Emcocel) and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC, Prosolv) were used as model powders. The wet massing behaviour of one material (Prosolv) was studied by the powder rheometer using liquid addition experiments, while the rheological properties of wet granules were studied using both the powder rheometer and the MTR. In water addition measurements the torque behaved in a similar way to MTR measurements and the maximum value of ZTL (zero torque limit) was achieved at the capillary state of wet mass. The wet granules exhibited different behaviour in the powder rheometer and the MTR experiments, which indicates that these rheometers involve different shear forces or they measure different properties of the wet granules. Emcocel wet masses achieved the capillary state at lower liquid amount than Avicel and Prosolv masses, which indicates that Emcocel is not able to hold as much water in the internal structure as Avicel and Prosolv. The powder rheometer proved to be a sensitive piece of equipment, which can be used to study both dry and wet powder masses. It was able to distinguish wet granules from wet powder masses after liquid addition, whereas the MTR could not. However, before the powder rheometer can be properly utilised in wet powder mass studies, the problem of torque overload requires resolution. PMID:11297898

Luukkonen, P; Schaefer, T; Podczeck, F; Newton, M; Hellén, L; Yliruusi, J

2001-05-01

231

A magnetization transfer imaging study of corpus callosum myelination in young children with autism  

PubMed Central

Background Several lines of evidence suggest that autism may be associated with abnormalities in white matter development. However, inconsistencies remain in the literature regarding the nature and extent of these abnormalities, partly due to the limited types of measurements that have been used. Here, we used Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI) to provide insight into the myelination of the corpus callosum in children with autism. Methods MTI scans were obtained in 101 children with autism and 35 typically developing children who did not significantly differ with regard to gender or age. The midsagittal area of the corpus callosum was manually traced and the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated for each voxel within the corpus callosum. Mean MTR and height and location of the MTR histogram peak were analyzed. Results Mean MTR and MTR histogram peak height and location were significantly higher in children with autism than typically developing children, suggesting abnormal myelination of the corpus callosum in autism. Conclusions The differences in callosal myelination suggested by these results may reflect an alteration in the normally well-regulated process of myelination of the brain, with broad implications for neuropathology, diagnosis, and treatment of autism. PMID:22386453

Gozzi, Marta; Nielson, Dylan M.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Ostuni, John L.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Thurm, Audrey E.; Giedd, Jay N.; Swedo, Susan E.

2012-01-01

232

Identification of a molecular signature unique to metal-reducing Gammaproteobacteria.  

PubMed

Functional genes required for microbial (dissimilatory) metal reduction display high sequence divergence, which limits their utility as molecular biomarkers for tracking the presence and activity of metal-reducing bacteria in natural and engineered systems. In the present study, homologs of the outer membrane beta-barrel protein MtrB of metal-reducing Gammaproteobacteria were found to contain a unique N-terminal CXXC motif that was missing from MtrB homologs of nonmetal-reducing Gammaproteobacteria and metal- and nonmetal-reducing bacteria outside the Gammaproteobacteria. To determine whether the N-terminal CXXC motif of MtrB was required for dissimilatory metal reduction, each cysteine in the CXXC motif of the representative metal-reducing gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis was replaced with alanine, and the resulting site-directed mutants were tested for metal reduction activity. Anaerobic growth experiments demonstrated that the first, but not the second, conserved cysteine was required for metal reduction by S. oneidensis. The ability to predict metal reduction by Gammaproteobacteria with unknown metal reduction capability was confirmed with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a pathogen whose genome encodes an MtrB homolog with an N-terminal CXXC motif. MtrB homologs with an N-terminal CXXC motif may thus represent a molecular signature unique to metal-reducing members of the Gammaproteobacteria. PMID:24188569

Wee, Seng K; Burns, Justin L; DiChristina, Thomas J

2014-01-01

233

Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

2000-02-01

234

ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.

Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

2007-01-01

235

Magnetization transfer ratio in the delayed-release dimethyl fumarate DEFINE study.  

PubMed

We measured changes in brain magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) as a potential indicator of myelin density in brain tissue of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in the Phase 3 DEFINE study. DEFINE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which patients with RRMS were randomized 1:1:1 to 2 years of treatment with delayed-release DMF 240 mg twice daily (BID) or three times daily (TID) or placebo. MTR was analyzed in whole brain and normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) at baseline, week 24, 1 year, and 2 years in a subset of patients. MTR data from 392 patients were analyzed. Mean percentage reduction from baseline to 2 years in median whole brain MTR was -0.386% in the placebo group vs increases of 0.129% (p = 0.0027) and 0.096% (p = 0.0051) in the delayed-release DMF BID and TID groups, respectively. Similarly, mean percentage reduction from baseline in median NABT MTR was -0.392% with placebo vs increases of 0.190% (p = 0.0006) and 0.115% (p = 0.0029) with delayed-release DMF BID and TID, respectively. Post hoc analysis of data from patients with no new or enlarging T2 lesions (n = 147), or who experienced no relapses (n = 238), yielded similar results. In this analysis, increases in MTR in brain tissue most likely reflect increases in myelin density in response to delayed-release DMF. These data in patients with RRMS are consistent with preclinical studies that indicate a potential for cytoprotection and remyelination with delayed-release DMF treatment. PMID:25270680

Arnold, Douglas L; Gold, Ralf; Kappos, Ludwig; Bar-Or, Amit; Giovannoni, Gavin; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Yang, Minhua; Zhang, Ray; Stephan, Monica; Sheikh, Sarah I; Dawson, Katherine T

2014-12-01

236

Comparison between balanced steady-state free precession and standard spoiled gradient echo magnetization transfer ratio imaging in multiple sclerosis: methodical and clinical considerations.  

PubMed

Different pathological processes like demyelination and axonal loss can alter the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in brain tissue. The standard method to measure this effect is to scan the respective tissue twice, one with and one without a specific saturation pulse. A major drawback of this technique based on spoiled gradient echo (GRE) sequences relates to its long acquisition time due to the saturation pulses. Recently, an alternative concept for MT imaging based on balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) has been proposed. Modification of the duration of the radiofrequency pulses for imaging allows scanning MT sensitive and non-sensitive images. The steady-state character of bSSFP with high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) allows three-dimensional (3D) whole brain MTR at high spatial resolution within short and thus clinically feasible acquisition times. In the present study, both bSSFP-MT and 2D GRE-MT imaging were used in a cohort of 31 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to characterize different normal appearing (NA) and pathological brain structures. Under the constraint of identical SNR and scan time, a 3.4 times higher voxel size could be achieved with bSSFP. This increased resolution allowed a more accurate delineation of the different brain structures, especially of cortex, hippocampus and MS lesions. In a multiple linear regression model, we found an association between MTR of cortical lesions and a clinical measure of disability (r= -0.407, p=0.035) in the bSSFP dataset only. The different relaxation weighting of the base images (T2/T1 in bSSFP, proton density in GRE) had no effects besides a larger spreading of the MTR values of the different NA structures. This was demonstrated by the nearly perfect linearity between the NA matter MTR of both techniques as well as in the absolute MTR differences between NA matter and the respective lesions. PMID:25536494

Amann, Michael; Sprenger, Till; Naegelin, Yvonne; Reinhardt, Julia; Kuster, Pascal; Hirsch, Jochen G; Kappos, Ludwig; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Stippich, Christoph; Bieri, Oliver

2015-03-01

237

Possible dynamically gated conductance along heme wires in bacterial multiheme cytochromes.  

PubMed

The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer cofactors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF serves as a prototype for conformationally gated multiheme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme "wires" containing thermodynamic "hills" and "valleys" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2014, 11, 611-616), suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Here, we applied classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF showed that the slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states and consists primarily of interheme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7 × 10(7) s(-1), both for fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway, apparently for the purpose of increasing the residence time of electrons on lowest potential hemes 4 and 9. This apparent gating mechanism should increase the success rate of electron transfer from MtrF to low potential environmental acceptors via these two solvent-exposed hemes. PMID:24975678

Smith, Dayle M A; Rosso, Kevin M

2014-07-24

238

Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

2012-01-01

239

Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Methods A single-assessor, blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. The intervention group received comprehensive treatment once weekly consisting of manual compression of the MTrPs, manual stretching of the muscles and intermittent cold application with stretching. Patients were instructed to perform muscle-stretching and relaxation exercises at home and received ergonomic recommendations and advice to assume and maintain good posture. The control group remained on the waiting list for 3 months. The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire score (primary outcome), Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P), Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale and the number of muscles with MTrPs were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks in the intervention group and compared with those of a control group. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement (P < 0.05) on the DASH after 12 weeks (mean difference, 7.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.2 to 14.2), on the VAS-P1 for current pain (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 25.0), on the VAS-P2 for pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 10.2; 95% CI, 0.7 to 19.7) and VAS-P3 most severe pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 0.8 to 28.4). After 12 weeks, 55% of the patients in the intervention group reported improvement (from slightly improved to completely recovered) versus 14% in the control group. The mean number of muscles with active MTrPs decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.2). Conclusions The results of this study show that 12-week comprehensive treatment of MTrPs in shoulder muscles reduces the number of muscles with active MTrPs and is effective in reducing symptoms and improving shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN75722066 PMID:21261971

2011-01-01

240

FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, AS PROPOSED FOR MODIFICATION IN 1962. CONCRETE WALLS THREE FEET THICK. EXISTING WINDOWS IN MTR AND DETECTOR HOUSE WALLS WERE TO BE FILLED IN WITH HIGH-DENSITY BRICK. NOTE 20-METER MARK, WHERE THE FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HAD BEEN LOCATED. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-665-S-2, 4/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0665-60-851-150996, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

241

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL BUILDING, IN VIEW AT LEFT, AS YET WITHOUT ROOF. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING LIES BETWEEN IT AND THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING. NOTE CONCRETE DRIVE BETWEEN ROLL-UP DOOR IN MTR BUILDING AND CHARGING FACE OF PLUG STORAGE. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635) WILL COVER THIS DRIVE AND BUTT UP TO CHARGING FACE. DOTTED LINE IS ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. TRA PARKING LOT IN LEFT CORNER OF THE VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 8274. Unknown Photographer, 7/2/1953 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

242

ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACING SOUTH. ETR AND ITS COOLANT BUILDING AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. ETR COOLING TOWER NEAR TOP EDGE OF VIEW. EXCAVATION AT CENTER IS FOR ETR CF. CENTER OF WHICH WILL CONTAIN POOL FOR REACTOR. NOTE CHOPPER TUBE PROCEEDING FROM MTR IN LOWER LEFT OF VIEW, DIAGONAL TOWARD LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4227. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

243

Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes  

SciTech Connect

The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway, apparently for the purpose of increasing the residence time of electrons on lowest potential hemes 4 and 9. This apparent gating mechanism should increase the success rate of electron transfer from MtrF to low potential environmental acceptors via these two solvent-exposed hemes.

Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

2014-07-24

244

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

245

Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.  

PubMed

Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress. PMID:25287955

Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

2015-01-01

246

Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with renal and cardiac disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of different methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia for the development of renal failure and cardiovascular events, which are controversial. METHODS: We challenged the relationship, if any, of MTHFR 677C>T and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms with renal and heart function. The present article is a reappraisal of these concepts, investigating within a larger population, and including a subgroup of dialysis patients, if the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, as homozygous, heterozygous or with a compound heterozygous state, show different association with chronic renal failure requiring hemodialysis. MTHFR polymorphism could be a favorable evolutionary factor, i.e., a protective factor for many ominous conditions, like cancer and renal failure. A similar finding was reported in fatty liver disease in which it is suggested that MTHFR polymorphisms could have maintained and maintain their persistence by an heterozygosis advantage mechanism. We studied a total of 630 Italian Caucasian subject aged 54.60 ± 16.35 years, addressing to the increased hazard of hemodialysis, if any, according to the studied MTHFR genetic polymorphisms. RESULTS: A favorable association with normal renal function of MTHFR polymorphisms, and notably of MTHFR C677T is present independently of the negative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, increased Intra-Renal arterial Resistance and hyperparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: MTHFR gene polymorphisms could have a protective role on renal function as suggested by their lower frequency among our dialysis patients in end-stage renal failure; differently, the association with left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced left ventricular relaxation suggest some type of indirect, or concurrent mechanism. PMID:25664255

Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Ragusa, Angela; Martines, G Fabio; Pirri, Clara; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Di Nora, Concetta; Trovato, Guglielmo M

2015-01-01

247

Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) ?g/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized ? = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized ? = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard ? = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

2015-01-01

248

Genetic Variability in the MTHFR gene and colorectal cancer risk using the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry  

PubMed Central

Background The MTHFR C677T TT genotype is associated with a 15%–18% reduction in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk but it is not clear if other variants of the gene are associated with CRC risk. Methods We used a tagSNP approach to comprehensively evaluate associations between variation in the MTHFR gene and CRC risk using a large family-based case control study of 1,750 population-based and 245 clinic-based families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR).We assessed 22 TagSNPs, selected based on pairwise r2>95%, using Haploview Tagger and genotyped on the Illumina GoldenGate or Sequenom platforms. The association between SNPs and colorectal cancer was assessed using log additive, co-dominant, and recessive models. Results From studying the population-based families, the C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms were associated with a decreased CRC risk overall (OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.63–1.04 and OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.64–1.07, respectively). The 677 TT genotype was associated with a decreased risk of microsatellite stable/microsatellite low tumors (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.49–0.97) and an increased risk of microsatellite high tumors (OR= 2.22, 95% CI=0.91–5.43) (interaction p-value = 0.01), as well as an increased risk of proximal cancers and a decreased risk of distal and rectal cancers (interaction p-value = 0.02). No other SNP was associated with risk overall or within subgroups. Conclusion The 677 TT and 1298 CC genotypes may each be associated with a decrease in CRC risk. We observed little evidence of additional genetic variability in the MTHFR gene relevant to CRC risk. PMID:20056627

Levine, A. Joan; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Lee, Won; Poynter, Jenny N.; Conti, David; Duggan, David J; Campbell, Peter T.; Newcomb, Polly; Martinez, Maria Elena; Hopper, John L.; Le Marchand, Loic; Baron, John A.; Limburg, Paul J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Haile, Robert W

2009-01-01

249

Folate Metabolism Genes, Dietary Folate and Response to Antidepressant Medications in Late-Life Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aims of this study were to 1) determine whether folate metabolism genetic polymorphisms predict age of onset and occurrence of late life depression and 2) determine whether folate metabolism genetic polymorphisms predict response to antidepressant medications in late-life depression. Methods This study used the Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Depression, and the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly Study database which includes individuals age ? 60. The folate nutrition assessment was determined by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Genotype was evaluated for 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 folate metabolism genes. Logistic regression models were used to examine genetic polymorphisms and folate estimates with association with depression age of onset and remission status. Results There were 304 Caucasians in the database, 106 of these who were not depressed and 198 who had a diagnosis of depression. There were no significant differences between remitters and nonremitters in age, sex or estimated folate intakes. There were no folate estimates or folate metabolism gene SNPs that significantly predicted age of onset of depression or occurrence of depression. MTRR A66G (rs1801394) was significantly associated with remission status (p=0.0077) such that those with the AA genotype were 3.2 times as likely as those with the GG genotype to be in remission (p=0.0020). MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) achieved a borderline significance for association with remission status (p=0.0313). Conclusion The major finding from this study is that the MTRR A66G genotype predicts response to SSRI antidepressants in late life depression. PMID:23280573

Jamerson, Brenda D.; Payne, Martha E.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Speer, Marcy C.; Steffens, David C.

2013-01-01

250

Meta-analysis on MTHFR polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in East Asian populations  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring type of cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality. Environmental and genetic factors play important roles in lung carcinogenesis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in East Asian populations. Related articles were identified through searching literature databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine and CNKI. The odds ratio (OR) values in those studies were incorporated by meta-analysis to assess lung cancer susceptibility associated with the MTHFR mutation genotype. The MTHFR C677TT genotype exhibited a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to the MTHFR 677CC/CT genotype (OR=1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52). No relationship was identified between the other MTHFR C677T genetic models and the risk of lung cancer and there was no significantly increased risk of lung cancer in A1298C genetic models. In a subgroup of hospital-based controls, according to the source of controls, the C677TT genotype exhibited a significantly increased risk of lung cancer, compared to the C677CC genotype (OR=3.01; 95% CI, 1.07–8.46). In the stratified analysis, the study indicated that the MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with a significant increase in the risk of lung squamous carcinoma (OR=1.53; 95% CI, 1.09–2.14), whereas no association was observed between the MTHFR C677TT genotype and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. No association was observed between MTHFR C677TT polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer when smoking was considered. In conclusion, the meta-analysis results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphisms exhibit a significantly increased risk of lung cancer and that the MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung squamous carcinoma. PMID:24648965

ZHANG, XUE-DE; LI, YAN-TING; YANG, SHUAN-YING; LI, WEI

2013-01-01

251

[Study of the genetic markers of thrombosis in hypertensive patients of the native population in the Republic of Mordovia].  

PubMed

The genetic markers (encoding factor of blood coagulation, the PAI-1 gene, the prothrombin gene, the GP IIb/IIIa gene, and the MTHFR gene) of thrombosis were studied in the Mordovians and Russians with essential hypertension (EH), who were residents of the Republic of Mordovia. One hundred and forty patients with TH and 90 healthy individuals of three nationalities, such as Russian, Moksha-Mordovian, and Erzya-Mordovian, were examined. Along with the routine clinical and instrumental studies, alleles of polymorphic markers were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The polymorphic markers of the Arg 506 Gln gene, encoding factor V of blood coagulation, 4G5G of the PAI-1 gene, the G 20210 A prothrombin gene, the GP IIb/IIIa gene, and the A 1298 C MTHFR gene were also studied. The data were statistically analyzed using a package of the programs: Statistica for Windows 6.0 (Stat Soft), SPSS (version 14.0), and MS Excel XP (Microsoft). The authors used a chi-2 (chi-square) test was used to compare the incidence of genotypes and alleles in the patient groups. Hypertensive and normotensive persons were found to have no significant differences in the distribution of genotypes (encoding factor of blood coagulation, the PAI-1 gene, the prothrombin gene, and the GP IIb/IIIa gene) with regard to ethnicity in the Russian, and Moksha-Mordovian, and Erzya-Mordovian groups). Meanwhile, there was a significant preponderance of MTHFR gene mutation with the unfavorable genotype for Moksha-Mordovian patients with EH. The findings suggest that drug therapy for preventing venous thrombosis in patients with EH should be adjusted in relation to ethnicity. PMID:19824427

Postnov, A Iu; Goncharova, L N; Khasanova, Z B; Birliukova, D V; Konovalova, N V; Timoshkina, E I; Semenova, S V; Snegovsko?, V A; Kuzovenkova, O N

2009-01-01

252

Combined folate gene MTHFD and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in China.  

PubMed

We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population. PMID:24668664

Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q

2014-01-01

253

Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.  

EPA Science Inventory

We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

254

Myelin vs Axon Abnormalities in White Matter in Bipolar Disorder.  

PubMed

White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

2015-01-01

255

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

256

Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 ?M) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 ?M, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

2012-01-01

257

PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD COVERING STORAGE TUBES. MTR WING, TRA-604, AT RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3177. Unknown Photographer, 8/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

258

Interaction between the RNA-dependent ATPase and poly(A) polymerase subunits of the TRAMP complex is mediated by short peptides and important for snoRNA processing  

PubMed Central

The RNA exosome is one of the main 3? to 5? exoribonucleases in eukaryotic cells. Although it is responsible for degradation or processing of a wide variety of substrate RNAs, it is very specific and distinguishes between substrate and non-substrate RNAs as well as between substrates that need to be 3? processed and those that need to be completely degraded. This specificity does not appear to be determined by the exosome itself but rather by about a dozen other proteins. Four of these exosome cofactors have enzymatic activity, namely, the nuclear RNA-dependent ATPase Mtr4, its cytoplasmic paralog Ski2 and the nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, Trf4 and Trf5. Mtr4 and either Trf4 or Trf5 assemble into a TRAMP complex. However, how these enzymes assemble into a TRAMP complex and the functional consequences of TRAMP complex assembly remain unknown. Here, we identify an important interaction site between Mtr4 and Trf5, and show that disrupting the Mtr4/Trf interaction disrupts specific TRAMP and exosome functions, including snoRNA processing. PMID:25589546

Losh, Jillian S.; King, Alejandra Klauer; Bakelar, Jeremy; Taylor, Lacy; Loomis, John; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Johnson, Sean J.; van Hoof, Ambro

2015-01-01

259

CONTROL HOUSE, TRA620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTROL HOUSE, TRA-620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL CONTROL ACCESS TO MTR AND OTHER "HOT" AND CLASSIFIED AREAS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 577. Unknown Photographer, 9/11/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

260

COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING HOUSED COMPRESSORS FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS. MTR-626-IDO-2S, 3/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0626-00-396-110535, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

261

ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

262

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND FILTER LOFT PLATFORM AND LADDER ON EAST SIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-4, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-396-110563, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

263

A Comparison of Magnetization Transfer Ratio, Magnetization Transfer Rate, and the Native Relaxation Time of Water Protons Related to Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging and measurements of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) have extended our capability to depict and char- acterize pathologic changes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We wanted to investigate whether the analysis of other MT parameters, such as magnetization transfer rate (kfor) and relative measure of water content (T1free), adds insight into MS-related tissue

Stefan Ropele; Siegried Strasser-Fuchs; Michael Augustin; Rudolf Stollberger; Christian Enzinger

264

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2005-12-15

265

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2005-12-22

266

ETR, TRA642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, OFFICE BUILDING, AND ROOF. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-A-13, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100920, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

267

ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

268

ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

269

ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR SCHEDULE. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-3, 1/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101403, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

270

Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

271

Biochemistry www.BioTechniques.com/rd1BioTechniques Rapid Dispatches doi: 10.2144/000113864  

E-print Network

,theNEXTcomplex,and the nuclear cap binding complex (CBC). The eukaryotic exosome complex has been shown to play a central. Commensurate with its diverse activities, the exosome varies in compo- sition along with cellular localization as hMTR4, has recently been shown to target the exosome for the specific degra- Improved methodology

Chait, Brian T.

272

Interaction profiling identifies the human nuclear exosome targeting complex.  

PubMed

The RNA exosome is a conserved degradation machinery, which obtains full activity only when associated with cofactors. The most prominent activator of the yeast nuclear exosome is the RNA helicase Mtr4p, acting in the context of the Trf4p/Air2p/Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex. The existence of a similar activator(s) in humans remains elusive. By establishing an interaction network of the human nuclear exosome, we identify the trimeric Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, containing hMTR4, the Zn-knuckle protein ZCCHC8, and the putative RNA binding protein RBM7. ZCCHC8 and RBM7 are excluded from nucleoli, and consistently NEXT is specifically required for the exosomal degradation of promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). We also detect putative homolog TRAMP subunits hTRF4-2 (Trf4p) and ZCCHC7 (Air2p) in hRRP6 and hMTR4 precipitates. However, at least ZCCHC7 function is restricted to nucleoli. Our results suggest that human nuclear exosome degradation pathways comprise modules of spatially organized cofactors that diverge from the yeast model. PMID:21855801

Lubas, Michal; Christensen, Marianne S; Kristiansen, Maiken S; Domanski, Michal; Falkenby, Lasse G; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Jens S; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Jensen, Torben Heick

2011-08-19

273

Noise modeling for MOAs and ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever there is a reallocation of DOD fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft or a change in the use of the airspace requirements, either an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement must be prepared. These environmental studies require an analysis of the noise impacts resulting from aircraft operations surrounding the airports and under Military Training Routes (MTR's), Military Operating Areas (MOA's),

Michael J. Lucas; Robert A. Lee

1994-01-01

274

Catalog of experimental projects for a fissioning plasma reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of using a small scale fissioning uranium plasma as the power source in a driver reactor. The driver system is a light water cooled and moderated reactor of the MTR type. The eight experiments and proposed configurations for the reactor are outlined.

Lanzo, C. D.

1973-01-01

275

PLUTONIUM FUELS DEVELOPMENT, PLUTONIUM METALLURGY OPERATION QUARTERLY REPORT-JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two of four Zircaloy-clad capsules containing aluminum-; plutonium and aluminum-- silicon--plutonium were discharged from the MTR and are ; undergoing examination. These capsules withstood a fractional bunnout of ; plutonium atoms of 55 to 60% as determined by flux monitoring wires attached to ; the capsule holder. Additional capsules of these fuel alloys containing a higher ; concentration

Wick

1958-01-01

276

'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

277

The EMBO Journal Vol.18 No.19 pp.53995410, 1999 Functions of the exosome in rRNA, snoRNA and  

E-print Network

of Escherichia coli RNase PH (Rrp41p, Rrp42p, Rrp43p, Rrp45p, Rrp46p and Mtr3p), a homologue of E.coli RNase R and RNase II (Rrp44p/Dis3p), and a homologue of E.coli RNase D (Rrp6p). Two other components, Rrp4p and Rrp

Chanfreau, Guillaume

278

Magnetization Transfer Imaging and Proton MR Spectroscopy in the Evaluation of Axonal Injury: Correlation with Clinical Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current imaging does not permit quantification of neural injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and therefore limits both the development of new treatments and the appropriate counseling of patients concerning prognosis. We evaluated the utility of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and proton MR spectroscopy in identifying pa- tients with neuronal injury after TBI. METHODS: Thirty patients with

Grant Sinson; Linda J. Bagley; Kim M. Cecil; Maria Torchia; Joseph C. McGowan; Robert E. Lenkinski; Tracy K. McIntosh; Robert I. Grossman

279

33 CFR Appendix C to Part 154 - Guidelines for Determining and Evaluating Required Response Resources for Facility Response Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...described above: A facility receives oil from barges via a dock located...The facility handles Number 6 oil (specific gravity .96) and stores the oil in tanks where it is held prior...burned in an electric generating plant. The MTR segment of the...

2012-07-01

280

Longevity, Stress Response, and Cancer in Aging Telomerase-Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomere maintenance is thought to play a role in signaling cellular senescence; however, a link with organismal aging processes has not been established. The telomerase null mouse provides an opportunity to understand the effects associated with critical telomere shortening at the organismal level. We studied a variety of physiological processes in an aging cohort of mTR?\\/? mice. Loss of telomere

Karl Lenhard Rudolph; Sandy Chang; Han-Woong Lee; Maria Blasco; Geoffrey J. Gottlieb; Carol Greider; Ronald A. DePinho

1999-01-01

281

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED FLOOR LOADINGS AND CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESSES, A TYPICAL FEATURE OF NUCLEAR ARCHITECTURE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-2, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-62-396-110561, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

282

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF 1958 EXTENSION. H.K. FERGUSON CO. 895-MTR-ETR-632-A3, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101926, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

283

Magnetization Transfer Profiles and T2Characterizationof White Matter Tracts l s 2 X a v i e rGolay, ',2FrancescaPizzini, "2HangyiJiang, "2SusurnuMori',2, Peter C. M. van Zijl  

E-print Network

degeneration, such as in multiple sclerosis (MS) (1). MTR maps are derived on a voxel-by- voxel basis from MR-performance gradients (22 mT/m). Diffusion-weighted imaging was accomplished using multi-slice segmented EPI sequence

Jiang, Hangyi

284

Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells  

SciTech Connect

We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant @mtrC or mutant @omcA > double mutant (@omcA-@mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes.

Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Belchik, Sara M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

2013-01-22

285

ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING WAS NEARLY COMPLETE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3653. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

286

ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S LAVATORY AND SHOWER FACING SOUTHEAST. SHOWER AND TOILET STALLS ARE IN PLACE. ROUND COMMUNAL SINK AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3652. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

287

REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING AREA AND LABORATORY. CAMERA ON FIRST FLOOR FACING NORTH TOWARD MTR BUILDING. MOCK-UP AREA WAS TO THE RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-10-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

288

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

289

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. AIR COMPRESSORS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. AIR COMPRESSORS, AIR HEATERS, AND PROCESS CONTROL PANELS. CRANE RAILS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-643-A-1, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0643-00-486-101268, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

290

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATECOVERED TRENCHES LAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATE-COVERED TRENCHES LAY ALONG FLOOR FROM EAST TO WEST AND AROUND MAIN COMPRESSORS. LOCKER ROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-643-A-3, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0643-00-486-101269, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

291

33 CFR Appendix C to Part 154 - Guidelines for Determining and Evaluating Required Response Resources for Facility Response Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containment boom to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive environments...154.1028(a), to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive environments...prior to being burned in an electric generating plant. The MTR...154.1045(k) to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive...

2011-07-01

292

33 CFR Appendix C to Part 154 - Guidelines for Determining and Evaluating Required Response Resources for Facility Response Plans  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containment boom to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive environments...154.1028(a), to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive environments...prior to being burned in an electric generating plant. The MTR...154.1045(k) to protect fish and wildlife and sensitive...

2010-07-01

293

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. NOTE COURSE OF PIPE FROM GROUND AND FOLLOWING ROOF OF BUILDING. MTR BUILDING IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

294

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

295

High bit rate mass data storage device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HDDR-II mass data storage system consists of a Leach MTR 7114 recorder reproducer, a wire wrapped, integrated circuit flat plane and necessary power supplies for the flat plane. These units, with interconnecting cables and control panel are enclosed in a common housing mounted on casters. The electronics used in the HDDR-II double density decoding and encoding techniques are described.

1973-01-01

296

5'-Alkyl-substituted analogs of 5'-methylthioadenosine as trypanocides.  

PubMed Central

5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) is a by-product of polyamine metabolism and is phosphoryolytically cleaved to adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) by MTA phosphorylase. In eukaryotes, adenine is subsequently salvaged and converted to nucleotides, while MTR-1-P is converted to methionine. We examined 5'-deoxy-5'-substituted analogs of MTA for trypanocidal activity in vitro and in vivo. 5'-Deoxy-5'-(hydroxyethyl)thioadenosine (HETA) and its 5'-bromo,5'-chloro and 5'-fluoro derivatives were cleaved by extracts of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Km for MTA, 11.5 microM; Km for HETA, 13.2 microM) in a phosphate-dependent reaction. HETA and the three halo analogs were 50% inhibitory to growth at 0.5 to 5.0 microM in vitro. Inhibition of growth was reversible by exogenous methionine and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid, an intermediate in methionine synthesis from MTR-1-P. HETA was selected for further study in vivo. When administered by miniosmotic pump (25 to 150 mg/kg/day for 7 days) to mice infected with T. brucei brucei, HETA effected 70 to 90% cure rates. Results of this study indicate that these analogs of MTA are converted to trypanocidal MTR-1-P analogs and that this approach deserves further consideration in the development of novel chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:1929287

Bacchi, C J; Sufrin, J R; Nathan, H C; Spiess, A J; Hannan, T; Garofalo, J; Alecia, K; Katz, L; Yarlett, N

1991-01-01

297

The Transit-Oriented Global Centers for Competitiveness and Livability: State Strategies and Market Responses in Asia  

E-print Network

and market responses on the basis of competitive advantages and lifestylelifestyles in 500 meters of MTR station. Job and Labor Marketmarket signals indicating that Singapore’s entrepreneurial state interventions would result in unintended consequences such as spatial recentralization, land fragmentation, lifestyle

Murakami, Jin

2010-01-01

298

A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT-APPLIED CHIROPRACTIC MANIPULATIVE THERAPY ON MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are characterized as discrete, focal, hypersensitive spots in a taut band of muscle that are painful to palpation and reproduce the patient's local and referred pain symptoms. (Borg-Stein & Simons, 2002) Other features may include \\

Rodger Tepe; John Zhang

299

In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10?3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10?3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

2014-01-01

300

Immunochemotherapy with Intensive Consolidation for Primary CNS Lymphoma: A Pilot Study and Prognostic Assessment by Diffusion-Weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated a novel therapy for primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) using induction immunochemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate, temozolomide and rituximab (MT-R) followed by intensive consolidation with infusional etoposide and high-dose cytarabine (EA). In addition, we evaluated the prognostic value of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) derived from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in patients treated with this regimen. Experimental Design Thirty-one patients (median age, 61; median KPS, 60) received induction with methotrexate every 14 days for 8 planned cycles. Rituximab was administered the first 6 cycles and temozolomide administered on odd-numbered cycles. Patients with responsive or stable CNS disease received EA consolidation. Pretreatment DW-MRI was used to calculate the ADCmin of contrast-enhancing lesions. Results The complete response rate for MT-R induction was 52%. At a median follow-up of 79 months, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 45% and 58%, respectively. For patients receiving EA consolidation, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 78% and 93%, respectively. EA consolidation was also effective in an additional 3 patients who presented with synchronous CNS and systemic lymphoma. Tumor ADCmin <384 × 10?6 mm2/s was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Conclusions MT-R induction was effective and well-tolerated. MT-R followed by EA consolidation yielded progression-free and overall survival outcomes comparable to regimens using chemotherapy followed by whole-brain radiotherapy consolidation but without evidence of neurotoxicity. Tumor ADCmin derived from DW-MRI provided better prognostic information for PCNSL patients treated with the MTR-EA regimen than established clinical risk scores. PMID:22228634

Wieduwilt, Matthew J.; Valles, Francisco; Issa, Samar; Behler, Caroline M.; Hwang, James; McDermott, Michael; Treseler, Patrick; O’Brien, Joan; Shuman, Marc A.; Cha, Soonmee; Damon, Lloyd E.; Rubenstein, James L.

2012-01-01

301

Regulation of RNA processing and transport by a nuclear guanine nucleotide release protein and members of the Ras superfamily.  

PubMed Central

The RCC1 gene of mammals encodes a guanine nucleotide release protein (GNRP). RCC1 and a homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTR1/PRP20/SRM1) have previously been implicated in control of mRNA metabolism and export from the nucleus. We here demonstrate that a temperature-sensitive fission yeast mutant which has a mutation in a homologous gene, and two of three additional (mtr1/prp20/srm1) mutants accumulate nuclear poly(A)+ RNA at 37 degrees C. In S.cerevisiae, maturation of rRNA and tRNA is also inhibited at 37 degrees C. Nevertheless, studies with the corresponding BHK-21 cell mutant indicate that protein import into the nucleus continues. MTR1 homologs regulate RNA processing at a point which is distinct from their regulation of chromosome condensation since: (i) poly(A)+ RNA accumulation in the fission yeast mutant precedes chromosome condensation, and (ii) unlike chromosome condensation, accumulation of nuclear poly(A)+ RNA does not require p34cdc28 kinase activation or protein synthesis. Moreover, experiments involving inhibition of DNA synthesis indicate that the S.cerevisiae homolog does not govern cell cycle checkpoint control. Since RCC1p acts as GNRP for Ran, a small nuclear GTPase of the ras superfamily, we have identified two homologs of Ran in S.cerevisiae (CNR1 and CNR2). Only CNR1 is essential, but both code for proteins extremely similar to Ran and can suppress mtr1 mutations in allele-specific fashion. Thus, MTR1 and its homologs appear to act as GNRPs for a family of conserved GTPases in controlling RNA metabolism and transport. Their role in governing checkpoint control appears to be restricted to higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:7687541

Kadowaki, T; Goldfarb, D; Spitz, L M; Tartakoff, A M; Ohno, M

1993-01-01

302

Magnetisation transfer ratio and mean diffusivity of normal appearing white and grey matter from patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of a new technique based on diffusion anisotropy to segment white and grey matter of the brain. To use this technique to measure the mean diffusivity (&Dmacr;) and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (NAGM) from patients with multiple sclerosis.?METHODS—Dual echo turbo spin echo, MT, and diffusion weighted scans of the brain were obtained from 30 patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 sex and age matched healthy controls. After image coregistration and removal of T2 visible lesions, white and grey matter were segmented from 10 supratentorial slices using diffusion anisotropy thresholds. Histograms of the average MTR and &Dmacr; were created for normal white and grey matter of controls and NAWM and NAGM of patients with multiple sclerosis.?RESULTS—All the MTR histogram derived metrics of the NAWM from patients with multiple sclerosis were significantly lower than those of white matter from controls. The peak height of the &Dmacr; histogram of NAWM from patients with multiple sclerosis was also significantly different from that of normal white matter. The average MTR, the peak location of the MTR histogram, and peak height of the &Dmacr; histogram of the NAGM of patients with multiple sclerosis were significantly lower than the corresponding quantities of grey matter from controls.?CONCLUSIONS—A technique was developed for segmenting white and grey matter with the potential for improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of many neurological conditions. Its application to the study of multiple sclerosis confirms the presence of a diffuse tissue damage in the NAWM of these patients and suggests that subtle changes also occur in the NAGM.?? PMID:11181851

Cercignani, M; Bozzali, M; Iannucci, G; Comi, G; Filippi, M

2001-01-01

303

The crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Ski2, a DExH helicase associated with the cytoplasmic functions of the exosome  

PubMed Central

Ski2 is a cytoplasmic RNA helicase that functions together with the exosome in the turnover and quality control of mRNAs. Ski2 is conserved in eukaryotes and is related to the helicase Mtr4, a cofactor of the nuclear exosome involved in the processing and quality control of a variety of structured RNAs. We have determined the 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the 113 kDa helicase region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ski2. The structure shows that Ski2 has an overall architecture similar to that of Mtr4, with a core DExH region and an extended insertion domain. The insertion is not required for the formation of the Ski2–Ski3–Ski8 complex, but is instead an RNA-binding domain. While this is reminiscent of the Mtr4 insertion, there are specific structural and biochemical differences between the two helicases. The insertion of yeast Mtr4 consists of a ?-barrel domain that is flexibly attached to a helical stalk, contains a KOW signature motif, and binds in vitro-transcribed tRNAiMet, but not single-stranded RNA. The ?-barrel domain of yeast Ski2 does not contain a KOW motif and is tightly packed against the helical stalk, forming a single structural unit maintained by a zinc-binding site. Biochemically, the Ski2 insertion has broad substrate specificity, binding both single-stranded and double-stranded RNAs. We speculate that the Ski2 and Mtr4 insertion domains have evolved with different properties tailored to the type of transcripts that are the substrates of the cytoplasmic and nuclear exosome. PMID:22114319

Halbach, Felix; Rode, Michaela; Conti, Elena

2012-01-01

304

Effect of lidocaine patches on upper trapezius EMG activity and pain intensity in patients with myofascial trigger points: A randomized clinical study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To compare the effects of 5% lidocaine patches and placebo patches on pain intensity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and methods. Thirty-six patients with a MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients received lidocaine patches (lidocaine group) and 16 patients received placebo patches (placebo group). They used the patches for 12 h each day, for 2 weeks. The patch was applied to the skin over the upper trapezius MTrP. Spontaneous pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure applied to the MTrP and trapezius EMG activity were measured before and after treatment. Results. Baseline spontaneous pain values were similar in both groups and significantly lower in the lidocaine group than the placebo group after treatment. The baseline pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the lidocaine group, but after treatment it was significantly higher in this group. Baseline and final values of the pain provoked by a 4-kg pressure showed no significant difference between the groups. Baseline EMG activity at rest and during swallowing of saliva was significantly higher in the lidocaine group, but no significant difference was observed after treatment. Baseline EMG activity during maximum voluntary clenching was similar in both groups, but significantly higher in the lidocaine group after treatment. Conclusions. These clinical and EMG results support the use of 5% lidocaine patches for treating patients with MTrP of the upper trapezius muscle. PMID:25428627

Firmani, Mónica; Miralles, Rodolfo; Casassus, Rodrigo

2015-04-01

305

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA acts on terminal repeat DNA to mediate episome persistence.  

PubMed

Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) ORF73 (mLANA) has sequence homology to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA acts on the KSHV terminal repeat (TR) elements to mediate KSHV episome maintenance. Disruption of mLANA expression severely reduces the ability of MHV68 to establish latent infection in mice, consistent with the possibility that mLANA mediates episome persistence. Here we assess the roles of mLANA and MHV68 TR (mTR) elements in episome persistence. mTR-associated DNA persisted as an episome in latently MHV68-infected tumor cells, demonstrating that the mTR elements can serve as a cis-acting element for MHV68 episome maintenance. In some cases, both control vector and mTR-associated DNAs integrated into MHV68 episomal genomes. Therefore, we also assessed the roles of mTRs as well as mLANA in the absence of infection. DNA containing both mLANA and mTRs in cis persisted as an episome in murine A20 or MEF cells. In contrast, mTR DNA never persisted as an episome in the absence of mLANA. mLANA levels were increased when mLANA was expressed from its native promoters, and episome maintenance was more efficient with higher mLANA levels. Increased numbers of mTRs conferred more efficient episome maintenance, since DNA containing mLANA and eight mTR elements persisted more efficiently in A20 cells than did DNA with mLANA and two or four mTRs. Similar to KSHV LANA, mLANA broadly associated with mitotic chromosomes but relocalized to concentrated dots in the presence of episomes. Therefore, mLANA acts on mTR elements to mediate MHV68 episome persistence. PMID:22915819

Habison, Aline C; Beauchemin, Chantal; Simas, J Pedro; Usherwood, Edward J; Kaye, Kenneth M

2012-11-01

306

Methionine recycling pathways and antimalarial drug design.  

PubMed Central

5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) is an S-adenosylmethionine metabolite that is generated as a by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. In mammalian cells, MTA undergoes a phosphorolytic cleavage catalyzed by MTA phosphorylase to produce adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose-1-phosphate (MTRP). Adenine is utilized in purine salvage pathways, and MTRP is subsequently recycled to methionine. Whereas some microorganisms metabolize MTA to MTRP via MTA phosphorylase, others metabolize MTA to MTRP in two steps via initial cleavage by MTA nucleosidase to adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose (MTR) followed by conversion of MTR to MTRP by MTR kinase. In order to assess the extent to which these pathways may be operative in Plasmodium falciparum, we have examined a series of 5'-alkyl-substituted analogs of MTA and the related MTR analogs and compared their abilities to inhibit in vitro growth of this malarial parasite. The MTR analogs 5-deoxy-5-(ethylthio)ribose and 5-deoxy-5-(hydroxyethylthio)ribose were inactive at concentrations up to 1 mM, and 5-deoxy-5-(monofluoroethylthio)ribose was weakly active (50% inhibitory concentration = 700 microM). In comparison, the MTA analogs, 5'-deoxy-5'-(ethylthio)adenosine,5'-deoxy-5'-(hydroxyethylthio)ade nosine (HETA), and 5'-deoxy-5'-(monofluoroethylthio)adenosine, had 50% inhibitory concentrations of 80, 46, and 61 microM, respectively. Extracts of P. falciparum were found to have substantial MTA phosphorylase activity. Coadministration of MTA with HETA partially protected the parasites against the growth-inhibitory effects of HETA. Results of this study indicate that P. falciparum has an active MTA phosphorylase that can be targeted by analogs of MTA. PMID:8585735

Sufrin, J R; Meshnick, S R; Spiess, A J; Garofalo-Hannan, J; Pan, X Q; Bacchi, C J

1995-01-01

307

A Systematic Comparison Between Subjects with No Pain and Pain Associated with Active Myofascial Trigger Points  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether standard evaluations of pain distinguish subjects with no pain from those with myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) and active trigger points (MTrPs); and to assess whether self-reports of mood, function and health-related quality of life differ between these groups. Design Prospective, descriptive study. Setting University Patients Adults with and without neck pain Methods We evaluated adults with MPS and active (painful) MTrPs and those without pain. Subjects in the “Active” (‘A’) group had at least one active MTrP with spontaneous pain which was persistent, lasted more than 3 months and had characteristic pain on palpation. Subjects in the “No pain” (‘Np’) group had no spontaneous pain. However, some had discomfort on MTrP palpation (latent MTrP) while others in the Np group had no discomfort on palpation of nodules or had no nodules. Outcome Measures Each participant underwent range of motion (ROM) measurement, 10-point manual muscle test, and manual and algometric palpation. The latter determined the pain/pressure threshold using an algometer of 4 pre-determined anatomical sites along the upper trapezius. Participants rated pain using a verbal analogue scale (0–10); completed the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS), which included a sleep sub-scale; Short Form 36(SF36) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results here were 24 in the ‘A’ group (mean 36 yrs, 16 women) and 26 in the ‘Np’ group (mean 26 yrs, 12 women). Subjects in group ‘A’ differed from ‘Np’ in number of latent MTrPs (p=.0062); asymmetrical cervical ROM (p=.01 side bending and p=.002 rotation); in all pain reports (p<.0001); algometry (p<.03); POMS (p<.038); SF36 (p<.01) and ODS (p<.0001). Conclusion A systematic musculoskeletal evaluation of people with MPS reliably distinguishes them from subjects with no pain. The two groups are significantly different in their physical findings and self-reports of pain, sleep disturbance, disability, health status and mood. These findings support the view that a “local” pain syndrome has significant associations with mood, health-related quality of life and function.. PMID:23810811

Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Armstrong, Katee; Diao, Guoqing; Heimur, Juliana; Kopecky, John; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Gebreab, Tadesse; Shah, Jay

2013-01-01

308

Quantitative evaluation in combination with nonquantitative evaluation in early patellar cartilage osteoarthritis at 3.0 T  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) in the early diagnosis of patellar cartilage osteoarthritis (OA) and to quantify and possibly refine the current Kellgren-Lawrence score criteria. Materials and methods A total of 92 cases of knee joints with 40 normal volunteers and 30 patients with OA were prospectively evaluated. The knee joints with OA were divided into mild and moderate groups according to the Kellgren-Lawrence score criteria. The discriminative analysis method was used to analyze the accuracy of the original grouped cases correctly classified by age, sex, T1 relaxation times, T2 relaxation times, and MTR values. Linear regression analysis was used between T1 relaxation time, T2 relaxation time, and MTR values. Results The mean T1 relaxation times decreased with the severity of OA, and a significant difference was only found between the normal and moderate OA groups (P<0.05). The mean T2 relaxation times increased, and significant differences were found between the normal and mild OA groups and the normal and moderate OA groups (P<0.001). The MTR values were 35.8%±4.2%, 36.1%±3.2%, and 35.4%±3.8%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the normal and OA groups. In addition, T1 relaxation times were positively correlated with MTR values (P<0.01). A discriminative analysis using a synthesis of all the influential factors indicated a high accuracy rate (93.9%) for the correct classification of the original grouped cases. Conclusion Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times were useful in the diagnosis of early OA; T2 relaxation times were more relatively sensitive. The functional usefulness of MTR values may be limited. T1 relaxation times positively correlated with MTR values. Multiple quantitative parameters, combined with some relative nonquantitative clinical parameters and Kellgren-Lawrence scores, may be useful in the early stage of OA and provide better information for clinical treatment and follow-up. PMID:25075182

Zuo, Houdong; Yao, Weiwu; Qu, Nan; Yang, Shixun; Wang, Jianhua; Cui, Xiaojiang

2014-01-01

309

Exploring the biochemistry at the extracellular redox frontier of bacterial mineral Fe(III) respiration.  

PubMed

Many species of the bacterial Shewanella genus are notable for their ability to respire in anoxic environments utilizing insoluble minerals of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as extracellular electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis, the process is dependent on the decahaem electron-transport proteins that lie at the extracellular face of the outer membrane where they can contact the insoluble mineral substrates. These extracellular proteins are charged with electrons provided by an inter-membrane electron-transfer pathway that links the extracellular face of the outer membrane with the inner cytoplasmic membrane and thereby intracellular electron sources. In the present paper, we consider the common structural features of two of these outer-membrane decahaem cytochromes, MtrC and MtrF, and bring this together with biochemical, spectroscopic and voltammetric data to identify common and distinct properties of these prototypical members of different clades of the outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome superfamily. PMID:22616858

Richardson, David J; Edwards, Marcus J; White, Gaye F; Baiden, Nanakow; Hartshorne, Robert S; Fredrickson, Jim; Shi, Liang; Zachara, John; Gates, Andrew J; Butt, Julea N; Clarke, Thomas A

2012-06-01

310

Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case–control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5 years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1?+?S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage. Results The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0?±?5.7 years and 55.2?±?10.5 years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC)?=?0.63?±?0.02, P <0.001), which persisted after adjustment for PD. S2 showed an AUC of 0.63, 0.61, and 0.60 based on PD, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1, respectively. When adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed an association with breast cancer for the highest quartile alone: OR in quartiles of controls as reference; 1.04 (0.59 to 1.81); 0.95 (0.52 to 1.74); 1.84 (1.10 to 3.07) respectively. The combined continuous model with both PD and MTR scores based on S1 had an AUC of 0.66?±?0.03. Conclusions The local texture patterns associated with breast cancer risk in S1 were also an independent risk factor in S2. Additional textures identified in S2 did not significantly improve risk segregation. Hence, the textural patterns that indicated elevated risk persisted under differences in X-ray technology, population demographics, follow-up time and geography. PMID:24713478

2014-01-01

311

1-methylthio-D-xylulose 5-phosphate methylsulfurylase: a novel route to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate in Rhodospirillum rubrum.  

PubMed

Rhodospirillum rubrum produces 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) from S-adenosylmethionine in polyamine biosynthesis; however, R. rubrum lacks the classical methionine salvage pathway. Instead, MTA is converted to 5-methylthio-d-ribose 1-phosphate (MTR 1-P) and adenine; MTR 1-P is isomerized to 1-methylthio-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (MTXu 5-P) and reductively dethiomethylated to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), an intermediate in the nonmevalonate isoprenoid pathway [Erb, T. J., et al. (2012) Nat. Chem. Biol., in press]. Dethiomethylation, a novel route to DXP, is catalyzed by MTXu 5-P methylsulfurylase. An active site Cys displaces the enolate of DXP from MTXu 5-P, generating a methyl disulfide intermediate. PMID:23035785

Warlick, Benjamin P; Evans, Bradley S; Erb, Tobias J; Ramagopal, Udipi A; Sriram, Jaya; Imker, Heidi J; Sauder, J Michael; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Burley, Stephen K; Tabita, F Robert; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan S; Gerlt, John A

2012-10-23

312

Exploring the biochemistry at the extracellular redox frontier of bacterial mineral Fe(III) respiration  

SciTech Connect

Many species of the bacterial Shewanella genus are notable for their ability to respire in anoxic environments utilizing insoluble minerals of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as extracellular electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis, the process is dependent on the decahaem electron-transport proteins that lie at the extracellular face of the outer membrane where they can contact the insoluble mineral substrates. These extracellular proteins are charged with electrons provided by an inter-membrane electron-transfer pathway that links the extracellular face of the outer membrane with the inner cytoplasmic membrane and thereby intracellular electron sources. In the present paper, we consider the common structural features of two of these outermembrane decahaem cytochromes, MtrC and MtrF, and bring this together with biochemical, spectroscopic and voltammetric data to identify common and distinct properties of these prototypical members of different clades of the outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome superfamily.

Richardson, David J.; Edwards, Marcus; White, Gaye F.; Baiden, Nanakow; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Zachara, John M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Butt, Julea N.; Clarke, Thomas

2012-06-01

313

Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the folate-metabolizing genes MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MTHFD, CBS and SHMT in regulating genetic susceptibility to Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We determined the allele and genotype frequencies in the case group (146 patients with NHL) and the control group (540 blood donors). A significant association with NHL was observed only for MTHFD1

Alexandra S. Weiner; Olga V. Beresina; Elena N. Voronina; Elena N. Voropaeva; Uljana A. Boyarskih; Tatiana I. Pospelova; Maxim L. Filipenko

2011-01-01

314

ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA-666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. CONCRETE BLOCK SIDING. SLOPED ROOF. ROLL-UP DOOR. AIR INTAKE ENCLOSURE ON NORTH SIDE. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A5, 8/1966. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-152258, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

315

Tradeoffs in the utility of learned knowledge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning systems which make use of domain theories can produce more accurate plans and achieve more goals as the quality of their domain knowledge improves. MTR, a multi-strategy learning system, was designed to learn from system failures and improve domain knowledge used in planning. However, augmented domain knowledge can decrease planning efficiency. We describe how improved knowledge that becomes expensive to use can be approximated to yield calculated tradeoffs in accuracy and efficiency.

Kedar, Smadar; Mckusick, Kathleen B.

1992-01-01

316

ETR, TRA642. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. PART PLAN TO CONTROLROD ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. PART PLAN TO CONTROL-ROD ROOM BELOW BASEMENT. CONTAMINATED AIR DUCT. STAIRWAYS ON EAST CORNERS AND EAST OF REACTOR TO CONTROL ROD ROOM. SPIRAL STAIR IN SOUTHWEST CORNER. GENERAL OPEN WORK SPACE. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-6, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100914, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

317

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

318

Genome Structure and Phylogenetic Analysis of Lettuce Infectious Yellows Virus, a Whitefly-Transmitted, Bipartite Closterovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete nucleotide sequences of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNAs 1 and 2. LIYV RNA 1 is 8118 nucleotides and includes three open reading frames (ORFs). Computer-assisted analysis of LIYV RNA 1 ORFs identified domains for a papain-like protease, methyltransferase (MTR), RNA helicase (HEL), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We suggest that the RdRp domain is expressed

Vicki A. Klaassen; Maury L. Boeshore; Eugene V. Koonin; Tongyan Tian; Bryce W. Falk

1995-01-01

319

Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance of human atherosclerotic plaques ex vivo detects areas of high protein density  

PubMed Central

Background Proteins are major plaque components, and their degradation is related to the plaque instability. We sought to assess the feasibility of magnetization transfer (MT) magnetic resonance (MR) for identifying fibrin and collagen in carotid atherosclerotic plaques ex vivo. Methods Human carotid artery specimens (n = 34) were obtained after resection from patients undergoing endarterectomy. MR was completed within 12 hr after surgery on an 11.7T MR microscope prior to fixation. Two sets of T1W spoiled gradient echo images were acquired with and without the application of a saturation pulse set to 10 kHz off resonance. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated, and the degree of MT contrast was correlated with histology. Results MT with appropriate calibration clearly detected regions with high protein density, which showed a higher MTR (thick fibers (collagen type I) (54 ± 8%)) compared to regions with a low amount of protein including lipid (46 ± 8%) (p = 0.05), thin fibers (collagen type III) (11 ± 6%) (p = 0.03), and calcification (6.8 ± 4%) (p = 0.02). Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) with different protein density demonstrated different MT effects. Old (rich in protein debris) and recent IPH (rich in fibrin) had a much higher MTR 69 ± 6% and 55 ± 9%, respectively, compared to fresh IPH (rich in intact red blood cells)(9 ± 3%). Conclusions MT MR enhances plaque tissue contrast and identifies the protein-rich regions of carotid artery specimens. The additional information from MTR of IPH may provide important insight into the role of IPH on plaque stability, evolution, and the risk for future ischemic events. PMID:22107813

2011-01-01

320

ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

321

10,000 CURIE COBALT60 IRRADIATION CAVE AT JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiation cave with a 10-kilocurie Co⁶° source for testing ; non-metallic materials used in reactors and for studies in radiation chemistry ; has been built at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The cave consists ; of three high-density concrete in-line cells with a wall thickness of one meter. ; The source consists of 110 Co⁶° rods from MTR.

K. Kimura; A. Danno; M. Omura; H. Nomi; N. Shibata; N. Kanzaki; T. Matsumoto; K. Ajioka

1959-01-01

322

Glacial geomorphology of terrestrial-terminating fast flow lobes/ice stream margins in the southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial geomorphological mapping of southern Alberta, Canada, reveals landform assemblages that are diagnostic of terrestrial-terminating ice streams/fast flowing outlet glaciers with lobate snouts. Spatial variability in features that comprise the landform assemblages reflects changes in (a) palaeo-ice stream activity (switch on/off); and (b) snout basal thermal regimes associated with climate sensitive, steady state flow. Palaeo-ice stream tracks reveal distinct inset sequences of fan-shaped flowsets indicative of receding lobate ice stream margins. Former ice lobe margins are demarcated by (a) major, often glacially overridden transverse moraine ridges, commonly comprising glacitectonically thrust bedrock; and (b) minor, closely spaced recessional push moraines and hummocky moraine arcs. Details of these landform types are well exhibited around the former southern margins of the Central Alberta Ice Stream, where larger scale, more intensive mapping identifies a complex glacial geomorphology comprising minor transverse ridges (MTR types 1-3), hummocky terrain (HT types 1-3), flutings, and meltwater channels/spillways. The MTR type 1 constitute the summit corrugation patterns of glacitectonic thrust moraines or major transverse ridges and have been glacially overrun and moderately streamlined. The MTR type 2 sequences are recessional push moraines similar to those developing at modern active temperate glacier snouts. The MTR type 3 document moraine construction by incremental stagnation because they occur in association with hummocky terrain. The close association of hummocky terrain with push moraine assemblages indicates that they are the products of supraglacial controlled deposition on a polythermal ice sheet margin, where the HT type 3 hummocks represent former ice-walled lake plains. The ice sheet marginal thermal regime switches indicated by the spatially variable landform assemblages in southern Alberta are consistent with palaeoglaciological reconstructions proposed for other ice stream/fast flow lobes of the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet, where alternate cold, polythermal, and temperate marginal conditions associated with climate sensitive, steady state flow sequentially gave way to more dynamic streaming and surging activity.

Evans, David J. A.; Young, Nathaniel J. P.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm

2014-01-01

323

Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials  

PubMed Central

The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104–105 s?1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins. PMID:24385579

Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

2014-01-01

324

Cerebral maturation in the early preterm period-A magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging study using voxel-based analysis.  

PubMed

The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) correlates of early brain development were examined in cohort of 18 very preterm neonates (27-31 gestational weeks) presenting with normal radiological findings scanned within 2weeks after birth (28-32 gestational weeks). A combination of non-linear image registration, tissue segmentation, and voxel-wise regression was used to map the age dependent changes in MTR and DTI-derived parameters in 3D across the brain based on the cross-sectional in vivo preterm data. The regression coefficient maps obtained differed between brain regions and between the different quantitative MRI indices. Significant linear increases as well as decreases in MTR and DTI-derived parameters were observed throughout the preterm brain. In particular, the lamination pattern in the cerebral wall was evident on parametric and regression coefficient maps. The frontal white matter area (subplate and intermediate zone) demonstrated a linear decrease in MTR. While the intermediate zone showed an unexpected decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) with age, with this decrease (and the increase in mean diffusivity (MD)) driven primarily by an increase in radial diffusivity (RD) values, the subplate showed no change in FA (and an increase in MD). The latter was the result of a concomitant similar increase in axial diffusivity (AD) and RD values. Interpreting the in vivo results in terms of available histological data, we present a biophysical model that describes the relation between various microstructural changes measured by complementary quantitative methods available on clinical scanners and a range of maturational processes in brain tissue. PMID:25731990

Nossin-Manor, Revital; Card, Dallas; Raybaud, Charles; Taylor, Margot J; Sled, John G

2015-05-15

325

LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

2014-09-30

326

Association Study between Folate Pathway Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Koreans.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is ranked as the most common cancer in Koreans. A recent molecular biological study about the folate pathway gene revealed the correlation with a couple of cancer types. In the folate pathway, several genes are involved, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR), and methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR). The MTHFR gene has been reported several times for the correlation with gastric cancer risk. However, the association of the MTRR or MTR gene has not been reported to date. In this study, we investigated the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR genes and the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans. To identify the genetic association with gastric cancer, we selected 17 SNPs sites in folate pathway-associated genes of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR and tested in 1,261 gastric cancer patients and 375 healthy controls. By genotype analysis, estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI), rs1801394 in the MTRR gene showed increased risk for gastric cacner, with statistical significance both in the codominant model (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.85) and dominant model (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.75). Especially, in the obese group (body mass index ? 25 kg/m(2)), the codominant (OR, 9.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 94.59) and recessive model (OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 0.92 to 16.59) showed dramatically increased risk (p < 0.05). In conclusion, rs1801394 in the MTRR gene is associated with gastric cancer risk, and its functional significance need to be validated. PMID:23166529

Yoo, Jae-Young; Kim, Sook-Young; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Choi, Il Ju; Lee, Yeon-Su

2012-09-01

327

Association Study between Folate Pathway Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Koreans  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is ranked as the most common cancer in Koreans. A recent molecular biological study about the folate pathway gene revealed the correlation with a couple of cancer types. In the folate pathway, several genes are involved, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR), and methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR). The MTHFR gene has been reported several times for the correlation with gastric cancer risk. However, the association of the MTRR or MTR gene has not been reported to date. In this study, we investigated the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR genes and the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans. To identify the genetic association with gastric cancer, we selected 17 SNPs sites in folate pathway-associated genes of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR and tested in 1,261 gastric cancer patients and 375 healthy controls. By genotype analysis, estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI), rs1801394 in the MTRR gene showed increased risk for gastric cacner, with statistical significance both in the codominant model (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.85) and dominant model (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.75). Especially, in the obese group (body mass index ? 25 kg/m2), the codominant (OR, 9.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 94.59) and recessive model (OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 0.92 to 16.59) showed dramatically increased risk (p < 0.05). In conclusion, rs1801394 in the MTRR gene is associated with gastric cancer risk, and its functional significance need to be validated. PMID:23166529

Yoo, Jae-Young; Kim, Sook-Young; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Choi, Il Ju; Lee, Yeon-Su

2012-01-01

328

Clinical and imaging correlates of the multiple sclerosis impact scale in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of pathology and neurological deficit with quality of life (QoL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) is not fully understood.\\u000a In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of pathology—T1 and T2 lesion volume and ratio; active T2 lesion\\u000a number; global and regional brain volume and atrophy; magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for lesions, normal appearing grey\\u000a and white matter (NAGM,

T. Hayton; J. Furby; K. J. Smith; D. R. Altmann; R. Brenner; J. Chataway; K. Hunter; D. J. Tozer; D. H. Miller; R. Kapoor

329

Distance-Enhancing Constrained Codes with Parity-Check Constraints for Data Storage Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes efficient distance-enhancing constrained codes with parity-check (PC) constraints for data storage channels. We first propose simple and efficient finite-state encoding methods to design various distance-enhancing constrained codes, including a repeated minimum transition runlength (RMTR) code for optical recording channels, as well as a maximum transition run (MTR) code for magnetic recording channels. We further propose a general

Kui Cai; Kees A. Schouhamer Immink; Yuan Xing Lee; Zhiliang Qin; Tow Chong Chong

2010-01-01

330

Identification and Characterization of UndA-HRCR-6, an Outer Membrane Endecaheme c-Type Cytochrome of Shewanella sp. Strain HRCR-6  

SciTech Connect

The outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1(MR-1) play critical roles in extracellular reduction of iron [Fe(III)] oxides and uranium [ U(VI)]. To identify and characterize the outer membrane c-Cyts found in the metal-reducing Shewanella strains isolated from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 7 HRCR isolates were tested for the presence of mtrC, omcA and undA1 (a gene encoding a putative 11-heme c-Cyt) homologues in their genomes. All 7 tested strains possessed an mtrC homologue, while 3 strains had an omcA homologue and the remaining 4 strains contained an undA1 homologue. The coding region of an undA1 homologue from HRCR isolate 6 was cloned and sequenced. Because it was 93% identical to the UndA of S. baltica OS223, the protein product encoded by this sequenced gene was named as UndA-HRCR6. In MR-1, UndA-HRCR6 (i) restored an MR-1 mutant’s ability to reduce solid phase ferrihydrite at 40% of that for MR-1 wild type, (ii) increased extracellular formation of UO2 associated with the outer membrane and extracellular polymeric substances in a U(VI) reduction assay and (iii) was secreted to the extracellular environment by bacterial type II secretion system. UndA-HRCR6 was purified from the membrane fraction following its overexpression in MR-1 cells. Purified UndA-HRCR6 possessed 11 heme-Fe and reduced ferric complexes. Collectively, these results show that UndA-HRCR6 is an outer membrane endecaheme c-Cyt and can serve an extracellular metal reductase with functions similar to that of MR-1 MtrC and OmcA.

Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-08-01

331

Low-dose cisplatin converts the tumor microenvironment into a permissive state for HSVtk-induced antitumor immunity in HPV16-related tonsillar carcinoma.  

PubMed

An adenovirus harboring the HSV thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene under the regulation of a trans-splicing ribozyme that targets telomerase is cytotoxic to cancer cells because it inhibits DNA replication (Ad5mTR). Furthermore, it induces anti-tumor immunity by activating cytotoxic T cells. Because multiple chemotherapeutic agents also activate cytotoxic T-cell immunity during the direct killing process of tumor cells, we herein explored whether low-dose cisplatin could synergize with cytotoxic Ad5mTR to potentiate its therapeutic effect by boosting anti-tumor immunity in a murine HPV16-associated tonsillar carcinoma model. Tumor regression was enhanced when low-dose (1?mg/kg) cisplatin was added to suicide gene therapy using Ad5mTR. Meanwhile, 1?mg/kg cisplatin alone had no tumor-suppressive effects and did not result in any systemic toxicity. Thus, cisplatin along with Ad5mTR improved tumor clearance by increasing the number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells. Specifically, analysis of the tumors and lymph nodes supported improved immune clearance by increasing the number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells inside tumors (40%, P?

Goh, Ah Ra; Shin, Seung-Pil; Jung, Na-Rae; Ryu, Chang-Hwan; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Lee, John H; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Sang-Jin; Jung, Yuh-S

2015-01-28

332

Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials  

SciTech Connect

The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential hemes, presumably necessary for reduction of certain soluble substrates, without slowing down electron ow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well conserved staggered cross heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer-membrane proteins.

Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

2014-01-14

333

ETR, TRA642 AND TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642 AND TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS OF THE OFFICE AND CONTROL BUILDING ALONG THE NORTH WALL OF THE ETR BUILDING. HEALTH PHYSICS, OPERATIONS, AND CONTROL ROOM. AIRLOCK DOOR. OFFICES. STAIRWAY LOCATIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-3, 10/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-100911, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

334

HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA-667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR PLAN AND ROOM DESIGNATIONS. NOTE PAIR OF ENTRY DOORS IN WEST ELEVATION FOR MEN AND WOMEN. CONCRETE T-BEAMS. F.C. TORKELSON CO. 842-MTR-667-A1, 1/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0667-00-851-151143, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

335

Multiple loading and mechanical response of Al6O13Si2-ZrO2/Zn composite coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Al6O13Si2-ZrO2/Zn composite coatings were prepared by electrolytic co-deposition technique on mild steel surface from sulfate bath. The coatings were investigated using (SEM), micro-hardness tester with MTR-300 dry abrasive wear. Results showed higher micro-hardness, good wear resistance and adhered microstructure. From mechanical response ZrO2 composite has a strong effect on the interaction of the produced alloy.

Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Inegbenebor, A. O.

336

Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the folate-metabolizing genes MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MTHFD, CBS and SHMT in regulating genetic susceptibility to Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We determined the allele and genotype frequencies in the case group (146 patients with NHL) and the control group (540 blood donors). A significant association with NHL was observed only for MTHFD1 G1958A (allele G OR=1.382, P=0.05; genotype GA OR=2.316, P=0.01; genotype GG OR=2.153, P=0.03). After additional stratification of case and control groups according to sex and tumor type association of MTHFD1 G1958A with NHL was observed only in high-grade NHL subgroup (allele G OR=1.664, P=0.01) and in women subgroup (allele G OR=2.043, P=0.009). Meta-analysis for SNPs in the MTHFR, MTR, MTRR and SHMT revealed a reducing effect of the MTR 2756G allele on the risk of NHL (OR=0.902; 95% CI 0.821-0.991, P=0.03). PMID:21055808

Weiner, Alexandra S; Beresina, Olga V; Voronina, Elena N; Voropaeva, Elena N; Boyarskih, Uljana A; Pospelova, Tatiana I; Filipenko, Maxim L

2011-04-01

337

Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

2014-01-01

338

Removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and other priority (hazardous) substances from WWTP effluent.  

PubMed

More stringent effluent criteria will be required in the near future for the so-called priority substances listed in the Annex of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC. This includes heavy metals, volatile and semi-volatile organic substances, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. The Fraunhofer Institute suggested FHI values for these substances in water. National Dutch legislation, the Vierde Nota WaterHuishouding (NWH) introduced in 1998 'maximum tolerable risk concentrations' (MTR). These include requirements for nutrients: P(tot) < 0.15 mg/l and N(tot) < 2.2 mg/l. The MTR values are being used until the FHI values become effective. Investigation into possible effluent polishing techniques is required in order to reach these objectives. During pilot research with tertiary denitrifying multi-media and biological activated carbon filtration at the WWTP Utrecht in The Netherlands, simultaneous nutrient removal to MTR quality was observed. Furthermore, simultaneous removal of heavy metals, 17beta-estradiol, bisphenol A and nonylphenols to extreme low concentrations by denitrifying activated carbon filtrated is achieved. PMID:17163028

Miska, V; Menkveld, H W H; Kuijer, L; Boersen, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

2006-01-01

339

An examination of the effects of mountaintop removal coal mining on respiratory symptoms and COPD using propensity scores.  

PubMed

Previous research on public health consequences of mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining has been limited by the observational nature of the data. The current study used propensity scores, a method designed to overcome this limitation, to draw more confident causal inferences about mining effects on respiratory health using non-experimental data. These data come from a health survey of 682 adults residing in two rural areas of Virginia, USA characterized by the presence or absence of MTR mining. Persons with a history of occupational exposure as coal miners were excluded. Nine covariates including age, sex, current and former smoking, overweight, obesity, high school education, college education, and exposure to coal as a home-heating source were selected to estimate propensity scores. Propensity scores were tested for balance and then used as weights to create quasi-experimental exposed and unexposed groups. Results indicated that persons in the mountaintop mining group had significantly (p?MTR environments and not from other risks. PMID:25056823

Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

2014-07-24

340

Combined White Matter Imaging Suggests Myelination Defects in Visual Processing Regions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Diverse pathological changes occur in the white matter (WM) of patients with schizophrenia. Various microstructural alterations including a reduction in axonal number or diameter, reduced myelination, or poor coherence of fibers could account for these changes. Abnormal integrity of macromolecules such as myelin (‘dysmyelination') can be studied by applying multiple modalities of WM imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) in parallel. Using ultra-high field (7 Tesla) MTI in 17 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls, we evaluated the voxelwise distribution of macromolecular WM abnormalities. Patients had a significant reduction in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in WM adjacent to visual processing regions and inferior temporal cortex (Cohen's d=1.54). Among the regions showing MTR reduction, a concurrent reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) occurs proximal to the lingual gyrus. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the degree of FA reduction in the putatively ‘dysmyelinated' regions in patients predicted impaired processing speed (PS; ?=0.74; P=0.003), a core cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. In controls, MTR/FA in the occipito-temporal regions were not associated with PS. Our findings suggest that dysmyelination in visual processing regions is present in patients with schizophrenia with greatest cognitive and functional impairment. Combined DTI/MTI deficits in the occipito-temporal region may be an important variable when considering potential treatment targets for improving cognitive function in schizophrenia. PMID:23558741

Palaniyappan, Lena; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny; Liddle, Peter F

2013-01-01

341

The interstitial location of selenium and arsenic in rocks associated with coal mining using ultrasound extractions and principal component analysis (PCA).  

PubMed

The release of selenium and arsenic from coal mine wastes into main waterways is an environmental cause for concern in the mining industry due to a myriad of subsequent ecotoxicological problems associated with the two metalloids. In a 2002 USEPA study undertaken in a mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) mining area in southern West Virginia, measured Se concentrations were higher than the stipulated 5 ng/mL in 66 out of the 213 water samples collected. We studied the chemical composition of forty seven randomly selected pulverized core rock samples collected from depths of 25 ft to 881 ft from MTR/VF sites to determine the amounts of bioaccessible (ultrasound leachable) As and Se concentrations and their tentative locations within the rock matrix. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) to the chemical data, suggested that ultrasound leachable selenium concentrations were associated with 14 ? d-spacing phyllosilicate clays (chlorite, montmorillonite and vermiculite all 2:1 layered clays) whilst ultrasound leachable arsenic concentrations were closely related to the concentration of illite, another 2:1 phyllosilicate clay. Negative correlations between leachable arsenic and selenium with kaolinite a 1:1 layered clay, were also observed. We used the observed negative correlations to rule out the presence of selenium or arsenic in 1:1 kaolinite. Hence mining waste from MTR/VF sites containing substantial amounts of illite and 14 ? d-spacing clays may require to be placed in priority landfills or valley fills. PMID:22056124

Pumure, I; Renton, J J; Smart, R B

2011-12-30

342

Preliminary structural studies on the MtxX protein from Methanococcus jannaschii  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus jannaschii has an mtr gene cluster expressing N 5-methyltetra­hydromethanopterin:coenzyme M methyltransferase, which generates methane by reducing CO2 with H2 with concomitant energy production under strictly anaerobic conditions. Some methanogenic archaea also have an mtr gene-cluster homologue, the mtxXAH gene cluster. M. jannaschii has both an entire mtr gene cluster and a single mtxX gene instead of the whole mtxXAH gene cluster. A PSI-BLAST search, secondary-structure prediction and the absence of phosphotransacetylase activity in M. jannaschii strongly support the possibility that the MtxX protein constitutes a unique methyltransferase family. In this study, the MtxX protein from M. jannaschii has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron data were collected to 2.9?Å from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted MtxX protein. The crystal belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.9, b = 54.9, c = 341.1?Å, ? = 120.0°. A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insight into the structure–function relationship of this protein. PMID:18391432

Shin, Dong Hae

2008-01-01

343

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd nitrogen removal/gas treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project field test at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2005-02-28

344

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mycothiol levels in Wild-Type and Mycothiol Disulfide Reductase Mutant Mycobacterium smegmatis  

PubMed Central

Mycothiol (MSH), the primary low-molecular weight thiol produced in mycobacteria, acts to protect the cell from oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis, notably in the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the course of human infection. The mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr) enzyme reduces the oxidized form of mycothiol, mycothione (MSSM), back to MSH, however its role in bacterial viability is not clear. In this study, we sought to determine the MSH levels of wild-type (WT) and Mtr mutant mycobacteria during oxidative stress. We describe a rapid method for the relative quantification of MSH using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). This method uses only minimal sample cleanup, and does not require advanced chromatographic equipment or fluorescent compounds. MSH levels decreased in the Mtr mutant only upon treatment with peroxide, and the results were consistent between our method and previously-described thiol quantification methods. Our results indicate that our MS-based method is a useful, high-throughput alternative tool for the quantification of MSH from mycobacteria. PMID:21857792

Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.; Leary, Julie A.

2010-01-01

345

'Fishing' for alternatives to mountaintop mining in southern West Virginia.  

PubMed

Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheries in southern West Virginia, we estimate the potential abundances of two popular sport fishes-smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)-in the Coal River Basin (CRB). A self-thinning model that incorporates net primary production and terrestrial insect subsidies is first used to predict potential densities of adult (age 1+) smallmouth bass and brook trout. Predicted densities (fish ha(-1)) are then multiplied by the surface area of the CRB stream network (ha) to estimate regional abundance. Median predicted abundances of bass and trout are 38 806 and 118 094 fish (total abundances with the CRB), respectively. However, when streams that intersect permitted MTR areas in the CRB are removed from the dataset, predicted abundances of bass and trout decrease by ~12-14 %. We conclude that significant potential exists in the CRB to capitalize on sport fisheries, but MTR may be undermining this potential. PMID:23001943

McGarvey, Daniel J; Johnston, John M

2013-04-01

346

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. MTR then located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; the units will be delivered in mid-2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2007-03-31

347

Recycling of methylthioadenosine is essential for normal vascular development and reproduction in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is the common by-product of polyamine (PA), nicotianamine (NA), and ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The methylthiol moiety of MTA is salvaged by 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTN) in a reaction producing methylthioribose (MTR) and adenine. The MTN double mutant, mtn1-1mtn2-1, retains approximately 14% of the MTN enzyme activity present in the wild type and displays a pleiotropic phenotype that includes altered vasculature and impaired fertility. These abnormal traits were associated with increased MTA levels, altered PA profiles, and reduced NA content. Exogenous feeding of PAs partially recovered fertility, whereas NA supplementation improved fertility and also reversed interveinal chlorosis. The analysis of PA synthase crystal structures containing bound MTA suggests that the corresponding enzyme activities are sensitive to available MTA. Mutant plants that expressed either MTN or human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (which metabolizes MTA without producing MTR) appeared wild type, proving that the abnormal traits of the mutant are due to MTA accumulation rather than reduced MTR. Based on our results, we propose that the key targets affected by increased MTA content are thermospermine synthase activity and spermidine-dependent posttranslational modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. PMID:22345506

Waduwara-Jayabahu, Ishari; Oppermann, Yasmin; Wirtz, Markus; Hull, Zachary T; Schoor, Sarah; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Hell, Rüdiger; Sauter, Margret; Moffatt, Barbara A

2012-04-01

348

Imaging outcomes for trials of remyelination in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Trials of potential neuroreparative agents are becoming more important in the spectrum of multiple sclerosis research. Appropriate imaging outcomes are required that are feasible from a time and practicality point of view, as well as being sensitive and specific to myelin, while also being reproducible and clinically meaningful. Conventional MRI sequences have limited specificity for myelination. We evaluate the imaging modalities which are potentially more specific to myelin content in vivo, such as magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), restricted proton fraction f (from quantitative magnetisation transfer measurements), myelin water fraction and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, in addition to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Although most imaging applications to date have focused on the brain, we also consider measures with the potential to detect remyelination in the spinal cord and in the optic nerve. At present, MTR and DTI measures probably offer the most realistic and feasible outcome measures for such trials, especially in the brain. However, no one measure currently demonstrates sufficiently high sensitivity or specificity to myelin, or correlation with clinical features, and it should be useful to employ more than one outcome to maximise understanding and interpretation of findings with these sequences. PET may be less feasible for current and near-future trials, but is a promising technique because of its specificity. In the optic nerve, visual evoked potentials can indicate demyelination and should be correlated with an imaging outcome (such as optic nerve MTR), as well as clinical measures. PMID:24769473

Mallik, Shahrukh; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H

2014-12-01

349

Recycling of Methylthioadenosine Is Essential for Normal Vascular Development and Reproduction in Arabidopsis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

5?-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is the common by-product of polyamine (PA), nicotianamine (NA), and ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The methylthiol moiety of MTA is salvaged by 5?-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTN) in a reaction producing methylthioribose (MTR) and adenine. The MTN double mutant, mtn1-1mtn2-1, retains approximately 14% of the MTN enzyme activity present in the wild type and displays a pleiotropic phenotype that includes altered vasculature and impaired fertility. These abnormal traits were associated with increased MTA levels, altered PA profiles, and reduced NA content. Exogenous feeding of PAs partially recovered fertility, whereas NA supplementation improved fertility and also reversed interveinal chlorosis. The analysis of PA synthase crystal structures containing bound MTA suggests that the corresponding enzyme activities are sensitive to available MTA. Mutant plants that expressed either MTN or human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (which metabolizes MTA without producing MTR) appeared wild type, proving that the abnormal traits of the mutant are due to MTA accumulation rather than reduced MTR. Based on our results, we propose that the key targets affected by increased MTA content are thermospermine synthase activity and spermidine-dependent posttranslational modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. PMID:22345506

Waduwara-Jayabahu, Ishari; Oppermann, Yasmin; Wirtz, Markus; Hull, Zachary T.; Schoor, Sarah; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Hell, Rüdiger; Sauter, Margret; Moffatt, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

350

Noise properties of motion-compensated tomographic image reconstruction methods.  

PubMed

Motion-compensated image reconstruction (MCIR) methods incorporate motion models to improve image quality in the presence of motion. MCIR methods differ in terms of how they use motion information and they have been well studied separately. However, there have been less theoretical comparisions of different MCIR methods. This paper compares the theoretical noise properties of three popular MCIR methods assuming known nonrigid motion. We show the relationship among three MCIR methods-motion-compensated temporal regularization (MTR), the parametric motion model (PMM), and post-reconstruction motion correction (PMC)-for penalized weighted least square cases. These analyses show that PMM and MTR are matrix-weighted sums of all registered image frames, while PMC is a scalar-weighted sum. We further investigate the noise properties of MCIR methods with Poisson models and quadratic regularizers by deriving accurate and fast variance prediction formulas using an "analytical approach." These theoretical noise analyses show that the variances of PMM and MTR are lower than or comparable to the variance of PMC due to the statistical weighting. These analyses also facilitate comparisons of the noise properties of different MCIR methods, including the effects of different quadratic regularizers, the influence of the motion through its Jacobian determinant, and the effect of assuming that total activity is preserved. Two-dimensional positron emission tomography simulations demonstrate the theoretical results. PMID:22759442

Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A

2013-02-01

351

Arx1 Is a Nuclear Export Receptor for the 60S Ribosomal Subunit in Yeast  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that nuclear export of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit relies on Nmd3 in a Crm1-dependent manner. Recently the general mRNA export factor, the Mtr2/Mex67 heterodimer, was shown to act as an export receptor in parallel with Crm1. These observations raise the possibility that nuclear export of the 60S subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires multiple export receptors. Here, we show that the previously characterized 60S subunit biogenesis factor, Arx1, also acts as an export receptor for the 60S subunit. We found that deletion of ARX1 was synthetic lethal with nmd3 and mtr2 mutants and was synthetic sick with several nucleoporin mutants. Deletion of ARX1 led to accumulation of pre-60S particles in the nucleus that were enriched for Nmd3, Crm1, Mex67, and Mtr2, suggesting that in the absence of Arx1, 60S export is impaired even though the subunit is loaded with export receptors. Finally, Arx1 interacted with several nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid as well as in vitro assays. These results show that Arx1 can directly bridge the interaction between the pre-60S particle and the NPC and thus is a third export receptor for the 60S subunit in yeast. PMID:18077551

Hung, Nai-Jung; Lo, Kai-Yin; Patel, Samir S.; Helmke, Kara

2008-01-01

352

Simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in presence of diloxanide furoate degradation products.  

PubMed

Three methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate (DLX) and metronidazole (MTR), used for their antiprotozoal and antiamoebic effect, in the presence of DLX alkaline degradates and in pharmaceutical formulations, without previous separation. The first method is chemometric-assisted spectrophotometry, in which principal component regression and partial least squares were applied. These two approaches were successfully applied to quantify each drug in the mixture using the information included in, the absorption spectra in the range of 225-320 nm. The second method is TLC-densitometry, in which the binary mixture and degradates were separated on silica gel plates using a chloroform-acetone-glacial acetic acid (9.5 + 0.5 + 0.07, v/v/v) mobile phase and the bands were scanned at 254 nm. The last method is HPLC, in which DLX, MTR, and degradates were separated using the mobile phase acetonitrile-0.05 M dibasic potassium phosphate (25 + 75, v/v), adjusted to pH 4 with orthophosphoric acid, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, on a C18 analytical column. Detection was at 254 nm. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the analysis of DLX and MTR in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results were statistically compared with a reported spectrophotometric method. PMID:22165007

Abbas, Samah S; Wagieh, Nour E; Abdelkawy, Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Maha M

2011-01-01

353

Imaging outcomes for trials of remyelination in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Trials of potential neuroreparative agents are becoming more important in the spectrum of multiple sclerosis research. Appropriate imaging outcomes are required that are feasible from a time and practicality point of view, as well as being sensitive and specific to myelin, while also being reproducible and clinically meaningful. Conventional MRI sequences have limited specificity for myelination. We evaluate the imaging modalities which are potentially more specific to myelin content in vivo, such as magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), restricted proton fraction f (from quantitative magnetisation transfer measurements), myelin water fraction and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, in addition to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Although most imaging applications to date have focused on the brain, we also consider measures with the potential to detect remyelination in the spinal cord and in the optic nerve. At present, MTR and DTI measures probably offer the most realistic and feasible outcome measures for such trials, especially in the brain. However, no one measure currently demonstrates sufficiently high sensitivity or specificity to myelin, or correlation with clinical features, and it should be useful to employ more than one outcome to maximise understanding and interpretation of findings with these sequences. PET may be less feasible for current and near-future trials, but is a promising technique because of its specificity. In the optic nerve, visual evoked potentials can indicate demyelination and should be correlated with an imaging outcome (such as optic nerve MTR), as well as clinical measures. PMID:24769473

Mallik, Shahrukh; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H

2014-01-01

354

The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.  

SciTech Connect

Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

2012-07-03

355

Understanding the role of multiheme cytochromes in iron(III) reduction and arsenic mobilization by Shewanella sp. ANA-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) and of arsenate (As (V)) to arsenite (As (III)) by Fe (III) reducing and As (V) respiring prokaryotes such as the bacterium Shewanella sp. ANA-3 may contribute to arsenic mobilization in aquifers contaminated with arsenic, specifically in places such as Bangladesh. Under oxic conditions As (V) predominates and is often adsorbed onto mineral surfaces such as amorphous ferrihydrite. However, under anoxic conditions As (III) predominates, sorbs to fewer minerals, and has a greater hydrologic mobility compared to As (V). The genetic mechanism underlying arsenic release from subsurface material most likely involves a combination of respiratory gene clusters (e.g. mtr/omc and arr). In this study, we are investigating the genetic pathways underlying arsenic mobilization. We have generated various mutations in the mtr/omc gene cluster, which encodes several outermembrane decaheme c-type cytochromes. Deletions in one mtr/omc gene did not eliminate iron reduction. However, strains carrying multiple gene deletions were greatly impaired in iron reduction abilities. Work is currently underway to generate combinations of iron reduction and arsenate reduction single and double mutants that will be used to investigate microbial mobilization of arsenic in flow-through columns containing As (V)-HFO coated sand. This work will address the importance of arsenate reduction and iron reduction in the mobilization of arsenic.

Reyes, C.; Duenas, R.; Saltikov, C.

2006-12-01

356

Identification and Characterization of MtoA: A Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome of the Neutrophilic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 (ES-1) grows on FeCO3 or FeS at oxic–anoxic interfaces at circumneutral pH, and the ES-1-mediated Fe(II) oxidation occurs extracellularly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ES-1’s ability to oxidize Fe(II) remain unknown. Survey of the ES-1 genome for candidate genes for microbial extracellular Fe(II) oxidation revealed that it contained a three-gene cluster encoding homologs of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1) MtrA, MtrB, and CymA that are involved in extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Homologs of MtrA and MtrB were also previously shown to be involved in extracellular Fe(II) oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. To distinguish them from those found in MR-1, the identified homologs were named MtoAB and CymAES-1. Cloned mtoA partially complemented an MR-1 mutant without MtrA with regards to ferrihydrite reduction. Characterization of purified MtoA showed that it was a decaheme c-type cytochrome and oxidized soluble Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) by MtoA was pH- and Fe(II)-complexing ligand-dependent. Under conditions tested, MtoA oxidized Fe(II) from pH 7 to pH 9 with the optimal rate at pH 9. MtoA oxidized Fe(II) complexed with different ligands at different rates. The reaction rates followed the order Fe(II)Cl2?>? Fe(II)–citrate?>?Fe(II)–NTA?>?Fe(II)–EDTA with the second-order rate constants ranging from 6.3?×?10?3??M?1?s?1 for oxidation of Fe(II)Cl2 to 1.0?×?10?3??M?1?s?1 for oxidation of Fe(II)–EDTA. Thermodynamic modeling showed that redox reaction rates for the different Fe(II)-complexes correlated with their respective estimated reaction-free energies. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MtoA is a functional Fe(II)-oxidizing protein that, by working in concert with MtoB and CymAES-1, may oxidize Fe(II) at the bacterial surface and transfer released electrons across the bacterial cell envelope to the quinone pool in the inner membrane during extracellular Fe(II) oxidation by ES-1. PMID:22347878

Liu, Juan; Wang, Zheming; Belchik, Sara M.; Edwards, Marcus J.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kennedy, David W.; Merkley, Eric D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Shi, Liang

2012-01-01

357

A study on the interactions of the MSL and the movement of amphydromic points and their impact on the mean tidal range in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to IPCC (2007), the global average sea level rise projections are significant to the end of the century. Even the current time series analyses of the North Sea show, that there have been significant changes in the tidal regime starting from 1955 to 1960. While one can observe an appreciable increase in the mean tidal high water (MHW) from then on, the mean tidal low water (MLW) behaves contrary; as difference between the MHW and the MLW, the mean tidal range (MTR) in the German Bight rises (JENSEN and MUDERSBACH 2007). The reason for this behaviour is not as yet clarified entirely, but there have been many theoretical approaches ascribing the changes in the MTR either to anthropogenic or natural processes. The changes in the MTR can not only be observed in the German Bight, but also along the British east coast. However the MTR along the British coast shows a small decrease being the largest in the area of Aberdeen and reduces in northern and southern direction respectively reverses in the most southern part of England. According to JEVREJEVA et al. (2006) there is a significant change in the sea level of the north-eastern Atlantic starting at the same time as mentioned above, which is characterized by an uncommon increase. A tidal wave is influenced by the coriolis force which causes a deflection in the currents towards the right side of the direction of the motion in the northern hemisphere. In wide and at the end closed channels - what the North Sea may be considered as - the reflection of the tidal wave away from the boundary results in two waves travelling in the opposite directions. The resulting waves are oscillating around a time dependent position which is called an amphidromic point; in this position, the waves amplitude respectively the tidal range is zero. In the North Sea there are two amphidromic systems and a third incomplete amphidromic system. In the North Sea the average tidal range is between 0 to 8 metres. With an increasing distance from this position, the amplitude of the tidal wave and thereby the MTR rises. If the reflected wave within the basin is weaker than the in going tidal wave, the resulting centre of rotation in the northern hemisphere is shifted towards the left side of the running in (PUGH 1987). That is what one can also observe in the North Sea. Due to the proportionally more dissipated energy in the shallower shelf of the German Bight in relations to the steeper shelf of the British coast, there is an eastwards displacement of the amphidromic points. In consequence of the above mentioned sea level rise, the relative amount of energy being absorbed in the shallower shelf is considerably larger than in already steeper shelf regions. Additionally, anthropogenic interventions influence the topography along coastlines. As a result, the overall time dependent positions of the amphidromic points in the German Bight could have moved westwards. On basis of the measured MSL rise, the data of German and British gauges so far are indicating a long term shifting of the amphidromic points and a correlation with changes in the MTR. Recollecting the future MSL rise, the changes in the MTR could intensify and as FÜHRBÖTER and JENSEN (1985) pointed out, have impacts on the morphology, ecology but also the safety in coastal regions and estuaries.

Jensen, Juergen; Arns, Arne

2010-05-01

358

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment. Protective suits were prepared in collaboration with Kimberly-Clark Corporation and heat stress testing with human test subjects was carried out by the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE). The tests confirmed that the MTR protective fabric is significantly more comfortable than non-breathable materials. A cost analysis was developed from the properties of the optimized protective fabric and the results of the of the IUOE field study to determine the potential for the MTR material technology within the chemical protective clothing market. A detailed assessment of the specific chemical protective clothing applications for which the material can be used and its competitiveness with existing material technology, based both on expected performance and material/end item costs, was prepared. Three specific market opportunities identified for the novel protective fabric are: (1) liquid splash protective clothing for hazardous waste site operations, (2) liquid splash protective clothing for emergency response, and (3) Class 3 NFPA 1994-compliant protective clothing for civilian use during chemical terrorism incidents.

J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

2001-11-07

359

Intensive Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Primary CNS Lymphoma: CALGB 50202 (Alliance 50202)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Concerns regarding neurocognitive toxicity of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) have motivated development of alternative, dose-intensive chemotherapeutic strategies as consolidation in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). We performed a multicenter study of high-dose consolidation, without WBRT, in PCNSL. Objectives were to determine: one, rate of complete response (CR) after remission induction therapy with methotrexate, temozolomide, and rituximab (MT-R); two, feasibility of a two-step approach using high-dose consolidation with etoposide plus cytarabine (EA); three, progression-free survival (PFS); and four, correlation between clinical and molecular prognostic factors and outcome. Patients and Methods Forty-four patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL were treated with induction MT-R, and patients who achieved CR received EA consolidation. We performed a prospective analysis of molecular prognostic biomarkers in PCNSL in the setting of a clinical trial. Results The rate of CR to MT-R was 66%. The overall 2-year PFS was 0.57, with median follow-up of 4.9 years. The 2-year time to progression was 0.59, and for patients who completed consolidation, it was 0.77. Patients age > 60 years did as well as younger patients, and the most significant clinical prognostic variable was treatment delay. High BCL6 expression correlated with shorter survival. Conclusion CALGB 50202 demonstrates for the first time to our knowledge that dose-intensive consolidation for PCNSL is feasible in the multicenter setting and yields rates of PFS and OS at least comparable to those of regimens involving WBRT. On the basis of these encouraging results, an intergroup study has been activated comparing EA consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy in this randomized trial in PCNSL, in which neither arm involves WBRT. PMID:23569323

Rubenstein, James L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Nakashima, Megan O.; Grant, Barbara; Cheson, Bruce D.; Kaplan, Lawrence D.

2013-01-01

360

Structural covariance of superficial white matter in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to normal aging  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interindividual variations in regional structural properties covary across the brain, thus forming networks that change as a result of aging and accompanying neurological conditions. The alterations of superficial white matter (SWM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are of special interest, since they follow the AD-specific pattern characterized by the strongest neurodegeneration of the medial temporal lobe and association cortices. Methods Here, we present an SWM network analysis in comparison with SWM topography based on the myelin content quantified with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for 39 areas in each hemisphere in 15 AD patients and 15 controls. The networks are represented by graphs, in which nodes correspond to the areas, and edges denote statistical associations between them. Results In both groups, the networks were characterized by asymmetrically distributed edges (predominantly in the left hemisphere). The AD-related differences were also leftward. The edges lost due to AD tended to connect nodes in the temporal lobe to other lobes or nodes within or between the latter lobes. The newly gained edges were mostly confined to the temporal and paralimbic regions, which manifest demyelination of SWM already in mild AD. Conclusion This pattern suggests that the AD pathological process coordinates SWM demyelination in the temporal and paralimbic regions, but not elsewhere. A comparison of the MTR maps with MTR-based networks shows that although, in general, the changes in network architecture in AD recapitulate the topography of (de)myelination, some aspects of structural covariance (including the interhemispheric asymmetry of networks) have no immediate reflection in the myelination pattern. PMID:25328848

Carmeli, Cristian; Fornari, Eleonora; Jalili, Mahdi; Meuli, Reto; Knyazeva, Maria G

2014-01-01

361

Gene-environment interactions and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: exploring the role of maternal folate genes and folic Acid fortification.  

PubMed

Few studies have evaluated the interaction of folic acid fortification and folate metabolic genes on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because folate status is influenced by both intake and genetic variation, the objective of this study was to explore maternal folate metabolic gene-folic acid fortification interactions and the risk of childhood ALL. The study population consisted of 120 ALL case-parent triads recruited from Texas Children's Cancer Center between 2003 and 2010. For this analysis, we focused on 13 maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR). Prefortification was defined as delivery before January 1997 and postfortification as delivery in or after January 1997. We used a two-step approach to evaluate gene-environment interactions. First, a case-only approach was used, as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-environment interactions compared to other approaches. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. Only one of 13 interactions evaluated was confirmed in step 2. Specifically, mothers with the minor allele of MTR rs1804742 and who delivered during the prefortification period were at a greater risk of having a child with ALL (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.82-2.88), compared to those mothers who delivered during the postfortification period (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.22-2.99, P for interaction = .03). In one of the few studies to evaluate maternal folate metabolic genotype-folic acid interactions, we found limited evidence that the maternal MTR rs1804742 appeared to interact with higher folic acid levels to influence childhood ALL risk. PMID:24087922

Lupo, Philip J; Dietz, Danielle J; Kamdar, Kala Y; Scheurer, Michael E

2014-03-01

362

FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

Unknown

2002-04-10

363

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2007-03-31

364

Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

Narayana, Ponnada A.; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Levin, Harvey S.; Hunter, Jill V.; Miller, Emmy R.; Patel, Vipul Kumar S.; Robertson, Claudia S.; McCarthy, James J.

2014-01-01

365

Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI) in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline) alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) to ensure transparency. PMID:20807448

2010-01-01

366

Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the per-spective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a prepara-tion for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radi-ation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported ex-periment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors, mimicking a human head and torso. The MTR experiment, led by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched in January 2004 and has measured the ab-sorbed dose from space radiation both inside and outside the ISS. In this paper preliminary comparisons of measured and calculated dose and organ doses in the MTR located outside the ISS will be presented. The results confirm previous calculations and measurements which indicate that PHITS is a suitable tool for estimations of dose received from cosmic radiation and when performing shielding design studies of spacecraft. Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the Euro-pean Commission in the frame of the FP7 HAMLET project (Project 218817).

Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, L.; Sato, T.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.

367

Reduced magnetisation transfer ratio in cognitively impaired patients at the very early stage of multiple sclerosis: a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cognitive impairment belongs to the core symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can already be present at the very early stages of the disease. The present study evaluated cognitive functioning after the first clinical presentation suggestive of MS and brain tissue damage in a non-lesion focused MRI approach by using magnetisation transfer imaging (MTI). Setting and participants 47 patients (15 men and 32 women; mean age: 31.17?years) after the first clinical event suggestive of MS were recruited in six different MS centres in Germany and underwent a neuropsychological test battery including tests for attention, memory and executive function as well as depression and fatigue. MTI and conventional MRI measures (T1/T2 lesion load) were assessed. In addition, Magnetisation Transfer Ratio (MTR) maps were calculated. Primary outcome measure was the investigation of cognitive dysfunction in very early MS in correlation to MRI data. Results 55.3% of patients with MS failed at least one test parameter. Specifically, 6% were reduced in working memory, 14.9% in focused attention, 25.5% in figural learning and up to 14.9% in executive function. When the sample was subdivided into cognitively impaired and preserved, MTR scores within the cognitively impaired subgroup were significantly lower compared with the preserved group (t(43)=2.346, p=0.02*). No significant differences between the two groups were found in T2-weighted and T1-weighted lesion volume. Conclusions After the first MS-related clinical event, 55.3% of patients showed distinct cognitive deficits. Cognitively impaired patients had significantly lower whole brain MTR, but no differences in focal brain lesion volumes supporting the idea that early cognitive deficits may be related to diffuse loss of brain tissue integrity. PMID:24722197

Faiss, J H; Dähne, D; Baum, K; Deppe, R; Hoffmann, F; Köhler, W; Kunkel, A; Lux, A; Matzke, M; Penner, I K; Sailer, M; Zettl, U K

2014-01-01

368

Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens: correlation with physiological and pathological characteristics, and with biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

2014-04-01

369

MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

2009-03-31

370

Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

NONE

1994-10-01

371

Assessment of MRI Parameters as Imaging Biomarkers for Radiation Necrosis in the Rat Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation necrosis is a major complication of radiation therapy. We explore the features of radiation-induced brain necrosis in the rat, using multiple MRI approaches, including T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, apparent diffusion constant (ADC), cerebral blood flow (CBF), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and amide proton transfer (APT) of endogenous mobile proteins and peptides. Methods and Materials: Adult rats (Fischer 344; n = 15) were irradiated with a single, well-collimated X-ray beam (40 Gy; 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 mm{sup 2}) in the left brain hemisphere. MRI was acquired on a 4.7-T animal scanner at {approx}25 weeks' postradiation. The MRI signals of necrotic cores and perinecrotic regions were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance. Histological evaluation was accomplished with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: ADC and CBF MRI could separate perinecrotic and contralateral normal brain tissue (p < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively), whereas T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, MTR, and APT could not. MRI signal intensities were significantly lower in the necrotic core than in normal brain for CBF (p < 0.001) and APT (p < 0.01) and insignificantly higher or lower for T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, MTR, and ADC. Histological results demonstrated coagulative necrosis within the necrotic core and reactive astrogliosis and vascular damage within the perinecrotic region. Conclusion: ADC and CBF are promising imaging biomarkers for identifying perinecrotic regions, whereas CBF and APT are promising for identifying necrotic cores.

Wang Silun [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhou Tingting [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Armour, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wen Zhibo [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Radiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Fu Dexue [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zijl, Peter C.M. van [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zhou Jinyuan, E-mail: jzhou@mri.jhu.edu [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

2012-07-01

372

White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain  

PubMed Central

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10?9 m2s?1 (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975–0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. PMID:25457555

Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Royle, Natalie A.; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

2015-01-01

373

Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction.  

SciTech Connect

The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced ?-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles under the concurrent reduction of synthetic MnO2 and thiosulfate coupled to H2 oxidation. Using two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes (?mtrC/?omcA and ?mtrC/?omcA/?mtrF) to eliminate the direct reduction pathway for solid electron acceptors, it was determined that respiratory reduction of MnO2 was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from bacterial thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of MR-1 using lactate as the sole electron donor produced MnCO3 (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO3 formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions that favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of the biogenic MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Although biogenic MnS likely only forms and is stable over a relatively narrow range of conditions, it may be a significant sink for Mn in anoxic marine basins and terrestrial subsurface sediments where Mn and sulfur compounds are undergoing concurrent reduction.

Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-27

374

Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction  

SciTech Connect

The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced {gamma}-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles during the concurrent reduction of MnO{sub 2} and thiosulfate coupled to H{sub 2} oxidation. To investigate effect of direct microbial reduction of MnO{sub 2} on MnS formation, two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA and {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA/{Delta}mtrF) were also used and it was determined that direct reduction of MnO{sub 2} was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of strain MR-1 with lactate as the electron donor produced MnCO{sub 3} (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO{sub 3} formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions expected to favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Biogenic manganese sulfide may be a manganese sink in the Mn biogeochemical cycle in select environments such as deep anoxic marine basins within the Baltic Sea.

Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-13

375

Propagating waves transverse to the magnetic field in a solar prominence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed a quiescent prominence with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) (Ca II and H? lines), Sacramento Peak Dunn Solar Telescope using the Universal Birefringent Filter (DST/UBF, in H?, H? and Sodium-D lines), THEMIS (Télescope Héliographique pour l Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires/MTR (Multi Raies) spectromagnetograph (He D3), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) in EUV over a 4 hour period on 2012 October 10. The small fields of view of the SOT, DST, and MTR are centered on a large prominence footpoint extending towards the surface. This feature appears in the larger field of view of the AIA/304 Å filtergram as a large, quasi-vertical pillar with loops on each side. The THEMIS/MTR data indicate that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features in the pillar. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and DST data show what appear to be moving wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along quasi-vertical columns of horizontal threads in the pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a wavelength about 2000 km in the plane of the sky, and a period about 280 sec. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves.

Kucera, Therese; Schmieder, Brigitte; Knizhnik, Kalman; Lopez-Ariste, Arturo; Luna, Manuel; Toot, David

2014-01-01

376

Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)] [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Novara, Oscar E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-07-01

377

Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

Narayana, Ponnada A; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Levin, Harvey S; Hunter, Jill V; Miller, Emmy R; Patel, Vipul Kumar S; Robertson, Claudia S; McCarthy, James J

2015-01-01

378

Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds  

SciTech Connect

Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3 ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA. Six management treatments were: (1) no tillage continuous corn with NPK (NC); (2) no tillage continuous corn with NPK and manure (NTC-M); (3) no tillage corn?soybean rotation (NTR); (4) chisel tillage corn?soybean rotation (CTR); (5) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with improved practices (MTR-I); (6) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with prevalent practices (MTR-P). The SOC pool ranged from 24.5Mgha?1 in the 32-years moldboard tillage corn (Zea mays L.)?wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?meadow?meadow rotation with straight row farming and annual application of fertilizer (N:P:K = 5:9:17) of 56?112 kg ha?1 and cattle (Bos taurus) manure of 9Mg ha?1 as the prevalent system (MTR-P) to 65.5Mgha?1 in the 36-years no tillage continuous corn with contour row farming and annual application of 170?225 kgNha?1 and appropriate amounts of P and K, and 6?11Mgha?1 of cattle manure as the improved system (NTC-M).

Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Owens, Lloyd; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, W M.; Hothem, Daniel

2002-12-01

379

Modulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to vertebrate antibacterial peptides due to a member of the resistance/nodulation/division efflux pump?family  

PubMed Central

We have previously described the antibacterial capacity of protegrin-1 (PG-1), a cysteine-rich, cationic peptide from porcine leukocytes, against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We now report genetic and biochemical evidence that gonococcal susceptibility to the lethal action of PG-1 and other structurally unrelated antibacterial peptides, including a peptide (LL-37) that is expressed constitutively by human granulocytes and testis and inducibly by keratinocytes, is modulated by an energy-dependent efflux system termed mtr. These results indicate that such efflux systems may enable mucosal pathogens like gonococci to resist endogenous antimicrobial peptides that are thought to act during infection. PMID:9465102

Shafer, W. M.; Qu, X.-D.; Waring, A. J.; Lehrer, R. I.

1998-01-01

380

Biochemical (T2, T2* and magnetisation transfer ratio) MRI of knee cartilage: feasibility at ultra-high field (7T) compared with high field (3T) strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study compares the performance and the reproducibility of quantitative T2, T2* and the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)\\u000a of articular cartilage at 7T and 3T.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Axial MRI of the patella was performed in 17 knees of healthy volunteers (25.8?±?5.7 years) at 3T and 7T using a comparable\\u000a surface coil and whole-body MR systems from the same vendor, side-by-side. Thirteen knee joints

Goetz H. Welsch; Sebastian Apprich; Stefan Zbyn; Tallal C. Mamisch; Vladimir Mlynarik; Klaus Scheffler; Oliver Bieri; Siegfried Trattnig

2011-01-01

381

THE USE OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR A SUBJECT WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP?DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP?DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. Case Description: The subject was a 30?year?old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi?segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP?DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. Outcomes: The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow?up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi?segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. Discussion: The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre?injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise regarding the use of TrP?DN with IES intervention for the treatment of lumbar and/or hip stability dysfunction. Future research is recommended to determine if TrP?DN intervention, with and without IES, is effective for other body regions and long?term subject outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level 4. PMID:23593553

2013-01-01

382

High-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolate in France, March 2014.  

PubMed

We report the first case in France of a high-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 96 mg/L) assigned to MLST7363 (NG-MAST ST6360), also resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone. The patient was a 51 year-old heterosexual man who returned following 1g azithromycin monotherapy. Mechanisms of azithromycin resistance were a C2599T mutation in the four copies of the rrl gene and a novel mutation in the promoter of the mtrR gene. PMID:25394255

Bercot, B; Belkacem, A; Goubard, A; Mougari, F; Sednaoui, P; La Ruche, G; Cambau, E

2014-01-01

383

Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

2014-03-31

384

Processing of 3?Extended Read-Through Transcripts by the Exosome Can Generate Functional mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains carrying rna14.1 and rna15.2 mutations are defective in pre-mRNA 3? cleavage, polyadenylation, and transcription termination. Long extended read-through transcripts generated in rna14.1 and rna15.2 strains are greatly stabilized by depletion of Rrp41p, a core component of the exosome complex or the RNA helicase Dob1p\\/Mtr4p. The absence of the nuclear-specific exosome component, Rrp6p, from the rna14.1 strain gave a very

Claire Torchet; Cecile Bousquet-Antonelli; Laura Milligan; Emma Thompson; Joanna Kufel; David Tollervey

2002-01-01

385

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. HOT CELL BUILDING IS AT CENTER LEFT OF VIEW; THE LOW-BAY PROJECTION WITH LADDER IS THE TEST TRAIN ASSEMBLY FACILITY, ADDED IN 1968. MTR BUILDING IS IN LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY BUILDING AT RIGHT IS THE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR BUILDING, TRA-642. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-32-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

386

Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence these PAs need urgent restoration measures and effective conservation planning to address the problems of deforestation, severe degradation and immense loss of water.

Jha, Praveen

387

Reinfiltration through liquid bridges formed between two matrix blocks in fractured rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid reinfiltration is a significant process, which can considerably retard and slowdown the transport of oil, water and contaminants in fractured subsurface formations. However, accurate modeling of the reinfiltration via liquid bridges formed in a horizontal fracture or space between two rock porous blocks remains a controversial topic. In an attempt to improve an understanding of the problem, the reinfiltration from upper to lower matrix blocks through formation of liquid bridges is theoretically modeled by using generalization of the Lucas-Washburn theory for a porous medium, which takes into account pressure differences due to matrix capillary, gravity, inertia, viscous, and fracture capillary forces. The developed model results in a second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), which is solved numerically to obtain depth and rate of the reinfiltrated liquid versus time. The results showed that three reinfiltration regimes: including Early Time Regime (ETR) (z ? t, q = constant), Middle Time Regime (MTR) (z ? ?{ t } , q ? 1 /?{ t }) and Late Time Regime (LTR) (z ? t, q = constant) can be observed, where the inertia, viscous, and gravity forces are dominant, respectively. The results also indicated that by increasing the permeability of the porous medium, the durations of the ETR (z ? t, q = constant) and the LTR (z ? t, q = constant) are prolonged while the duration of the MTR (z ? ?{ t } , q ? 1 /?{ t }) is reduced. Moreover, the results revealed that by increasing the liquid viscosity, the durations of the ETR (z ? t, q = constant) and LTR (z ? t, q = constant) are reduced whereas the duration of the MTR (z ? ?{ t } , q ? 1 /?{ t }) is prolonged. In addition, the results showed that in the case of high permeability of the porous medium when the fracture capillary pressure is strong enough only the LTR (z ? t, q = constant) can be observed. The MTR (z ? ?{ t } , q ? 1 /?{ t }) and the LTR (z ? t, q = constant) scalings are of practical significance since the liquid reinfiltration in fractured rocks associated with gas-liquid drainage mechanism is a very slow process. These findings advance the understanding of the two-phase flow in fractured porous media.

Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Chen, Zhangxin

2014-11-01

388

Multi-parametric MR assessment of T 1 black holes in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Chronic T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) are areas of severe tissue destruction. The purpose of this study was to compare\\u000a total water content (WC),myelin water content (MWC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), T1 relaxation time (T1), mean T2 relaxation time (GMT2) between stable MS lesions that are hypointense and isointense on T1-weighted images.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Six MS patients were

Irene M. Vavasour; David K. B. Li; Cornelia Laule; Anthony L. Traboulsee; G. R. Wayne Moore; Alex L. MacKay

2007-01-01

389

Kinetics of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Scaling From Purified Proteins to Whole Cell Cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To predict biogeochemical reactions in the field, it will be necessary to predict rates and processes from fundamental biochemical observations. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a gram-negative facultative anaerobe that has a versatile respiration system capable of utilizing a large number of terminal electron acceptors. Genetic studies have identified most if not all of the proteins involved in iron reduction; however, the mechanism of iron reduction is yet to be determined. Our research is focused on how this bacterium is able to utilize solid iron forms as its terminal electron acceptor; we are also investigating the reduction of chelated iron forms such as EDTA, NTA and ferric citrate for kinetic comparison. Solid iron oxides are the predominant form which iron is found in the earth's crust under aerobic and circumneutral pH conditions. In order to fully understand how this process works, we have taken a biochemical/kinetics approach. We have measured kinetic constants at three different scales: transient-state kinetic studies using a stop flow, steady-state kinetic from isolated membrane fractions and, whole cell kinetic. With the stop flow, we have measured rate constants between hemeproteins OmcA, MtrA and CctA with EDTA-Fe3+, NTA-Fe3+ and citrate-Fe3+. For steady state kinetics with membrane fractions, we have obtained kinetic constants with EDTA-Fe3+, NTA- Fe3+, citrate-Fe3+ and goethite. The rates are expressed as per mole of MtrC. The hemeprotein MtrC, thought to be the terminal iron reductase, was quantified through Western-blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies. Second order rate constants from stop flow studies are then compared to kcat/Km values obtained from steady state kinetic studies. Similar studies were also performed with whole cells and again normalized to MtrC content. The kinetic constants scale up well for the soluble iron forms but not for the insoluble iron form (goethite). Mechanistic implications from these scale up studies will be discussed.

Brantley, S.; Ross, D.; Tien, M.

2006-12-01

390

Rotary Wing Propulsion Specialists' Meeting, Williamsburg, VA, Nov. 13-15, 1990, Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Topics presented include sound diffraction at a sharp trailing edge in a supersonic flow, the MTR390 turboshaft development program, progress report of the electrostatic engine monitoring system, some corrosion resistant magnesium alloys, handling severe inlet conditions in aircraft fuel pumps, and an over view of inlet protection systems for Army aircraft. Also presented are the advanced control system architecture for the T800 engine, an expert system to perform on-line controller restructuring for abrupt model changes, an enhanced APU for the H-60 series and Sh-2G helicopters, and a linear theory of the North Atlantic blocking during January 1979.

Not Available

1990-01-01

391

Evaluation of btex emission mitigation systems for glycol dehydration units. Topical report, Task 42, November 1991-April 1992  

SciTech Connect

The control of BTEX and other VOC emissions from gas and oil facilities is one of the largest environmental challenges facing the U.S. natural gas industry today. In the study, independent, technoeconomic comparisons were made of the Most Commonly Employed (MCE) process with technologies currently under development by Radian Corporation (R-BTEX), Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR-PerVap), and the well-proven technology of OPC Engineering, Inc. (Drizo). In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each technology were ascertained.

Al-Ubaidi, B.H.; McKee, R.L.

1993-06-01

392

ETR, TRA642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR, TRA-642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY FROM TOP DECK OF COOLING TOWER. SHADOW IS CAST BY COOLING TOWER UNITS OFF LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING IS SURROUNDED BY ITS ATTACHED SERVICES: ELECTRICAL (TRA-648), HEAT EXCHANGER (TRA-644 WITH U-SHAPED YARD), AND COMPRESSOR (TRA-643). THE CONTROL BUILDING (TRA-647) ON THE NORTH SIDE IS HIDDEN FROM VIEW. AT UPPER RIGHT IS MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3798. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

393

ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETRCRITICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETR-CRITICAL FACILITY BUILDING, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO HIGH-BAY ETR), ETR, ONE-STORY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, ELECTRICAL BUILDING, COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. COMPRESSOR AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING ARE PARTLY IN VIEW ABOVE ETR. DARK-COLORED DUCTS PROCEED FROM GROUND CONNECTION TO ETR WASTE GAS STACK. OTHER STACK IS MTR STACK WITH FAN HOUSE IN FRONT OF IT. RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE NEAR TOP OF VIEW IS SETTLING BASIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4102. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

394

Burn-up and Operation Time of Fuel Elements Produced in IPEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present the developed work along the operational and reliability tests of fuel elements produced in the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, IPEN-CNEN/SP, from the 1980's. The study analyzed the U-235 burn evolution and the element remain in the research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel elements are of the type MTR (Material Testing Reactor), the standard with 18 plates and a 12-plate control, with a nominal mean enrichment of 20%.

Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin; Filho, Tufic Madi

2011-08-01

395

EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. TRENCH IN FOREGROUND IS FOR DUCT THAT WILL CARRY COOLANT AIR FROM MTR'S THERMAL SHIELD. DUCT LINES UP WITH NORTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. AT RIGHT OF VIEW, NOTE TRENCH LEADING TO SOUTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE; IT WILL BRING CONTAMINATED AIR FROM LABORATORY HOODS AND VENTS. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2764. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

396

Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

Binford, F.T.

1984-01-01

397

Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors. ISPO C-50 Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

Binford, F.T.

1984-01-01

398

Genome-Wide Investigation of the Role of the tRNA Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking Pathway in Regulation of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome and Proteome  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotic cells, tRNAs are transcribed and partially processed in the nucleus before they are exported to the cytoplasm, where they have an essential role in protein synthesis. Surprisingly, mature cytoplasmic tRNAs shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, and tRNA subcellular distribution is nutrient dependent. At least three members of the ?-importin family, Los1, Mtr10, and Msn5, function in tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic intracellular movement. To test the hypothesis that the tRNA retrograde pathway regulates the translation of particular transcripts, we compared the expression profiles from nontranslating mRNAs and polyribosome-associated translating mRNAs collected from msn5?, mtr10?, and wild-type cells under fed or acute amino acid depletion conditions. Our microarray data revealed that the methionine, arginine, and leucine biosynthesis pathways are targets of the tRNA retrograde process. We confirmed the microarray data by Northern and Western blot analyses. The levels of some of the particular target mRNAs were reduced, while others appeared not to be affected. However, the protein levels of all tested targets in these pathways were greatly decreased when tRNA nuclear import or reexport to the cytoplasm was disrupted. This study provides information that tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics is connected to the biogenesis of proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:23979602

Chu, Hui-Yi

2013-01-01

399

Upgrading wet granulation monitoring from hand squeeze test to mixing torque rheometry  

PubMed Central

With over 50 years of research in granulation technology, however more research is required to elucidate this widely applicable technology. Wetting phenomena could influence redistribution of individual ingredients within a granule according their solubility and also could affect the drying processes. Binder selection for a particular system is quite often empirical and dependent on the skills and experience of the formulator. Hand squeeze test was and still the main way for determination of wet granulation end point, but it is subjected to individual variation. It depends mainly on operator experience, so it is not possible to be validated. Literature reveals a variety of advanced monitoring techniques following up different wet massing stages. Torque measurement has been proved to be the most reliable control method as its tight relation to mass resistance. Many reports showed successful applications of mixing torque rheometer (MTR) for monitoring the wet massing procedure and scale up in addition to some preformulation applications. MTR as a new approach allows formulators to select a liquid addition range where the granule growth behavior is more predictable. PMID:23960772

Sakr, Walid F.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Alanazi, Fars K.; Sakr, Adel A.

2011-01-01

400

Altered functional connectivity related to white matter changes inside the working memory network at the very early stage of MS.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) as paradigm was used to study the functional connectivity in 18 patients at the very early stage of multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with 18 controls, to determine the existence of circuitry disturbance inside the working memory network and its relationship with white matter abnormalities assessed by conventional MRI and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging. The left BA 45/46 was selected as the seed region to compute correlation maps with other brain regions. After obtaining the correlation map for each subject, between-group comparisons were performed using random effect procedure. Compared with controls, patients did not show any greater functional connectivity between left BA 45/46 and other regions during PASAT. In contrast, decrease in functional connectivity was observed in patients between left BA 45/46 and left BA 9, right BA 3, and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). In patients, no correlations were found between altered functional connectivity and clinical data. However, functional connectivity observed between left BA 45/46 and BA 24 in patients was correlated with the MTR of normal appearing white matter, and with brain T(2) lesion load. Altered functional connectivity is present inside the working memory network of patients at the very early stage of MS and is related to the extent of diffuse white matter changes. PMID:15843789

Au Duong, My-Van; Audoin, Bertrand; Boulanouar, Kader; Ibarrola, Daniella; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylrane; Celsis, Pierre; Pelletier, Jean; Cozzone, Patrick J; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

2005-10-01

401

The Mex67p-mediated nuclear mRNA export pathway is conserved from yeast to human.  

PubMed Central

Human TAP is an orthologue of the yeast mRNA export factor Mex67p. In mammalian cells, TAP has a preferential intranuclear localization, but can also be detected at the nuclear pores and shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TAP directly associates with mRNA in vivo, as it can be UV-crosslinked to poly(A)+ RNA in HeLa cells. Both the FG-repeat domain of nucleoporin CAN/Nup214 and a novel human 15 kDa protein (p15) with homology to NTF2 (a nuclear transport factor which associates with RanGDP), directly bind to TAP. When green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TAP and p15 are expressed in yeast, they localize to the nuclear pores. Strikingly, co-expression of human TAP and p15 restores growth of the otherwise lethal mex67::HIS3/mtr2::HIS3 double knockout strain. Thus, the human TAP-p15 complex can functionally replace the Mex67p-Mtr2p complex in yeast and thus performs a conserved role in nuclear mRNA export. PMID:10228171

Katahira, J; Strässer, K; Podtelejnikov, A; Mann, M; Jung, J U; Hurt, E

1999-01-01

402

Magnetization transfer studies of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components in the human brain.  

PubMed

Magnetization transfer (MT) properties of the fast and slow diffusion components recently observed in the human brain were assessed experimentally. One set of experiments, performed at 1.5 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether the amplitudes of fast and slow diffusion components, differentiated on the basis of biexponential fits to signal decays over a wide range of b-factors, demonstrated a different or similar magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Another set of experiments, performed at 3 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether MTRs differed when measured from high signal-to-noise images acquired with b-factor weightings of 350 vs 3500 s/mm2. The 3 T studies included measurements of MTR as a function of off-resonance frequency for the MT pulse at both low and high b-factors. The primary conclusion drawn from all the studies is that there appears to be no significant difference between the magnetization transfer properties of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components. The conclusions do not lend support to a direct interpretation of the 'components' of the biexponential diffusion decay in terms of the 'compartments' associated with intra- and extracellular water. PMID:15578729

Mulkern, Robert V; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Haker, Steven J; Maier, Stephan E

2005-05-01

403

An endogenous artificial microRNA system for unraveling the function of root endosymbioses related genes in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Background Legumes have the unique capacity to undergo two important root endosymbioses: the root nodule symbiosis and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Medicago truncatula is widely used to unravel the functions of genes during these root symbioses. Here we describe the development of an artificial microRNA (amiR)-mediated gene silencing system for M. truncatula roots. Results The endogenous microRNA (miR) mtr-miR159b was selected as a backbone molecule for driving amiR expression. Heterologous expression of mtr-miR159b-amiR constructs in tobacco showed that the backbone is functional and mediates an efficient gene silencing. amiR-mediated silencing of a visible marker was also effective after root transformation of M. truncatula constitutively expressing the visible marker. Most importantly, we applied the novel amiR system to shed light on the function of a putative transcription factor, MtErf1, which was strongly induced in arbuscule-containing cells during mycorrhizal symbiosis. MtPt4 promoter driven amiR-silencing led to strongly decreased transcript levels and deformed, non-fully truncated arbuscules indicating that MtErf1 is required for arbuscule development. Conclusions The endogenous amiR system demonstrated here presents a novel and highly efficient tool to unravel gene functions during root endosymbioses. PMID:23679580

2013-01-01

404

Bioaccumulation and speciation of selenium in fish and insects collected from a mountaintop removal coal mining-impacted stream in West Virginia.  

PubMed

A major contaminant of concern for mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining is selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient that can be toxic to fish. Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), and composite insect samples were collected in March-July, 2011-2013 at two sites within the Mud River, West Virginia. One site (MR7) receives MTR/VF coal mining effluent, while the reference site (LFMR) does not. MR7 water had significantly higher concentrations of soluble Se (p < 0.01) and conductivity (p < 0.005) compared to LFMR. MR7 whole insects contained significantly higher concentrations of Se compared to LFMR insects (p < 0.001). MR7 creek chubs had significantly higher Se in fillets, liver, and ovary tissues compared to LFMR samples (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.02, respectively). MR7 green sunfish fillets contained significantly higher Se (p < 0.0001). Histological examination showed LFMR creek chub gills contained a typical amount of parasitic infestations; however MR7 gills contained minimal to no visible parasites. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses revealed that MR7 whole insects and creek chub tissues primarily contained organic Se and selenite. These two species of Mud River fish were shown to specifically accumulate Se differently in tissues compartments. Tissue-specific concentrations of Se may be useful in determining potential reproductive consequences of Se exposure in wild fish populations. PMID:24723096

Arnold, M C; Lindberg, T Ty; Liu, Y T; Porter, K A; Hsu-Kim, H; Hinton, D E; Di Giulio, R T

2014-07-01

405

Genetic variation in genes involved in folate and drug metabolism in a south Indian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Genetic variations represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) vary across the world population. This genetic polymorphism (such as SNPs) plays an important role in pharmacogenomics. SNPs that affects cellular metabolism, by altering the enzyme activity, have an important role in therapeutic outcome. Allele frequencies in number of clinically relevant SNPs within south Indian populations are not yet known. Hence, we genotyped randomly selected unrelated south Indian subjects from different locations of south India representing the heterogeneous ethnic background of the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Common variants of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULT1A1 gene polymorphisms were screened from healthy unrelated south Indian volunteers. Genotypes were determined using RFLP analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Chi-square test was performed to test for deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each locus. RESULTS: Gene allele frequency for several polymorphisms in our study differed significantly between the populations of other nations reported for several of the SNPs. These results demonstrate that the populations in different geographic regions may have widely varying genetic allele frequencies for clinically relevant SNPs. CONCLUSION: The present study reports, for the first time, the frequency distribution of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULTIA1 gene polymorphisms in a south Indian population. Population-specific genetic polymorphism studies will help in practicing pharmacogenomic principles in the clinics. PMID:21747588

Rai, Padmalatha S; Murali, T. S; Vasudevan, T. G; Prasada, Shama K.; Bhagavath, Ashok Kumar; Pai, Pranita; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

2011-01-01

406

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGLs) and remove water from raw natural gas. To convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process, we plan to conduct an extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions. The membrane system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR). The MTR membrane system and the compressor are now onsite at BP's Pascagoula, MS plant. The plant is undergoing a very significant expansion and the installation of the membrane unit into the test location is being implemented, albeit at a slower rate than we expected. The startup of the system and conducting of tests will occur in the next six months, depending on the availability of the remaining budget. In the interim, significant commercial progress has been made regarding the introduction of the NGL membrane and systems into the natural gas market.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2003-09-29

407

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

Kaaeid Lokhandwala

2007-03-30

408

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provided onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 11 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

2005-09-29

409

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provides onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 13 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

2006-09-29

410

A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice  

PubMed Central

The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or the factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. To determine how the TIN2-DC mutations affect telomere function, we generated mice with the equivalent of the TIN2 K280E DC allele (TIN2DC) by gene targeting. Whereas homozygous TIN2DC/DC mice were not viable, first-generation TIN2+/DC mice were healthy and fertile. In the second and third generations, the TIN2+/DC mice developed mild pancytopenia, consistent with hematopoietic dysfunction in DC, as well as diminished fecundity. Bone marrow telomeres of TIN2+/DC mice shortened over the generations, and immortalized TIN2+/DC mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed telomere shortening with proliferation. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening was accelerated in TIN2+/DC mTR?/? mice and MEFs compared with TIN2+/+ mTR?/? controls, establishing that the TIN2DC telomere maintenance defect was not solely due to diminished telomerase action. The TIN2DC allele induced mild ATR kinase signaling at telomeres and a fragile telomere phenotype, suggestive of telomere replication problems. These data suggest that this TIN2-DC mutation could induce telomeric dysfunction phenotypes in telomerase-negative somatic cells and tissues that further exacerbate the telomere maintenance problems in telomerase-positive stem cell compartments. PMID:24449270

Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

2014-01-01

411

Antioxidant and phenolic acid profiles of tissue cultured and acclimatized Merwilla plumbea plantlets in relation to the applied cytokinins.  

PubMed

Merwilla plumbea (Lindl.) Speta is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. We evaluated the effect of five cytokinins [benzyladenine (BA), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), meta-topolin (mT), meta-topolin riboside (mTR), and meta-methoxy-9-tetrahydropyran-2-yl-topolin (MemTTHP)] on the level of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of M. plumbea during the tissue culture and acclimatization stages. Two cytokinins (mT and mTR) significantly improved the antioxidant activity of tissue culture plantlets while the control plantlets were better after acclimatization. Using UPLC-MS/MS, the levels of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (phenolic acids) varied significantly during tissue culture and acclimatization, depending on the cytokinin and plant part analyzed. Vanillic acid (24.9 ?g g?¹) detected in underground parts of tissue culture plants supplemented with BA was the most abundant phenolic acid detected. The current findings indicate that the phytochemicals together with the bioactivity during in vitro propagation of M. plumbea is influenced by the cytokinin type used and the stage of plant material collection. PMID:23747061

Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Ji?í; Subrtová, Michaela; Szü?ová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Bairu, Michael W; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-10-15

412

Pronounced and Extensive Microtubule Defects in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae DIS3 Mutant  

PubMed Central

Subunits of the RNA processing exosome assemble into structurally distinct protein complexes that function in disparate cellular compartments and RNA metabolic pathways. Here, in a genetic, cell biological, and transcriptomic analysis, we examine the role of Dis3 – an essential polypeptide with endo- and 3’ to 5’ exo-ribonuclease activity – in cell cycle progression. We present several lines of evidence that perturbation of DIS3 affects microtubule (MT) localization and structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells with a DIS3 mutant: (i) accumulate anaphase and pre-anaphase mitotic spindles; (ii) exhibit spindles that are mis-oriented and displaced from the bud neck; (iii) harbor elongated spindle-associated astral MTs; (iv) have an increased G1 astral MT length and number; and (v) are hypersensitive to MT poisons. Mutations in the core exosome genes RRP4 and MTR3 and the exosome cofactor gene MTR4 – but not other exosome subunit gene mutants – also elicit MT phenotypes. RNA deep sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) shows broad changes in the levels of cell cycle- and MT-related transcripts in mutant strains. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggests an evolutionarily conserved role for Dis3 in linking RNA metabolism, MTs, and cell cycle progression. PMID:21919057

Smith, Sarah B.; Kiss, Daniel L.; Turk, Edward; Tartakoff, Alan M.; Andrulis, Erik D.

2012-01-01

413

NTF2-like domain of Tap plays a critical role in cargo mRNA recognition and export  

PubMed Central

Metazoan Tap-p15 (also called Nxf1-Nxt1) and yeast Mex67-Mtr2 heterodimers are the general mRNA export receptors. The RNA binding activity of Tap-p15, which is essential for mRNA nuclear export, has been attributed to the amino-terminal RNA binding module of Tap consists of RNA recognition motif (RRM) and leucine-rich repeat. In this study, we identified a novel RNA interaction surface in the NTF2-like (NTF2L) domain of Tap, which is analogous to the rRNA binding platform of Mex67-Mtr2. Tap-p15 uses the three domains to tightly bind the retroviral constitutive transport element. The RNA binding through the NTF2L domain is functionally relevant as introduction of mutations in this region reduced CTE-containing mRNA export activity. In contrast, only when the RRM and NTF2L domains were mutated simultaneously, bulk poly (A)+ RNA export and in vivo poly (A)+ RNA binding activities of Tap-p15 were significantly attenuated. Moreover, an engineered human cell line harboring the NTF2L domain mutation in the NXF1 gene showed a synthetic growth phenotype and severe mRNA export defect under Aly/REF and Thoc5 depleted condition. These data suggest that Tap-p15 recognizes bulk mRNAs through combinatorial use of the distinct RNA binding domains. PMID:25628355

Katahira, Jun; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Imai, Yumiko; Hurt, Ed

2015-01-01

414

Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.  

PubMed

Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

2011-11-01

415

THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat load. The results will be provided for technical input for the SRS 70 Ton Cask Onsite Safety Assessment. The calculation results show that for the SRS 70 ton dry cask with 2750 watts total heat source with a maximum bundle heat of 670 watts and 9 bundles of MURR bounding fuel, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are below about 263 C. Maximum top surface temperature of the plastic cover is about 112 C, much lower than its melting temperature 260 C. For 12 bundles of MURR bounding fuel with 2750 watts total heat and a maximum fuel bundle of 482 watts, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are bounded by the 9 bundle case. The component temperatures of the cask were calculated by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. The modeling calculations were performed by considering daily-averaged solar heat flux.

Lee, S.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

2011-03-08

416

An In Vivo Study on Brain Microstructure in Biological and Chronological Ageing  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate whether magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) parameters of cortical gray and white matter and subcortical gray matter structures differ between subjects enriched for human familial longevity and control subjects to provide a thorough description of the brain phenotype of familial longevity. Moreover, we aimed to describe cerebral ageing effects on MTI parameters in an elderly cohort. All subjects were included from the Leiden Longevity Study and underwent 3 Tesla MTI of the brain. In total, 183 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched for familial factors of longevity, were contrasted with 163 environmentally and age-matched controls. No differences in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter MTI parameters were found between offspring and control subjects using histogram-based and voxel-wise analyses. Cortical gray matter and white matter MTI parameters decreased with increasing chronological age (all p < 0.001). Decrease of white matter magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was homogeneous throughout the whole mean white matter skeleton except for parts of the callosal splenium and partly the posterior limb of the internal capsule and superior region of the corona radiata (p < 0.05). Mean MTR of subcortical gray matter structures decreased with increasing age (p amygdala, caudate nucleus and putamen < 0.001; p pallidum = 0.001, p thalamus = 0.002). In conclusion, the brain phenotype of human familial longevity is - at a mean age of 66 years - not characterized by preserved macromolecular brain tissue integrity. PMID:25807271

Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A.; Slagboom, Pieternella; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; van Buchem, Mark A.; van der Grond, Jeroen

2015-01-01

417

Vascular architecture in shoots of early divergent vascular plants, Lycopodium clavatum and Lycopodium annotinum.  

PubMed

Lycopodium represents a phylogenetically distinct clade of basal vascular plants with anatomical characters that have no parallel in other lineages. Thus, knowledge of lycopod structure and development may reveal important information about the common ancestors of all vascular plants. Here we report the unique architecture of the conducting system in Lycopodium annotinum and Lycopodium clavatum. Based on multiple series of anatomical sections, we reconstructed spatial relationships between microphylls and the stelar system. Analysis revealed that protoxylem ribs (PXR) were vertical, regardless of type of phyllotaxis, and their numbers were variable. Microphyll traces (MTr) were randomly distributed between ribs, resulting in the absence of defined sympodia and varied lengths of MTr. Dichotomous branching contributed to additional features, for example occurrence of mesarch protoxylem, affecting stele structure and PXR numbers. Our data showed limited interrelationships between lycopod vasculature and microphyll phyllotaxis. This may suggest that both systems developed independently, then evolved together to form the integrated supply system. Thus vasculature in extant lycophytes may be less functionally efficient than in seed plants, where consistent leaf-trace lengths guarantee predictable energy utilization during ontogeny. Differences may result from the phylogenetically different origin of microphylls, and the level of vascular complexity. PMID:17504461

Gola, Edyta M; Jernstedt, Judith A; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

2007-01-01

418

An in vivo study on brain microstructure in biological and chronological ageing.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate whether magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) parameters of cortical gray and white matter and subcortical gray matter structures differ between subjects enriched for human familial longevity and control subjects to provide a thorough description of the brain phenotype of familial longevity. Moreover, we aimed to describe cerebral ageing effects on MTI parameters in an elderly cohort. All subjects were included from the Leiden Longevity Study and underwent 3 Tesla MTI of the brain. In total, 183 offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who are enriched for familial factors of longevity, were contrasted with 163 environmentally and age-matched controls. No differences in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter MTI parameters were found between offspring and control subjects using histogram-based and voxel-wise analyses. Cortical gray matter and white matter MTI parameters decreased with increasing