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Sample records for a508 gr 4n

  1. Microstructural Aspects of Irradiation Damage in A508 Gr 4N Forging Steel: Composition and Flux Effects

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Burke; R.J. Stofanak; J.M. Hyde; C.A. English; W.L. Server

    2002-10-09

    Neutron irradiation can promote significant changes in the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of low alloy steels. In particular, irradiation can induce the formation of non-equilibrium phases and segregation, which may lead to a degradation in toughness. In this study, the microstructural changes caused by neutron irradiation have been characterized in A508 Grade (Gr) 4N-type steels ({approx}3.5% Ni) using a variety of state-of-the-art analytical techniques including 3D-Atom Probe Field-Ion Microscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering, along with post-irradiation annealing studies combining Positron Annihilation Lineshape Analysis and hardness measurements. Important differences between conventional and ''superclean'' A508 Gr 4N steel have been identified in this investigation. The data indicate that Ni is not the controlling factor in the irradiation damage behavior of these materials; rather, the Mn content of the steel is a dominant factor in the irradiation-induced microstructural development of solute-related hardening features.

  2. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  3. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  4. A study on the microstructure and mechanical property of proton irradiated A508-3 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-hong; Lei, Jing; Shu, Guo-gang; Wan, Qiang-mao

    2015-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and the nanoindentation technique were employed to study the dislocation loops and hardening induced in proton irradiated A508-3 steel. The A508-3 steel specimens were irradiated to the dose of 0.054, 0.163, 0.271 dpa at room temperature (RT), 0.163 pa at 250 °C and 0.163, 0.271 dpa at 290 °C. The effect of dose and temperature on the dislocation loops and irradiation hardening was investigated. The results indicated that the dislocation loops were formed in proton irradiated A508-3 steel. The size and number density generally increased with increasing dose at RT. When the irradiation temperature changed from RT to 290 °C, the loop size increased and the loop number density decreased. The irradiation hardening increased with dose. The effect of temperature on the irradiation induced hardening was discussed.

  5. GR uniqueness and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-10-01

    In the metric formulation gravitons are described with the parity symmetric S + 2 ⊗ S - 2 representation of Lorentz group. General Relativity is then the unique theory of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We show that if a chiral S + 3 ⊗ S - representation is used instead, the uniqueness is lost, and there is an infinite-parametric family of theories of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We use the language of graviton scattering amplitudes, and show how the uniqueness of GR is avoided using simple dimensional analysis. The resulting distinct from GR gravity theories are all parity asymmetric, but share the GR MHV amplitudes. They have new all same helicity graviton scattering amplitudes at every graviton order. The amplitudes with at least one graviton of opposite helicity continue to be determinable by the BCFW recursion.

  6. Study on the mechanical properties evolution of A508-3 steel under proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jing; Ding, Hui; Shu, Guo-gang; Wan, Qiang-mao

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to study the effect of irradiation on the hardening behavior of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel, nanoindentation was employed to investigate the mechanical properties of A508-3 steel after an irradiation with 190 keV proton to the dose range of 0.054-0.271 displacement per atom (dpa) at room temperature. The results show that the relationship between the nanohardness and indent depth is in accordance with the Nix-Gao model. The nanohardness of A508-3 steel increases notably with the dose. In addition, the contribution of the irradiation-induced microstructural defects including matrix damage and nano clusters to the irradiation hardening is discussed.

  7. Processing and properties of superclean ASTM A508 Cl. 4 forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, A.V.; Handerhan, K.J.; Manzo, G.J.; Simkins, G.P.

    1988-12-31

    Steels with improved resistance to temper embrittlement are now being produced using ``superclean`` steelmaking technology. This technology involves the use of scrap control, proper electric arc furnace and ladle refining furnace practices to produce steel with very low Mn, Si, P, S and other residual impurities such as Sn, As and Sb. This technology has been applied on a production basis to modified ASTM A508 Cl- 4 material intended for high temperature pressure vessel forgings. Processing and properties of this superclean material are reviewed. In addition, the cleanliness and mechanical properties are compared to conventionally melted A508 Cl. 4 material. The ``superclean`` A508 Cl. 4 mod. was found to meet all specification requirements. In addition, the superclean material was found to possess superior upper shelf CVN properties, a lower FATT{sub 50} and NDTT, along with superior microcleanliness compared to conventional material. Finally, the superclean material was found to be immune to temper embrittlement based on the short-term embrittlement treatments examined.

  8. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Creep rupture testing of alloy 617 and A508/533 base metals and weldments.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-01-17

    The NGNP, which is an advanced HTGR concept with emphasis on both electricity and hydrogen production, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 750-1000 C. Alloy 617 is a prime candidate for VHTR structural components such as reactor internals, piping, and heat exchangers in view of its resistance to oxidation and elevated temperature strength. However, lack of adequate data on the performance of the alloy in welded condition prompted to initiate a creep test program at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, Testing has been initiated to evaluate the creep rupture properties of the pressure vessel steel A508/533 in air and in helium environments. The program, which began in December 2009, was certified for quality assurance NQA-1 requirements during January and February 2010. Specimens were designed and fabricated during March and the tests were initiated in April 2010. During the past year, several creep tests were conducted in air on Alloy 617 base metal and weldment specimens at temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 C. Idaho National Laboratory, using gas tungsten arc welding method with Alloy 617 weld wire, fabricated the weldment specimens. Eight tests were conducted on Alloy 617 base metal specimens and nine were on Alloy 617 weldments. The creep rupture times for the base alloy and weldment tests were up to {approx}3900 and {approx}4500 h, respectively. The results showed that the creep rupture lives of weld specimens are much longer than those for the base alloy, when tested under identical test conditions. The test results also showed that the creep strain at fracture is in the range of 7-18% for weldment samples and were much lower than those for the base alloy, under similar test conditions. In general, the weldment specimens showed more of a flat or constant creep rate region than the base metal specimens. The base alloy and the weldment exhibited tertiary creep

  10. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) {beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Tomoshige; Manoli, Irini; Kelkar, Sujata; Wang, Yonghong; Su, Yan A.; Chrousos, George P.

    2009-04-17

    The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene produces C-terminal GR{beta} and GR{alpha} isoforms through alternative use of specific exons 9{beta} and {alpha}, respectively. We explored the transcriptional activity of GR{beta} on endogenous genes by developing HeLa cells stably expressing EGFP-GR{beta} or EGFP. Microarray analyses revealed that GR{beta} had intrinsic gene-specific transcriptional activity, regulating mRNA expression of a large number of genes negatively or positively. Majority of GR{beta}-responsive genes was distinct from those modulated by GR{alpha}, while GR{beta} and GR{alpha} mutually modulated each other's transcriptional activity in a subpopulation of genes. We did not observe in HCT116 cells nuclear translocation of GR{beta} and activation of this receptor by RU 486, a synthetic steroid previously reported to bind GR{beta} and to induce nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that GR{beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent, gene-specific transcriptional activity, in addition to its previously reported dominant negative effect on GR{alpha}-induced transactivation of GRE-driven promoters.

  11. Synthesis and Cytostatic Evaluation of 4-N-Alkanoyl and 4-N-Alkyl Gemcitabine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Jesse; Sobczak, Adam J.; Balzarini, Jan; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.

    2014-01-01

    Couplings of gemcitabine with the functionalized carboxylic acids (C9-C13) or reactions of 4-N-tosylgemcitabine with the corresponding alkyl amines afforded 4-N-alkanoyl and 4-N-alkyl gemcitabine derivatives. The analogues with a terminal hydroxyl group on the alkyl chain were efficiently fluorinated under conditions that are compatible with protocols for 18F labeling. The 4-N-alkanoylgemcitabines showed potent cytostatic activities in the low nM range against a panel of tumor cell lines while cytotoxicity of the 4-N-alkylgemcitabines were in the low μM range. The cytotoxicity for the 4-N-alkanoylgemcitabine analogues were reduced approximately by two orders of magnitude in the 2′-deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)-deficient CEM/dCK- cell line whereas cytotoxicity of the 4-N-alkylgemcitabines were only 2-5 times lower. None of the compounds acted as efficient substrates for cytosolic dCK, and therefore, the 4-N-alkanoyl analogues need to be converted first to gemcitabine to display a significant cytostatic potential, while 4-N-alkyl derivatives attain the modest activity without “measurable” conversion to gemcitabine. PMID:24341356

  12. Narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel for improved toughness properties

    SciTech Connect

    Penik, M.A. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    Welding of heavy section steel has traditionally used the automatic submerged arc welding (ASAW) process because of the high deposition rates achievable. However, the properties, particularly fracture toughness, of the weld are often inferior when compared to base material. This project evaluated the use of narrow groove gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to improve weld material properties. The welding procedures were developed for ASTM A508 Class 4 base material using a 1% Ni filler material complying to AWS Specification A.23-90-EF3-F3-N. A narrow groove joint preparation was used in conjunction with the GTAW process so competitive fabrication rates could be achieved when compared to the ASAW process. Weld procedures were developed to refine weld substructure to achieve better mechanical properties. Two heaters of weld wire were used to examine the effects of minor filler metal chemistry differences on weld mechanical properties. Extensive metallographic evaluations showed excellent weld quality with a refined microstructure. Chemical analysis of the weld metal showed minimal weld dilution by the base metal. Mechanical testing included bend and tensile tests to ensure weld quality and strength. A Charpy impact energy curve versus temperature and fracture toughness curve versus temperature were developed for each weld wire heat. Results of fracture toughness and Charpy impact testing indicated an improved transition temperature closer to that of the base material properties.

  13. TEM Observation of Martensite Layer at the Weld Interface of an A508III to Inconel 82 Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. R.; Lu, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A lenticular martensite layer at the weld interface in an A508III/Inconel 82 dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint was studied by TEM. The martensite/weld metal boundary was observed as the fusion boundary. There was a K-S orientation relationship between martensite and weld metal. The formation of the martensite was mainly determined by the distribution of alloy elements. The martensite was responsible for the hardness peak in the DMW.

  14. Model of the static universe within GR

    SciTech Connect

    Karbanovski, V. V. Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N.

    2011-01-15

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and 'exotic' matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  15. An evaluation of the stability of synthetic groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; Baechler, M.O.; Payne, J.R.

    1984-10-08

    Simple solubility calculations indicate that synthetic groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4 may be unstable with respect to the precipitation of certain components. However, the validity of calculations of this type is limited by the complexity of these solutions. In order to properly address the chemical stability of these formulations, an experimental evaluation has been accomplished. The findings were that GR-3 and GR-4 were similar in their chemical stability. Both were found to be quite stable with respect to all constituents except silicate and inorganic carbon over a 30-day period. Some instability of monomeric silicate was observed. However, this did not result in a concentration change of greater than 5%, and no evidence of particulate formation was observed. 6 refs., 30 tabs.

  16. The last 50 years of general relativity and gravitation: from GR3 to GR20 Warsaw conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2014-05-01

    This article has a dual purpose: i) to provide a flavor of the scientific highlights of the landmark conference, GR3, held in July 1962 at Jablonna, near Warsaw; and, ii) to present a bird's eye view of the tremendous advances that have occurred over the half century that separates GR3 and GR20, which was again held in Warsaw in July 2013.

  17. Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one year active surveillance program for influenza A viruses among avian species in a live-bird market (LBM) in Bangkok, Thailand was conducted in 2009. Out of 970 samples collected, influenza A virus subtypes H4N6 (n=2) and H4N9 (n=1), were isolated from healthy Muscovy ducks. All three viruses w...

  18. Deformations of GR and BH thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-08-01

    In four space–time dimensions General Relativity can be non-trivially deformed. Deformed theories continue to describe two propagating degrees of freedom, as GR. We study Euclidean black hole thermodynamics of these deformations. We use the recently developed formulation that works with {{SO}}(3) connections as well as certain matrices M of auxiliary fields. We show that the black hole entropy is given by one quarter of the horizon area as measured by the Lie algebra valued two-form MF, where F is the connection curvature. This coincides with the horizon area as measured by the metric only for the case of General Relativity.

  19. An evaluation of the stability of synthetic Grande Ronde groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; Baechler, M.O.; Payne, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    Simple solubility calculations indicate that synthetic Grande Ronde groundwater formulations GR-3 and GR-4 may be unstable with respect to the precipitation of certain components. The validity of calculations of this type is, however, limited by the complexity of the solutions. To address the chemical stability of these formulations properly, an experimental evaluation was performed. The evaluation revealed that GR-3 and GR-4 were similar in their chemical stability. Both were found to be quite stable with respect to all constituents, except silicate and inorganic carbon, over a 30-d period. Some instability of monomeric silicate was observed. However, this did not result in a concentration change of greater than 5%, and no evidence of particulate formation was observed. Both formulations were found to be relatively unstable with respect to inorganic carbon concentration. A general trend toward increasing carbon concentration was observed. This was attributed to absorption of CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere. Storing the synthetic groundwater in sealed containers eliminated this problem. 5 refs., 24 tabs.

  20. Potential for 4-n-nonylphenol biodegradation in stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was investigated in three hydrologically distinct streams impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the United States. Microcosms were prepared with sediments from each site and amended with [U-ring-14C]4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) as a model test substrate. Microcosms prepared with sediment collected upstream of the WWTP outfalls and incubated under oxic conditions showed rapid and complete mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4- n-NP to 14CO2 in all three systems. In contrast, no mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP was observed in these sediments under anoxic (methanogenic) conditions. The initial linear rate of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP mineralization in sediments from upstream and downstream of the respective WWTP outfalls was inversely correlated with the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the streambed sediments. These results suggest that the net supply of dissolved oxygen to streambed sediments is a key determinant of the rate and extent of 4-NP biodegradation in stream systems. In the stream systems considered by the present study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the overlying water column (8–10 mg/L) and in the bed sediment pore water (1–3 mg/L at a depth of 10 cm below the sediment–water interface) were consistent with active in situ 4-NP biodegradation. These results suggest WWTP procedures that maximize the delivery of dissolved oxygen while minimizing the release of BOD to stream receptors favor efficient biodegradation of 4-NP contaminants in wastewater-impacted stream environments.

  1. Effects of composition and heat treatment on the toughness of ASTM A508 Grade 3 Class 1 material for pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hansen, S.S.; Nelson, T.D.; Focht, R.B.

    1997-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of composition and heat treatment on the toughness of ASTM A508 Grade 3 Class 1 material for pressure vessels. Five steels were vacuum induction melted and cast as ingots in the laboratory. These heats included a base steel representing the specification mid-range analysis, a steel containing higher levels of Si, Ni, and Cr (high-side composition) as compared to the base steel, and three steels derived from the high-side composition by adding Al, Al/N, and Nb, respectively. The ingots were rolled to plate, heat treated, and evaluated. Among these steels, the high-side composition with additions of Al and N displays the best strength/toughness combination. For example, a 75 mm-thick plate of this steel has acceptable strength and a reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) of {le} {minus} 29 C after austenitizing at 875 C, air cooling, and tempering at 660 C for up to 20 hours. Upper-nose temper embrittlement (UNTE) occurs in all these steels. This UNTE is attributed to the precipitation of needle-like Mo-rich carbides during tempering, and is significantly reduced by increasing the cooling rate after austenitizing.

  2. Degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol under nitrate reducing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Viñas, Marc; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor present as a pollutant in river sediment. Biodegradation of NP can reduce its toxicological risk. As sediments are mainly anaerobic, degradation of linear (4-n-NP) and branched nonylphenol (tNP) was studied under methanogenic, sulphate reducing and denitrifying conditions in NP polluted river sediment. Anaerobic bioconversion was observed only for linear NP under denitrifying conditions. The microbial population involved herein was further studied by enrichment and molecular characterization. The largest change in diversity was observed between the enrichments of the third and fourth generation, and further enrichment did not affect the diversity. This implies that different microorganisms are involved in the degradation of 4-n-NP in the sediment. The major degrading bacteria were most closely related to denitrifying hexadecane degraders and linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degraders. The molecular structures of alkanes and LAS are similar to the linear chain of 4-n-NP, this might indicate that the biodegradation of linear NP under denitrifying conditions starts at the nonyl chain. Initiation of anaerobic NP degradation was further tested using phenol as a structure analogue. Phenol was chosen instead of an aliphatic analogue, because phenol is the common structure present in all NP isomers while the structure of the aliphatic chain differs per isomer. Phenol was degraded in all cases, but did not affect the linear NP degradation under denitrifying conditions and did not initiate the degradation of tNP and linear NP under the other tested conditions. PMID:20640878

  3. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39–2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations. PMID:26876364

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa Symbiont Sinorhizobium/Ensifer meliloti Strain GR4

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Martínez-Rodríguez, Laura; López-Contreras, José Antonio; Jiménez-Zurdo, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the multipartite genome of Sinorhizobium/Ensifer meliloti GR4, a predominant rhizobial strain in an agricultural field site. The genome (total size, 7.14 Mb) consists of five replicons: one chromosome, two expected symbiotic megaplasmids (pRmeGR4c and pRmeGR4d), and two accessory plasmids (pRmeGR4a and pRmeGR4b). PMID:23409262

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa Symbiont Sinorhizobium/Ensifer meliloti Strain GR4.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Martínez-Rodríguez, Laura; López-Contreras, José Antonio; Jiménez-Zurdo, José Ignacio; Toro, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the multipartite genome of Sinorhizobium/Ensifer meliloti GR4, a predominant rhizobial strain in an agricultural field site. The genome (total size, 7.14 Mb) consists of five replicons: one chromosome, two expected symbiotic megaplasmids (pRmeGR4c and pRmeGR4d), and two accessory plasmids (pRmeGR4a and pRmeGR4b). PMID:23409262

  6. GR-FET application for high-frequency detection device

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A small forbidden gap matched to low-energy photons (meV) and a quasi-Dirac electron system are both definitive characteristics of bilayer graphene (GR) that has gained it considerable interest in realizing a broadly tunable sensor for application in the microwave region around gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regimes. In this work, a systematic study is presented which explores the GHz/THz detection limit of both bilayer and single-layer graphene field-effect transistor (GR-FET) devices. Several major improvements to the wiring setup, insulation architecture, graphite source, and bolometric heating of the GR-FET sensor were made in order to extend microwave photoresponse past previous reports of 40 GHz and to further improve THz detection. PMID:23305264

  7. mKikGR, a Monomeric Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kochaniak, Anna B.; Miyawaki, Atsushi; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2008-01-01

    The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging. PMID:19079591

  8. Purification of stearidonic acid (18:4(n-3)) and hexadecatetraenoic acid (16:4(n-3)) from algal fatty acid with lipase and medium pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Murata, M; Kaneniwa, M; Saito, H; Komatsu, W; Shinohara, K

    2000-11-01

    Stearidonic acid (18:4(n-3)) and hexadecatetraenoic acid (16:4(n-3)) are included in some edible marine algae such as Undaria pinnatifida and Ulva pertusa with relatively high compositions (up to 40%) of total fatty acids. In order to prepare 16:4(n-3) and 18:4(n-3) enriched fatty acid concentrates, we screened for a suitable lipase which concentrates these acids by the removal of other fatty acids in the selective esterification reaction reported by Shimada et al. (Shimada et al. (1997), J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 74, 1465-1470). In combination with the lipase reaction and reversed-phase medium pressure liquid chromatography, we purified 18:4(n-3) and 16:4(n-3) to more than 95% purity. PMID:11193415

  9. Variable stars in the dwarf galaxy GR 8 (DDO 155)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Saha, A.; Hoessel, John G.; Danielson, G. Edward

    1995-01-01

    Observations of the resolved stars in dwarf galaxy GR 8, obtained over the period 1980 February to 1994 March, are presented. Thirty-four separate epochs were searched for variable stars, and a total of six were found, of which one has Cepheid characteristics. After correction for Galactic extinction this single Cepheid yields a distance modulus of m - M = 26.75 +/- 0.35. This corresponds to a distance of 2.24 Mpc, placing GR 8 near the Local Group (LG) zero-velocity surface. The other five variable stars are very red, and possibly have long periods of order 100 days or more.

  10. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Micah J; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H; Kino, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561-693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK. PMID:26652733

  11. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody and Expression Analysis of GR in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhu, Benzhong; Luo, Yunbo; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxing

    The fruit ripening of Green-ripe (Gr) mutant tomato was inhibited dramatically. To determine the expression patterns of Gr in tomato, we first produced the polyclonal antibody of Gr protein. RT-PCR was used to amplify the Gr gene from green ripe tomato fruit. And the PCR product was subcloned into prokaryotic protein expression vectors pET-30a to generate recombinant plasmid. The Gr protein was induced by IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. The anti-Gr serum was produced by immunizing rabbits, and the titer of the anti-Gr serum was above 5000 by ELISA analysis. Purified by the DEAE-52 ion-column, the high purification level of anti-Gr polyclonal antibody was obtained. Furthermore, RT-CPR was used in the RNA level to demonstrate that the expression of Gr gene was specialized in some cultures of tomato. For example, the expressions of Gr were higher in seed, flower and green ripe fruit than others, and the expression level were reduced by exogenous ethylene treatment in the flower and green ripe fruit. Moreover, Polyclonal antibody of Gr was used to investigate the expression pattern of Gr in protein level by the Western blotting. Our results show that the expression level of Gr in protein level was complied with the expressions in RNA. So, we suggested that the regulation of Gr was transcriptional.

  12. Iceland: Grímsvötn Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere     ... p.m. local time (1730 UTC) on Saturday, May 21, 2011. The volcano, located approximately 140 miles (220 kilometers) east of the capital ...

  13. Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Toryn M.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Matthews, Laura; Loudon, Andrew S.; Ray, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can regulate GR transactivation. Unrestricted proline isomerisation can be inhibited by adjacent serine phosphorylation and requires a prolyl isomerise, Pin1. Pin1 therefore determines the functional outcome of proline-directed kinases acting on the GR, as cis/trans isomers are distinct pools with different interacting proteins. We show that Pin1 mediates GR transactivation, but not GR trans-repression. Two N-terminal GR serines, S203 and S211, are targets for Pin1 potentiation of GR transactivation, establishing a direct link between Pin1 and the GR. We also demonstrate GC-activated co-recruitment of GR and Pin1 to the GILZ gene promoter. The Pin1 effect required both its WW and catalytic domains, and GR recruitment to its GRE was Pin1-dependent. Therefore, Pin1 is a selective regulator of GR transactivation, acting through N-terminal phospho-serine residues to regulate GR recruitment to its target sites in the genome. As Pin1 is dysregulated in disease states, this interaction may contribute to altered GC action in inflammatory conditions. PMID:23887939

  14. Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS): A practical tool for earth science visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III; Doty, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on grid analysis and display system (GrADS): a practical tool for earth science visualization are presented. Topics covered include: GrADS design goals; data sets; and temperature profiles.

  15. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III

    1994-01-01

    During the period 1 September 1993 - 31 August 1994, further development of the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was conducted at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) of the Institute of Global Environment and Society, Inc. (IGES) under subcontract 5555-31 from the University Space Research Association (USRA) administered by The Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences (CESDIS). This final report documents progress made under this subcontract and provides directions on how to access the software and documentation developed therein. A short description of GrADS is provided followed by summary of progress completed and a summary of the distribution of the software to date and the establishment of research collaborations.

  16. Is there a mildly relativistic jet in SN2007gr?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; van der Horst, A. J.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Bourke, S.; Campbell, R. M.; Garrett, M. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2011-02-01

    SN2007gr was an ordinary type Ic supernova, with a hint of asymmetric explosion seen in the optical polarization spectrum. This type of SNe is occasionally associated with long duration gamma-ray bursts which generate ultra-relativistic jets; no relativistic outflows have yet been found by direct imaging in SNe Ib/c explosions. High resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data and simultaneous total radio flux density measurements indicated that SN2007gr has expanded mildly relativistically. We performed late time Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations to measure the level of the underlying extended emission. Comparison of the VLBI and the background-subtracted WSRT and independent VLA data indicate an at least partially resolved source with an average expansion velocity of >=0.4c, although the VLBI data could be consistent with a fainter source with an expansion velocity of ~0.2c as well.

  17. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  18. e-VLBI detection of SN2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Kouveliotou, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M.

    2007-09-01

    We observed the Type Ibc SN2007gr on 6-7 September for 12 hours (21:00-09:00 UTC) at 4.97 GHz with the the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e- VLBI technique. Participating telescopes were Darnhall, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Medicina, Onsala, Torun and Westerbork (phased array of 14 telescopes). The aggregate bitrate was 256 Mbps, except for Darnhall which contributed with an effective data rate of 128 Mbps due to analog bandwidth restrictions.

  19. Gr33a modulates Drosophila male courtship preference.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yujia; Han, Yi; Shao, Yingyao; Wang, Xingjun; Ma, Yeqing; Ling, Erjun; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In any gamogenetic species, attraction between individuals of the opposite sex promotes reproductive success that guarantees their thriving. Consequently, mate determination between two sexes is effortless for an animal. However, choosing a spouse from numerous attractive partners of the opposite sex needs deliberation. In Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are equally liked options to males; nevertheless, when given options, males prefer younger females to older ones. Non-volatile cuticular hydrocarbons, considered as major pheromones in Drosophila, constitute females' sexual attraction that act through males' gustatory receptors (Grs) to elicit male courtship. To date, only a few putative Grs are known to play roles in male courtship. Here we report that loss of Gr33a function or abrogating the activity of Gr33a neurons does not disrupt male-female courtship, but eliminates males' preference for younger mates. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Gr33a neurons abolishes males' preference behavior. Such function of APP is mediated by the transcription factor forkhead box O (dFoxO). These results not only provide mechanistic insights into Drosophila male courtship preference, but also establish a novel Drosophila model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:25586066

  20. Gr33a Modulates Drosophila Male Courtship Preference

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yujia; Han, Yi; Shao, Yingyao; Wang, Xingjun; Ma, Yeqing; Ling, Erjun; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In any gamogenetic species, attraction between individuals of the opposite sex promotes reproductive success that guarantees their thriving. Consequently, mate determination between two sexes is effortless for an animal. However, choosing a spouse from numerous attractive partners of the opposite sex needs deliberation. In Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are equally liked options to males; nevertheless, when given options, males prefer younger females to older ones. Non-volatile cuticular hydrocarbons, considered as major pheromones in Drosophila, constitute females' sexual attraction that act through males' gustatory receptors (Grs) to elicit male courtship. To date, only a few putative Grs are known to play roles in male courtship. Here we report that loss of Gr33a function or abrogating the activity of Gr33a neurons does not disrupt male-female courtship, but eliminates males' preference for younger mates. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Gr33a neurons abolishes males' preference behavior. Such function of APP is mediated by the transcription factor forkhead box O (dFoxO). These results not only provide mechanistic insights into Drosophila male courtship preference, but also establish a novel Drosophila model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:25586066

  1. Application of Gr/PMR-15 to commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postlewaite, J.; Porter, K.; Mclaren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Following from early experience with polyimides on the SST program and Shuttle aft flap studies the Boeing Company is now working on collaborative programs with its principal nacelle suppliers to pursue the development of Gr/PMR-15 nacelle components. Two programs are currently in effect. The first program is directed specifically towards the flight test and service evaluation at the earliest possible date of a 747 nacelle core cowl structure. The second program seeks to firmly establish the producibility and cost of a 757 thrust reverser C duct in a production environment. The near term objectives of these programs include: (1) the comparison of estimated cost and weight of Gr/PMR-15 versus metal structure, (2) the engine test of representative composite structure, (3) the preliminary design and analysis of the C duct structure, and (4) the preparation of cost data and time schedules for the development and producibility program. In addition to powerplant structure, the propulsion ducting system has shown to be a strong candidate for Gr/PMR-15 application. Currently, the Boeing 747 Organization is evaluating the use of PMR-15 matrix composites to replace nearly 800 lbs of titanium ducting per airplane.

  2. Grüneisen parameter for gases and superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Mariano; Menegasso, Paulo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Seridonio, Antonio; Lagos, Roberto E.

    2016-09-01

    The Grüneisen ratio (Γ), i.e. the ratio of the thermal expansivity to the specific heat at constant pressure, quantifies the degree of anharmonicity of the potential governing the physical properties of a system. While Γ has been intensively explored in solid state physics, very little is known about its behavior for gases. This is most likely due to the difficulties posed in carrying out both thermal expansion and specific heat measurements in gases with high accuracy as a function of pressure and temperature. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge a comprehensive discussion about the peculiarities of the Grüneisen ratio is still lacking in the literature. Here we report on a detailed and comprehensive overview of the Grüneisen ratio. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of Γ for gases. The main findings of this work are: (i) for the van der Waals gas Γ depends only on the co-volume b due to interaction effects, it is smaller than that for the ideal gas (Γ = 2/3) and diverges upon approaching the critical volume; (ii) for the Bose–Einstein condensation of an ideal boson gas, assuming the transition as first-order, Γ diverges upon approaching a critical volume, similarly to the van der Waals gas; (iii) for 4He at the superfluid transition Γ shows a singular behavior. Our results reveal that Γ can be used as an appropriate experimental tool to explore pressure-induced critical points.

  3. A fluorescent alternative to the synthetic strigolactone GR24.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Heugebaert, Thomas; Matthys, Cedrick; Van Deun, Rik; Boyer, Francois-Didier; Goormachtig, Sofie; Stevens, Christian; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones have recently been implicated in both above- and below-ground developmental pathways in higher plants. To facilitate the molecular and chemical properties of strigolactones in vitro and in vivo, we have developed a fluorescent strigolactone molecule, CISA-1, synthesized via a novel method which was robust, high-yielding, and used simple starting materials. We demonstrate that CISA-1 has a broad range of known strigolactone activities and further report on an adventitious rooting assay in Arabidopsis which is a highly sensitive and rapid method for testing biological activity of strigolactone analogs. In this rooting assay and the widely used Orobanche germination assay, CISA-1 showed stronger biological activity than the commonly tested GR24. CISA-1 and GR24 were equally effective at inhibiting branching in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. In both the branching and adventitious rooting assay, we also demonstrated that CISA-1 activity is dependent on the max strigolactone signaling pathway. In water methanol solutions, CISA-1 was about threefold more stable than GR24, which may contribute to the increased activity observed in the various biological tests. PMID:23024210

  4. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II. Witnessing entanglement in 4Nx4N systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna

    2010-11-15

    We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4Nx4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, another construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4Nx4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.

  5. An alternative to Mie-Grüneisen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William

    2015-06-01

    The Mie-Grüneisen thermal equation of state is probably the most-used EOS form in high-pressure physics, because of its simplicity and the fact that it provides a reasonable description of the thermal energy while keeping the overall EOS analytic. However, use of the Grüneisen parameter, γ, places restrictions on forms that can be used for the specific heat, while the volume dependence often ascribed to γ can be too simplistic. These shortcomings complicate attempts to realistically include explicit temperature dependence in models. I suggest an alternative using the Einstein thermal model with a correction term. The Einstein characteristic temperature θ can be obtained as a function of volume using the bulk modulus and Poisson ratio. Combination with any analytic and differentiable cold curve formulation results in a complete analytic EOS with volume and temperature as the natural independent variables. In the case of the quasiharmonic approximation with negligible electronic or magnetic thermal energy terms, internal energy or pressure can replace temperature as the second independent variable while maintaining analyticity. Use of this model is restricted to temperatures above 0.39 θ, where the Einstein and Debye specific heats are quantitatively similar. Work performed under U. S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  6. Coactivation of GR and NFKB alters the repertoire of their binding sites and target genes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nagesha A.S.; McCalman, Melysia T.; Moulos, Panagiotis; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos N.; Alexis, Michael N.; Mitsiou, Dimitra J.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) exerts anti-inflammatory action in part by antagonizing proinflammatory transcription factors such as the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFKB). Here, we assess the crosstalk of activated GR and RELA (p65, major NFKB component) by global identification of their binding sites and target genes. We show that coactivation of GR and p65 alters the repertoire of regulated genes and results in their association with novel sites in a mutually dependent manner. These novel sites predominantly cluster with p65 target genes that are antagonized by activated GR and vice versa. Our data show that coactivation of GR and NFKB alters signaling pathways that are regulated by each factor separately and provide insight into the networks underlying the GR and NFKB crosstalk. PMID:21750107

  7. Synthesis of two-dimensional titanium nitride Ti4N3 (MXene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbankowski, Patrick; Anasori, Babak; Makaryan, Taron; Er, Dequan; Kota, Sankalp; Walsh, Patrick L.; Zhao, Mengqiang; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-01

    We report on the synthesis of the first two-dimensional transition metal nitride, Ti4N3-based MXene. In contrast to the previously reported MXene synthesis methods - in which selective etching of a MAX phase precursor occurred in aqueous acidic solutions - here a molten fluoride salt is used to etch Al from a Ti4AlN3 powder precursor at 550 °C under an argon atmosphere. We further delaminated the resulting MXene to produce few-layered nanosheets and monolayers of Ti4N3Tx, where T is a surface termination (F, O, or OH). Density functional theory calculations of bare, non-terminated Ti4N3 and terminated Ti4N3Tx were performed to determine the most energetically stable form of this MXene. Bare and functionalized Ti4N3 are predicted to be metallic. Bare Ti4N3 is expected to show magnetism, which is significantly reduced in the presence of functional groups.We report on the synthesis of the first two-dimensional transition metal nitride, Ti4N3-based MXene. In contrast to the previously reported MXene synthesis methods - in which selective etching of a MAX phase precursor occurred in aqueous acidic solutions - here a molten fluoride salt is used to etch Al from a Ti4AlN3 powder precursor at 550 °C under an argon atmosphere. We further delaminated the resulting MXene to produce few-layered nanosheets and monolayers of Ti4N3Tx, where T is a surface termination (F, O, or OH). Density functional theory calculations of bare, non-terminated Ti4N3 and terminated Ti4N3Tx were performed to determine the most energetically stable form of this MXene. Bare and functionalized Ti4N3 are predicted to be metallic. Bare Ti4N3 is expected to show magnetism, which is significantly reduced in the presence of functional groups. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02253g

  8. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary GR Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Fu, J. N.; Xue, H. F.

    2016-07-01

    We present CCD photometry and low-resolution spectra of the eclipsing binary GR Boo. A new ephemeris is determined based on all the available times of the minimum light. The period analysis reveals that the orbital period is decreasing with a rate of dP / dt = - 2.05 ×10-10 d yr-1 . A photometric analysis for the obtained light curves is performed with the Wilson-Devinney Differential Correction program for the first time. The photometric solutions confirm the W UMa-type nature of the binary system. The mass ratio turns out to be q = 0.985 ± 0.001 . The evolutionary status and physical nature of the binary system are briefly discussed.

  9. Search for resonances in 4n, 7H and 9He via transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, S.; Tryggestad, E.; Rich, E.; Beaumel, D.; Becheva, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Delaunay, F.; Frascaria, N.; Guillot, J.; Hammache, F.; Khan, E.; Lima, V.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2007-05-22

    Investigation of unbound nuclear systems 9He, 7H and 4n was performed at GANIL-SPIRAL using the 8He beam at 15.3 A MeV and a CD2 target. The missing mass spectra were deduced from kinetic energies and emission angles of light ejectiles detected by the Silicon array MUST. In addition to previously known low-lying narrow resonant states in 9He, the d(8He,p) reaction displays a structure just above neutron emission threshold, identified with the 'true' ground state of 9He. The analysis of angular distributions shows that the inversion of s1/2 and p1/2 neutron shells previously observed in 11Be and 10Li also exists in the lightest N=7 isotone 9He. The d(8He,3He) and d(8He,6Li) reactions were used to search for resonant states in the t+4n (7H) and 4n systems, respectively. The missing mass spectrum of the 4n system does not give evidence for the existence of a bound 'tetraneutron'. However the comparison with the results of 5-body phase-space calculations emphasizes the existence of correlations in the 4n system. The broad structure observed at {approx_equal}2 MeV above the t+4n emission threshold is proposed to be the ground state of 7H.

  10. Synthesis of two-dimensional titanium nitride Ti4N3 (MXene).

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Patrick; Anasori, Babak; Makaryan, Taron; Er, Dequan; Kota, Sankalp; Walsh, Patrick L; Zhao, Mengqiang; Shenoy, Vivek B; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-06-01

    We report on the synthesis of the first two-dimensional transition metal nitride, Ti4N3-based MXene. In contrast to the previously reported MXene synthesis methods - in which selective etching of a MAX phase precursor occurred in aqueous acidic solutions - here a molten fluoride salt is used to etch Al from a Ti4AlN3 powder precursor at 550 °C under an argon atmosphere. We further delaminated the resulting MXene to produce few-layered nanosheets and monolayers of Ti4N3Tx, where T is a surface termination (F, O, or OH). Density functional theory calculations of bare, non-terminated Ti4N3 and terminated Ti4N3Tx were performed to determine the most energetically stable form of this MXene. Bare and functionalized Ti4N3 are predicted to be metallic. Bare Ti4N3 is expected to show magnetism, which is significantly reduced in the presence of functional groups. PMID:27211286

  11. Neuroprotective actions of GR89696, a highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, P. J.; Rogers, H.; Hayes, A. G.; Hayward, N. J.; Tyers, M. B.; Scopes, D. I.; Naylor, A.; Judd, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of a novel, highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, has been evaluated in two animal models of cerebral ischaemia: transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion in the Mongolian gerbil and permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse. 2. In the Mongolian gerbil model, administration of GR89696 (3 to 30 micrograms kg-1, s.c.), immediately before and at 4 h after insult, produced a dose-dependent reduction in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal cell loss resulting from a 7-min bilateral carotid occlusion. Similar effects were obtained with two other kappa-agonists, GR86014 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.) and GR91272 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.). The neuroprotective effect of GR89696 was completely blocked by prior administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, at 10 mgkg-1, s.c. Repeated post-treatment with GR89696 (100 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) or GR44821 (10 mgkg-1, s.c.) was also effective in protecting completely the hippocampal CA1 neurones from ischaemia-induced neurodegeneration. 3. In the permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the mouse, repeated administration of GR89696 at 300 micrograms kg-1, s.c. produced a 50% reduction in cerebrocortical infarct volume. In these experiments GR89696 was dosed 5 min, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after occlusion on the first day and then three times daily for the next three days. GR89696 (300 micrograms kg-1) also produced a significant 35% reduction in infarct volume in this model when the initiation of dosing was delayed for 6 h after the insult. 4. The results indicate that the potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, is neuroprotective in both global and focal cerebral ischaemia models and suggest that, with this class of compound, there may be a considerable time window for pharmacological intervention. PMID:1657267

  12. 77 FR 40511 - Safety Zone; GR Symphony Fireworks Display, Kalamazoo Lake, Saugatuck, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; GR Symphony Fireworks Display, Kalamazoo... restrict vessels from a portion of Kalamazoo Lake during the GR Symphony Fireworks display. This...

  13. Synthesis of highly enantio-enriched stereoisomers of hydroxy-GR24.

    PubMed

    Morris, J C; McErlean, C S P

    2016-01-28

    In contrast to a biomimetic electrophilic cyclisation cascade, we employ a contra-biomimetic nucleophilic cyclisation cascade to give the tricyclic core of 4-hydroxy-GR24 in a single step. Kinetic resolution using a stereoselective Noyori transfer hydrogenation enables the concise synthesis of any enantiomerically enriched 4-hydroxy-GR24 stereoisomer. PMID:26691225

  14. GR740: Rad-Hard Quad-Core LEON4FT System-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijorth, Magnus; Aberg, Martin; Wessman, Nils-Johan; Andersson, Jan; Chevallier, Remy; Forsyth, Russel; Weigand, Rolad; Fossati, Luca

    2015-09-01

    The GR740 microprocessor device is a SPARC V8(E) based multi-core architecture that provides a significant performance increase compared to earlier generations of European space processors. The GR740 is currently in development at Cobham Gaisler, Sweden, and STMicroelectronics, France, in activities to develop the Next Generation Microprocessor (NGMP) initiated and funded by the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. Immobilization of Mn and NH4 (+)-N from electrolytic manganese residue waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongliang; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Shu, Jiancheng; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was the immobilization of soluble manganese (Mn) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) leached from electrolytic manganese residue (EMR). Immobilization of Mn was investigated via carbonation using carbon dioxide (CO2) and alkaline additives. NH4 (+)-N immobilization was evaluated via struvite precipitation using magnesium and phosphate sources. Results indicated that the immobilization efficiency of Mn using CO2 and quicklime (CaO) was higher than using CO2 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This higher efficiency was likely due to the slower release of OH(-) during CaO hydrolysis. The immobilization efficiency of Mn was >99.99 % at the CaO:EMR mass ratio of 0.05:1 for 20-min reaction time. The struvite precipitation of NH4 (+)-N was conducted in the carbonated EMR slurry and the immobilization efficiency was 89 % using MgCl2 · 6H2O + Na3PO4 · 12H2O at the Mg:P:N molar ratio of 1.5:1.5:1 for 90-min reaction time. A leaching test showed that the concentrations of Mn and NH4 (+)-N in the filtrate of the treated EMR were 0.2 and 9 mg/L, respectively. The combined immobilization of Mn and NH4 (+)-N was an effective pretreatment method in the harmless treatment of the EMR. PMID:26979316

  16. Ab initio study of thermodynamic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and elastic properties of Ni4N allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemzalová, P.; Friák, M.; Šob, M.; Ma, D.; Udyansky, A.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2013-11-01

    We have employed parameter-free density functional theory calculations to study the thermodynamic stability and structural parameters as well as elastic and electronic properties of Ni4N in eight selected crystallographic phases. In agreement with the experimental findings, the cubic structure with Pearson symbol cP5, space group Pm3¯m (221) is found to be the most stable and it is also the only thermodynamically stable structure at T=0 K with respect to decomposition to the elemental Ni crystal and N2 gas phase. We determine structural parameters, bulk moduli, and their pressure derivatives for all eight allotropes. The thermodynamic stability and bulk modulus is shown to be anticorrelated. Comparing ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic states, we find common features between the magnetism of elemental Ni and studied ferromagnetic Ni4N structures. For the ground-state Ni4N structure and other two Ni4N cubic allotropes, we predict a complete set of single-crystalline elastic constants (in the equilibrium and under hydrostatic pressure), the Young and area moduli, as well as homogenized polycrystalline elastic moduli obtained by different homogenization methods. We demonstrate that the elastic anisotropy of the ground-state Ni4N is qualitatively opposite to that in the elemental Ni, i.e., these materials have hard and soft crystallographic directions interchanged. Moreover, one of the studied metastable cubic phases is found auxetic, i.e., exhibiting negative Poisson ratio.

  17. Diabetes Inhibits Gr-1+ Myeloid Cell Maturation via Cebpa Deregulation.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Kate; Torbica, Tanja; Umehara, Takahiro; Amin, Shilu; Bobola, Nicoletta; Mace, Kimberly A

    2015-12-01

    Recruitment of innate immune cells from the bone marrow (BM) to an injury site is required for effective repair. In diabetes, this process is altered, leading to excessive recruitment and retention of dysfunctional myeloid cells that fail to promote angiogenesis, prolong inflammation, and block healing. The aberrant myeloid phenotype is partially mediated by stable intrinsic changes to developing cells in the BM that are induced by the diabetic (db) environment, but the exact mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the db-derived Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) immature myeloid population has widespread misexpression of chromatin-remodeling enzymes and myeloid differentiation factors. Crucially, diabetes represses transcription of the key myeloid transcription factor CEBPA via diminished H3 Lys 27 promoter acetylation, leading to a failure in monocyte and granulocyte maturation. Restoring Cebpa expression by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reverses the db phenotype and rescues myeloid maturation. Importantly, our data demonstrate a possible link between myeloid cell maturation and chronic inflammation. PMID:26324181

  18. Synthesis and electromagnetic properties of nanodendritic γ‧-Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengna; Yu, Meijie; Mao, Qiong; Li, Fazhan; Wang, Chengguo

    2016-02-01

    Nanodendritic γ‧-Fe4N was successfully synthesized through a nitriding process from dendritic α-Fe2O3, which was prepared by hydrothermal method using potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) as iron source. The structure and electromagnetic properties of this material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). The results revealed that the dendritic morphology can be mostly inherited from α-Fe2O3 to γ‧-Fe4N by controlling the nitriding temperature, duration and nitrogen potential precisely. The dendritic γ‧-Fe4N has the saturation magnetization of 146emu/g and the coercive force of 94Oe at 300K. The maximum reflection loss is ‑12dB at 3GHz with the thickness of 3.0mm for the composite sample.

  19. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Wang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom. PMID:26012892

  20. Genomic redistribution of GR monomers and dimers mediates transcriptional response to exogenous glucocorticoid in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Woong; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette; Rauch, Alexander; Weiner, Juliane; Hübner, Sabine; Hübner, Norbert; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Tuckermann, Jan; Steger, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly prescribed drugs, but their anti-inflammatory benefits are mitigated by metabolic side effects. Their transcriptional effects, including tissue-specific gene activation and repression, are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is known to bind as a homodimer to a palindromic DNA sequence. Using ChIP-exo in mouse liver under endogenous corticosterone exposure, we report here that monomeric GR interaction with a half-site motif is more prevalent than homodimer binding. Monomers colocalize with lineage-determining transcription factors in both liver and primary macrophages, and the GR half-site motif drives transcription, suggesting that monomeric binding is fundamental to GR's tissue-specific functions. In response to exogenous GC in vivo, GR dimers assemble on chromatin near ligand-activated genes, concomitant with monomer evacuation of sites near repressed genes. Thus, pharmacological GCs mediate gene expression by favoring GR homodimer occupancy at classic palindromic sites at the expense of monomeric binding. The findings have important implications for improving therapies that target GR. PMID:25957148

  1. Genomic redistribution of GR monomers and dimers mediates transcriptional response to exogenous glucocorticoid in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Woong; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Rauch, Alexander; Weiner, Juliane; Hübner, Sabine; Hübner, Norbert; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A; Tuckermann, Jan; Steger, David J

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly prescribed drugs, but their anti-inflammatory benefits are mitigated by metabolic side effects. Their transcriptional effects, including tissue-specific gene activation and repression, are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is known to bind as a homodimer to a palindromic DNA sequence. Using ChIP-exo in mouse liver under endogenous corticosterone exposure, we report here that monomeric GR interaction with a half-site motif is more prevalent than homodimer binding. Monomers colocalize with lineage-determining transcription factors in both liver and primary macrophages, and the GR half-site motif drives transcription, suggesting that monomeric binding is fundamental to GR's tissue-specific functions. In response to exogenous GC in vivo, GR dimers assemble on chromatin near ligand-activated genes, concomitant with monomer evacuation of sites near repressed genes. Thus, pharmacological GCs mediate gene expression by favoring GR homodimer occupancy at classic palindromic sites at the expense of monomeric binding. The findings have important implications for improving therapies that target GR. PMID:25957148

  2. Fabrication and physical properties of [Fe/Fe4N]N multilayers with high saturation magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Lin, L.; Ma, B.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Jin, Q. Y.; Wang, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    [Fe/Fe4N]N multilayers with high saturation magnetization were prepared on MgO(200) substrate, by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at higher temperature. Their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. Epitaxial growth of α-Fe and γ'-Fe4N were demonstrated on MgO, and then excellent [Fe/Fe4N]N was obtained. Though the saturation magnetizations of the as-deposited [Fe/Fe4N]N are slightly below the average value of those of α-Fe and γ'-Fe4N, the saturation magnetization of the annealed [Fe(3.04 nm)/Fe4N(3.04 nm)]5 increases up to 1850 emu/cc, 32 % larger than that of α-Fe film. N atom diffusion from the γ'-Fe4N to the α-Fe layer at high temperature greatly improves the saturation magnetization.

  3. The Late Peaking Afterglow of GR8 100418A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Frank; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Covino, S.; dePasquale, M.; Evans, P. A.; Fugazza, D.; Holland, S. T.; Liang, E. W.; OBrien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Sakamoto, T.; Siegel, M. H.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 100418A is a long Gamma-Ray Burst at redshift z=0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves ' After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least approx.7 ks after the trigger, peak at approx.50 ks, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in 6R8 afterglows. Observations with REM during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at approx.25 ks, The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the 'et of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is >100 times the 10(exp 51) erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis 'et model would require the intrinsic $T f801$ for the GR8 'et viewed on-axis to be very short, approx.10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs^ The non-detection of a 'et break up to approx.2 Ms indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least 14 degrees, and a relatively high collimation-corrected 'et energy of at least 10(exp 52) erg.

  4. The Impact of Antiaromatic Subunits in [4n+2] π-Systems: Bispentalenes with [4n+2] π-Electron Perimeters and Antiaromatic Character.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; London, Gábor; Dumele, Oliver; von Wantoch Rekowski, Margarete; Trapp, Nils; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Boudon, Corinne; Stanger, Amnon; Diederich, François

    2015-06-10

    Three series of stable, neutral, π-extended bispentalene derivatives, with two pentalenes fused to a central benzene or naphthalene moiety, have been prepared through a modified double carbopalladation cascade reaction. While these chromophores feature skeletons with [4n+2] π-electron perimeters, the two 8 π-electron pentalene subunits strongly influence bonding and spectral properties. (1)H NMR spectra showed large upfield shifts of the protons in the pentalene moieties, comparable to antiaromatic monobenzopentalenes. Further investigations on magnetic ring currents through NICS-XY-scans suggest a global paratropic current and a local diatropic current at the central benzene ring in two of the series, while the third series, with a central naphthalene ring, showed more localized ring currents, with stronger paratropic ring currents on the pentalene moieties. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed planar bispentalene cores with large double- and single-bond alternation in the pentalene units, characteristic for antiaromaticity, and small alternation in the central aromatic rings. In agreement with TD-DFT calculations, both optical and electrochemical data showed much smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gaps compared to other neutral, acene-like hydrocarbons with the same number of fused rings. Both experimental and computational results suggest that the molecular properties of the presented bispentalenes are dominated by the antiaromatic pentalene-subunits despite the [4n+2] π-electron perimeter of the skeletons. PMID:25978774

  5. Conversion of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) from a Simple Optical Material to a Versatile Optoelectronic Material.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangdong; Sun, Ziqiang; Fan, Kai; Jiang, Yadong; Huang, Rui; Wen, Yuejiang; He, Qiong; Ao, Tianhong

    2015-01-01

    4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) is an important optical material, but its poor conductivity limits applications in devices. To tackle this problem, we designed, prepared, and systematically investigated novel binary composite films that are composed of two-dimensional (2D) DAST and 2D graphene. Results indicate that both electrical and optical properties of DAST can be significantly improved by graphene addition. The negative steric effects of big DAST molecules that greatly trouble ex-situ synthesis can be efficiently overcome by in-situ synthesis, thus leading to better film quality and higher physical properties. Consequently, the in-situ composite film exhibits a low sheet resistance of 7.5 × 10(6) ohm and high temperature coefficient of resistance of -2.79% K(-1), close to the levels of the most important bolometric materials for uncooled infrared detectors. Particularly, a new low temperature reduction of graphene oxide induced by DAST, which is further enhanced by in-situ process, was discovered. This work presents valuable information about the DAST-graphene composite films, their chemical structures, mechanisms, physical properties, and comparison on in-situ and ex-situ syntheses of graphene-based composites, all of which will be helpful for not only theoretically studying the DAST and graphene materials and expanding their applications, but also for seeking new optoelectronic sensitive materials. PMID:26192068

  6. Superconductivity in Ban+2Ir4nGe12n+4 (n=1,2) with cage structure and softening of low-lying localized mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiangang; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Lei, Hechang; Matsuishi, Satoru; Qi, Yanpeng; Hosono, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    We report on new superconductors Ban+2Ir4nGe12n+4 (n = 1, 2) with critical temperatures Tc = 6.1 and 3.2 K, respectively, along with their crystal structures, electron transport, and specific heat. The compounds are composed of alternating Ba@Ir8Ge16 and Ba@Ir2Ge16 cages, both of which are larger in the n = 1 sample than in the n = 2 sample. The normal-state heat capacity reveals two low-lying vibration modes associated with guest Ba cations, and both characteristic temperatures in Ba3Ir4Ge16 are smaller than those in Ba4Ir8Ge28. Meanwhile, the density functional theory calculations reveal that the Ge-4p bands dominated the Fermi level in both samples. We propose that the softening of localized phonons due to expansion of the cage strengthens the electron-phonon coupling between Ba cations and Ge anions, leading to the higher Tc in Ba3Ir4Ge16.

  7. B4N and Fe3BN nitrides bands structure and theoretical determination of bulk modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    With the evolution of material science there was some technological evolution as well as the need of finding new links which could be applied to diverse areas of knowledge. Thus, in this article, we study nitrides bands structures which contain boron, in two different stoichiometries Fe3BN and B4N. The choice of these compounds is meant to plan new links and to understand nitrides fundamental state properties facing these new crystalline structures. In order to resolve the compound band structure we used the method of linear Muffin Tin orbital (LMTO), with atomic sphere approximation (ASA). By using this method we obtained the energy of formation as a function of the lattice parameter as one of the results. We find the equilibrium lattice parameter of 6.9755 a.u., for the Fe3BN nitride, and in B4N, we have 6.8589 a.u. We also discuss in this article the charge transference between sites and the influence of pressure on the compound properties, as well as the Bulk modulus that is 239.82 GPa for Fe3BN and 105.48 GPa for B4N. We show the behaviour of the density of states (DOS) of the new band structure found for the proposed crystalline structure Fe3BN, in which the B atom replace the Fe atom in the corner of the structure γ‧- Fe4N.

  8. Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in pseudo-single-crystal γ'-Fe4N thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabara, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Kokado, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Transverse anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effects, for which magnetization is rotated in an orthogonal plane to the current direction, were investigated at various temperatures, in order to clarify the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry in a pseudo-single-crystal Fe4N film, which is predicted from the usual in-plane AMR measurements by the theory taking into account the spin-orbit interaction and crystal field splitting of 3d bands. According to a phenomenological theory of AMR, which derives only from the crystal symmetry, a cos 2θ component ( C2 tr ) exists in transverse AMR curves for a tetragonal system but does not for a cubic system. In the Fe4N film, the C2 tr shows a positive small value (0.12%) from 300 K to 50 K. However, the C2 t r increases to negative value below 50 K and reaches to -2% at 5 K. The drastic increasing of the C2 tr demonstrates the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry below 50 K in the Fe4N film. In addition, the out-of-plane and in-plane lattice constants (c and a) were precisely determined with X-ray diffraction at room temperature using the Nelson-Riely function. As a result, the positive small C2 t r above 50 K is attributed to a slightly distorted Fe4N lattice (c/a = 1.002).

  9. Comparison of performance of genetics 4N6 FLOQSwabs™ with or without surfactant to rayon swabs.

    PubMed

    Frippiat, Christophe; Noel, Fabrice

    2016-08-01

    The collection of traces is the first step in the process of forensic genetics analysis. Currently, several different techniques are used (eg. gauze). Nevertheless, swabbing appears to be the most common of these. In a second step, the sampling devices should allow the use of preliminary tests in combination with an immunological confirmatory test (e.g. Hexagon Obti or Hemdirect). Our previous study shows that sampling with Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ coated with surfactant reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using two immunological tests. The aim of this work was to compare the ability to recover blood trace and the compatibility with immunological confirmatory test of various Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ nylon flocked swabs with or without surfactant. The results obtain in this study show that Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ not coated with surfactant and Human DNA free FLOQswabs™ were suitable for the used in combination with immunological blood detection tests. Nevertheless, the Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ not surfactant coated give a better blood trace recovery. PMID:27314974

  10. Comparative study of the Grüneisen parameter for 28 pure fluids.

    PubMed

    Mausbach, Peter; Köster, Andreas; Rutkai, Gábor; Thol, Monika; Vrabec, Jadran

    2016-06-28

    The Grüneisen parameter γG is widely used for studying thermal properties of solids at high pressure and also has received increasing interest in different applications of non-ideal fluid dynamics. Because there is a lack of systematic studies of the Grüneisen parameter in the entire fluid region, this study aims to fill this gap. Grüneisen parameter data from molecular modelling and simulation are reported for 28 pure fluids and are compared with results calculated from fundamental equations of state that are based on extensive experimental data sets. We show that the Grüneisen parameter follows a general density-temperature trend and characterize the fluid systems by specifying a span of minimum and maximum values of γG. Exceptions to this trend can be found for water. PMID:27369525

  11. Extending Clause Learning of SAT Solvers with Boolean Gröbner Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengler, Christoph; Küchlin, Wolfgang

    We extend clause learning as performed by most modern SAT Solvers by integrating the computation of Boolean Gröbner bases into the conflict learning process. Instead of learning only one clause per conflict, we compute and learn additional binary clauses from a Gröbner basis of the current conflict. We used the Gröbner basis engine of the logic package Redlog contained in the computer algebra system Reduce to extend the SAT solver MiniSAT with Gröbner basis learning. Our approach shows a significant reduction of conflicts and a reduction of restarts and computation time on many hard problems from the SAT 2009 competition.

  12. HDAC6 regulates GR signaling in serotonin pathways with critical impact on stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Espallergues, Julie; Teegarden, Sarah L.; Veerakumar, Avin; Boulden, Janette; Challis, Collin; Jochems, Jeanine; Chan, Michael; Petersen, Tess; Deneris, Evan; Matthias, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lucki, Irwin; Beck, Sheryl G.; Berton, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variations in certain components of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) chaperone complex have been associated with the development of stress-related affective disorders and individual variability in therapeutic responses to antidepressants. Mechanisms that link GR chaperoning and stress susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we show that the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on socioaffective behaviors are critically regulated via reversible acetylation of Hsp90, a key component of the GR chaperone complex. We provide pharmacological and genetic evidence indicating that the cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase HDAC6 controls Hsp90 acetylation in the brain, and thereby modulates Hsp90-GR protein-protein interactions, as well as hormone- and stress-induced GR translocation, with a critical impact on GR downstream signaling and behavior. Pet1-Cre driven deletion of HDAC6 in serotonin neurons, the densest HDAC6-expressing cell group in the mouse brain, dramatically reduced acute anxiogenic effects of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone in the open field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Serotonin-selective depletion of HDAC6 also blocked the expression of social avoidance in mice exposed to chronic social defeat and concurrently prevented the electrophysiological and morphological changes induced, in serotonin neurons, by this murine model of traumatic stress. Together, these results identify HDAC6 inhibition as a potential new strategy for pro-resilience and antidepressant interventions through regulation of the Hsp90-GR heterocomplex and focal prevention of GR signaling in serotonin pathways. Our data thus uncover an alternate mechanism by which pan-HDAC inhibitors may regulate stress-related behaviors independently of their action on histones. PMID:22457490

  13. Octopamine Neuromodulation Regulates Gr32a-Linked Aggression and Courtship Pathways in Drosophila Males

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jonathan C.; Fernández, María Paz; Yu, Qin; Leary, Greg P.; Leung, Adelaine K. W.; Kavanaugh, Michael P.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Certel, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemosensory pheromonal information regulates aggression and reproduction in many species, but how pheromonal signals are transduced to reliably produce behavior is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the pheromonal signals detected by Gr32a-expressing chemosensory neurons to enhance male aggression are filtered through octopamine (OA, invertebrate equivalent of norepinephrine) neurons. Using behavioral assays, we find males lacking both octopamine and Gr32a gustatory receptors exhibit parallel delays in the onset of aggression and reductions in aggression. Physiological and anatomical experiments identify Gr32a to octopamine neuron synaptic and functional connections in the suboesophageal ganglion. Refining the Gr32a-expressing population indicates that mouth Gr32a neurons promote male aggression and form synaptic contacts with OA neurons. By restricting the monoamine neuron target population, we show that three previously identified OA-FruM neurons involved in behavioral choice are among the Gr32a-OA connections. Our findings demonstrate that octopaminergic neuromodulatory neurons function as early as a second-order step in this chemosensory-driven male social behavior pathway. PMID:24852170

  14. Endocrine-Disrupting Potential of Bisphenol A, Bisphenol A Dimethacrylate, 4-n-Nonylphenol, and 4-n-Octylphenol in Vitro: New Data and a Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Long, Manhai; Hofmeister, Marlene V.; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    Background An array of environmental compounds is known to possess endocrine disruption (ED) potentials. Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BPA-DM) are monomers used to a high extent in the plastic industry and as dental sealants. Alkylphenols such as 4-n-nonylphenol (nNP) and 4-n-octylphenol (nOP) are widely used as surfactants. Objectives We investigated the effect in vitro of these four compounds on four key cell mechanisms including transactivation of a) the human estrogen receptor (ER), b) the human androgen receptor (AR), c) the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and d) aromatase activity. Results All four compounds inhibited aromatase activity and were agonists and antagonists of ER and AR, respectively. nNP increased AhR activity concentration-dependently and further increased the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin AhR action. nOP caused dual responses with a weak increased and a decreased AhR activity at lower (10−8 M) and higher concentrations (10−5–10−4 M), respectively. AhR activity was inhibited with BPA (10−5–10−4 M) and weakly increased with BPA-DM (10−5 M), respectively. nNP showed the highest relative potency (REP) compared with the respective controls in the ER, AhR, and aromatase assays, whereas similar REP was observed for the four chemicals in the AR assay. Conclusion Our in vitro data clearly indicate that the four industrial compounds have ED potentials and that the effects can be mediated via several cellular pathways, including the two sex steroid hormone receptors (ER and AR), aromatase activity converting testosterone to estrogen, and AhR; AhR is involved in syntheses of steroids and metabolism of steroids and xenobiotic compounds. PMID:18174953

  15. A spectral study of 2-formylimidazole 4N-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Douglas X.; Lockwood, Mark A.; Albert, Julyan N.; Liberta, Anthony E.

    1993-11-01

    Copper(II) complexes of 2-formylimidazole 4N-methyl-, 4N-dimethyl- 4N-ethyl- and 3-hexa-methyleneiminylthiosemicarbazone, along with two nickel(II) complexes of the latter thiosemicarbazone, have been synthesized. Infrared, electronic, NMR and ESR spectra have been used to characterize the complexes and the uncomplexed thiosemicarbazones. None of the complexes or thiosemicarbazones possess growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii.

  16. Structure determination of (Fe3O4)n+(n = 1 ‑ 3) clusters via DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhua; Cai, Congzhong; Zhao, Chengjun; Gu, Yonghong

    2016-07-01

    In virtue of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the global minimum candidate structures with the lowest energy for (Fe3O4)n(n = 1 ‑ 3) clusters were obtained by first-principles structural searches. The geometric structures and spin configurations of three cationic (Fe3O4)n+(n = 1 ‑ 3) clusters have been identified for the first time by comparing the experimental IR spectra with the calculated results from density functional theory by using different exchange-correlation functionals. It is found that the lowest energy structures of these clusters are of a shape of hat, boat and tower, respectively, with a ferrimagnetic arrangement of spins, and M06L functional is more suitable for Fe3O4 clusters than other ones.

  17. Extrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Mn{sub 4}N films

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X. Ren, L. Z.; Zhou, W. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W.

    2015-01-19

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated. The longitudinal conductivity σ{sub xx} is within the superclean regime, indicating Mn{sub 4}N is a highly conducting material. We further demonstrate that the AHE signal in 40-nm-thick films is mainly due to the extrinsic contributions based on the analysis fitted by ρ{sub AH}=a′ρ{sub xx0}+bρ{sub xx}{sup 2} and σ{sub AH}∝σ{sub xx}. Our study not only provide a strategy for further theoretical work on antiperovskite manganese nitrides but also shed promising light on utilizing their extrinsic AHE to fabricate spintronic devices.

  18. Search for coupling in ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers: Fe{sub 4}N/NbN

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.E.; Potter, C.D.; Conover, M.J.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-09-01

    Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers of Fe{sub 4}N/NbN are examined. The onset of superconductivity occurs at NbN layer thickness of {approximately}100 {Angstrom}. Below this thickness ferromagnetism of the Fe{sub 4}N layers is observed. Above this thickness superconductivity of the NbN is also observed, but there is no evidence for interlayer magnetic or superconductive coupling. The results are used in the formulation of guidelines for future searches of novel interlayer coupling phenomena. The superconducting critical field curves are reasonably well described within the framework of the theory for ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  19. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4)N / S (N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4)N / S (N) as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  20. Anomalous Hall effects in pseudo-single-crystal γ'-Fe4N thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabara, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Kokado, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous Hall effects (AHE) were investigated at various temperatures for the pseudo-single-crystal Fe4N films, deposited on MgO substrates with changing the degree of order (S) of the nitrogen site. Both the anomalous Hall resistivity and the longitudinal resistivity simply decrease with lowering temperature for all the specimens. The AHE of the Fe4N films is presumed to arise from an intrinsic mechanism because of the relationship between the anomalous Hall resistivity and longitudinal resistivity. The anomalous Hall conductivity, σAH, exhibits a specific behavior at low temperature. In the case of the film with S = 0.93, the σAH drastically drops below 50 K, while it simply increases with lowering temperature in the range of 50-300 K. This low-temperature anomaly decays with decreasing S of the film and nearly vanishes in the films with low S. The threshold temperature and the dependence on S of the low-temperature anomaly of the σAH well correspond to those of the anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in the Fe4N films, reported in the literatures. From these results, it is suggested that the low-temperature anomaly of the σAH originates from the crystal field effect which reflects the structural transformation from a cubic to a tetragonal symmetry below 50 K and provides a modulation of the orbital angular momentum of the 3d orbitals at the Fermi level.

  1. Nano-crystalline silicon solar cell architecture with absorption at the classical 4n2 limit

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Rana; Xu, Chun

    2011-07-04

    We develop a periodically patterned conformal photonic-plasmonic crystal based solar architecture for a nano-crystalline silicon solar cell, through rigorous scattering matrix simulations. The solar cell architecture has a periodic array of tapered silver nano-pillars as the back-reflector coupled with a conformal periodic structure at the top of the cell. The absorption and maximal current, averaged over the entire range of wavelengths, for this solar cell architecture is at the semi-classical 4n{sup 2} limit over a range of common thicknesses (500-1500 nm) and slightly above the 4n{sup 2} limit for a 500 nm nc-Si cell. The absorption exceeds the 4n{sup 2} limit, corrected for reflection loss at the top surface. The photonic crystal cell current is enhanced over the flat Ag back-reflector by 60%, for a thick 1000 nm nc-Si layer, where predicted currents exceed 31 mA/cm{sup 2}. The conformal structure at the top surface focuses light within the absorber layer. There is plasmonic concentration of light, with intensity enhancements exceeding 7, near the back reflector that substantially enhances absorption.

  2. Arsenic at very low concentrations alters glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene activation but not GR-mediated gene repression: complex dose-response effects are closely correlated with levels of activated GR and require a functional GR DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Bodwell, Jack E; Kingsley, Lauren A; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2004-08-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is considered a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. Chronic intake is associated with an increased risk of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and recent studies suggest increased health risks at levels as low as 5-10 ppb. We report here that 0.05-1 microM (6-120 ppb) As showed stimulatory effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene activation in rat EDR3 hepatoma cells of both the endogenous tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene and the reporter genes containing TAT glucocorticoid response elements. At slightly higher concentrations (1-3 microM), the effects of As became inhibitory. Thus, over this narrow concentration range, the effects of As changed from a 2- to 4-fold stimulation to a greater than 2-fold suppression in activity. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of GR on both AP1- and NF-kappa B-mediated gene activation was not affected by As. The magnitude of GR stimulation and inhibition by As was highly dependent on the cellular level of hormone-activated GR. Mutational deletion studies indicated that the central DNA binding domain (DBD) of GR is the minimal region required for the As effect and does not require free sulfhydryls. Point mutations located within the DBD that have known structural consequences significantly altered the GR response to As. In particular, point mutations in the DBD that confer a DNA-bound GR confirmation abolished the low dose As stimulatory effect but enhanced the inhibitory response, further indicating that the DBD is important for mediating these As effects. PMID:15310238

  3. The Response of the Root Proteome to the Synthetic Strigolactone GR24 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Walton, Alan; Stes, Elisabeth; Goeminne, Geert; Braem, Lukas; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Matthys, Cedrick; De Cuyper, Carolien; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Boyer, François-Didier; Vanholme, Ruben; Fromentin, Justine; Boerjan, Wout; Gevaert, Kris; Goormachtig, Sofie

    2016-08-01

    Strigolactones are plant metabolites that act as phytohormones and rhizosphere signals. Whereas most research on unraveling the action mechanisms of strigolactones is focused on plant shoots, we investigated proteome adaptation during strigolactone signaling in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Through large-scale, time-resolved, and quantitative proteomics, the impact of the strigolactone analog rac-GR24 was elucidated on the root proteome of the wild type and the signaling mutant more axillary growth 2 (max2). Our study revealed a clear MAX2-dependent rac-GR24 response: an increase in abundance of enzymes involved in flavonol biosynthesis, which was reduced in the max2-1 mutant. Mass spectrometry-driven metabolite profiling and thin-layer chromatography experiments demonstrated that these changes in protein expression lead to the accumulation of specific flavonols. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the flavonol-related protein expression profile was caused by rac-GR24-induced changes in transcript levels of the corresponding genes. This induction of flavonol production was shown to be activated by the two pure enantiomers that together make up rac-GR24. Finally, our data provide much needed clues concerning the multiple roles played by MAX2 in the roots and a comprehensive view of the rac-GR24-induced response in the root proteome. PMID:27317401

  4. Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Negative Feedback Inhibition: Enhanced Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Signaling despite Lower Cytoplasmic GR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Füchsl, Andrea M.; Reber, Stefan O.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), a pre-clinically validated mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, results in increased basal and acute stress-induced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. We assessed CSC effects on hippocampal glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and FK506 binding protein (FKBP51) expression, acute heterotypic stressor-induced GR translocation, as well as GC effects on gene expression and cell viability in isolated hippocampal cells. CSC mice showed decreased GR mRNA and cytoplasmic protein levels compared with single-housed control (SHC) mice. Basal and acute stress-induced nuclear GR protein expression were comparable between CSC and SHC mice, as were MR and FKBP51 mRNA and/or cytoplasmic protein levels. In vitro the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on hippocampal cell viability and gene transcription was more pronounced in CSC versus SHC mice. In summary, CSC mice show an, if at all, increased hippocampal GC signaling capacity despite lower cytoplasmic GR protein expression, making negative feedback deficits in the hippocampus unlikely to contribute to the increased ACTH drive following CSC. PMID:27057751

  5. 4-N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine promoted selective oxidation of methyl aromatics with molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Gao, Jin; Wang, Feng; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    4-N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst in combination with benzyl bromide was developed for the selective oxidation of methyl aromatics. DMAP exhibited higher catalytic activity than other pyridine analogues, such as 4-carboxypyridine, 4-cyanopyridine and pyridine. The sp3 hybrid carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds of different methyl aromatics were successfully oxygenated with molecular oxygen. The real catalyst is due to the formation of a pyridine onium salt from the bromide and DMAP. The onium salt was well characterized by NMR and the reaction mechanism was discussed. PMID:22466855

  6. The Radiative Transfer Of CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} Plasma Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Benallal, R.; Liani, B.

    2008-09-23

    Any physical modelling of a circuit-breaker arc therefore requires an understanding of the radiated energy which is taken into account in the form of a net coefficient. The evaluation of the net emission coefficient is performed by the knowledge of the chemical plasma composition and the resolution of the radiative transfer equation. In this paper, the total radiation which escapes from a CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} plasma is calculated in the temperature range between 5000 and 30000K on the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium and we have studied the nitrogen effect in the hydrocarbon plasmas.

  7. Laser pyrolysis fabrication of ferromagnetic gamma'-Fe4N and FeC nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Qian, D.; Dickey, E. C.; Allen, J. L.; Eklund, P. C.

    2000-01-01

    Using the laser pyrolysis method, single phase gamma'-Fe4N nanoparticles were prepared by a two step method involving preparation of nanoscale iron oxide and a subsequent gas-solid nitridation reaction. Single phase Fe3C and Fe7C3 could be prepared by laser pyrolysis from Fe(CO)5 and 3C2H4 directly. Characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to measure phase structure, particle size and magnetic properties of these nanoscale nitride and carbide particles. c2000 American Journal of Physics.

  8. Critical fields of Fe{sub 4}N/NbN ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.E.; Potter, C.D.; Conover, M.J.; Sowers, C.H.; Bader, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers of Fe{sub 4}N/NbN are explored for a variety of thickness combinations. The superconducting properties show that 11 {Angstrom} ferromagnetic layers are sufficient to decouple the superconducting layers and to yield anisotropic behavior. The upper critical field data are well described by theory for ferromagnetic/superconducting multilayers. This analysis yields an interfacial parameter which characterizes the electron scattering at the ferromagnetic/superconducting boundary. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. The role of Gr1+ cells after anti-CD20 treatment in type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Changyun; Du, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that Gr1+CD11b+ cells have immunoregulatory function and these cells may play an important role in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of Gr1+CD11b+ cells in protecting against type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Here we showed that temporary B cell depletion induced the expansion of Gr1+CD11b+ cells. Gr1+CD11b+ cells not only directly suppress diabetogenic T cell function, but can also induce Treg differentiation in a TGF-β-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that Gr1+CD11b+ cells could suppress diabetogenic CD4 and CD8 T cell function in an IL-10-, nitric oxide- and cell contact- dependent manner. Interestingly, single anti-Gr1 monoclonal antibody treatment can also induce a transient expansion of Gr1+CD11b+ cells that delayed diabetes development in NOD mice. Our data suggest that Gr1+CD11b+ cells contribute to the establishment of immune tolerance to pancreatic islet autoimmunity. Manipulation of Gr1+CD11b+ cells could be considered as a novel immunotherapy for the prevention of type 1 diabetes. PMID:22140261

  10. Complete genome sequence of “Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus” HL-EbGr7

    PubMed Central

    Muyzer, Gerard; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lapidus, Alla; Clum, Alicia; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; d'Haeseleer, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2011-01-01

    “Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus” HL-EbGr7 is an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was found to predominate a full-scale bioreactor, removing sulfide from biogas. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain HL-EbGr7 and its annotation. The genome was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, because of its relevance to the sustainable removal of sulfide from bio- and industrial waste gases. PMID:21475584

  11. Constraints of pure-connection formulation of GR with Λcosm ≠ 0.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshirsagar, A.

    It is shown that the recently proposed pure-connection action for GR with a cosmological constant, correctly yields the usual constraints of GR in Ashtekar's form. Alternative choices for the pure-connection action are shown to be helpful in reconciling the actions due to Capovilla et al. and Bengtsson and Peldán. Identical nature of constraints further implies that the loop-space functional form of solutions to these will play a crucial role in covariant path-integral quantisation of Ashtekar's theory in the pure-connection formulation.

  12. Uptake of algal carbon and the synthesis of an "essential" fatty acid by Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata (Foraminifera) within the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone: evidence from fatty acid biomarker and 13C tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, K. E.; Gooday, A. J.; Woulds, C.; Jeffreys, R.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G.; Whitcraft, C.; Levin, L.; Dick, J. R.; Pond, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Foraminifera are an important component of benthic communities in oxygen depleted settings, where they potentially play a~significant role in the processing of organic matter. We tracked the uptake of a 13C-labeled algal food source into individual fatty acids in the benthic foraminiferal species, Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata, from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The tracer experiments were conducted on the Pakistan Margin during the late/post monsoon period (August-October 2003). A monoculture of the diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii was 13C-labeled and used to simulate a pulse of phytoplankton in two complementary experiments. A lander system was used for in situ incubations at 140 m and for 2.5 days duration, whilst a laboratory incubation used an oxystat system to maintain ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations. These shipboard experiments were terminated after 5 days. Uptake of diatoms was rapid, with high incorporation of diatom fatty acids into foraminifera after ~2 days in both experiments. Ingestion of the diatom food source was indicated by the increase over time in the quantity of diatom biomarker fatty acids in the foraminifera and by the high percentage of 13C in many of the fatty acids present at the endpoint of both in~situ and laboratory-based experiments. These results indicate that U. ex. gr. semiornata rapidly ingested the diatom food source and that this foraminifera will play an important role in the short-term cycling of organic matter within this OMZ environment. The experiments also suggested that U. ex. gr. semiornata consumed non-labeled bacterial food items, particularly bacteria, and synthesised the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20:4(n-6) de novo. 20:4(n-6) is often abundant in benthic fauna yet its origins and function have remained unclear. This study demonstrates that U. ex. gr. semiornata is capable of de novo synthesis of this "essential fatty acid" and is potentially a major source of this dietary nutrient in benthic food

  13. Uptake of algal carbon and the likely synthesis of an "essential" fatty acid by Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata (Foraminifera) within the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone: evidence from fatty acid biomarker and 13C tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, K. E.; Gooday, A. J.; Woulds, C.; Jeffreys, R. M.; Schwartz, M.; Cowie, G.; Whitcraft, C.; Levin, L.; Dick, J. R.; Pond, D. W.

    2014-07-01

    Foraminifera are an important component of benthic communities in oxygen-depleted settings, where they potentially play a significant role in the processing of organic matter. We tracked the uptake of a 13C-labelled algal food source into individual fatty acids in the benthic foraminiferal species Uvigerina ex. gr. semiornata from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The tracer experiments were conducted on the Pakistan margin during the late/post monsoon period (August-October 2003). A monoculture of the diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii was 13C-labelled and used to simulate a pulse of phytoplankton in two complementary experiments. A lander system was used for in situ incubations at 140 m water depth and for 2.5 days in duration. Shipboard laboratory incubations of cores collected at 140 m incorporated an oxystat system to maintain ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations and were terminated after 5 days. Uptake of diatoms was rapid, with a high incorporation of diatom fatty acids into foraminifera after ~ 2 days in both experiments. Ingestion of the diatom food source was indicated by the increase over time in the quantity of diatom biomarker fatty acids in the foraminifera and by the high percentage of 13C in many of the fatty acids present at the endpoint of both in situ and laboratory-based experiments. These results indicate that gr. semiornata rapidly ingested the diatom food source and that these foraminifera will play an important role in the short-term cycling of organic matter within this OMZ environment. The presence of 18:1(n-7) in the experimental foraminifera suggested that U. ex. gr. semiornata also consumed non-labelled bacterial food items. In addition, levels of 20:4(n-6), a PUFA only present in low amounts in the diatom food, increased dramatically in the foraminifera during both the in situ and shipboard experiments, possibly because it was synthesised de novo. This "essential fatty acid" is often abundant in benthic fauna, yet

  14. Identification of direct targets of plant transcription factors using the GR fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M; Wellmer, Frank; Wagner, Doris

    2015-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activation of plant transcription factors has proven to be a powerful tool for the identification of their direct target genes. In the absence of the synthetic steroid hormone dexamethasone (dex), transcription factors fused to the hormone-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (TF-GR) are held in an inactive state, due to their cytoplasmic localization. This requires physical interaction with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) complex. Hormone binding leads to disruption of the interaction between GR and HSP90 and allows TF-GR fusion proteins to enter the nucleus. Once inside the nucleus, they bind to specific DNA sequences and immediately activate or repress expression of their targets. This system is well suited for the identification of direct target genes of transcription factors in plants, as (A) there is little basal protein activity in the absence of dex, (B) steroid application leads to rapid transcription factor activation, (C) no side effects of dex treatment are observed on the physiology of the plant, and (D) secondary effects of transcription factor activity can be eliminated by simultaneous application of an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis, cycloheximide (cyc). In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for the preparation of plant material, for dex and cyc treatment, for RNA extraction, and for the PCR-based or genome-wide identification of direct targets of transcription factors fused to GR. PMID:25757770

  15. NRIP enhances HPV gene expression via interaction with either GR or E2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Szu-Wei; Lu, Pei-Yu; Guo, Jih-Huong; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li

    2012-02-05

    We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone. NRIP also can form complex with E2 that caused NRIP-induced HPV gene expression via E2-binding sites in a hormone-independent manner. Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, in a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively.

  16. User Manual for the Data-Series Interface of the Gr Application Software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    This manual describes the data-series interface for the Gr Application software. Basic tasks such as plotting, editing, manipulating, and printing data series are presented. The properties of the various types of data objects and graphical objects used within the application, and the relationships between them also are presented. Descriptions of compatible data-series file formats are provided.

  17. The C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. transatlantic seaplane (French)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ide, John Jay

    1928-01-01

    Tested at the end of March, 1928, the C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. was built for the purpose of crossing the Atlantic from Europe by way of the azores. It has a biplane construction with wings mounted above the hull. It is powered by two new series 500 HP. geared Hispano Suiza V type engines.

  18. Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR): the Next Decade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After 20 years, progress has been made in conserving AnGR; but how it will be in ten years? Viewing gene banks and in situ conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggest a more efficient use of these practices to support sustainable production. Gene banks sh...

  19. Photoacoustic measurement of the Grüneisen parameter of tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Da-Kang; Zhang, Chi; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The Grüneisen parameter, a constitutive parameter in photoacoustics, is usually measured from isobaric thermal expansion, which may not be valid for a biological medium due to its heterogeneity. Here, we directly measured the Grüneisen parameter by applying photoacoustic spectroscopy. Laser pulses at wavelengths between 460 and 1800 nm were delivered to tissue samples, and photoacoustic signals were detected by flat water-immersion ultrasonic transducers. Least-squares fitting photoacoustic spectra to molar optical absorption spectra showed that the Grüneisen parameter was 0.81±0.05 (mean±SD) for porcine subcutaneous fat tissue and 0.69±0.02 for porcine lipid at room temperature (22°C). The Grüneisen parameter of a red blood cell suspension was linearly related to hemoglobin concentration, and the parameter of bovine serum was 9% greater than that of water at room temperature. PMID:24474512

  20. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

  1. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (λ<120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120–200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths, using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, which indicates that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths >120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for how we view prebiotic chemistry on early Earth and similar planets. Key Words: Titan—Photochemical aerosol—CH4-N2 photolysis—Far UV—Nitrogen activation. Astrobiology 12, 315–326. PMID:22519972

  2. Using optoacoustic imaging for measuring the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena; Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, André; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Grüneisen parameter is a key temperature-dependent physical characteristic responsible for thermoelastic efficiency of materials. We propose a new methodology for accurate measurements of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter in optically absorbing solutions. We use two-dimensional optoacoustic (OA) imaging to improve accuracy of measurements. Our approach eliminates contribution of local optical fluence and absorbance. To validate the proposed methodology, we studied temperature dependence of aqueous cupric sulfate solutions in the range from 22 to 4°C. Our results for the most diluted salt perfectly matched known temperature dependence for the Grüneisen parameter of water. We also found that Grüneisen-temperature relationship for cupric sulfate exhibits linear trend with respect to the concentration. In addition to accurate measurements of Grüneisen changes with temperature, the developed technique provides a basis for future high precision OA temperature monitoring in live tissues. PMID:24150350

  3. Maternal betaine supplementation during gestation modifies hippocampal expression of GR and its regulatory miRNAs in neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    SUN, Qinwei; LI, Xi; JIA, Yimin; PAN, Shifeng; LI, Runsheng; YANG, Xiaojing; ZHAO, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Methyl donor nutrients are critical for embryonic development of brain. Hippocampus is the most susceptible brain region to various factors including prenatal supply of methyl donors. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressed in hippocampus is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and stress sensitivity. Hippocampal GR expression is highly susceptible to epigenetic regulation, yet the effect of maternal methyl donor supplementation on epigenetic regulation of GR transcription in offspring hippocampus remains unclear. In this study, we fed sows with betaine (3 g/kg) throughout the gestation and analyzed the hippocampal expression of GR mRNA and its variants, as well as the CpG methylation status of the promoter and the microRNAs predicted to target 3’ UTR of porcine GR gene in neonatal piglets. Total GR mRNA (P<0.01) and its variants GR 1-4 (P<0.05) and 1-9,10 (P<0.01), were significantly higher in the hippocampus of betaine-treated piglets, while the content of GR protein was not significantly changed. The CpGs located in the –1650 ~ –1515 segment of GR gene were hypermethylated (P<0.05). The hippocampal expression of miR-130b (P<0.05), miR-181a (P<0.05) and miR-181d (P<0.01) was significantly up-regulated. The targeting efficacy of miR-130b and miR-181d was validated in vitro using dual-luciferase reporter assay system. Our results demonstrate that maternal betaine supplementation during gestation enhances GR mRNA expression in offspring hippocampus, which involves alterations in miRNAs expression. PMID:26875838

  4. The role of Gr-1+ cells and tumour necrosis factor-α signalling during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Andrew J; Higdon, Kathryn E; Muraglia, Ryan; Erb-Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Roderick A; Young, Vincent B; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2015-01-01

    The host response to Clostridium difficile infection in antibiotic-treated mice is characterized by robust recruitment of Gr-1+ cells, increased expression of inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the development of severe epithelial damage. To investigate the role of Gr-1+ cells and TNF-α during C. difficile colitis, we treated infected mice with monoclonal antibodies against Gr-1 or TNF-α. Mice were challenged with vegetative cells of C. difficile strain VPI 10463 following treatment with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone treatment alone was associated with significant changes in cytokine expression within the colonic mucosa but not overt inflammatory histopathological changes. In comparison, C. difficile infection following ceftriaxone treatment was associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Il1b, Il17f and Tnfa, as well as robust recruitment of Ly6CMid Gr-1High neutrophils and Ly6CHigh Gr-1Mid monocytes and the development of severe colonic histopathology. Anti-Gr-1 antibody treatment resulted in effective depletion of both Ly6CMid Gr-1High neutrophils and Ly6CHigh Gr-1Mid monocytes: however, we observed no protection from the development of severe pathology or reduction in expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, Il33 and Tnfa following anti-Gr-1 treatment. By contrast, anti-TNF-α treatment did not affect Gr-1+ cell recruitment, but was associated with increased expression of Il6 and Il1b. Additionally, Ffar2, Ffar3, Tslp, Tff and Ang4 expression was significantly reduced in anti-TNF-α-treated animals, in association with marked intestinal histopathology. These studies raise the possibility that TNF-α may play a role in restraining inflammation and protecting the epithelium during C. difficile infection. PMID:25399934

  5. Balloon Angioplasty - The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939-1985).

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939-1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called "percutaneous transluminal dilatation". Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40(th) anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig's life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter's first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig's former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated his 75(th

  6. Laboratory study of CH4-N2 clathrate hydrates applied to Titan's surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nna Mvondo, D.; Tobie, G.; Le Menn, E.; Bollengier, O.; Grasset, O.

    2013-12-01

    It is proposed that clathrate hydrates may be present at the surface of Titan (Choukroun et al., 2013, 2010). At Titan's surface pressure, pure methane and ethane hydrate (as well as other guests) could exist in the sI structure and nitrogen hydrate as sII structure. The large reservoir of several guest compounds in Titan's atmosphere is expected to result in the formation of multicomponent (compound) clathrate hydrates, as sII or sH structures, stable relative to water ice on the surface of Titan, and with faster expected growth kinetics relative to pure hydrate (Osegovic et al., 2005). Compound hydrate could be a likely sink for many chemicals occurring on Titan's surface. We note that experimental studies on the formation and thermodynamics of the methane-water system, at low and high pressures applied to Titan have been carried out (Lunine and Stevenson; 1985; Choukroun et al., 2013, 2010 and references therein). However, laboratory work on mixing of methane with other compounds in the clathrate phase (ethane, N2, CO2, etc...) applied to Titan conditions (and other icy moons) has still to be addressed. In this context, we have studied the formation and spectral signatures of CH4-N2 clathrate hydrates at temperature and pressure conditions relevant for Titan's surface. Clathrate hydrates samples have been synthesized in an autoclave combined with a cooling system and a multi-gas mixer. Few ml of deionized water was introduced in the autoclave and pressurized with the N2 and CH4 gaseous species for a couple of days, at controlled low temperature and low pressure of the formation and stability of clathrate hydrates. Their formation has been monitored by gas chromatography. Their spectral characterization at low temperature was performed by infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was also used to give constraints on the composition, structure and cage occupancy of the formed clathrates. Here we present the results obtained for different mixing

  7. Cation-Cation Interactions in [(UO2)2(OH)n](4-n) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Govind, Niranjan; Schreckenbach, Georg; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2013-10-07

    The structures and bonding of gas-phase [(UO2)2(OH)n]4-n (n=2-6) complexes have been studied using density functional theory (DFT), MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with particular emphasis on ground state structures featuring cation-cation interactions (CCIs) between the uranyl groups. An interesting trend is observed in the stabilities of members of this series of complexes. The structures of [(UO2)2(OH)2]2+, [(UO2)2(OH)4] and [(UO2)2(OH)6]2- featuring CCIs are found at higher energies (by 3-20 kcal/mol) in comparison to their conventional μ2-dihydroxo structures. In contrast, the CCI structures of [(UO2)2(OH)3]+ and [(UO2)2(OH)5]- are respectively almost degenerate with and lower in energy than the structures with the μ2-dihydroxo format. The origin of this trend lies in the ‘symmetry’-based need to balance the coordination numbers and effective atomic charges of each uranium center. The calculated IR vibrational frequencies provide signature probes that can be used in differentiating the lowenergy structures and in experimentally confirming the existence of the structures featuring CCIs. Analysis of the bonding in the structures of [(UO2)2(OH)3]+ and [(UO2)2(OH)5]- shows that the CCIs and bridging hydroxo between the dioxo-uranium units are mainly electrostatic in nature.

  8. Early Events in the Nonadiabatic Relaxation Dynamics of 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Kochman, Michał A; Tajti, Attila; Morrison, Carole A; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-03-10

    4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) is the archetypal system for dual fluorescence. Several past studies, both experimental and theoretical, have examined the mechanism of its relaxation in the gas phase following photoexcitation to the S2 state, without converging to a single description. In this contribution, we report first-principles simulations of the early events involved in this process performed using the nonadiabatic trajectory surface hopping (TSH) approach in combination with the ADC(2) electronic structure method. ADC(2) is verified to reproduce the ground- and excited-state structures of DMABN in reasonably close agreement with previous theoretical benchmarks. The TSH simulations predict that internal conversion from the S2 state to the S1 takes place as early as 8.5 fs, on average, after the initial photoexcitation, and with no significant torsion of the dimethylamino group relative to the aromatic ring. As evidenced by supporting EOM-CCSD calculations, the population transfer from S2 to S1 can be attributed to the skeletal deformation modes of the aromatic ring and the stretching of the ring-dimethylamino nitrogen bond. The non- or slightly twisted locally excited structure is the predominant product of the internal conversion, and the twisted intramolecular charge transfer structure is formed through equilibration with the locally excited structure with no change of adiabatic state. These findings point toward a new interpretation of data from previous time-resolved experiments. PMID:26579762

  9. Purification and characterization of 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol dehydrogenase from Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum.

    PubMed

    Fujimitsu, Hiroshi; Taniyama, Yuko; Tajima, Sae; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    From investigation of 60 filamentous fungi, we identified Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum, which uses 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol (TMA-butanol) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus produced NAD(+)-dependent TMA-butanol dehydrogenase (DH) when it was cultivated in medium containing TMA-butanol. The enzyme showed molecular mass of 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 160 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homotetramer. TMA-butanol DH is stable at pH 7.5-9.0. It exhibits moderate stability with respect to temperature (up to 30 °C). Additionally, it has optimum activity at 45 °C and at pH 9.5. The enzyme has broad specificity to various alkyl alcohols and amino alkyl alcohols, and the carbon chains of which are longer than butanol. Moreover, the activity is strongly inhibited by oxidizing agents, carbonyl and thiol modulators, and chelating agents. This report is the first study examining TMA-butanol DH from eukaryotic microbes. PMID:27121905

  10. Surface layer in composites containing 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl. FTIR spectroscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunza, L.; Kosslick, H.; Bentrup, U.; Pitsch, I.; Fricke, R.; Frunza, S.; Schönhals, A.

    2003-06-01

    Composites containing 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) either confined to nanopores of molecular sieves with very large pores or coating silica nanoparticles of aerosil type at high silica-to-8CB ratios are investigated by IR spectroscopy. Band shape analysis was performed in wavenumber regions in which the peaks due to CN stretching, CH stretching and CH out-of-plane vibrations appear. Some of molecules confined to molecular sieves show spectroscopic features characteristic to a bulk-like 8CB matter located in the centre of the pores or in the inter-grain space. Other features of the IR spectra are due to 8CB molecules located in the surface layer, mostly forming hydrogen bonds between their CN groups and surface OH groups. Another part of the 8CB molecules in the surface layer may also interact by π electrons of the aromatic rings. Hydrogen bonding is less hindered for the molecules of the surface layers onto aerosil particles than inside pores of the molecular sieves. Comparison is also made with the case of composites based on molecular sieves with small pores.

  11. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of the CH4-N2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2014-12-01

    A five-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the interaction of a rigid methane molecule with a rigid nitrogen molecule was determined from quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory was utilized to compute a total of 743 points on the PES. The interaction energies were calculated using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality with bond functions and were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. An analytical site-site potential function with nine sites for methane and five sites for nitrogen was fitted to the interaction energies. The PES was validated by calculating the cross second virial coefficient as well as the shear viscosity and binary diffusion coefficient in the dilute-gas limit for CH4-N2 mixtures. An improved PES was obtained by adjusting a single parameter of the analytical potential function in such a way that quantitative agreement with the most accurate experimental values of the cross second virial coefficient was achieved. The transport property values obtained with the adjusted PES are in good agreement with the best experimental data.

  12. [Raman spectroscopic studies on CO2-CH4-N2 mixed-gas hydrate system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-yong; Liu, Chuan-hai; Wu, Qiang; Gao, Xia

    2014-06-01

    Accurate determination of coal mine gas separation product characteristics is the key for gas separation application based on hydrate technology. Gas hydrate was synthesized from two types of gas compositions (CO2-CH4-N2). The separation products were measured by in situ Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of mixed-gas hydrate was determined, and the cavity occupancy and hydration index were calculated, based on the object molecular various vibrational mode, "loose cage-tight cage" model and the Raman bands area ratio, combined with the model of van der Waals-Platteeuw. The results show that the mixed-gas hydrates are both structure I for the two gas samples; Large cages of mixed-gas hydrate are nearly occupied by guest molecules, and the large cavity occupancies are 98.57% and 98.52%, respectively; but small cages are not easy to be occupied, and the small cavity occupancies are 29.93% and 33.87%, respectively; hydration index of the two gas samples hydrate is 7.14 and 6.98, respectively, which is greater than the theoretical value of structure I. PMID:25358164

  13. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of the CH4-N2 system.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vogel, Eckhard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2014-12-14

    A five-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the interaction of a rigid methane molecule with a rigid nitrogen molecule was determined from quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory was utilized to compute a total of 743 points on the PES. The interaction energies were calculated using basis sets of up to quadruple-zeta quality with bond functions and were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. An analytical site-site potential function with nine sites for methane and five sites for nitrogen was fitted to the interaction energies. The PES was validated by calculating the cross second virial coefficient as well as the shear viscosity and binary diffusion coefficient in the dilute-gas limit for CH4-N2 mixtures. An improved PES was obtained by adjusting a single parameter of the analytical potential function in such a way that quantitative agreement with the most accurate experimental values of the cross second virial coefficient was achieved. The transport property values obtained with the adjusted PES are in good agreement with the best experimental data. PMID:25494743

  14. Structural and biological evaluation of some metal complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and U(VI)O2 complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H2PVT) are reported. Theoretical calculations have been performed to obtain IR spectra of ligand and its complexes using AM1, Zindo/1, MM+ and PM3, methods. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. H2VPT shows no apparent digestion effect on the egg albumin while Mn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a considerable digestion effect following the order Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Hg(II). Moreover, Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes revealed strong digestion effect. Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) acted as metal co- SOD enzyme factors, which are located in different compartments of the cell.

  15. The diverse electronic properties of C4N3 monolayer under biaxial compressive strain: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiping; Liu, Yuzhen; Kan, Erjun; Ma, Yanming; Xu, Wenjie; Li, Jie; Yan, Meichen; Lu, Ruifeng; Wei, Jianfeng; Qian, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Because of the observation of half-metallicity in graphitic carbon nitride C4N3 (g-C4N3), extensive research has recently been focused on this compound. Using density-functional calculations, herein diverse electronic properties of g-C4N3 were engineered by applying biaxial compressive strain. The calculated results demonstrate that g-C4N3 preserves ferromagnetic half-metallicity when the strain is lower than  ‑2%, accompanied by a decrease of the half-metallic gap. When the compressive strain ranges from  ‑5 to  ‑3%, the compound turns into nonmagnetic metal. By increasing the strain on the end, it becomes a nonmagnetic semiconductor. Further investigations show that all nonmagnetic semiconductors possess a direct band gap with a value of around 1.6 eV. This fact indicates that g-C4N3 can be applied in spintronic or photovoltaic fields under a strain environment.

  16. Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the

  17. Transcriptional regulation of human paraoxonase 1 by PXR and GR in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Ruiz, N; Rojas-García, A E; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Elizondo, G; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Mejía-García, A; Medina-Díaz, I M

    2015-12-25

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is A-esterase synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma, where it associates with HDL. PON1 acts as an antioxidant preventing lipid oxidation and detoxifies a wide range of substrates, including organophosphate compounds. The variability of PON1 (enzyme activity/serum levels) has been attributed to internal and external factors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of PON1 have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the transcriptional activation of PON1 by nuclear receptors (NR) in human hepatoma cells. In silico analysis was performed on the promoter region of PON1 to determine the response elements of NR. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the effect of specific NR ligands on the mRNA levels of genes regulated by NR and PON1. The results indicated that NR response elements had 95% homology to pregnenolone (PXR), glucocorticoids (GR), retinoic acid (RXR) and peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Treatments with Dexamethasone (GR ligand), Rifampicin (PXR ligand) and TCDD (AhR ligand) increased the mRNA levels of PON1 at 24 and 48 h. We showed that the activation of GR by Dexamethasone results in PON1 gene induction accompanied by an increase in activity levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that GR regulates PON1 gene transcription through directly binding to NR response elements at -95 to -628 bp of the PON1 promoter. This study suggests new molecular mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of PON1 through a process involving the activation of PXR. PMID:26434531

  18. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s{sup –1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M{sub ☉}) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  19. Modeling the Mechanism of GR/c-Jun/Erg Crosstalk in Apoptosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daphne Wei-Chen; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common forms of malignancy that occurs in lymphoid progenitor cells, particularly in children. Synthetic steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as part of the ALL treatment regimens due to their apoptotic function, but their use also brings about various side effects and drug resistance. The identification of the molecular differences between the GCs responsive and resistant cells therefore are essential to decipher such complexity and can be used to improve therapy. However, the emerging picture is complicated as the activities of genes and proteins involved are controlled by multiple factors. By adopting the systems biology framework to address this issue, we here integrated the available knowledge together with experimental data by building a series of mathematical models. This rationale enabled us to unravel molecular interactions involving c-Jun in GC induced apoptosis and identify Ets-related gene (Erg) as potential biomarker of GC resistance. The results revealed an alternative possible mechanism where c-Jun may be an indirect GR target that is controlled via an upstream repressor protein. The models also highlight the importance of Erg for GR function, particularly in GC sensitive C7 cells where Erg directly regulates GR in agreement with our previous experimental results. Our models describe potential GR-controlled molecular mechanisms of c-Jun/Bim and Erg regulation. We also demonstrate the importance of using a systematic approach to translate human disease processes into computational models in order to derive information-driven new hypotheses. PMID:23181019

  20. No detection of L-band radio emission from SN 2007gr by GMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Alak K.

    2007-08-01

    Sayan Chakraborti (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, (TIFR)), Poonam Chandra (Univ Virginia and National Radio Astronomical Observatory, Charlottesville), Nirupam Roy (National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA-TIFR), Pune, and Alak Ray (TIFR) report on the Target of Opportunity observation of SN 2007gr on 2007 Aug 24 by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in the L-band between UT 0200 to 0400.

  1. Closed form solution for a double quantum well using Gröbner basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acus, A.; Dargys, A.

    2011-07-01

    Analytical expressions for the spectrum, eigenfunctions and dipole matrix elements of a square double quantum well (DQW) are presented for a general case when the potential in different regions of the DQW has different heights and the effective masses are different. This was achieved by using a Gröbner basis algorithm that allowed us to disentangle the resulting coupled polynomials without explicitly solving the transcendental eigenvalue equation.

  2. Spectrum of the Dirac operator on Gr{sub 2}(C{sup m+2})

    SciTech Connect

    Milhorat, J.

    1998-01-01

    The spectrum of the Dirac operator, acting on the quaternion-Kaehler spin symmetric space Gr{sub 2}(C{sup m+2}), is explicitly computed by harmonic analysis methods: in particular `branching rules` for irreducible representations of the Lie group SU(m+2) and its subgroup S(U(m){times}U(2)), are given. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Synthesis and photophysical properties of the photoactivatable cationic porphyrin 5-(4-N-dodecylpyridyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-N-methylpyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin tetraiodide for anti-malaria PDT.

    PubMed

    Stallivieri, Aurélie; Le Guern, Florent; Vanderesse, Régis; Meledje, Esme; Jori, Giulio; Frochot, Céline; Acherar, Samir

    2015-07-01

    This article describes a new synthetic method for obtaining three water soluble porphyrins. The more sophisticated porphyrin [5-(4-N-dodecylpyridyl)-10,15,20-tri(4-N-methylpyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin tetraiodide], also named C12 porphyrin, was obtained through a three step methodology. The improvements, compared to syntheses described in the literature, mostly concern the purification procedures. The photophysical properties of the three porphyrins are described and the C12 porphyrin presents a very good (1)O2 yield compared to its chemical intermediates. This porphyrin seems to be a very promising candidate for PDT applications. PMID:26066986

  4. Structural Modeling of GR Interactions with the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex and C/EBP.

    PubMed

    Muratcioglu, Serena; Presman, Diego M; Pooley, John R; Grøntved, Lars; Hager, Gordon L; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila

    2015-09-15

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid-hormone-activated transcription factor that modulates gene expression. Transcriptional regulation by the GR requires dynamic receptor binding to specific target sites located across the genome. This binding remodels the chromatin structure to allow interaction with other transcription factors. Thus, chromatin remodeling is an essential component of GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, and understanding the interactions between these molecules at the structural level provides insights into the mechanisms of how GR and chromatin remodeling cooperate to regulate gene expression. This study suggests models for the assembly of the SWI/SNF-A (SWItch/Sucrose-NonFermentable) complex and its interaction with the GR. We used the PRISM algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching) to predict the three-dimensional complex structures of the target proteins. The structural models indicate that BAF57 and/or BAF250 mediate the interaction between the GR and the SWI/SNF-A complex, corroborating experimental data. They further suggest that a BAF60a/BAF155 and/or BAF60a/BAF170 interaction is critical for association between the core and variant subunits. Further, we model the interaction between GR and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), since the GR can regulate gene expression indirectly by interacting with other transcription factors like C/EBPs. We observe that GR can bind to bZip domains of the C/EBPα homodimer as both a monomer and dimer of the DNA-binding domain. In silico mutagenesis of the predicted interface residues confirm the importance of these residues in binding. In vivo analysis of the computationally suggested mutations reveals that double mutations of the leucine residues (L317D+L335D) may disrupt the interaction between GR and C/EBPα. Determination of the complex structures of the GR is of fundamental relevance to understanding its interactions and functions, since the function of a protein or a

  5. Redefinition of the mode Grüneisen parameter for polyatomic substances and thermodynamic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2002-01-01

    Although the value of the thermal Grüneisen parameter (γth) should be obtained by averaging spectroscopic measurements of mode Grüneisen parameters [γi ≡ (KT/νi)∂νi/∂P, where KT is isothermal bulk modulus, ν is frequency, and P is pressure], in practice, the average 〈γi〉 is up to 25% lower than γth. This discrepancy limits the accuracy of inferring physical properties from spectroscopic data and their application to geophysics. The problem arises because the above formula is physically meaningful only for monatomic or diatomic solids. We redefine γi to allow for the presence of functional groups in polyatomic crystal structures, and test the formula against spinel- and olivine-group minerals that have well-constrained spectra at pressure, band assignments, thermodynamic properties, and elastic moduli, and represent two types of functional groups. Our revised formula [γi ≡ (KX/νi)∂νi/∂P] uses polyhedral bulk moduli (KX) appropriate to the particular atomic motion associated with each vibrational mode, which results in equal values for 〈γi〉, γth, and γLA (the Grüneisen parameter of the longitudinal acoustic mode). Similar revisions lead to the pressure derivatives of these parameters being equal. Accounting for differential compression intrinsic to structures with functional groups improves the accuracy with which spectroscopic models predict thermodynamic properties and link to elastic properties. PMID:11805314

  6. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Bietenholz, M.; van der Horst, A. J.; Pidopryhora, Y.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Garrett, M. A.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M. K.; Bourke, S.; Paczyński, B.

    2010-01-01

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft γ-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities ~6,000kms-1, much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical.

  7. Direct GR Binding Sites Potentiate Clusters of TF Binding across the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Vockley, Christopher M; D'Ippolito, Anthony M; McDowell, Ian C; Majoros, William H; Safi, Alexias; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Reddy, Timothy E

    2016-08-25

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds the human genome at >10,000 sites but only regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. To determine the functional effect of each site, we measured the glucocorticoid (GC) responsive activity of nearly all GR binding sites (GBSs) captured using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in A549 cells. 13% of GBSs assayed had GC-induced activity. The responsive sites were defined by direct GR binding via a GC response element (GRE) and exclusively increased reporter-gene expression. Meanwhile, most GBSs lacked GC-induced reporter activity. The non-responsive sites had epigenetic features of steady-state enhancers and clustered around direct GBSs. Together, our data support a model in which clusters of GBSs observed with ChIP-seq reflect interactions between direct and tethered GBSs over tens of kilobases. We further show that those interactions can synergistically modulate the activity of direct GBSs and may therefore play a major role in driving gene activation in response to GCs. PMID:27565349

  8. Rapid Verification of Terminators Using the pGR-Blue Plasmid and Golden Gate Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Jace C; Gongola, Allea Belle; Reyna, Nathan S

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this protocol is to allow for the rapid verification of bioinformatically identified terminators. Further, the plasmid (pGR-Blue) is designed specifically for this protocol and allows for the quantification of terminator efficiency. As a proof of concept, six terminators were bioinformatically identified in the mycobacteriophage Bernal13. Once identified, terminators were then made as oligonucleotides with the appropriate sticky ends and annealed together. Using Golden Gate Assembly (GGA), terminators were then cloned into pGR-Blue. Under visible light, false positive colonies appear blue and positively transformed colonies are white/yellow. After induction of an arabinose inducible promoter (pBad) with arabinose, colony strength can be determined by measuring the ratio of green fluorescent protein (GFP) produced to red fluorescent protein (RFP) produced. With pGR-Blue, the protocol can be completed in as little as three days and is ideal in an educational setting. Additionally, results show that this protocol is useful as a means for understanding in silico predictions of terminator efficiency related to the regulation of transcription. PMID:27167700

  9. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr.

    PubMed

    Paragi, Z; Taylor, G B; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Bietenholz, M; van der Horst, A J; Pidopryhora, Y; van Langevelde, H J; Garrett, M A; Szomoru, A; Argo, M K; Bourke, S; Paczyński, B

    2010-01-28

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft gamma-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60 days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities approximately 6,000 km s(-1), much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical. PMID:20110996

  10. Thermodynamic signature of quantum criticality: universally diverging Grüneisen ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lijun

    2005-03-01

    At a generic quantum critical point where pressure acts as (or couples to) the zero-temperature control parameter, the Grüneisen ratio γ (the ratio of thermal expansion to specific heat) is divergent[1]. This property provides a novel probe to quantum criticality from thermodynamics. When scaling applies, γ˜1/T^x at the critical pressure p=pc, where the exponent x measures the scaling dimension of the most singular operator coupled to pressure; in the alternative limit T ->0 and p !=pc, γ= Gr/(p-pc), where Gr is a universal combination of critical exponents. The predicted divergence has been observed near the quantum critical points of several heavy fermion metals[2]. Analyses based on specific models relevant to these experiments are also presented. [1] L. Zhu, M. Garst, A. Rosch, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 066404 (2003). [2] R. Küchler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 066405 (2003); ibid. 93, 096402 (2004).

  11. Growth evolution of γ‧-Fe4N films on GaN(0001) and their interfacial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masamitsu; Hasegawa, Shigehiko

    2016-05-01

    We report the growth parameter dependence of structural and magnetic properties of γ‧-Fe4N thin films on GaN(0001) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, particularly focusing on their interfacial structure. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray diffraction reveal that γ‧-Fe4N(111) layers are grown at the interface, while the succeeding layers are preferentially oriented to (111) or (100) depending on the growth conditions. The RHEED observation during the interface formation and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation indicate that the γ‧-Fe4N(111)/GaN interface is abrupt. On the basis of the present findings, we propose the structural model for the interface.

  12. Spin-polarization inversion at small organic molecule/Fe{sub 4}N interfaces: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo

    2015-09-21

    We report the first-principles calculations on the electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scan tunneling microscopy graphic of the small organic molecules (benzene, thiophene, and cyclopentadienyl)/Fe{sub 4}N interfaces. It is found that the plane of benzene and thiophene keeps parallel to Fe{sub 4}N surface, while that of cyclopentadienyl does not. For all the systems, the organic molecules bind strongly with Fe{sub 4}N. Due to the hybridization between molecule p{sub z} orbitals and d orbitals of Fe, i.e., Zener interaction, all the three systems realize the spin-polarization inversion, whereas the spatial spin-polarization inversion distribution shows different intensities influenced by the competition between the spin polarization of C p{sub z} and Fe d states.

  13. NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene as an advanced electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Huiyong; Wang, Haiyan; He, Kejian; Wang, Shuangyin; Tang, Yougen; Chen, Jiajie

    2015-04-01

    Developing low-cost catalyst for high-performance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is highly desirable. Herein, NiCo2O4/N-doped reduced graphene oxide (NiCo2O4/N-rGO) hybrid is proposed as a high-performance catalyst for ORR for the first time. The well-formed NiCo2O4/N-rGO hybrid is studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV) performed on the rotating-ring-disk-electrode (RDE) in comparison with N-rGO-free NiCo2O4 and the bare N-rGO. Due to the synergistic effect, the NiCo2O4/N-rGO hybrid exhibits significant improvement of catalytic performance with an onset potential of -0.12 V, which mainly favors a direct four electron pathway in ORR process, close to the behavior of commercial carbon-supported Pt. Also, the benefits of N-incorporation are investigated by comparing NiCo2O4/N-rGO with NiCo2O4/rGO, where higher cathodic currents, much more positive half-wave potential and more electron transfer numbers are observed for the N-doping one, which should be ascribed to the new highly efficient active sites created by N incorporation into graphene. The NiCo2O4/N-rGO hybrid could be used as a promising catalyst for high power metal/air battery.

  14. Positron annihilation studies of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl.

    PubMed

    Dryzek, E; Juszyńska, E; Zaleski, R; Jasińska, B; Gorgol, M; Massalska-Arodź, M

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements were performed between 93 and 293 K in order to study the supercooled smectic-E (Sm-E) phase of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl (4TCB), the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB, and the phase transition between the Sm-E phase and the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB. The phase transition was well reflected in the abrupt increase of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and intensity. The value of the o-Ps lifetime in the Sm-E liquid crystalline phase of 4TCB, i.e., 2.21 ns at room temperature, was explained by the formation of bubbles induced by Ps atoms, which are created due to a liquidlike state of the butyl chains of 4TCB molecules in the Sm-E phase. The temperature dependence of the o-Ps intensity for the supercooled Sm-E phase can be explained by thermal generation of sites where bubbles are formed; an activation energy equal to 0.30±0.02 eV was estimated. This value was compared with the activation energies of molecular motions. The o-Ps lifetime in the ordered molecular crystal was interpreted as originating from the annihilation of o-Ps confined in molecular vacancy-type imperfections in the crystal lattice. The value of the o-Ps pickoff annihilation between 1.8 and 1.9 ns is in accordance with the size of the molecular vacancy for the 4TCB crystal lattice. Its intensity is lower than 5%. The isothermal crystallization of the 4TCB Sm-E phase was observed by PALS. The low-dimensional crystal growth was concluded from the Avrami equation fitted to the time dependence of the o-Ps intensity, which resulted in an Avrami exponent equal to 1.73. PMID:24032853

  15. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far UV Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (lambda < 120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120 - 200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We have examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, indicating that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross-section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths > 120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth and similar planets.

  16. 4-n-butylresorcinol, a depigmenting agent used in cosmetics, reacts with tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Antonio; Teruel-Puche, Jose Antonio; Ortiz-Ruiz, Carmen Vanessa; Berna, Jose; Tudela, Jose; Garcia-Canovas, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    4-n-Butylresorcinol (BR) is considered the most potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is why it is used in cosmetics as a depigmenting agent. However, this work demonstrates that BR is a substrate of this enzyme. The Em (met-tyrosinase) form is not active on BR, but Eox (oxy-tyrosinase) can act on this molecule, hydroxylating it to o-diphenol. In turn, this is oxidized to an o-quinone, which isomerizes to a red p-quinone. Thus, for tyrosinase to act on this compound, a mechanism to generate Eox in the medium is required, which can be achieved by means of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. A kinetic analysis of the proposed mechanism allows its kinetic characterization: catalytic constant kcatBR (8.49 ± 0.20 s(-1) ) and Michaelis-constant KMBR (60.26 ± 8.76 μM). These findings are compared with those for other monophenolic substrates of tyrosinase. Studies of BR docking to the Em form of the enzyme show that the hydroxyl group in C-1 position is oriented toward the copper atom A (CuA), as in it is L-tyrosine. As regards Eox , BR is oriented with the carbon in C-6 position ready to be hydroxylated. The reaction of BR originates o-quinones, which isomerize to p-quinones, which in turn, could react with thiol compounds, a finding that could have important implications for pharmacology and the cosmetic industry. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):663-672, 2016. PMID:27342394

  17. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors. PMID:25502305

  18. Melanin production by Rhizobium meliloti GR4 is linked to nonsymbiotic plasmid pRmeGR4b: cloning, sequencing, and expression of the tyrosinase gene mepA.

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Blanco, J; García, F; Fernández-López, M; Olivares, J

    1993-01-01

    Melanin production by Rhizobium meliloti GR4 is linked to nonsymbiotic plasmid pRmeGR4b (140 MDa). Transfer of this plasmid to GR4-cured derivatives or to Agrobacterium tumefaciens enables these bacteria to produce melanin. Sequence analysis of a 3.5-kb PstI fragment of plasmid pRmeGR4b has revealed the presence of a open reading frame 1,481-bp that codes for a protein whose sequence shows strong homology to two conserved regions involved in copper binding in tyrosinases and hemocyanins. In vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that this open reading frame codes for a 55-kDa polypeptide. Melanin production in GR4 is not under the control of the RpoN-NifA regulatory system, unlike that in R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 8002. The GR4 tyrosinase gene could be expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lacZ promoter. For avoiding confusion with mel genes (for melibiose), a change of the name of the previously reported mel genes of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and other organisms to mep genes (for melanin production) is proposed. Images PMID:8366027

  19. A comparative study of Burakovsky's and Jacobs's volume dependence Grüneisen parameter for fcc aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Chuanhui; Zong, Baochun; Wang, Junping

    2015-07-01

    We compare two expressions for the volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ for fcc Al presented by Burakovsky and Preston (2004) [3] and Jacobs and Schmid-Fetzer (2010) [4], respectively. It's found that both calculated results of the melting temperature Tm are in good agreement with experimental data. But the higher order Grüneisen parameters are different. We obtain the values of the third order Grüneisen parameter λ∞ and the pressure derivative of bulk modulus K‧∞ at extreme pressure, and the parameter f in the generalized free volume formula for the two models. The results show that the Jacobs's expression of Grüneisen parameter is more suitable for fcc Al.

  20. Expression of AmGR10 of the Gustatory Receptor Family in Honey Bee Is Correlated with Nursing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Paerhati, Yisilahaiti; Ishiguro, Shinichi; Ueda-Matsuo, Risa; Yang, Ping; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Ito, Kikukatsu; Maekawa, Hideaki; Tani, Hiroko; Suzuki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between the expression of a gene encoding gustatory receptor (G10) and division of labor in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Among 10 GR genes encoding proteins 15% ~ 99% amino acid identity in the honey bee, we found that AmGR10 with 99% identity is involved in nursing or brood care. Expression of AmGR10 was restricted to organs of the hypopharyngeal gland, brain, and ovary in the nurse bee phase. Members of an extended nursing caste under natural conditions continued to express this gene. RNAi knockdown of AmGR10 accelerated the transition to foraging. Our findings demonstrate that this one gene has profound effects on the division of labor associated with the development and physiology of honeybee society. PMID:26588091

  1. A Report on the Hysteroscopic Removal of a Gräfenberg Ring After Almost Fifty Years in Utero.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, P; Tönnes, R; Simon, S; David, M

    2014-11-01

    A report on the hysteroscopic removal of a Gräfenberg ring after almost fifty years in utero. In addition to the differential diagnostic considerations, the medical history aspects of this case are particularly interesting. PMID:25484377

  2. GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, H.; Birch, P. J.; Harrison, S. M.; Palmer, E.; Manchee, G. R.; Judd, D. B.; Naylor, A.; Scopes, D. I.; Hayes, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has been investigated. Its antinociceptive activity has been compared with that of GR103545, a centrally-penetrating kappa-agonist and ICI204448, the previously described peripherally-selective kappa-agonist. 2. GR94839 was a potent agonist in the rabbit vas deferens in vitro assay for kappa-opioid receptors (IC50: 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM; n = 6), but had limited activity at mu- or delta-opioid receptors. 3. In the mouse abdominal constriction test, GR94839 was 238 fold more potent when given i.c.v. (ED50: 0.008 (0.004-0.029) mg kg-1; n = 18) than when s.c. (ED50: 1.9 (0.7-3.1) mg kg-1; n = 30). In comparison, GR103545 was equipotent when given i.c.v. or s.c. 4. After intravenous administration, the maximum plasma to brain concentration-ratio attained by GR94839 was 18 compared with 2 for GR85571, a structurally-related kappa-agonist that is centrally-penetrating. 5. GR94839 inhibited the 2nd phase of the rat formalin response at doses 7 fold lower than those required to inhibit the 1st phase (ED50 vs 1st phase: 10.2 (6.7-17.1) mg kg-1, s.c.; ED50 vs 2nd phase: 1.4 (1.0-1.8) mg kg-1, s.c.; n = 18). GR103545 was equipotent against the two phases. 6. Intraplantar administration of the opioid antagonists, norbinaltorphimine (100 micrograms) or naltrexone (1 microgram), reversed the antinociceptive effect of systemic GR94839 (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) against the 2nd phase of the formalin response and intraplantar injection of GR94839 (30-100 micrograms) selectively inhibited the 2nd phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327387

  3. Determination of antiplasmodial activity and binding affinity of selected natural products towards PfTrxR and PfGR.

    PubMed

    Munigunti, Ranjith; Becker, Katja; Brun, Reto; Calderón, Angela I

    2013-08-01

    In our study, the binding affinities of selected natural products towards PfTrxR, PfGR, human TrxR and human GR were determined using a mass spectrometry based ligand binding assay. The in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of these ligands were also determined. Catharanthine, 11-(OH)-coronaridine, hernagine, vobasine and hispolone displayed antiplasmodial activity against PfK1 (IC50 = 0.996-3.63 microg/mL). PMID:24079187

  4. Characteristics of the binding of [3H]-GR32191 to the thromboxane (TP-) receptor of human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R. A.; Humphrey, P. P.; Lumley, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of the specific thromboxane (TP-) receptor blocking drug, [3H]-GR32191 with human intact platelets and platelet membranes has been investigated in vitro. 2. On intact platelets, association of specific [3H]-GR32191 binding at 37 degrees C was biphasic, with an initial rapid component and a slower secondary phase. Dissociation experiments indicated displacement from two sites with t1/2 values of 8.1 and 65.6 minutes. Kd values derived from the kinetic rate constants for the rapid onset/offset and slow onset/offset phases were 0.4 and 0.5 nM respectively. 3. Competition binding of [3H]-GR32191 and GR32191 on intact platelets gave an IC50 of 2.3 nM. Scatchard analysis indicated a single class of binding site with a Kd of 2.2 nM. Further analysis of the data yielded a Hill slope of -1.0 again indicating an interaction at a single binding site. Saturation binding experiments gave a similar estimate of the Kd value for [3H]-GR32191 to that obtained from competition binding experiments. A possible explanation for the biphasic interaction of the GR32191 in intact platelets may lie in restriction of its access to and egress from a population of TP-receptors. 4. In platelet membranes at 37 degrees C, specific [3H]-GR32191 binding was complete within 5 min with a calculated association rate constant of 3.2 x 10(8) M-1 min-1. Dissociation of [3H]-GR32191 was relatively slow, with measurable specific binding persisting for > 40 min. Analysis of these data yielded a t1/2 of 17.7 min and a dissociation rate constant of 0.04 min-1 and indicated dissociation from a single site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242228

  5. Structure, phase transitions, dielectric and spectroscopic studies of the 2-aminopyrimidinium salts: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czupiński, O.; Wojtaś, M.; Ciunik, Z.; Jakubas, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crystal structure of the 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives: [(2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3) 2H][ClO 4] (I) and [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] (II) has been determined at 100 K (I) and 293 K (II) by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction as monoclinic space group, P2/c and P2/n, respectively. The asymmetric part of the unit cell of (I) contains two symmetry independent 2-aminopyrimidine forming one dimeric cation and one disordered perchlorate anion. The structure of (II) consists of 2-aminopyrimidinium cation, [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4] +, protonated at a pyrimidine ring-N atom and [BF 4] - anion. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on perchlorate derivative ( 1:1), [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 3][ClO 4] (III)—being isomorphic to tetrafluoroborate one (I) at room temperature, reveals two phase transitions of first order: at 250/275 K and 390/410 K (cooling-heating, respectively), whereas the analog (II) only one transition at high temperatures—343/385 K. The dielectric studies in the frequency range 75 kHz - 10 MHz disclose relaxation process at high temperatures in salt (I). Infrared spectra of polycrystalline [2-NH 2C 4N 2H 4][BF 4] have been studied in the temperature range 300-420 K. Substantial changes in the temperature evolution of frequencies of internal modes of the 2-aminopyrimidinium cations and [BF 4] - anions near 390 K are due to the variations in the motion of both moieties and hydrogen bond configuration. The experimental studies indicate that all phase transitions taking place in studied 2-aminopyrimidinium derivatives are classified as an order-disorder.

  6. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoyang; Pang, Yanli; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Achyut, B.R.; Heger, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul K.; Lonning, Scott; Yang, Li

    2012-01-01

    One great challenge in our understanding of TGF-β cancer biology and the successful application of TGF-β targeted therapy is that TGF-β works as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The underlying mechanisms for its functional change remain to be elucidated. Using 4T1 mammary tumor model that shares many characteristics with human breast cancer, particularly its ability to spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are important mediators in TGF-β regulation of mammary tumor progression. Depletion of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells diminished the anti-tumor effect of TGF-β neutralization. Two mechanisms were involved: first, treatment with TGF-β neutralization antibody (1D11) significantly decreased the number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in tumor tissues and premetastatic lung. This is mediated through increased Gr-1+CD11b+ cell apoptosis. In addition, 1D11 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines & Arginase 1. Interestingly, the number and property of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in peripheral blood/draining lymph nodes correlated with tumor size and metastases in response to 1D11 treatment. Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β targeted therapy. PMID:22487809

  7. The alc-GR system: a modified alc gene switch designed for use in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gethin R; Garoosi, G Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J; Caddick, Mark X; Doonan, John H; Tomsett, A Brian

    2005-07-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: beta-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  8. The alc-GR System. A Modified alc Gene Switch Designed for Use in Plant Tissue Culture1[w

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gethin R.; Garoosi, G. Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J.; Caddick, Mark X.; Doonan, John H.; Tomsett, A. Brian

    2005-01-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: β-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  9. tetra neutron system studied by exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He, 8Be)4n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, Keiichi; Sharaq06 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A possible existence of the tetra-neutron system as a resonance state is still an open and fascinating question, while theoretical papers using ab-initio calculation suggests that the bound tetra-neutron does not exist. We have performed a missing-mass spectroscopy of the 4n system via the exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n. The experiment was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN using the SHARAQ spectrometer and the liquid He target system. Since the secondary beam, 8He at 190A MeV, has a large internal energy, it is possible to produce the 4n system in small momentum transfers of less than 20 MeV/c. In the present analysis, a new analytical framework to treat multi-particles under high beam rate condition (2 MHz) was developed for good statistics. At the SHARAQ spectrometer, 8Be can be identified by measuring the invariant mass of the coincident two-alpha particle with a good signal-to-noise ratio. About several tens of candidate events are obtained above the 4n threshold. We will show the preliminary result of missing-msss spectrum and discuss the shape of spectrum.

  10. Structure, phase transitions, and isotope effects in [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.

    2015-11-02

    The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd-3c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm-3m with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement and the degree of rotation varies with temperature, giving rise to the phase transition from Fm-3m to Fd-3c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation.

  11. Structure, Phase Transitions, and Isotope Effects in [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long-standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature-dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd3̅c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm3̅m, with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement, and the degree of rotation varies with temperature, giving rise to the phase transition from Fm3̅m to Fd3̅c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition, as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound, indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation. PMID:26225472

  12. Transition from half metal to semiconductor in Li doped g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashmi, Arqum; Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2014-03-28

    We have investigated the structural and magnetic properties of Li doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3}) using the van der Waals density functional theory. A free standing g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3} was known to show a half metallic state with buckling geometry, but this feature completely disappears in the presence of Li doping. Besides this structural modification, very interestingly, we have obtained that the Li doped g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3} shows dramatic change in its electronic structure. Both ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic states are almost degenerated in one Li atom doped system. However, the transition from half metallic state to semiconductor is observed with further increase of Li concentration and the calculated energy gap is 1.97 eV. We found that Li impurity plays as a donor element and charge transfer from the Li atom to neighboring N atoms induces a band gap. Overall, we have observed that the electronic and magnetic properties of g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3} are substantially modified by Li doping.

  13. AF4 and AF4N protein complexes: recruitment of P-TEFb kinase, their interactome and potential functions

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Bastian; Kowarz, Eric; Rössler, Tanja; Ahmad, Khalil; Steinhilber, Dieter; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are the molecular backbone to assemble “super-elongation complexes” (SECs) that have two main functions: (1) control of transcriptional elongation by recruiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb = CyclinT1/CDK9) that is usually stored in inhibitory 7SK RNPs; (2) binding of different histone methyltransferases, like DOT1L, NSD1 and CARM1. This way, transcribed genes obtain specific histone signatures (e.g. H3K79me2/3, H3K36me2) to generate a transcriptional memory system. Here we addressed several questions: how is P-TEFb recruited into SEC, how is the AF4 interactome composed, and what is the function of the naturally occuring AF4N protein variant which exhibits only the first 360 amino acids of the AF4 full-length protein. Noteworthy, shorter protein variants are a specific feature of all AFF protein family members. Here, we demonstrate that full-length AF4 and AF4N are both catalyzing the transition of P-TEFb from 7SK RNP to their N-terminal domain. We have also mapped the protein-protein interaction network within both complexes. In addition, we have first evidence that the AF4N protein also recruits TFIIH and the tumor suppressor MEN1. This indicate that AF4N may have additional functions in transcriptional initiation and in MEN1-dependend transcriptional processes. PMID:26171280

  14. Gas phase dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) on Titan: New experimental and theoretical spectroscopy results applied to Cassini CIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Cottini, V.; Fayt, A.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Benilan, Y.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Nixon, C.; Irwin, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dicyanoacetylene has not been observed so far in the gas phase in Titan's atmosphere but this molecule is still on the list of the detected species, on the basis of the correspondence between a solid phase feature measured at 478 cm-1 in the laboratory and a spectral feature observed by Voyager. In this work, the infrared spectrum of gaseous C4N2 has been investigated to improve our knowledge of the band intensities and the line parameters for this molecule. Results of previously investigated bands have been revised and the intensity of the ν9 band at 107 cm-1, measured for the first time, was found to be the strongest absorption in the whole infrared domain. We have also improved the analysis of the complex rotational and hot band structure of C4N2 in order to obtain the first line lists for both bending modes ν8 and ν9. Using our radiative transfer code including the new line list of the strong ν9 band, we have searched for the signature of C4N2 at 107 cm-1 in the atmosphere of Titan utilizing Titan CIRS far infrared spectra. Despite averaging a large number of CIRS spectra at northern latitudes during the very favorable Titan winter, no gaseous C4N2 could be detected. At the 1-σ level we obtain an abundance upper limit of 5.3 × 10-10 for the limb average which is lower than or comparable to previously inferred values. As a consequence, the absence or very low amount of gaseous C4N2 makes quite puzzling its presence in the solid phase with an abundance compatible with the observed spectral feature at 478 cm-1.

  15. GR 290 (Romano’s Star). II. Light History and Evolutionary State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Maryeva, O.; Nesci, R.; Calabresi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Haver, R.; Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H.; Pasquali, A.; Rossi, C.; Vasilyeva, T.; Viotti, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf–Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18–19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992–1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B – V color index has been constant within ±0.1m despite the 1.5m change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992–94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002–2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600–4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002–2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R2/3, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while Teff varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ∼1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity variations. Presently, GR 290

  16. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselwander, Christopher J.; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5 Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately 2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500 kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs.

  17. The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Rebecca; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2015-04-01

    The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, was much more explosive than previous eruptions, specifically its 2004 eruption. This research examines the degassing processes of the 2011 eruption, through density and vesicule analyses, to help uncover the reasons for the more vigorous eruption. Over 1200 collected tephra samples from the 2011 sequences are measured for density and vesicularity. Several samples are chosen to be representative of eruptive phases; samples from the beginning of the eruption, the mid-eruption and the end phases are chosen. These pumice samples are impregnated with epoxy and made into plugs for use in a Scanning Electron Microscope with which, a nested image approach is taken to image the vesicules of the samples at different magnifications. Each backscatter image is converted to binary and corrected using GIMP. Using ImageJ software, quantitative vesicularity analysis of the images is performed and results are converted to volume. The density, quantitative vesicularity, and volume results are assessed for patterns and the processes of the magma during the ascent in the conduit and eruptive phases are inferred. The objective of this research is to use the microscopic vesicularity analyses of the eruptive products to theorize the larger scale magmatic and degassing processes and to understand why the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption was uncharacteristically explosive. Currently, the results are being examined and have not been included in this abstract, however the research will be finalized in time for presentation at the EGU 2015 conference. Keywords: Grímsvötn volcano, quantitative vesicularity analysis, bubble size distribution, volcanic degassing, conduit processes

  18. A high mass progenitor for the Type Ic Supernova 2007gr inferred from its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, Justyn R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of late-time Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the site of the Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr in NGC 1058. The SN is barely recovered in the late-time WFPC2 observations, while a possible detection in the later WFC3 data is debatable. These observations were used to conduct a multiwavelength study of the surrounding stellar population. We fit spatial profiles to a nearby bright source that was previously proposed to be a host cluster. We find that, rather than being an extended cluster, it is consistent with a single point-like object. Fitting stellar models to the observed spectral energy distribution of this source, we conclude it is A1-A3 Yellow Supergiant, possibly corresponding to a star with MZAMS = 40 M⊙. SN 2007gr is situated in a massive star association, with diameter of ≈300 pc. We present a Bayesian scheme to determine the properties of the surrounding massive star population, in conjunction with the Padova isochrones. We find that the stellar population, as observed in either the WFC3 and WFPC2 observations, can be well fit by two age distributions with mean ages: ˜6.3 Myr and ˜50 Myr. The stellar population is clearly dominated by the younger age solution (by factors of 3.5 and 5.7 from the WFPC2 and WFC3 observations, respectively), which corresponds to the lifetime of a star with MZAMS ˜ 30 M⊙. This is strong evidence in favour of the hypothesis that SN 2007gr arose from a massive progenitor star, possibly capable of becoming a Wolf-Rayet star.

  19. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios.

    PubMed

    Hasselwander, Christopher J; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately $2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs. PMID:27394165

  20. Redefinition of the mode Grüneisen parameter for polyatomic substances and thermodynamic implications.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Anne M; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2002-01-22

    Although the value of the thermal Grüneisen parameter (gamma(th)) should be obtained by averaging spectroscopic measurements of mode Grüneisen parameters [gamma(i) identical with (K(T)/nu(i)) delta nu(i)/ delta P, where K(T) is isothermal bulk modulus, nu is frequency, and P is pressure], in practice, the average is up to 25% lower than gamma(th). This discrepancy limits the accuracy of inferring physical properties from spectroscopic data and their application to geophysics. The problem arises because the above formula is physically meaningful only for monatomic or diatomic solids. We redefine gamma(i) to allow for the presence of functional groups in polyatomic crystal structures, and test the formula against spinel- and olivine-group minerals that have well-constrained spectra at pressure, band assignments, thermodynamic properties, and elastic moduli, and represent two types of functional groups. Our revised formula [gamma(i) identical with (K(X)/nu(i)) delta nu(i)/ delta P] uses polyhedral bulk moduli (K(X)) appropriate to the particular atomic motion associated with each vibrational mode, which results in equal values for , gamma(th), and gamma(LA) (the Grüneisen parameter of the longitudinal acoustic mode). Similar revisions lead to the pressure derivatives of these parameters being equal. Accounting for differential compression intrinsic to structures with functional groups improves the accuracy with which spectroscopic models predict thermodynamic properties and link to elastic properties. PMID:11805314

  1. Metastatic Neuroblastoma Confined to Distant Lymph Nodes (stage 4N) Predicts Outcome in Patients With Stage 4 Disease: A Study From the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Daniel A.; London, Wendy B.; Stephens, Derek; Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Hero, Barbara; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Nakagawara, Akira; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ambros, Peter F.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Irwin, Meredith S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The presence of distant metastases is one of the most powerful predictors of outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. However, the pattern of metastatic spread is not incorporated into current risk stratification systems. Small case series have suggested that patients with neuroblastoma who have metastatic disease limited to distant lymph nodes (4N disease) may have improved outcomes. Patients and Methods We analyzed retrospective data from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database for patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2002. 4N patients were compared with the remaining stage 4 patients (non-4N), excluding those with missing metastatic site data. Results In all, 2,250 International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 4 patients with complete data were identified, of whom 146 (6.5%) had 4N disease. For 4N patients, event-free survival (EFS; 5-year, 77% ± 4%) and overall survival (OS; 5-year, 85% ± 3%) were significantly better than EFS (5-year, 35% ± 1%) and OS (5-year, 42% ± 1%) for non-4N stage 4 patients (P < .001). 4N patients were more likely to be younger (P < .001) and have tumors with favorable characteristics, including absence of MYCN amplification (89% v 69%; P < .001). In a multivariable analysis, 4N disease remained a significant predictor of outcome (hazard ratio for non-4N v 4N: 3.40 for EFS and 3.69 for OS). Within subgroups defined by age at diagnosis and tumor MYCN status, 4N disease was significantly associated with improved outcomes. Conclusion 4N represents a subgroup with better outcome than that of other patients with metastatic disease. These findings suggest that the biology and treatment response of 4N tumors differ from other stage 4 tumors, and less intensive therapy should be considered for this cohort. Future exploration of biologic factors determining the pattern of metastatic spread is warranted. PMID:24663047

  2. Effects of static tensile load on the thermal expansion of Gr/PI composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of static tensile load on the thermal expansion of Gr/PI composite material was measured for seven different laminate configurations. A computer program was developed which implements laminate theory in a piecewise linear fashion to predict the coupled nonlinear thermomechanical behavior. Static tensile load significantly affected the thermal expansion characteristics of the laminates tested. This effect is attributed to a fiber instability micromechanical behavior of the constituent materials. Analytical results correlated reasonably well with free thermal expansion tests (no load applied to the specimen). However, correlation was poor for tests with an applied load.

  3. Understanding and correcting the Up erroneous signal in GR2 IGS series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyer, Sylvain; Mercier, Flavien; Capdeville, Hugues; Mezerette, Adrien; Perosanz, Felix

    2015-04-01

    The CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center has participated for its first time to the REPRO2 IGS reprocessing campaign in order to participate in the IGS combined product for a new ITRF realization. Preliminary comparisons between the different ACs contributions highlighted an anomalous behavior of GR2 CNES-CLS solution. The daily global RMS of the station coordinates difference exhibited a spurious annual signal on the Up and North component of respectively 6 and 2 mm. We first investigated if any specific option in terms of parameter or model in our processing could explain such difference. For example we quantified the impact of using time-variable-gravity field models (instead of static), of using FES2012 instead of FES2004 oceanic model, of changing the cut-off elevation angle. Even if these tests remain instructive, none of them could explain the anomalous signal. We finally discovered an error of parameterization of the GPT2/GMF2 tropospheric model affecting the full reprocessing effort: the constant atmospheric pressure option (without taking into account seasonal terms) has been considered. As a consequence, the hydrostatic tropospheric a priori correction to the GNSS measurements couldn't be totally compensated by the wet tropospheric parameter estimated a posteriori. After confirming that this error was the major reason of our problem, we investigated if an a posteriori correction could be applied to the station coordinate series. One full year of data has been reprocessed again using an identical configuration except the consideration of a variable atmospheric pressure from GTP2 model. For each station, the coordinate comparison between the new solution called GR2P and the initial GR2 one clearly shown a smooth "annual" function. As the difference between a constant and a variable atmospheric pressure in GPT2 model is stationary from one year to the next, we concluded that this station specific function is also stationary and that it could be applied to full

  4. Algebraic varieties in the Birkhoff strata of the Grassmannian Gr(2): Harrison cohomology and integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelchenko, B. G.; Ortenzi, G.

    2011-11-01

    The local properties of the families of algebraic subsets Wg in the Birkhoff strata Σ2g of Gr(2) containing the hyperelliptic curves of genus g are studied. It is shown that the tangent spaces Tg for Wg are isomorphic to the linear spaces of 2-coboundaries. Particular subsets in Wg are described by the integrable dispersionless coupled KdV systems of hydrodynamical type defining a special class of 2-cocycles and 2-coboundaries in Tg. It is demonstrated that the blows-ups of such 2-cocycles and 2-coboundaries and gradient catastrophes for associated integrable systems are interrelated.

  5. Bulk size crystal growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and surface studies of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N'-methylstilbazolium m-nitrobenzenesulfonate (DSMNS): A potential THz crystal of stilbazolium family.

    PubMed

    Antony Raj, A; John Sundaram, S; Gunaseelan, R; Sagayaraj, P

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis and growth of a potentially useful and efficient nonlinear optical organic single crystal of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N'-methylstilbazolium m-nitrobenzenesulfonate (DSMNS) is reported. The growth experiment involved the slope nucleation method coupled with slow cooling as well as slow solvent evaporation techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), FT-Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been employed to ascertain the structure and composition of the crystal. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the sample has been examined by Kurtz and Perry powder test. Thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques are employed to investigate the thermal behavior of the grown crystal. The frequency/temperature dependent dielectric properties of the organic crystal of DSMNS are studied. The surface features of the grown crystal are investigated by chemical etching study and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:26010563

  6. Interferon regulatory factor-8 modulates the development of tumour-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Trina J; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Reid, Julia E; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Liu, Kebin; Abrams, Scott I

    2009-09-01

    Tumour-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote immune suppression and mediate tumour progression. However, the molecular basis for the generation of MDSC, which in mice co-express the CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cell surface markers remains unclear. Because CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells expand during progressive tumour growth, this suggests that tumour-induced events alter signalling pathways that affect normal myeloid cell development. Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a member of the IFN-gamma regulatory factor family, is essential for normal myelopoiesis. We therefore examined whether IRF-8 modulated tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cell development or accumulation using both implantable (4T1) and transgenic (MMTV-PyMT) mouse models of mammary tumour growth. In the 4T1 model, both splenic and bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells of tumour-bearing mice displayed a marked reduction in IRF-8 expression compared to control populations. A causal link between IRF-8 expression and the emergence of tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells was explored in vivo using a double transgenic (dTg) mouse model designed to express transgenes for both IRF-8 and mammary carcinoma development. Despite the fact that tumour growth was unaffected, splenomegaly, as well as the frequencies and absolute numbers of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells were significantly lower in dTg mice when compared with single transgenic tumour-bearing mice. Overall, these data reveal that IRF-8 plays an important role in tumour-induced development and/or accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells, and establishes a molecular basis for the potential manipulation of these myeloid populations for cancer therapy. PMID:20196788

  7. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  8. Contribution of recovery mechanisms of microstructure during long-term creep of Gr.91 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi-Armaki, H.; Chen, R. P.; Maruyama, K.; Igarashi, M.

    2013-02-01

    Creep rupture life and microstructural degradation have been studied in two heats of Gr.91 steels. The coarsening of subgrains and precipitates, mainly M23C6 and MX, has been evaluated during static aging and creep. Hardness of head (static aging) and gauge (creep) portions of crept samples were measured to know their relation with microstructural degradation during long-term exposure. The correlation between subgrain size and spacing of precipitates and hardness has been equated. As an example, there is a close correlation between hardness value and inverse subgrains size in Gr.91 steels, regardless of aging or creep conditions. The appearance of three recovery mechanisms was found during long-term creep, namely: strain-induced recovery, pure static recovery and strain-assisted static recovery. By equated correlations between subgrain size, precipitates and hardness, the contribution of three recovery mechanisms to subgrain coarsening and hardness drop were calculated for two creep conditions at 700 °C in long-term creep region, where breakdown of creep strength has happen. The calculated data accord well with experimental data obtained from aged and crept samples. The contribution of static recovery to the subgrain coarsening and consequent hardness drop during long-term creep increases with increasing creep time. The significant contribution of both static recovery mechanisms can result in the breakdown of creep strength in long-term creep region.

  9. ``DarkSky.gr'' — A Greek Campaign for Light Pollution Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalambrou, A.; Antonopoulos, P.; Zafiropoulos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In April 2009 the web site under the title darksky.gr went online. This site is an attempt to communicate the problem of light pollution to the public. Light pollution is treated not as an isolated problem but as part of a more general and complex issue which affects the environment, energy resources and human health. Darksky.gr aims to become a meeting point and unite the efforts of Greek amateur astronomy clubs and other organizations interested in the issue such as scientific societies, environmental organizations, technical chambers, mass media and private companies involved in electricity and lighting. Its creation has been suggested by the Astronomical Society of Patras “Orion” and ratified in the annual meeting of Greek amateur astronomy clubs that took place in Alexandroupoli in November 2008. We believe that amateur astronomy clubs represent a very active cell in the field of scientific knowledge communication to the public and that they can play an important role in raising awareness of the problem in cooperation with active organizations in related fields. The goal is to launch a wide cooperation between interested parties targeting to prevent the increasing light pollution. In this work, the goals and methods of the campaign are analyzed and an attempt to assess the very first results is made.

  10. Friction Stir Welding of GR-Cop 84 for Combustion Chamber Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carolyn K.; Carter, Robert; Ellis, David L.; Goudy, Richard

    2004-01-01

    GRCop-84 is a copper-chromium-niobium alloy developed by the Glenn Research Center for liquid rocket engine combustion chamber liners. GRCop-84 exhibits superior properties over conventional copper-base alloys in a liquid hydrogen-oxygen operating environment. The Next Generation Launch Technology program has funded a program to demonstrate scale-up production capabilities of GR-Cop 84 to levels suitable for main combustion chamber production for the prototype rocket engine. This paper describes a novel method of manufacturing the main combustion chamber liner. The process consists of several steps: extrude the GR-Cop 84 powder into billets, roll the billets into plates, bump form the plates into cylinder halves and friction stir weld the halves into a cylinder. The cylinder is then metal spun formed to near net liner dimensions followed by finish machining to the final configuration. This paper describes the friction stir weld process development including tooling and non-destructive inspection techniques, culminating in the successful production of a liner preform completed through spin forming.

  11. Diffuse Ionized Gas in Irregular Galaxies. I. GR 8 and ESO 245-G05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the spectral characteristics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in two irregular galaxies with low metallicities and intermediate star formation rates: ESO 245-G05 and GR 8. The [O III]/Hβ ratio in these galaxies is higher than in the DIG of spiral galaxies but not as high as in other irregular galaxies previously studied, such as IC 10 and NGC 6822. The [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα ratios have very small values, indicating the absence of shocks as the ionization source for this gas. This ionization can be explained in both galaxies with photon leakage from the H II regions as the only source. The percentage of photons that have escaped from the H II regions is small in ESO 245-G05, only 35%, but varies from 35% up to 60% in GR 8. We also investigated whether the differences found between spiral and irregular galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ and the [N II]/Hα ratios are due to differences in the metal content between these types of galaxies. Although the number of galaxies studied is not very large, it can be concluded that the [O III]/Hβ ratio is not related to the oxygen content, while the situation is more ambiguous for the [N II]/Hα ratio.

  12. GR718- Radiation-Tolerant 18x SpaceWire Router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekergaren, Jonas; Habinc, Sandi; Johansson, Fredrik; Sturesson, Fredrik; Simlastik, Martin; Hernandez, Francisco; Redant, Steven; Stinkens, Kurt; Thys, Geert; Das Arul Mahesh, Jagadeesa; Suess, Martin

    2015-09-01

    GR718 is a radiation tolerant 18 port standalone SpaceWire router component that has been developed by Cobham Gaisler together with IMEC (BE), in an activity initiated by the European Space Agency under ESTEC contract 4000105402/12/NL/Cbi. Out of the 18 SpaceWire ports, 16 use on-chip LVDS transceivers, and two use LVTTL signaling. Included also is the mandatory configuration port, as well as an internal port for system level testing. All ports are capable of operating in 200 Mbit/s. UART and JTAG interfaces, that gives access to the on-chip AMBA AHB bus, are provided for configuration and debugging. SPI and GPIO interfaces are accessible through the configuration port, which allows SPI devices to be accessed and general purpose signaling to be performed through RMAP commands. In addition to the mandatory features in the current ECSS SpaceWire standard, GR718 supports group adaptive routing for path addresses, and packet distribution. It also includes support for the incoming SpaceWire standard revision 1 (ECSS-E-ST-50-12C Rev.1), the SpaceWire-D protocol, and the SpaceWire Plug-and-Play protocol currently being developed for ECSS. The technology used is UMC 180 nm, using the DARE library from IMEC, and the package is a 256 pin CQFP. A development board for evaluation and software development has been manufactured as well.

  13. airGR: a suite of lumped hydrological models in an R-package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, Laurent; Perrin, Charles; Delaigue, Olivier; Andréassian, Vazken; Thirel, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2015), called airGR, to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A (Mouehli et al., 2006), - the monthly GR2M (Mouehli, 2003) models, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), GR5J (Le Moine, 2008) and GR6J (Pushpalatha et al., 2011), - the hourly GR4H model (Mathevet, 2005), - a degree-day snow module CemaNeige (Valéry et al., 2014). The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithms selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is already used for educational purposes. The presentation will detail the main functionalities of the package and present a case

  14. Metallic transport and large anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xi; Shigematsu, Kei; Chikamatsu, Akira Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-18

    We report the electrical transport properties of ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N (001) epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The Mn{sub 4}N thin films were tetragonally distorted with a ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice constants of 0.987 and showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with an effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 0.16 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with that of a recently reported molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown film. The thin films exhibited metallic transport with a room temperature resistivity of 125 μΩ cm in addition to a large anomalous Hall effect with a Hall angle tangent of 0.023.

  15. Solid-state photochemistry as a formation mechanism for Titan's stratospheric C4N2 ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Yung, Y. L.; McLain, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We propose that C4N2 ice clouds observed in Titan's springtime polar stratosphere arise due to solid-state photochemistry occurring within extant ice cloud particles of HCN-HC3N mixtures. This formation process resembles the halogen-induced ice particle surface chemistry that leads to condensed nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and ozone depletion in Earth's polar stratosphere. As our analysis of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer 478 cm-1 ice emission feature demonstrates, this solid-state photochemistry mechanism eliminates the need for the relatively high C4N2 saturation vapor pressures required (even though they are not observed) when the ice is produced through the usual procedure of direct condensation from the vapor.

  16. Enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human skin explants treated with T4N5 liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarosh, D.B.; Kibitel, J.T.; Green, L.A.; Spinowitz, A. )

    1991-07-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes cultured from explants of skin cancer patients, including biopsies from xeroderma pigmentosum patients, were ultraviolet light-irradiated and DNA repair synthesis was measured. Repair capacity was much lower in xeroderma pigmentosum patients than in normal patients. The extent of DNA repair replication did not decline with the age of the normal patient. Treatment with T4N5 liposomes containing a DNA repair enzyme enhanced repair synthesis in both normal and xeroderma pigmentosum keratinocytes in an irradiation- and liposome-dose dependent manner. These results provide no evidence that aging people or skin cancer patients are predisposed to cutaneous malignancy by a DNA repair deficiency, but do demonstrate that T4N5 liposomes enhance DNA repair in the keratinocytes of the susceptible xeroderma pigmentosum and skin cancer population.

  17. Growth and electrical properties on NLO crystal: 4-N,N-dimethylamino 4′-N′-methylstilbazolium iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Krishna Sudhahar, S. Kumar, R. Mohan

    2014-04-24

    4-N,N-Dimethylamino-4′-N′-methylstilbazolium tosylate single crystals were grown by solution crystal growth method. The cell parameters of grown crystal have been estimated using single crystal-X-ray diffraction analysis. The variation of real (´ε) and imaginary (´ε) part of dielectric constants and dielectric loss were observed for different frequencies and temperatures. The ac and dc electrical conductivities and activation energy were determined for DMSI crystal using dielectric studies.

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60–86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5–100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0–1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was –0.1 (–0.8–0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  19. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60-86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5-100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0-1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was -0.1 (-0.8-0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  20. The investigation of the electrical properties of Fe3O4/n-Si heterojunctions in a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Ali Rıza; Çaldıran, Zakir; Metin, Önder; Meral, Kadem; Aydoğan, Şakir

    2016-07-01

    Monodisperse 8nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in oleylamine and then were deposited onto n-type silicon wafer having the Al ohmic contact. Next, the morphology of the Fe3O4 NPs were characterized by using TEM and XRD. The optical properties of Fe3O4 NPs film was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopoy and its band gap was calculated to be 2.16eV. Au circle contacts with 7.85×10(-3)cm(2) area were provided on the Fe3O4 film via evaporation at 10(-5)Torr and the Au/Fe3O4 NPs/n-Si/Al heterojunction device were fabricated. The temperature-dependent junction parameters of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al device including ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were calculated by using the I-V characteristics in a wide temperature range of 40-300K. The results revealed that the ideality factor and series resistance increased by the decreasing temperature while the barrier height decreases. The Richardson constant of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al device was calculated to be 2.17A/K(2)cm(2) from the I-V characteristics. The temperature dependence of Au/Fe3O4/n-Si/Al heterojunction device showed a double Gaussian distribution, which is caused by the inhomogeneities characteristics of Fe3O4/n-Si heterojunction. PMID:27078739

  1. Optical properties of g-C4N3/BN bilayer film: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jicheol; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-11-01

    Using first-principles method, we explored the frequency dependent dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity, optical conductivity, loss function, and absorption coefficient of g-C4N3/BN bilayer system. Here, the dependences of the optical properties on the electric field polarization were also explored. Because the dielectric function strongly depended on the electric polarization, we obtained anisotropic optical properties. For instance, the dielectric function was frequency independent for perpendicular electric polarization while a frequency dependent dielectric function was observed for parallel electric polarization. A high refractive index larger than 2 was obtained for parallel polarization in the infrared and the visible frequency ranges, whereas a constant refractive index of approximately 1.5 was observed for perpendicular polarization. We found that the electromagnetic wave propagating perpendicular to the film surface had a very small reflectivity at ultraviolet frequencies, this property could be utilized for applications as anti-reflection ultraviolet coatings. In addition, the g-C4N3/BN bilayer may produce no meaningful joule heating for in-plane wave propagation because of its extremely weak optical conductivity. We propose that optical phonons may generated by incident ultraviolet waves. In addition, the bilayer system may be transparent in the visible range. Overall, we found that metal-free, transparent, half-metallic g-C4N3 films could be utilized for spintronics and optical device applications.

  2. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn, Co, and Ni substitution of Fe in Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Patrizia; Björkman, Torbjörn; Gasche, Thomas; Eriksson, Olle

    2013-08-01

    The magnetic properties of Mn, Co, and Ni substituted Fe4N are calculated from first principles theory. It is found that the generalized gradient approximation reproduces with good accuracy the magnetic moment and equilibrium volume for the parent Fe4N structure, with the atomic moment largest for the Fe atom furthest away from the N atom (Fe I site), approaching a value of 3 μB/atom, whereas the Fe atom closer to the N atom (Fe II site) has a moment closer to that of bcc Fe. The substitution of Fe for Mn, Co, or Ni, shows an intricate behavior in which the Mn substitution clearly favors the Fe II site, Ni favors substitution on the Fe I site, and Co shows no strong preference for either lattice site. The Ni and Co substitution results in a ferromagnetic coupling to the Fe atoms, whereas Mn couples antiferromagnetically on the Fe II site and ferromagnetically on the Fe I site. For all types of doping, the total magnetic moment is enhanced compared to Fe4N only in the energetically very unfavorable case of Mn doping at the Fe I site.

  3. Microwave absorption of gamma'-Fe2.6 Ni1.4N nanoparticles derived from nitriding counterpart precursor.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Wang, F; Lv, B; Xue, F H; Guo, D Y; Park, W J; Lee, W J; Dong, X L

    2012-04-01

    Gamma-Fe2.6Ni1.4 nanoparticles were prepared by the arc-discharge method as the precursor and its nitride counterpart of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni14N nanoparticles was synthesized directly through a thermal ammonolysis reaction at the temperature of 673 K for two hours. The resultant product was identified as a homogeneous ternary nitride with nearly spherical shape and average size of about 60.0 nm. The electromagnetic characteristics of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N derivant and gamma-Fe2.6Ni1.4 precursor have been studied in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. Compared with the precursor, gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N nanoparticles exhibits an enhanced electromagnetic absorption property resulted from the increased dielectric loss by nitriding process. The optimal reflection loss (RL) of gamma'-Fe2.6Ni1.4N nanoparticles/paraffin composite can reach -39.9 dB at 5.2 GHz in a thickness of 2.29 mm, and the frequency band corresponding RL < -10 dB is over 2.6-18 GHz in the thickness range of 0.78-4.20 mm. PMID:22849063

  4. Identification of the enzyme responsible for N-acetylation of norfloxacin by Microbacterium sp. Strain 4N2-2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Wi; Feng, Jinhui; Chen, Huizhong; Kweon, Ohgew; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Burrowes, Vanessa J; Sutherland, John B

    2013-01-01

    Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, converts the antibacterial fluoroquinolone norfloxacin to N-acetylnorfloxacin and three other metabolites. Because N-acetylation results in loss of antibacterial activity, identification of the enzyme responsible is important for understanding fluoroquinolone resistance. The enzyme was identified as glutamine synthetase (GS); N-acetylnorfloxacin was produced only under conditions associated with GS expression. The GS gene (glnA) was cloned, and the protein (53 kDa) was heterologously expressed and isolated. Optimal conditions and biochemical properties (K(m) and V(max)) of purified GS were characterized; the purified enzyme was inhibited by Mn(2+), Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP. The contribution of GS to norfloxacin resistance was shown by using a norfloxacin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain carrying glnA derived from Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2. The GS of Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2 was shown to act as an N-acetyltransferase for norfloxacin, which produced low-level norfloxacin resistance. Structural and docking analysis identified potential binding sites for norfloxacin at the ADP binding site and for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) at a cleft in GS. The results suggest that environmental bacteria whose enzymes modify fluoroquinolones may be able to survive in the presence of low fluoroquinolone concentrations. PMID:23104417

  5. Metallic Co4N Porous Nanowire Arrays Activated by Surface Oxidation as Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengzuo; Xu, Kun; Fang, Zhiwei; Tong, Yun; Wu, Junchi; Lu, Xiuli; Peng, Xu; Ding, Hui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Designing highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role in the development of various renewable energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, we developed metallic Co4N porous nanowire arrays directly grown on flexible substrates as highly active OER electrocatalysts for the first time. Benefiting from the collaborative advantages of metallic character, 1D porous nanowire arrays, and unique 3D electrode configuration, surface oxidation activated Co4N porous nanowire arrays/carbon cloth achieved an extremely small overpotential of 257 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), and a low Tafel slope of 44 mV dec(-1) in an alkaline medium, which is the best OER performance among reported Co-based electrocatalysts to date. Moreover, in-depth mechanistic investigations demonstrate the active phases are the metallic Co4N core inside with a thin cobalt oxides/hydroxides shell during the OER process. Our finding introduces a new concept to explore the design of high-efficiency OER electrocatalysts. PMID:26437900

  6. Identification of the Enzyme Responsible for N-Acetylation of Norfloxacin by Microbacterium sp. Strain 4N2-2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Wi; Feng, Jinhui; Chen, Huizhong; Kweon, Ohgew; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Burrowes, Vanessa J.

    2013-01-01

    Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, converts the antibacterial fluoroquinolone norfloxacin to N-acetylnorfloxacin and three other metabolites. Because N-acetylation results in loss of antibacterial activity, identification of the enzyme responsible is important for understanding fluoroquinolone resistance. The enzyme was identified as glutamine synthetase (GS); N-acetylnorfloxacin was produced only under conditions associated with GS expression. The GS gene (glnA) was cloned, and the protein (53 kDa) was heterologously expressed and isolated. Optimal conditions and biochemical properties (Km and Vmax) of purified GS were characterized; the purified enzyme was inhibited by Mn2+, Mg2+, ATP, and ADP. The contribution of GS to norfloxacin resistance was shown by using a norfloxacin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain carrying glnA derived from Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2. The GS of Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2 was shown to act as an N-acetyltransferase for norfloxacin, which produced low-level norfloxacin resistance. Structural and docking analysis identified potential binding sites for norfloxacin at the ADP binding site and for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) at a cleft in GS. The results suggest that environmental bacteria whose enzymes modify fluoroquinolones may be able to survive in the presence of low fluoroquinolone concentrations. PMID:23104417

  7. IUGR increases chromatin-remodeling factor Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter in newborn male rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xingrao; McKnight, Robert A; Gracey Maniar, Lia E; Sun, Ying; Callaway, Christopher W; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert H; Cohen, Susan S

    2015-07-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for neurodevelopment delay and neuroendocrine reprogramming in both humans and rats. Neuroendocrine reprogramming involves the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene that is epigenetically regulated in the hippocampus. Using a well-characterized rodent model, we have previously shown that IUGR increases GR exon 1.7 mRNA variant and total GR expressions in male rat pup hippocampus. Epigenetic regulation of GR transcription may involve chromatin remodeling of the GR gene. A key chromatin remodeler is Brahma-related gene-1(Brg1), a member of the ATP-dependent SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. Brg1 regulates gene expression by affecting nucleosome repositioning and recruiting transcriptional components to target promoters. We hypothesized that IUGR would increase hippocampal Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter, as well as alter nucleosome positioning over GR promoters in newborn male pups. Further, we hypothesized that IUGR would lead to accumulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and RNA pol II at GR exon 1.7 promoter. Indeed, we found that IUGR increased Brg1 expression and binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter. We also found that increased Brg1 binding to GR exon 1.7 promoter was associated with accumulation of Sp1 and RNA pol II carboxy terminal domain pSer-5 (a marker of active transcription). Furthermore, the transcription start site of GR exon 1.7 was located within a nucleosome-depleted region. We speculate that changes in hippocampal Brg1 expression mediate GR expression and subsequently trigger neuroendocrine reprogramming in male IUGR rats. PMID:25972460

  8. BCNU-INDUCED GR2 DEFECT MEDIATES S-GLUTATHIONYLATION OF COMPLEX I AND RESPIRATORY UNCOUPLING IN MYOCARDIUM†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Zen, Pei; Guarini, Giacinta; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2014-01-01

    A deficiency of mitochondrial glutathione reductase (or GR2) is capable of adversely affecting the reduction of GSSG and increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress. BCNU [1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] is an anticancer agent and known inhibitor of cytosolic GR ex vivo and in vivo. Here we tested the hypothesis that a BCNU-induced GR2 defect contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent impairment of heart function. Intraperitoneal administration of BCNU (40 mg/kg) specifically inhibited GR2 activity by 79.8±2.7% in the mitochondria of rat heart. However, BCNU treatment modestly enhanced the activities of mitochondrial Complex I and other ETC components. The cardiac function of BCNU-treated rats was analyzed by echocardiography, revealing a systolic dysfunction associated with decreased ejection fraction, decreased cardiac output, and an increase in left ventricular internal dimension and left ventricular volume in systole. The respiratory control index of isolated mitochondria from the myocardium was moderately decreased after BCNU treatment, whereas NADH-linked uncoupling of oxygen consumption was significantly enhanced. Extracellular flux analysis to measure the fatty acid oxidation of myocytes indicated a 20% enhancement after BCNU treatment. When the mitochondria were immunoblotted with antibodies against GSH and UCP3, both protein S-glutathionylation of Complex I and expression of UCP3 were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of SOD2 in the myocardium significantly reversed BCNU-induced GR2 inhibition and mitochondrial impairment. In conclusion, BCNU-mediated cardiotoxicity is characterized by the GR2 deficiency that negatively regulates heart function by impairing mitochondrial integrity, increasing oxidative stress with Complex I S-glutathionylation, and enhancing uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration. PMID:24704251

  9. Expression of a sugar clade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-03-01

    Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar clade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. PMID:26721200

  10. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex. PMID:24761151

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants. PMID:26160009

  12. Temperature and pressure dependence of the mode Grüneisen parameters close to the melting point in hexagonal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacali, H.; Yurtseven, H.

    2007-02-01

    We reexamine the Pippard relations in this study by relating the specific heat CP to the Raman frequency shifts 1/ν∂ and the thermal expansivity αp to the 1/ν∂, when the mode Grüneisen parameter depends on the temperature and pressure close to the melting point in hexagonal ice. From linear relations between them, the values of the slope {dP}/{dT} are deduced in this crystal. Our slope values calculated here do not change significantly compared to those obtained when the mode Grüneisen parameter is taken as a constant close to the melting point in hexagonal ice.

  13. [Healing current through a goiter. The life, work and after effects of the magic healer Bruno Gröning].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2008-01-01

    During the years between 1949 and 1959 the wonder healer Bruno Gröning (1906-1959) gripped the public and medical interest in Germany. He explained to be a descent of Jesus Christ, sending "healing waves" to end diseases and made a lot of money. Finally he was found guilty in letting a persuaded fan dying and was convicted. But before the end of the process he died of carcinoma, which had been operated in a regular clinic. Despite this obvious problem that Gröning demanded from his admirers refusing medical help but preferred it for his own health today his successors are still promoting his legacy. PMID:18693642

  14. Islet adaptation to obesity and insulin resistance in WNIN/GR-Ob rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Himadri; Ganneru, Sireesha; Malakapalli, Venkata; Chalasani, Maniprabha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan; Bhonde, Ramesh R; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    WNIN/GR-Ob mutant rat is a novel animal model to study metabolic syndrome (obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular diseases). We have investigated the islet characteristics of obese mutants at different age groups (1, 6 and 12 months) to assess the islet changes in response to early and chronic metabolic stress. Our data demonstrates altered islet cell morphology and function (hypertrophy, fibrotic lesions, vacuolation, decreased stimulation index, increased TNFα, ROS and TBARS levels) in mutants as compared to controls. Furthermore, network analysis (gene-gene interaction) studied in pancreas demonstrated increased inflammation as a key factor underlying obesity/metabolic syndrome in mutants. These observations pave way to explore this model to understand islet adaptation in response to metabolic syndrome. PMID:25833252

  15. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity

  16. Chemically induced transition phenomena in polyurethanes as seen from generalized mode Grüneisen parameters.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Philipp, M; Bactavatchalou, R; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Possart, W; Alnot, P; Krüger, J K

    2008-05-21

    Many phenomenological properties of reactive polymers like polyurethanes increase or decrease continuously in the course of the curing process before saturating at the end of the chemical reaction. This holds true for instance for the mass density, the refractive index, the chemical turnover and the hypersonic properties. The reason for this monotone behaviour is that the chemical reaction behaves like a continuous succession of irreversible phase transitions. These transitions are superposed by the sol-gel transition and possibly by the chemically induced glass transition, with the drawback that the latter two highlighted transitions are often hidden by the underlying curing process. In this work we propose generalized mode Grüneisen parameters as an alternative probe for elucidating the polymerization process itself and the closely related transition phenomena. As a model system we use polyurethane composed of a diisocyanate and varying ratios of difunctional and trifunctional alcohols. PMID:21694282

  17. The May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Höskuldsson, Á.; Larsen, G.; Thordarson, T.; Oladottir, B. A.; Oddsson, B.; Gudnason, J.; Högnadottir, T.; Stevenson, J. A.; Houghton, B. F.; McGarvie, D.; Sigurdardottir, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Grímsvötn is the most active volcano in Iceland with >60 known eruptions in the last 800 years. Grímsvötn is located in the centre of the 8100 km2 Vatnajökull glacier and typically produces basalts in phreatomagmatic eruptions. Magma-water interaction occurs as the eruptions quickly melt their way through 50-200 m thick ice covering a subglacial caldera lake. Most of these eruptions have been relatively modest in size (0.01-0.1 km3 DRE) causing relatively minor fallout of tephra outside Vatnajökull. After a relative quiet second half of the 20th century, a period of increased volcanic activity in Grímsvötn started in the 1990s, with basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions occurring within the caldera in 1998 and 2004. The 2011 eruption was therefore expected. It began at 19 UTC on 21 May. The plume quickly rose to 15-20 km, forming a 50-100 km wide umbrella cloud that was maintained until late on 22 May. Heavy fallout occurred in the districts 70-100 km south of the volcano, where periods of total darkness with drifting ash closed roads and caused distress to the local population. Wind directions and plume transport varied somewhat during the eruption. After 23 May, the eruption was relatively minor, with fallout mostly confined to the Vatnajökull glacier. The eruption ended on May 28. Most of the magma was erupted in the first two days. During this period strong northerly winds were dominant at low altitude, carrying the tephra towards south as a 2-4 km high cloud, while the top part of the plume first drifted eastwards and later northwards. Most of the fallout after the first few hours came from the low southwards drifting cloud while the high plume was white in colour and with apparently low concentration of ash leading to only minor fallout. This eruption falls into a class of events that seem to happen once every 100-200 years, with previous large historical eruptions including 1619 and 1873. Preliminary estimates indicate that the eruption produced 0

  18. Dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2219/SiCp-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavarajappa, S.; Chandramohan, G.; Mukund, K.; Ashwin, M.; Prabu, M.

    2006-12-01

    The dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2219 alloy and Al 2219/SiCp/Gr hybrid composites are investigated under similar conditions. The composites are fabricated using the liquid metallurgy technique. The dry sliding wear test is carried out for sliding speeds up to 6 m/s and for normal loads up to 60 N using a pin on disc apparatus. It is found that the addition of SiCp and graphite reinforcements increases the wear resistance of the composites. The wear rate decreases with the increase in SiCp reinforcement content. As speed increases, the wear rate decreases initially and then increases. The wear rate increases with the increase in load. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the worn surface are used to predict the nature of the wear mechanism. Abrasion is the principle wear mechanism for the composites at low sliding speeds and loads. At higher loads, the wear mechanism changes to delamination.

  19. Thermal equation of state and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of beryllium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianzhong Zhu, Jinlong; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2013-11-07

    We conducted in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray experiments on beryllium metal at pressures up to 7.9 GPa and temperatures up to 1373 K. A complete pressure (P)–volume (V)–temperature (T) equation of state (EOS) is determined based on the experiment, which includes temperature derivatives of elastic bulk modulus (at both constant pressure and constant volume) and pressure dependence of thermal expansivity. From this EOS, we calculate thermal pressure, heat capacity at constant volume, and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter as a function of temperature. Above ∼600 K, our results show notable deviation from theoretical predictions using the quasiharmonic and local-density approximations, indicating that the free energy calculations need to be further improved within the current scheme of approximations.

  20. Goneis.gr: Training Greek Parents on ICT and Safer Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Riviou, Katerina; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Giannikopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    Children's use of the Internet has significantly risen in the last decade. Nevertheless, children spend a lot of time online which makes them susceptible to various threats (such as inappropriate material, offensive language, etc). Parents are the last frontier to this menace but they also need to be educated and trained in order to protect their children. Goneis.gr is an initiative launched by the Greek government that aims to educate parents on safer Internet and the use of parental control software. Parents are also entitled to distance learning courses covering basic computer skills. This paper presents the results of two separate surveys that took place in the last few months (December 2008-January 2009). The first survey targeted the parents that have completed the programme and the second one the educational providers that participate in the programme and offer the training to the beneficiaries.

  1. Gravitational energy for GR and Poincaré gauge theories: A covariant Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.; Tung, Roh-Suan

    2015-08-01

    Our topic concerns a long standing puzzle: The energy of gravitating systems. More precisely we want to consider, for gravitating systems, how to best describe energy-momentum and angular momentum/center-of-mass momentum (CoMM). It is known that these quantities cannot be given by a local density. The modern understanding is that (i) they are quasi-local (associated with a closed 2-surface), (ii) they have no unique formula, (iii) they have no reference frame independent description. In the first part of this work, we review some early history, much of it not so well known, on the subject of gravitational energy in Einstein's general relativity (GR), noting especially Noether's contribution. In the second part, we review (including some new results) much of our covariant Hamiltonian formalism and apply it to Poincaré gauge theories of gravity (PG), with GR as a special case. The key point is that the Hamiltonian boundary term has two roles, it determines the quasi-local quantities, and furthermore, it determines the boundary conditions for the dynamical variables. Energy-momentum and angular momentum/CoMM are associated with the geometric symmetries under Poincaré transformations. They are best described in a local Poincaré gauge theory. The type of spacetime that naturally has this symmetry is Riemann-Cartan spacetime, with a metric compatible connection having, in general, both curvature and torsion. Thus our expression for the energy-momentum of physical systems is obtained via our covariant Hamiltonian formulation applied to the PG.

  2. Ancient founder mutation is responsible for Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome among diverse ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) was described just over 50 years ago by Olga Imerslund and Ralph Gräsbeck and colleagues. IGS is caused by specific malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) due to bi-allelic mutations in either the cubilin gene (CUBN) or the human amnionless homolog (AMN). Mutations in the two genes are commonly seen in founder populations or in societies with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. One particular mutation in AMN, c.208-2A>G, causing an out-of-frame loss of exon 4 in the mRNA, is responsible for some 15% of IGS cases globally. We present evidence that this founder mutation causes a substantial percentage of cases among diverse ethnicities and that the mutation is as old as human civilization. Methods Partial genotyping indicated a founder event but its presence in diverse peoples of Arabic, Turkish, Jewish, and Hispanic ancestry suggested that the mutation might be recurrent. We therefore studied the flanking sequence spanning 3.5 Mb to elucidate the origin of the haplotype and estimate the age of the mutation using a Bayesian inference method based on observed linkage disequilibrium. Results The mutation's distribution, the size of the shared haplotype, and estimates of growth rate and carrier frequency indicated that the mutation was a single prehistoric event. Dating back to the ancient Middle East around 11,600 BC, the mutation predates the advent of writing, farming, and the monotheistic religions of the region. Conclusions This mutation causes over 50% of the IGS cases among Arabic, Turkish, and Sephardic Jewish families, making it a primary target for genetic screening among diverse IGS cases originating from the Middle East. Thus, rare founder mutations may cause a substantial number of cases, even among diverse ethnicities not usually thought to be related. PMID:22078000

  3. Variations in geothermal heat flux at Grímsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona Reynolds, Hannah; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús

    2014-05-01

    Thermal signals from sub-surface magmatic sources are difficult to quantify, as the measurement of fluxes from the ground to the atmosphere is subject to large uncertainties. Ice cauldrons are depressions which form on the surface of glaciers due to basal melting as a result of geothermal flux from the bedrock beneath, often generated by volcanic sources. The monitoring of ice cauldrons provides a unique opportunity to quantify heat flux to a much improved accuracy, as the melting ice acts as a calorimeter. Time series data of ice surface elevation at cauldrons above Grímsvötn volcano are presented over a 14 year period, with estimates of the melt volume and surface heat flux required for this melting to have occurred. Three volcanic eruptions took place at Grímsvötn during the study period, the effects of which are visible in ice surface elevation data. However, separate thermal anomalies are observed in areas unaffected by erupted products. A peak in surface heat flux is observed following the 1998 eruption, several kilometres east of the vent, with a maximum rise of ~200 W·m-2. The anomalous signal lasts for approximately three years. Possible explanations include the intrusion of a dyke beneath this area during the eruption, or increased permeability from greater dilatational strain due to regional stress, both of which would significantly increase heat flux. We investigate possible scenarios which could produce such a thermal anomaly, using finite element modelling. The effects of cooling magmatic intrusions and changes to the parameter space for country rock conductivity and permeability are considered, in relation to heat flux and the timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. Our results advance the understanding and interpretation of thermal signals observed at ice-covered volcanoes.

  4. Preparation, structure and photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+}-doped SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.Q. . E-mail: y.q.li@tue.nl; Fang, C.M.; With, G. de; Hintzen, H.T. . E-mail: h.t.hintzen@tue.nl

    2004-12-01

    Undoped and Eu{sup 2+} or Ce{sup 3+}-doped SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} were synthesized by solid-state reaction method at 1400-1660{sup o}C under nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. The crystal structure was refined from the X-ray powder diffraction data by the Rietveld method. SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} and EuYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}, being isotypic with the family of compounds MYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (M=Sr, Eu, Ba) and BaYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7,} crystallize with the hexagonal symmetry: space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186), Z=2, a=6.0160 (1)A, c=9.7894 (1)A, V=306.83(3)A{sup 3}; and a=6.0123 (1)A, c=9.7869 (1)A, V=306.37(1)A{sup 3}, respectively. Photoluminescence properties have been studied for Sr{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}YSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (x=0-1) and SrY{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}Si{sub 4}N{sub 7} (x=0-0.03) at room temperature. Eu{sup 2+}-doped SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} shows a broad yellow emission band peaking around 548-570nm, while Ce{sup 3+}-doped SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} exhibits a blue emission band with a maximum at about 450nm. SrYSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} can be very well excited by 390nm radiation, which makes this material attractive as conversion phosphor for LED lighting applications.

  5. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

  6. Molecular characterization of an influenza A virus (H4N2) isolated from waterfowl habitats in the State of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Eusebio, Erika; Obregón-Ascencio, Alejandro; Chávez-Maya, Fernando; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2015-03-01

    Wild waterfowl and their habitats are the main reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) mainly during the breeding season and prior to migration. This study describes the molecular characterization of an IAV isolated from 240 water samples of a small wetland during non-breeding season of migratory wild ducks in the State of Mexico, Mexico. The results showed that the virus belongs to the H4N2 subtype and each of its eight segments of the viral genome has similarity to IAV isolated from ducks in North America. This study suggests that IAV can be isolated from small wetland during non-breeding season of migrating waterfowl. PMID:25482497

  7. Electronic structure and pair potential energy analysis of 4-n-methoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl: A nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dipendra; Dwivedi, M. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    Electronic structure properties of 4-n-methoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl, a pure nematic liquid crystal have been examined using an ab‒initio, HF/6‒31G(d,p) technique with GAMESS program. Conformational and charge distribution analysis have been carried out. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the liquid crystal molecule have been calculated. Further, stacking, side by side and end to end interactions between a molecular pair have been evaluated. Results have been used to elucidate the physico-chemical and liquid crystalline properties of the system.

  8. Interaction peculiarities of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin with albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, N. Sh.; Malkova, E. A.; Popova, T. E.; Kutyrev, A. E.; Syrbu, S. A.; Parfenyuk, E. V.; Vyugin, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    In present work interactions of bovine serum albumin with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridil) tetra iodide porphyrin have been studied by electron absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The studies were carried out in aqueous media at different pH and in water-dimethylformamide mixtures containing up to 0.19 M of the organic solvent. It has been demonstrated that the porphyrin forms stable complexes with BSA in which the porphyrin is located subdomains IB and IIA. The stability constants of the complexes is practically independent of pH.

  9. Photophysics of 4- N, N-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde in AOT reverse micelles and exploration of its position and orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Subhasis; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this Letter to locate the position and orientation of 4- N, N-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) inside sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)- n-heptane reverse micelle based on change in photophysical properties of DMACA compared to that in n-heptane. It has been proposed that the possibility of finding the donor moiety inside the small water pool of reverse micelle is maximum while the acceptor group straddles in the remaining part of the reverse micelle. The micropolarity in the vicinity of the donor moiety has been computed in terms of dielectric constant with varying water pool size.

  10. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Modulate the Distribution and Extravasation of Ly6C/Gr1(low) Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Saja, Maha F; Baudino, Lucie; Jackson, William D; Cook, H Terence; Malik, Talat H; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ruseva, Marieta; Pickering, Matthew C; Woollard, Kevin J; Botto, Marina

    2015-09-22

    Monocytes are heterogeneous effector cells involved in the maintenance and restoration of tissue integrity. However, their response to hyperlipidemia remains poorly understood. Here, we report that in the presence of elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, induced by administration of poloxamer 407, the blood numbers of non-classical Ly6C/Gr1(low) monocytes drop, while the number of bone marrow progenitors remains similar. We observed an increased crawling and retention of the Gr1(low) monocytes at the endothelial interface and a marked accumulation of CD68(+) macrophages in several organs. Hypertriglyceridemia was accompanied by an increased expression of tissue, and plasma CCL4 and blood Gr1(low) monocyte depletion involved a pertussis-toxin-sensitive receptor axis. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a triglyceride-rich environment can alter blood monocyte distribution, promoting the extravasation of Gr1(low) cells. The behavior of these cells in response to dyslipidemia highlights the significant impact that high levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may have on innate immune cells. PMID:26344769

  11. NUCLEAR AND AXONAL LOCALIZATION OF CA2+/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE GR IN RAT CEREBELLAR CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The granule cell enriched Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (Cam kinase-Gr) may serve as a calcium activated switch involved in neuronal communication. o investigate its potential sites of action we have characterized its subcellular distribution within the cerebellum by i...

  12. Temperature profile of a stoichiometric ch4/N2O flame from laser excited fluorescence measurements on OH

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.R.; Decker, L.J.; Kotlar, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The temperature profile of a stoichiometric CH/sub 4//N/sub 2/O flame over a porous plug, atmospheric-pressure burner has been measured using laser excited fluorescence of the OH radical. The technique of rotationally resolved fluorescence excitation scans was extended to the (1,1) vibrational band of the A doublet sigma plus - X doublet pi system to avoid problems of laser beam depletion and self-absorption encountered by this group and previous workers using the (O,O) band. Absorption spectra were obtained in addition to fluorescence spectra. A least squares curve-fitting technique which accounts for the various types of line broadening was developed and applied to two absorption lines in the (O,O) band. The resulting temperature profile is compared to that from fluorescence data reduced using Boltzmann plots. The more complicated curve-fitting approach was later applied to five lines in the spectrum using several combinations of fluorescence and absorption data. Results of all the aforementioned methods were compared to those from OH band reversal and N2 vibrational Raman measurements at the same point in the post flame gases. Excellent agreement was achieved. The results are discussed with emphasis on both the fluorescence diagnostics and the characteristics of the CH/sub 4//N/sub 2/O flame on the porous-plug burner.

  13. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing. PMID:24645717

  14. Inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-09-01

    Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH4(+)-N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH4(+)-N concentration increasing to 1000mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH4(+)-N concentration rising to 1000mg/L, without any rebounding during 30days of operation. Decreasing NH4(+)-N concentration to 500mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26days. 1000mg/L of NH4(+)-N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH4(+)-N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency. PMID:26139135

  15. Bottom-up substitution assembly of AuF4-n0,-+nPO3 (n = 1-4): a theoretical study of novel oxyfluoride hyperhalogen molecules and anions AuF4-n(PO3)n0,-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-fan; Cui, Zhong-hua; Ding, Yi-hong

    2014-06-01

    Compounds with high electron affinity, i.e. superhalogens, have continued to attract chemists' attention, due to their potential importance in fundamental chemistry and materials science. It has now proven very effective to build up novel superhalogens with multi-positively charged centres, which are usually called 'hyperhalogens'. Herein, using AuF4- and PO3 as the model building blocks, we made the first attempt to design the Au,P-based hyperhalogen anions AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)&SDD and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d)&SDD (single-point) levels (6-311+G(d) for O, F, P and SDD for Au). Notably, for all the considered Au,P systems, the ground state bears a dioxo-bonded structure with n ≤ 3, which is significantly more stable than the usually presumed mono-oxo-bonded one. Moreover, the clustering of the -PO3 moieties becomes energetically favoured for n ≥ 3. The ground states of AuP4O120,- are the first reported cage-like oxide hyperhalogens. Thus, the -PO3 moiety cannot be retained during the 'bottom-up' assembly. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) value of the most stable AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) ranges from 7.16 to 8.20 eV, higher than the VDE values of the corresponding building blocks AuF4- (7.08 eV) and PO3- (4.69 eV). The adiabatic detachment energy values of these four hyperhalogens exceed 6.00 eV. Possible generation routes for AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) were discussed. The presently designed oxyfluorides not only enriches the family of hyperhalogens, but also demonstrates the great importance of considering the structural transformation during the superhalogen → hyperhalogen design such as for the present Au-P based systems.

  16. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. PMID:22197801

  17. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Icelandic eruptions in 2012 and 2011 were associated with sustained charging of the ash plume (Harrison et al., 2010) and significant volcanic lightning (Bennett et al., 2010; Arason et al., 2012). The sustained charging suggests that some charging of the plume is independent of the eruption process, in addition to other electrification mechanisms such as triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). We investigate the triboelectric charging of volcanic material using a charged particle apparatus, which allows the charged particles to fall under gravity in a screened metallic cylinder. This apparatus comprises two induction rings connected to sensitive electrometers, which detect charge induced by the falling ash, and a Faraday cup to measure the total ash charge. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Previous work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). We present a mass distribution measurement for a sample of volcanic ash provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office collected 70 km from the crater of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. This shows a high proportion of fine particles compared with the volumetric size distribution reported in Piper et al. (2012). Optical microscopy of the different size fractions of the Grímsvötn sample indicates that the composition varies with size. In addition to charge transfer as a function of size, the different substances will triboelectrically interact with each other, which complicates the nature of the charge interactions. To separate the dependence of particle charging on size from composition, particle charging experiments were

  18. Plinian vs. phreatomagmatic eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Grímsvötn is a subglacial central volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the assumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Historical explosive eruptions are mostly of phreatomagmatic character whereas pure magmatic behaviour may characterize the largest eruptions. What causes this different eruption behaviour is uncertain. Here, we report petrological estimates of crystallization depth and volatile degassing as recorded by sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MI) hosted by ferromagnesian minerals and the groundmass glass. Tephra from four eruptions, AD 1823, 1873, 2004 and 2011, were selected. The 2011 and 1873 are the largest known historical eruptions, whereas the 2004 eruption is probably amongst the smallest. The repose time preceding those eruptions is surprisingly similar, or 6 to 7 years, and the major-element compositions are uniform. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine are the three coexisting phases at the liquidus in the quartz-tholeiites of Grímsvötn. The cpx-melt geothermobarometer (Putirka 2008) applied to the 2011 tephra reveals that cpx crystallized over a large range of P from 60 to 640 MPa (depth range: 1.7-18km) and T between 1060 and 1175°C before the Plinian eruption, therefore mobilizing the entire crustal magma system. In contrast, the phreatomagmatic tephra do not record the shallowest crystallization but interestingly all four tephra have identical median entrapment pressure of approximately 400 MPa. Therefore, the depth from which the magma bodies are derived, does not explain the difference in explosivity between those eruptions nor the variable magma volume (V) produced. Sulfur concentrations in MI are only slightly higher in the Plinian products, the difference (10%) being insufficient to explain the different eruption regimes. The ΔS, the difference between the maximum S concentrations in MI and the mean of the groundmass glass for a given eruption, is higher in the Plinian tephra. Based on literature

  19. Volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter and maximum compression limit for iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, J.; Singh, B. P.; Baghel, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    Relationships for the volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ have been used to discuss the behaviour of solids in the limit of infinite pressure ( P→∞). The model recently developed by Burakovsky and Preston (J. Phys. Chem. Solids 65 (2004) 1581) yields γ∞, q∞ and λ∞, the values of Grüneisen parameter γ and its logarithmic volume derivatives q and λ at P→∞, which are found to have fixed values, same for all the solids studied. On the other hand, the thermodynamics of solids at P→∞ formulated by Stacey (Geophys. J. Int. 143 (2000) 621) reveals that γ∞ and pressure derivative of bulk modulus are different for different materials. The empirical formulation for the volume dependence of γ used by Stacey and Davis (Phys. Earth Planet. Intr. 142 (2004) 137) has been shown to be approximately equivalent to the relationship proposed earlier by Al’tshuler et al. (J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 28 (1987) 129). The shock-pressure data for iron have been used to discuss the maximum compression limit for iron and to emphasize the invalidity of our recent criterion based on the lattice potential energy (Physica B 364 (2005) 186). The Burakovsky-Preston model based on the Thomas-Fermi approximation ( γ∞=1/2 and =5/3) has been found to be more consistent with the shock-compression data. The constraints γ∞>2/3 and >5/3 developed by Stacey are not in agreement with the strong shock compression limit reported for several materials. It is shown here that the Slater formula for γ which was found by Stacey to assume the status of an identity at P→∞ and used by him to derive the constraints for γ∞ and , is invalid when =5/3 It is also pointed out that γ∞=1/2 is to be preferred over γ∞=2/3 because of the thermodynamic constraint >1+ γ∞ developed by Stacey.

  20. The Centennial of GR: Looking forward to Black Hole Mergers at Cosmic Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's theory of gravity has fundamentally altered mankind's conception of the Universe and its contents. Once outlandish notions such as the Universe expanding from a mere speck to its current vast size, or stars collapsing to form black holes are now well supported pillars of modern astronomy. Gravity is the dominant force that shapes the Universe, and gravity is behind all extremely energetic astrophysical phenomena. However, we are currently blind to the most powerful events in nature - bursts of pure gravitational wave energy from the collision of two black holes. A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to record these collisions throughout the Universe, and provide unique insights into the co-evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. Motivated by the GR centennial, I'll take a look back at the rich and turbulent history of the LISA mission, and a look forward to the incredible science potential of its current incarnation as the European L3 eLISA mission.

  1. Grünwald-Letnikov operators for fractional relaxation in Havriliak-Negami models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrappa, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Several classes of differential and integral operators of non integer order have been proposed in the past to model systems exhibiting anomalous and hereditary properties. A wide range of complex and heterogeneous systems are described in terms of laws of Havriliak-Negami type involving a special fractional relaxation whose behavior in the time-domain can not be represented by any of the existing operators. In this work we introduce new integral and differential operators for the description of Havriliak-Negami models in the time-domain. In particular we propose a formulation of Grünwald-Letnikov type which turns out to be effective not only to provide a theoretical characterization of the operators associated to Havriliak-Negami systems but also for computational purposes. We study some properties of the new operators and, by means of some numerical experiments, we present their use in practical computation and we show the superiority with respect to the few other approaches previously proposed in literature.

  2. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  3. Optical Spectropolarimetry and Asphericity of the Type Ic SN 2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-12-01

    We present an optical spectropolarimetric observation of the Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr made with the Subaru Telescope at 21 days after maximum brightness (~37 days after the explosion). Nonzero polarization as high as ~3% is observed at the absorption feature of the Ca II IR triplet. The polarization of the continuum light is ~0.5% if we estimate the interstellar polarization (ISP) component by assuming that the continuum polarization has a single polarization angle. This suggests that the axis ratio of the SN photosphere projected on the sky differs from unity by ~10%. The polarization angle at the Ca II absorption is almost aligned with that of the continuum light. These features may be understood in the context of a model in which a bipolar explosion with an oblate photosphere is being viewed from a slightly off-axis direction and explosively synthesized Ca near the polar region obscures the light that originates around the minor axis of the SN photosphere. Given the uncertainty in the ISP, however, the polarization data could also be interpreted with a model with an almost spherically symmetric photosphere and a clumpy Ca II distribution. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  5. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Isobel M P; Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2013-09-13

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office's low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010); H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects. PMID:24074123

  6. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo; E-mail: marcelo.martins@sulzer.com; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-09-15

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure.

  7. Electronic structure and magnetism in g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3} controlled by strain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L. Z.; Liu, X. X.; Wu, X. L. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-03-30

    Regulation of magnetism and half-metallicity has attracted much attention because of its potential in spintronics. The magnetic properties and electronic structure of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 4}N{sub 3}) with external strain are determined theoretically based on the density function theory and many-body perturbation theory (G{sub 0}W{sub 0}). Asymmetric deformation induced by uniaxial strain not only regulates the magnetic characteristics but also leads to a transformation from half-metallicity to metallicity. However, this transition cannot occur in the structure with symmetric deformation induced by biaxial strain. Our results suggest the use of strain engineering in metal-free spintronics applications.

  8. Feature Scale Simulation of PECVD of SiO2 in SiH4/N2O Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Ge, Jie; Yang, Yi; Song, Yixu; Ren, Tianling

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, to simulate the process of PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) of SiO2, the plasma chemistry and plasma density of SiH4/N2O mixture have been studied with an inductive coupled plasma model, and the level set methodology has been used to obtain the feature scale variation during the process. In this simulation, the goal is to fill a trench. We studied how ion sputtering and chamber pressure affect the feature scale model. After the simulation, we found that the trench will close up at the top after a few steps, and if we add the ion sputtering into the surface reactions, the trench top will close up a little later. When the chamber pressure is improved, the plasma density will increase, so the trench top will close up earlier. In semiconductor device manufacture, people can control the trench's feature scale through adjusting these two parameters.

  9. A Termolecular Reaction Mechanism for Nitrogen Incorporation in Aerosol Produced by Far UV Irradiation of CH4-N2 Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, R. K.; Trainer, M. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yung, Y. L.; Toon, O. B.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Results from the Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser located onboard the Huygens lander reveal the presence of carbon and nitrogen in Titan's aerosols. Nitrogen incorporation is thought to be initiated by energy sources strong enough to break the N-N triple bond of molecular nitrogen (9.8eV). Such energy sources include extreme UV photons (λ <120 nm) and electrons from Saturn's magnetosphere. Less energetic photons in the far UV (120-200 nm) penetrate to the stratosphere of Titan and are only expected to affect hydrocarbon photochemistry there. However, recent results from our laboratory indicate a surprising amount of nitrogen incorporation- up to 16% by mass- in Titan aerosol analog produced by photochemistry initiated by far UV irradiation of CH4/N2 mixtures. The termolecular reaction CH + N2 + M --> HCN2 has been proposed to account for this observation. Here, we test this hypothesis by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the mass loading and chemical composition of aerosol produced at a range of pressures from roughly 0.1 to 1 atm. Even though these gas mixtures spanned an order of magnitude in pressure, they experienced the same residence time in the photochemical chamber and had the same methane optical depth. We report a 150% increase in aerosol mass loading across the range of pressures studied, indicating that the mechanism controlling the total mass produced depends on pressure. We also report an overall increase with pressure in the ratio of nitrogen-bearing organic species to hydrocarbon-only species. These observations support the hypothesis that the termolecular reaction above is responsible for the incorporation of nitrogen into Titan aerosol analog produced from CH4/N2 gas mixtures irradiated in the far UV. These findings have implications for our understanding of the evolution of Titan's atmosphere, and the atmospheric synthesis of biologically relevant N-containing molecules.

  10. Shedding Light on Avian Influenza H4N6 Infection in Mallards: Modes of Transmission and Implications for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    VanDalen, Kaci K.; Franklin, Alan B.; Mooers, Nicole L.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos) are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. Conclusions Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds) may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments. PMID:20877466

  11. Balloon Angioplasty – The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939–1985)

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939–1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called “percutaneous transluminal dilatation”. Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920–1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig’s life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter’s first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig’s former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated

  12. Influence of the substitution of the manganese for iron in the Fe sub 4 N lattice on particle formation and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Siberchicot, B.; Matar, S.F.; Fournes, L.; Demazeau, G.; Hagenmuller, P. )

    1990-01-01

    Moessbauer resonance studies on Mn-substituted Fe{sub 4}N show that manganese occupies statistically both iron sites in the lattice. Replacement of Fe by Mn modifies the crystal growth process of Fe{sub 4}N magnetic particles and leads to improvement of the extrinsic magnetic properties, i.e., H{sub c} and {sigma}{sub r}/{sigma}{sub s}, required for magnetic recording applications.

  13. Adsorption of 4-n-Nonylphenol and Bisphenol-A on Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxides: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhongxiu; Wang, Xiangxue; Sun, Yubing; Ai, Yuejie; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-08-01

    Adsorption of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) on magnetic reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength and humic acid were investigated by batch techniques. Adsorption of 4-n-NP and BPA were independent of pH at 3.0- 8.0, whereas the slightly decreased adsorption was observed at pH 8.0-11.0. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of 4-n-NP and BPA on magnetic rGOs can be satisfactorily fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities of magnetic rGOs at pH 6.5 and 293 K were 63.96 and 48.74 mg/g for 4-n-NP and BPA, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of activated carbon. Based on theoretical calculations, the higher adsorption energy of rGOs + 4-n-NP was mainly due to π-π stacking and flexible long alkyl chain of 4-n-NP, whereas adsorption of BPA on rGOs was energetically favored by a lying-down configuration due to π-π stacking and dispersion forces, which was further demonstrated by FTIR analysis. These findings indicate that magnetic rGOs is a promising adsorbent for the efficient elimination of 4-n-NP/BPA from aqueous solutions due to its excellent adsorption performance and simple magnetic separation, which are of great significance for the remediation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in environmental cleanup. PMID:26161689

  14. Structural characterisation of human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with glycerol, lactose, 3'-sulfo-lactose, and 2'-fucosyllactose.

    PubMed

    Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Leffler, Hakon; Nilsson, Ulf J; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-4 is expressed mainly in the alimentary tract and is proposed to function as a lipid raft and adherens junction stabilizer by its glycan cross-linking capacity. Galectin-4 plays divergent roles in cancer and inflammatory conditions, either promoting or inhibiting each disease progression, depending on the specific pathological condition. The study of galectin-4's ligand-binding profile may help decipher its roles under specific conditions. Here we present the X-ray structures of human galectin-4 N-terminal CRD (galectin-4N) bound to different saccharide ligands. Galectin-4's overall fold and its core interactions to lactose are similar to other galectin CRDs. Galectin-4N recognises the sulfate cap of 3'-sulfated glycans by a weak interaction through Arg45 and two water-mediated hydrogen bonds via Trp84 and Asn49. When galectin-4N interacts with the H-antigen mimic, 2'-fucosyllactose, an interaction is formed between the ring oxygen of fucose and Arg45. The extended binding site of galectin-4N may not be well suited to the A/B-antigen determinants, α-GalNAc/α-Gal, specifically due to clashes with residue Phe47. Overall, galectin-4N favours sulfated glycans whilst galectin-4C prefers blood group determinants. However, the two CRDs of galectin-4 can, to a less extent, recognise each other's ligands. PMID:26828567

  15. Grüneisen parameter of D-doped Nb 37Ti 63 at temperatures below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köckert, C.; Abens, S.; Escher, U.; Gladun, A.; Kluge, B.; Sahling, S.; Schneider, M.

    2002-05-01

    Glasslike anomalies were observed in the low-temperature thermal properties of the polycrystalline Nb 37Ti 63 alloy and Nb 37Ti 63 doped with deuterium. In (Nb-Ti) 92D 8, a very high spectral density of two-level states of 7.5×10 45 J -1 m -3 was found. After rapid cooling of this system, both a giant long-time heat release and a length relaxation with a logarithmic time dependence were observed, corresponding to a time- and temperature-independent Grüneisen parameter Γ=-2. From the measurements of specific heat and thermal expansion coefficient, a contribution of the tunneling systems to the Grüneisen parameter of Γ=-57 is calculated. The origin of the discrepancy between the two values is discussed.

  16. IFN-γ differentially regulates subsets of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yimin; Hu, Shengfeng; Wu, Yongjian; Yang, Kun; Liao, Chunxin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Huang, Xi; Wu, Minhao

    2015-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of IFN-γ on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell differentiation and function, using a heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced chronic inflammation model. After challenge with heat-killed BCG, two subpopulations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells were generated in the mouse spleen. Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell activation, while the other subset was CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) Ly6G(neg) Ly6C(high) monocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) that displayed extensive suppressor function. IFN-γ treatment dampened N-MDICs-mediated T cell activation through up-regulating T cell suppressive mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I. While for M-MDSCs, IFN-γ reduced their suppressing activity by decreasing the arginase activity. Our study provides evidence that IFN-γ balances the over-reactive vs compromised immune response through different regulation of distinct myeloid subsets, and therefore displays significant therapeutic potential for effective immuno-therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26021804

  17. Mie-Grüneisen-Einstein Equation of State as a Practical High Temperature Pressure Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogokupets, P. I.; Oganov, A. R.; Dewaele, A.

    2008-12-01

    Over the years, various models have been used for smoothing experimental PVT data and parametrization of thermoelastic functions (see, e.g., Anderson et al., 1989, JAP, 65, 1534-1543; Saxena, Zhang, 1990, PCM, 17, 45-51; Jackson, Rigden, 1996, PEPI, 96, 85-112; Pavese, 2002, PCM, 29, 43-51). The Mie-Grüneisen- Debye formula for the thermal pressure can be obtained by differentiation of the Helmoholtz free energy, and is therefore a strictly thermodynamic formula. In the high-temperature limit it is easy to calculate the thermal part of the free energy by the Einstein model, keeping in mind that the Einstein temperature, TE, is related to the Debye temperature, TD, as TE = 0.775TD. Obtained by direct differentiation of the free energy, the bulk moduli, entropy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic functions, are by construction internally consistent. An important point is the choice of the analytical form of the volumetric dependence of the Einstein (or Debye) temperature, and correct account of intrinsic anharmonicity, which makes the Einstein temperature depend not only on volume, but also on temperature. Here we propose a simple analytical form for the pressure as a function of temperature and volume. This equation can be used for constructing a practical pressure scale, as has been verified on numerous examples (Dorogokupets, Oganov, 2007; Dorogokupets, Dewaele, 2007; Fei et al., 2007; Hirose et al., 2008; Matsui, 2008; Ueda et al., 2008; Sun et al., 2008; Ono et al., 2008; Wu et al., 2008; etc.).

  18. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics: Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Vincent; Fert, Albert; Sénéor, Pierre; Petroff, Frédéric

    GMR and spintronics take their roots in the pioneering work of Albert Fert around 1970 on the influence of the spin on the mobility of electrons in ferromagnetic materials [1]. After having experimentally demonstrated that, in a ferromagnetic metal, the electrons of opposite spin directions (spin up and spin down along the magnetization axis) carry different currents (as originally suggested by Mott), Fert worked out the well known two current model of the electrical conduction in ferromagnetic metals. He also showed that very large spin asymmetries of the conduction can be obtained by doping the ferromagnetic metal with impurities selected to scatter very differently the spin up and spin down electrons (iron or cobalt impurities in nickel, for example, scatter the spin down electrons 20 times more strongly than the spin up electrons). Moreover, some experiments of Fert on ternary alloys were already introducing the idea that he will exploit later to produce the GMR effects. He showed that the resistivity of a ternary alloy, for example N 1-x (A x-y ,B y ), is strongly enhanced if the scattering by the impurities A and B have inverse spin asymmetries. Replacing the impurities A and B by magnetic layers A and B, one equally expects a large enhancement of the resistivity when their magnetizations are in opposite directions, which the basic concept of the GMR. However, this concept can work only if the thickness of the layers is in the nanometer range. The fabrication of multilayers with thicknesses in this range became technologically possible in the mid-eighties and, in particular, the growth of magnetic multilayers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) was developed in the groups of Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg.

  19. Computational investigation on thermal expansivity behavior of Al 6061-SiC-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Krishna, S. A.; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    2015-08-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been regarded as one of the most principal classifications in composite materials. The thermal characterization of hybrid MMCs has been increasingly important in a wide range of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion is one of the most important properties of MMCs. Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In this research paper, the evaluation of thermal expansivity has been accomplished for Al 6061, silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300°C. Aluminum (Al)-based composites reinforced with SiC and Gr particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal expansivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated. The results have indicated that the thermal expansivity of the different compositions of hybrid MMCs decreases by the addition of Gr with SiC and Al 6061. Few empirical models have been validated for the evaluation of thermal expansivity of composites. Using the experimental values namely modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio and thermal expansivity, computational investigation has been carried out to evaluate the thermal parameters namely thermal displacement, thermal strain and thermal stress.

  20. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  1. Purification of a dimeric arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium GR7 and study of its anti-cancerous activity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2016-09-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI, E.C 3.5.3.6) - a key enzyme of ADI pathway of Enterococcus faecium GR7 was purified to homogeneity. A sequential purification strategy involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular sieve followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified with a fold of 16.92 and showed a final specific activity of 76.65IU/mg with a 49.17% yield. The dimeric ADI has a molecular mass of about 94,364.929Da, and comprises of hetrodimers of 49.1kDa and 46.5kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF and PAGE analysis. To assess anti-cancerous activity of ADI by MTT assay was carried out against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Sp2/0-Ag14 and Hep-G2). Purified ADI exhibited the most profound antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 cells; with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.95μg/ml. Purified ADI from E. faecium GR7 was observed to induce apoptosis in the Hep-G2 cells by DNA fragmentation assay. Our findings suggest the possibility of a future use of ADI from E. faecium GR7 as a potential anticancer drug. PMID:26363115

  2. The haemodynamic effects of the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist GR32191B during cardiopulmonary bypass in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mathie, R T; Fleming, J S; Barrow, S E; Arnold, J V; Brannan, J J; Becket, J M; Ritter, J M; Taylor, K M

    1995-11-01

    This study examined whether treatment with the specific thromboxane (TX) A2 receptor antagonist GR32191B would result in an improvement in peripheral haemodynamics during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in anaesthetized dogs compared with animals given either saline (control) or aspirin. Following thoracotomy, heparinization and aortic cannulation, and 35 minutes before CPB, dogs received intravenously either GR32191B (15 micrograms/kg/min), saline (50 ml bolus) or aspirin (225 mg bolus) (n = 6 per group). Cardiac output (dye dilution), femoral artery blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter), gastrocnemius muscle tissue perfusion (133Xe clearance), retinal blood flow (fluorescein angiography), and thromboxane biosynthesis (urinary excretion rates of TXB2 and the metabolite 2,3-dinor-TXB2) were measured before, during and after a standard 90 minute period of CPB at 2.4 l/min/m2 and 28 degrees C. The aspirin-treated group manifested an eightfold reduction in TXB2 excretion compared with controls, indicating a decrease in TXA2 biosynthesis. There were few haemodynamic differences between the groups, though the aspirin-treated group had better maintained muscle tissue perfusion post-CPB and significantly fewer retinal microcirculatory occlusions than GR32191B-treated animals. We conclude that specific TXA2 receptor antagonism provides no significant improvement in peripheral haemodynamics; rather aspirin provides a modest haemodynamic benefit. PMID:8747897

  3. Computational investigation on thermal conductivity behavior of Al 6061-SiC-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. A. Mohan; Shridhar, T. N.; Krishnamurthy, L.

    2015-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are regarded to be one of the most principal classifications in composite materials. The thermal characterization of hybrid MMCs has become increasingly important in a wide range of applications. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties of MMCs. Since nearly all MMCs are used in various temperature ranges, measurement of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature is necessary in order to know the behavior of the material. In the present research, evaluation of thermal conductivity has been accomplished for aluminum alloy (Al) 6061, silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (Gr) hybrid MMCs from room temperature to 300∘C. Al-based composites reinforced with SiC and Gr particles have been prepared by stir casting technique. The thermal conductivity behavior of hybrid composites with different percentage compositions of reinforcements has been investigated using laser flash technique. The results have indicated that the thermal conductivity of the different compositions of hybrid MMCs decreases by the addition of Gr with SiC and Al 6061. Few empirical models have been validated concerning with the evaluation of thermal conductivity of composites. Using the experimental values namely density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and enthalpy at varying temperature ranges, computational investigation has been carried out to evaluate the thermal gradient and thermal flux.

  4. Solid-state combinatorial screening of ARSi4N7:Eu2+ (A = Sr, Ba, Ca; R = Y, La, Lu) phosphors.

    PubMed

    Park, Woon Bae; Son, Kyung Hyun; Singh, Satendra Pal; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2012-10-01

    A double-ternary combinatorial chemistry (combi-chem) library was visualized in terms of structure, PL intensity, and color chromaticity for a nitride phosphor system, ARSi4N7:Eu(2+) (A = Sr, Ca, Ba; R = Y, La, Lu), so as to obtain a quantitative structure and property relationship (QSPR) in a systematic manner. Most of the samples constituting the double-ternary combi-chem library turned out to have ARSi4N7 structures with a P63mc space group. However, several phases such as Ca2Si5N8 with a Cc space group, LaSi3N5 with a P212121 space group, R6Si11N20O with a P31c space group, etc., coexisted. Aside from the green luminescence from the well-known SrYSi4N7:Eu(2+) and BaYSi4N7:Eu(2+) phosphors, their solid solutions (Sr,Ba)Si4N7:Eu(2+) proved to possess better PL properties. In addition, novel phosphors with an acceptable green PL intensity and color chromaticity were discovered in the ALuSi4N7:Eu(2+) side of the double-ternary combi-chem library. The Ca-rich side did not constitute a single-phase ARSi4N7 structure with a P63mc space group, and therefore the red emission in the Ca-rich side proved to originate from well-known Ca2Si5N8:Eu(2+) phosphors, which resided in the sample as a minor phase. PMID:22920282

  5. Polybacterial Periodontal Pathogens Alter Vascular and Gut BH4/nNOS/NRF2-Phase II Enzyme Expression.

    PubMed

    Gangula, Pandu; Ravella, Kalpana; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Rivera, Mercedes; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Hale, Ashley; Channon, Keith; Southerland, Janet; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease and is associated with complex microbial infection in the subgingival cavity. Recently, American Heart Association supported a century old association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. We have recently shown that polybacterial periodontal infection led to aortic atherosclerosis and modulation of lipid profiles; however the underlying mechanism(s) has not been yet demonstrated. Altered nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nitric oxide synthases (NOS) has long been shown to be associated with vascular dysfunction and gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to examine the mechanism of periodontal infection leading to altered vascular and gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, focusing on the BH4/nNOS pathways. In addition, we also have investigated how the antioxidant system (NRF2-Phase II enzyme expression) in vascular and GI specimens is altered by oral infection. Eight week old male ApoEnull mice were either sham-infected or infected orally for 16 weeks with a mixture of major periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia to induce experimental periodontitis. Serum, vascular (mesenteric), stomach, and colon specimens were collected at the end of periodontal pathogen infection. Bacterial infection induced significant (p<0.05) reductions in the levels of BH4,in ratio of BH4:BH2+B and also in nitric oxide levels compared to sham-infected controls. In addition, we identified a significant (p<0.05) reduction in eNOS dimerization, nNOS dimerization and protein expression of BH4 biosynthesis enzymes; GCH-1, DHFR and NRF2 & Phase II enzymes in infected mice versus controls in both mesenteric artery and colon tissues. However, we found no differences in nNOS/BH4 protein expression in stomach tissues of infected and sham-infected mice. This suggests that a polybacterial infection

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MONITORING OF THE EXTREME LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAR GR 290 (ROMANO's STAR) IN M 33

    SciTech Connect

    Polcaro, V. F.; Viotti, R. F.; Rossi, C.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Norci, L.

    2011-01-15

    We study the long-term, S Dor-type variability and the present hot phase of the luminous blue variable (LBV) star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33 in order to investigate possible links between the LBV and the late, nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet Stars (WNL) stages of very massive stars. We use intermediate-resolution spectra, obtained with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2008 December, when GR 290 was at minimum (V = {approx}18.6), as well as new low-resolution spectra and BVRI photometry obtained with the Loiano and Cima Ekar telescopes during 2007-2010. We identify more than 80 emission lines in the 3100-10000 A range covered by the WHT spectra, belonging to different species: the hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series, neutral and ionized helium, C III, N II-III, S IV, Si III-IV, and many forbidden lines of [N II], [O III], [S III], [A III], [Ne III], and [Fe III]. Many lines, especially the He I triplets, show a P Cygni profile with an a-e radial velocity difference of -300 to -500 km s{sup -1}. The shape of the 4630-4713 A emission blend and of other emission lines resembles that of WN9 stars; the blend deconvolution shows that the He II 4686 A has a strong broad component with FWHM {approx_equal} 1700 km s{sup -1}. During 2003-2010 the star underwent large spectral variations, best seen in the 4630-4686 A emission feature. Using the late-WN spectral types of Crowther and Smith, GR 290 apparently varied between the WN11 and WN8-9 spectral types; the hotter the star was the fainter its visual magnitude was. This spectrum-visual luminosity anticorrelation of GR 290 is reminiscent of the behavior of the best-studied LBVs, such as S Dor and AG Car. During the 2008 minimum, we found a significant decrease in bolometric luminosity, which could be attributed to absorption by newly formed circumstellar matter. We suggest that the broad 4686 A line and the optical continuum formed in a central Wolf-Rayet region, while the narrow emission line spectrum originated in an

  7. Transition metal complexes of Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT); thermal, structural and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Reash, Gaber Abu; El-Ayaan, Usama; Gabr, I. M.; El-Rachawy, El-Bastawesy

    2010-04-01

    The present work carried out a study on the ligational behavior of the new ligand, Vanillin- 4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H 2VPT) 1 towards some transition metal ions namely, Mn 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+,Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and U 6+. These complexes namely [Mn(HVPT)Cl] 2, [Co(VPT)(H 2O)] 2H 2O 3, [Ni(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 4, [Cu(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 5, [Zn(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 6, [Cd(HVPT)Cl(H 2O)] 7, [Hg(VPT)(H 2O)]H 2O 8 and [UO 2(H 2VPT)(OAc) 2]H 2O 9, were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, 1H NMR and UV-vis) and magnetic moment measurements. The suggested structures were confirmed by applying geometry optimization and conformational analysis. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all compounds are investigated. The interpretation, mathematical analysis and evaluation of kinetic parameters ( E, A, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G) of all thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equation. ESR spectra of [Cu(HVPT)Cl]H 2O at room temperature show broad signal, indicating spin-exchange interactions between copper(II) ions.

  8. A novel cobalt(II)-selective potentiometric sensor based on p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2009-01-15

    A new poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes containing p-(4-n-butylphenylazo)calix[4]arene (I) as an electroactive material along with sodiumtetraphenylborate (NaTPB), and dibutyl(butyl)phosphonate in the ratio 10:100:1:200 (I:DBBP:NaTPB:PVC) (w/w) was used to fabricate a new cobalt(II)-selective sensor. It exhibited a working concentration range of 9.2 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M, with a Nernstian slope of 29.0+/-1.0 mV/decade of activity and the response time of 25s. This sensor shows the detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-6)M. Its potential response remains unaffected of pH in the range, 4.0-7.2, and the cell assembly can be used successfully in partially non-aqueous medium (up to 10%, v/v) without significant change in the slope of working concentration range. The sensor has a lifetime of about 3 months and exhibits excellent selectivity over a number of mono-, bi-, and tri-valent cations including alkali, alkaline earth metal, heavy and transition metal ions. It can be used as an indicator electrode for the end point determination in the potentiometric titration of cobalt ions against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as for the determination of cobalt ion concentration in real samples. PMID:19064091

  9. Competitive sorption between 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Jiang, Lu; Xiang, Xi; Xu, Shuang; Wen, Rou; Liu, Xiang

    2013-06-01

    The sorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils. Results showed that all sorption isotherms were nonlinear and fit the Freundlich model. The degree of nonlinearity was in the order BPA (0.537-0.686) > EE2 (0.705-0.858) > NP (0.875-0.0.951) in single systems. The isotherm linearity index of EE2 sorption calculated by the Freundlich model for Loam, Silt Loam and Silt increased from 0.758, 0.705 and 0.858, to 0.889, 0.910 and 0.969, respectively, when BPA concentration increased from 0 to 1000 microg/L, but the effect of NP was comparably minimal. Additionally, EE2 significantly suppressed the sorption of BPA, but insignificantly suppressed that of NP. These findings can be attributed to the difference of sorption affinity of EE2, NP and BPA on the hard carbon (e.g., black carbon) of soil organic matter that dominated the sorption in the low equilibrium aqueous concentration range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Competitive sorption among EDCs presents new challenges for predicting the transport and fate of EDCs under the influence of co-solutes. PMID:24191605

  10. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of copper(II) complexes with 4-N-(2‧-pyridylimine)benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chun-Fang; Liang, Fu-Pei; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiu-Jian; Chen, Zi-Lu; Bian, He-Dong

    2007-10-01

    Four Cu(II) complexes with 4- N-(2'-pyridylimine)benzoic acid ( HL), [Cu(HL) 2] · (ClO 4) 2 ( 1), [Cu(HL) 2(SO 4)] · 3H 2O ( 2), [Cu 2(L) 2Cl 2] n · 3H 2O ( 3), and [Cu 4(L) 2(HL) 2Cl 4] · (CH 3OH) 2 · (ClO 4) 2 ( 4), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Complexes ( 1) and ( 2) both exhibit a mononuclear structure with a four-coordinated Cu(II) ion by the pyridine- N and imine- N atoms of the ligands for ( 1) and a penta-coordinated Cu(II) ion by pyridine- N, imine- N atoms of the ligands and one oxygen atom of SO42- for ( 2). Complex ( 3) consists of a two-dimensional Cu(II) layer formed by deprotonated HL ligand linking four-membered Cu 2Cl 2 units. Complex ( 4) contains a tetranuclear Cu(II) coordination cation in which the Cu(II) ions are penta-coordinated in square pyramidal geometry by two bridging chloride atoms, two nitrogen atoms of HL ligand with undeprotonated carboxylic group, and one oxygen atom of syn,syn-carboxylato bridge. Magnetic susceptibility data show a weak ferromagnetic coupling between the Cu centers in ( 3) ( J = 4.95 cm -1) and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction in ( 4) ( J = -16.85 cm -1), respectively.

  11. CH 4/N 2/H 2-spark hydrophobic tholins: A systematic approach to the characterisation of tholins. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; de la Fuente, José Luis; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José Ángel; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2009-12-01

    Two different simulation experiments of prebiotic synthesis were carried out in a CH 4/N 2/H 2 atmosphere with spark discharge activation of aqueous aerosols and liquid water. In both cases, a hydrophilic tholin and a hydrophobic tholin were obtained. The methodology developed by our group for the characterisation of hydrophilic tholins [Ruiz-Bermejo, M., Menor-Salván, C., Mateo-Martí, E., Osuna-Esteban, S., Martín-Gago, J.A., Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S., 2008. Icarus 198, 232-241] was used in order to study the hydrophobic tholins. The gas precursors of the tholins from mixtures containing CH 4, with and without H 2, were studied. We propose that the formation of the hydrophobic tholins involves the formation of unsaturated oligomeric hydrocarbon chains from vinyl and acetylene monomers, as well as allene derivatives formed in the gas phase after the incorporation of polar groups into these hydrocarbon chains. Finally, we compare our results concerning hydrophobic tholins with HCN polymers, since it is generally suggested that the polymeric material formed in spark experiments are possible oligomers of HCN, and that Titan's tholins could be poly-HCN.

  12. A "high 4He/3He" mantle material detected under the East Pacific Rise (15°4'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougel, Berengere; Moreira, Manuel; Agranier, Arnaud

    2015-03-01

    We investigate in details helium isotope data reported in Mougel et al. (2014) for 14 basaltic samples collected on the East Pacific Rise by submersible (15°4'N) where the ridge interacts with the Mathematician seamounts. Samples locations are separated by only few hundred meters across a 15 km along-axis profile. The data reveal a strong geochemical variability that has never been observed at such high spatial resolution for helium isotope compositions. Moreover, they reveal an unusually high 4He/3He mantle component also characterized by unradiogenic lead, atypical in oceanic basalts. He-Pb systematics suggests a mixture between a nonradiogenic lead and radiogenic helium pyroxenitic component, recycled from the deep continental lithosphere and the ambient peridotitic mantle. The He isotope difference between these two end-members can be interpreted as a time evolution of two distinct mantle sources after a slight (U + Th)/3He fractionation, likely due to some ancient degassing during the formation of deep continental pyroxenites.

  13. Optimized deglycosylation of glycoproteins by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)-asparagine amidase from Flavobacterium meningosepticum.

    PubMed

    Nuck, R; Zimmermann, M; Sauvageot, D; Josi D; Reutter, W

    1990-01-01

    Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F(PNGase F) from Flavobacterium meningosepticum is a highly useful enzyme for the structural analysis of N (asparagine)-linked carbohydrate chains derived from glycoproteins. The enzyme was enriched using a published procedure [Tarentino AL, Gomez CM, Plummer TH, Jr (1984) Biochemistry 1985:4665-71; Tarentino AL, Plummer TH, Jr (1987) Methods Enzymol 138:770-78] and further purified by hydrophobic interaction HPLC on a weak hydrophobic TSK-Ether column from which it was eluted by a decreasing gradient of 1.7 M ammonium sulphate in 100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0, containing 5 mM EDTA. To determine the optimal conditions for a complete deglycosylation of glycoproteins by PNGase F, experiments were performed with human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, because the five complex type carbohydrate chains are quite resistant to enzymic hydrolysis. The influence of different detergents on the enzyme reaction was studied. Complete deglycosylation of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was achieved by the use of 60 mU/ml PNGase F in 0.25 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.2% (w/v) SDS, 20 mM mercaptoethanol and 0.5% Mega-10. PMID:2136346

  14. The broad-spectrum anti-emetic activity of the novel non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist GR203040.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, C. J.; Twissell, D. J.; Dale, T. J.; Gale, J. D.; Jordan, C. C.; Kilpatrick, G. J.; Bountra, C.; Ward, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Following our earlier observations that the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 is an effective anti-emetic in ferrets, we have examined the anti-emetic effects of a more potent and novel NK1 receptor antagonist, GR203040, against various emetic stimuli in the ferret, dog and house musk shrew (Suncus murinus). 2. In ferrets, GR203040 (0.1 mg kg-1 s.c. or i.v.) is effective against emesis induced by radiation, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, copper sulphate, ipecacuanha or morphine. 3. In animals in which emesis had been established with cisplatin, GR203040 (1 mg kg-1 s.c.) was fully effective as an interventional treatment. No further emesis was seen in animals treated with GR203040 whilst saline-treated animals continued to vomit. 4. GR203040 (0.1 mg kg-1 s.c.) retains anti-emetic efficacy in the ferret, even when given as a 6 h pretreatment, indicating that this compound has a long duration of action. The compound is also effective orally at the same dose, when given as a 90 min pretreatment. 5. GR203040 (0.1 mg kg-1 i.v.) is fully effective against ipecacuanha-induced emesis in the dog. 6. GR203040 is effective against motion- and cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus. These effects were seen at doses an order of magnitude greater than those shown to be effective against cisplatin in the ferret. 7. In conclusion, GR203040 is a novel anti-emetic agent, and the broad spectrum of anti-emetic activity, together with activity observed in three species, suggests that this compound is worthy of clinical investigation. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8719790

  15. Involvement of Gr-1 dull+ cells in the production of TNF-α and IL-17 and exacerbated systemic inflammatory response caused by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Daiki; Akahori, Yukiko; Toyama, Masahiko; Sato, Ko; Kudo, Daisuke; Abe, Yuzuru; Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Yamamoto, Hideki; Ishii, Keiko; Kanno, Emi; Maruyama, Ryoko; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life-threatening disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the immunoregulatory cells that express Gr-1, a granulocyte surface antigen, play a critical role in various pathological conditions. In the present study, we have established a mouse model of SIRS and addressed the possible contribution of Gr-1+ cells in this model. C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with anti-Gr-1 mAb or control IgG 1 day before administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All of the mice that received anti-Gr-1 mAb and LPS died early as a result of hypothermia and severe emaciation, whereas mice treated with control IgG and LPS survived the observation period. In mice treated with anti-Gr-1 mAb and LPS, acute inflammatory changes with alveolar hemorrhage were observed in the lung and proximal convoluted tubule necrosis was observed in the kidney. Serum TNF-α and IL-17A levels were markedly increased in anti-Gr-1 mAb-pretreated mice compared with those in control IgG-treated mice at 1 and 3 h after LPS administration, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed an increase in TNF-α and IL-17A expression in Gr-1 dull+ cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neutralization of TNF-α by a specific mAb almost completely reversed the clinical course and inhibited the increased production of IL-17A. In addition, IL-17A KO mice were less susceptible to the lethality in this model. Thus, we established a mouse model of severe SIRS and suggested that Gr-1 dull+ cells may play a critical role in the development of this pathological condition. PMID:24022599

  16. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  17. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  18. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N phases synthesized by newer precursor route

    SciTech Connect

    Theerthagiri, J.; Dalavi, Shankar B.; Manivel Raja, M.; Panda, R.N.

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N nitride phases are synthesized first time by newer chemical routes. The ε-Fe{sub 3}N phase crystallizes in hexagonal structure with unit cell parameters, a = 4.76 Å and c = 4.41 Å. The Co{sub 4}N phase crystallizes in face centred cubic (fcc) structure with unit cell parameters, a = 3.55 Å. The estimated crystallite size for ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N phases are 29 nm and 22 nm, respectively. The values of saturation magnetization for ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N phases are found to be 28.1 emu/g and 123.6 emu/g respectively. The reduction of magnetic moments in ultrafine materials compared to bulk materials has been explained by fine particle size and surface effects. We have synthesized the high moment ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N nitride with reduced coercivity which may find applications as soft magnetic materials. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N nitride phases are synthesized. • The ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N crystallizes in hexagonal and fcc structure respectively. • The observed magnetic parameters indicate soft magnetic properties. • The magnetic properties have been explained on the basis of fine particle magnetism. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N nitride phases are synthesized first time by using tris(1,2-diaminoethane)iron(II) chloride and tris(1,2-diaminoethane)cobalt(III) chloride precursors, respectively. To prepare ε-Fe{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N nitride phases, the synthesized precursors were mixed with urea in 1:12 ratio and heat treated at various temperatures in the range of 450–900 °C under the ultrapure nitrogen gas atmosphere. The precursors are confirmed by FT-IR study. The ε-Fe{sub 3}N phase crystallizes in hexagonal structure with unit cell parameters, a = 4.76 Å and c = 4.41 Å. The Co{sub 4}N phase crystallizes in face centred cubic (fcc) structure with unit cell parameters, a = 3.55 Å. The

  19. Enhanced inverse spin-Hall voltage in (001) oriented Fe4N/Pt polycrystalline films without contribution of planar-Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogami, Shinji; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the output DC electric voltage (V out) generated by a Pt-capped Fe4N bilayer film (Fe4N/Pt) under ferromagnetic resonance conditions at room temperature was assessed. The contributions from the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE), the planar-Hall effect (PHE) and the anomalous-Hall effect (AHE) were separated from the output voltage by analysis of V out values determined at varying external field polar angles. The results showed that the polarity of the ISHE (V ISHE) component of V out was opposite to that of the PHE (V PHE). As a result, the magnitude of the intrinsic V ISHE was beyond V out by as much as the magnitude of V PHE. The X-ray diffraction structural analysis revealed the polycrystal of the Fe4N/Pt with (001) orientation, which might be one of the possible mechanisms for enhanced intrinsic V ISHE.

  20. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoxMn4-xN (x = 0 and 0.2) epitaxial films and possibility of tetragonal Mn4N phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keita; Yasutomi, Yoko; Kabara, Kazuki; Gushi, Toshiki; Higashikozono, Soma; Toko, Kaoru; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Suemasu, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We grow 25-nm-thick Mn4N and Co0.2Mn3.8N epitaxial films on SrTiO3(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. These films show the tetragonal structure with a tetragonal axial ratio c/a of approximately 0.99. Their magnetic properties are measured at 300 K, and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is confirmed in both films. There is a tendency that as the Co composition increases, an anisotropy field increases, whereas saturation magnetization and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy decrease. First-principles calculation predicts the existence of tetragonal Mn4N phase. This explains the c/a ˜ 0.99 in the Mn4N films regardless of their film thickness and lattice mismatch with substrates used.

  1. Solvent sensitive intramolecular charge transfer dynamics in the excited states of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajib; Nandi, Amitabha; Palit, Dipak K

    2016-03-21

    Organic molecules substituted with the nitro group show efficient nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, which are a consequence of the strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character of the molecules because of the strong electron withdrawing nature of the nitro group and rapid responsiveness because of highly movable π-electrons. Dynamics of the ICT process in the excited states of a push-pull biphenyl derivative, namely, 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4'-nitrobiphenyl (DNBP), an efficient NLO material, has been investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The experimental results have been corroborated with DFT and TDDFT calculations. In solvents of large polarity, e.g. acetonitrile, the ultrafast ICT process of DNBP is associated with the barrierless twisting of the N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) group with respect to the nitrobenzene moiety to populate the twisted ICT (or TICT) state, and the rate of this process is solely governed by the viscosity of the medium. In solvents of moderate polarity, e.g. ethyl acetate, the rate of the twisting process is significantly slowed down and the LE and TICT states remain in equilibrium because of a low energy barrier for interconversion between these two states. By further lowering the polarity of the solvent, e.g. in dioxane, the twisting process is completely retarded. In nonpolar solvents, e.g. cyclohexane, a reverse twisting motion towards the planar geometry (i.e. the PICT process) has been evident in the excited state dynamics. In this solvent, the S1 state undergoes an ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet state because of its close proximity with the T2 state. PMID:26907751

  2. Capacitance and conductance characterization of nano-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si diode

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, S.S.; Sakr, G.B.; Yahia, I.S.; Abdel-Basset, D.M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • XRD and DTA micrographs were used to study the structure of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. • C–V, G–V and R{sub s}–V of the diode characteristics have been analyzed for the first time. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent and ac conductivity were determined. • The interfaces states were determined using conductance–voltage technique. • ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate for electronic device applications. - Abstract: Capacitance–voltage (C–V) and conductance–voltage (G–V) characteristics of p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si HJD were studied over a wide frequency and temperature. Both the interface states density N{sub ss} and series resistance R{sub s} were strongly frequency and temperature dependent. The interface states density N{sub ss} is decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. The values of the built-in potential (V{sub bi}) were calculated and found to increase with increasing temperature and frequency. The values of capacitance C, conductance G, series resistance R{sub s}, corrected capacitance C{sub ADJ}, corrected conductance G{sub ADJ}, dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″), loss tangent (tan δ) and the AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) are strongly dependent on the applied frequency, voltage and temperature. The obtained results show that the locations of N{sub ss} and R{sub s} have a significant effect on the electrical characteristics of the studied diode.

  3. Study of the Phototransference in GR-200 Dosimetric Material and its Convenience for Dose Re-estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Baly, L.; Otazo, M. R.; Molina, D.; Pernas, R.

    2006-09-08

    A study of the phototransference of charges from deep to dosimetric traps in GR-200 material is presented and its convenience for dose re-estimation in the dose range between 2 and 100mSv is also analyzed. The recovering coefficient (RC) defined as the ratio between the phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) and the original thermoluminescence (TL) of the dosimetric trap was used to evaluate the ratio of phototransferred charges from deep traps and the original charges in the dosimetric traps. The results show the convenience of this method for dose re-estimation for this material in the selected range of doses.

  4. The metabolism of the 5HT3 antagonists, ondansetron, alosetron and GR87442 II: investigation into the in vitro methods used to predict the in vivo hepatic clearance of ondansetron, alosetron and GR87442 in the rat, dog and human.

    PubMed

    Somers, G I; Bayliss, M K; Houston, J B

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro clearances of the 5HT3 antagonists, ondansetron, alosetron and GR87442 were investigated. Intrinsic clearances using either metabolite formation or substrate depletion methods were equivalent (R2 = 0.95). Hepatocytes from preclinical species were superior to microsomes for the prediction of hepatic clearance (CL(H)), whereas the predictions from human microsomes and hepatocytes were similar. Using a non-restrictive model, seven of the nine CL(H) predictions using hepatocytes were within 2-fold of the in vivo CL(H) values. If the unbound fraction was included, the clearance of the compounds was generally under-predicted by both in vitro models. However, for the most metabolically stable compound, GR87442, the non-restrictive model over-predicted CLp. This and the possibility of extrahepatic metabolism indicate that the restrictive model is more appropriate for prediction of CL(H). The rank order of metabolic stability correlated with that in vivo. All three compounds were more metabolically stable in human than in the preclinical animal species examined. PMID:17701833

  5. Variations of atmospheric CH4, N2O and SF6 over Japan and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, K.; Goto, D.; Ishidoya, S.; Yashiro, H.; Umezawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Patra, P. K.; Muromachi, A.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    East Asia is one of the most important regions for anthropogenic sources of both short-lived air pollutants and long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs). According to recent estimates from an emission database, China has become the largest emitter of long-lived GHGs. Since Japan and the East China Sea are located at the east end of Eurasia, atmospheric species emitted from the continent are transported over them throughout the year. Particularly in winter to spring, outflow of the emitted species is enhanced over the East China Sea due to the East Asian Monsoon. To monitor temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric GHGs in the East Asian region, we conducted systematic GHG observations during 2003-2012 from flask samples collected onboard four different commercial ferry boats, which connected between Wakkanai and Rishiri islands (WAK ; 45.4°N, 141.5°E), between Sakaiminato and Oki islands (OKI ; 35.8°N, 133.2°E), between Kagoshima and Okinawa islands (RYU ; 30.0°N, 130.0°E), and between Ishigaki and Hateruma islands (HTR ; 24.0°N, 124.0°E). Air samples were collected almost weekly, and they were sent to Tohoku University and analyzed for GHGs and related gases. In this study, we present analyses of observed CH4, N2O and SF6 concentrations in comparison with simulations by the Atmospheric general circulation model-based Chemistry Transport model (ACTM). The observed three species predictably show higher concentrations than those observed at Cape Kumukahi (KUM), which is a NOAA air sampling site located in the Central Pacific, reflecting strong outflow of the species from East Asia. Annual mean latitudinal gradients found from the four locations as well as decrease toward KUM are generally reproduced by the ACTM. This is mostly because of reasonable spatial distributions in GHG emissions given in the ACTM. The three species also show discernible seasonal cycles. ACTM simulates seasonal cycles of CH4 and SF6 relatively well, but not for N2O, suggesting

  6. On the mechanism of photochromism of 4'-N,N-dimethylamino-7-hydroxyflavylium in pluronic F127.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel; Laia, César A T; Pina, Fernando

    2009-08-13

    The photochromism of the compound 4'-N,N-dimethylamino-7-hydroxyflavylium incorporated in Pluronic F127 micelles and gels was studied in great detail. The red flavylium ion (AH(+)) or the quinoidal base (A), depending on pH, are the irradiation products of the colorless trans-chalcone (Ct). Absorption and fluorescence (steady-state, time-resolved, and anisotropy), pH jumps, and flash photolysis were used to characterize the system. At moderately acidic to neutral pH values, the Ct species is distributed between the core and corona of the Pluronic micelle, as well as in the aqueous phase. At acidic pH values, AH(+) remains most probably in the water phase. The Ct maximum absorption wavelength constitutes a good sensor for the critical micelle concentration (CMC) or critical micelle temperature (CMT). The apparent acidity constant pK'(a) was found to be a relatively good sensor for CMC and also for detection of the sol-gel critical temperature. The Ct photochromic mechanism was analyzed by comparing the photophysics in pure solvents and the pluronic media. Solvatochromic effects show a lack of solvent polarity dependence of the Stokes shift, indicating a low dipolar moment change between the ground and the locally excited state. An internal charge transfer nonradiative process (ICT) competes with Ct photoisomerization and is the dominant process in highly polar solvents, preventing the appearance of photochromism, in contrast with lower polar environments, such as micelles and ethanol. In high viscous environments as those found in the core of the Pluronic F127 micelles or glycerol, both ICT and photoisomerization are reduced, enhancing the Ct fluorescence quantum yield. According to the data from fluorescence measurements and pH jumps, evidence for the Ct distribution among different sites within the pluronic aggregate was found, (i) a hydrophilic/fluid region where Ct has poor fluorescence and isomerization yields, bulk region; (ii) the corona of the micelle where

  7. Missing-Mass Spectroscopy of the 4-Neutron System by Exothermic Double-Charge Exchange Reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, Keiichi; Shimoura, Susumu; Miya, Hiroyuki; Assie, Marlene; Baba, Hidetada; Baba, Tatsuo; Beaumel, Didier; Dozono, Masanori; Fujii, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Naoki; Go, Shintaro; Hammache, Fariouz; Ideguchi, Eiji; Inabe, Naohiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kameda, Daisuke; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kawabata, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Motoki; Kondo, Yosuke; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Yuki; Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Lee, CheongSoo; Maeda, Yukie; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Miki, Kenjiro; Nishi, Takahiro; Noji, Shumpei; Ota, Shinsuke; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sasamoto, Yoshiko; Sasano, Masaki; Sato, Hiromi; Shimizu, Yohei; Stolz, Andreas; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takaki, Motonobu; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tamii, Atsushi; Tang, Leung; Tokieda, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Miho; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Yako, Kentaro; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Rin

    A possible existence of the tetra-neutron system as a resonance state is still an open and fascinating question, while theoretical papers using ab-initio calculation suggests that the bound tetra-neutron does not exist. We have performed a missing-mass spectroscopy of the 4n system via the exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n. The experiment was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN using the SHARAQ spectrometer. Since the secondary beam, 8He at 190 A MeV, has a large internal energy, it is possible to produce the 4n system with small momentum transfers of less than 20 MeV/c. In the present analysis, a new analytical framework to treat multi-particles under high beam rate condition (2 MHz) was developed for good statistics. At the SHARAQ spectrometer, 8Be can be identified by measuring the invariant mass of the coincident two alpha particles with a good signal-to-noise ratio. About several tens of candidate events are obtained above the 4n threshold.

  8. Development of ferret as a human lung cancer model by injecting4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of new animal lung cancer models that are relevant to human lung carcinogenesis is important for lung cancer research. Previously we have shown the induction of lung tumor in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) exposed to both tobacco smoke and a tobacco carcinogen (4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of rhenium(III) organohydrazide compounds. Crystal and molecular structures of [ReCl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NHNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)]Cl{sub 2}, [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)], and [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{sub 2}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Lourido, P.; Romero, J.; Garcia-Vazquez, J.A.; Sousa, A.; Maresca, K.P.; Zubieta, J.

    1999-04-05

    The reduction of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} with 2-hydrazinopyridine dihydrochloride and PPh{sub 3} gives [ReCl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NHNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)-(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)]Cl{sub 2} (2). A similar reaction using 2-hydrazino-2-imidazoline and PPh{sub 3} in methanol hydrochloric acid allows the preparation of [ReCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NNC{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2})] (3). The reaction of the Re(III) complex [ReCl{sub 3}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}NH)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (1), with 2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SH in methanol yields [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}-{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (4) and [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{sub 2}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (5). The same precursor with 2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)-6-(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 6}H{sub 3}SH gives [ReCl{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)-6-(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 6}H{sub 3}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (6) and with PhP(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SH-2){sub 2} yields [Re{l_brace}PhP(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S-2){sub 2}{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (7).

  10. Plasticity and ab initio characterizations on Fe 4N produced on the surface of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel plasma nitrided at lower temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Liu, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    18Ni-maraging steel has been entirely nanocrystallized by a series of processes including solution treatment, hot-rolling deformation, cold-drawn deformation and direct electric heating. The plasma nitriding of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel was carried out at 410 °C for 3 h and 6 h in a mixture gas of 20% N 2 + 80% H 2 with a pressure of 400 Pa. The surface phase constructions and nitrogen concentration profile in surface layer were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and the glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), respectively. The results show that an about 2 μm thick compound layer (mono-phase γ'-Fe 4N) can be produced on the top of the surface layer of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel plasma nitrided at 410 °C for 6 h. The measured hardness value of the nitrided surface is 11.6 GPa. More importantly, the γ'-Fe 4N phase has better plasticity, i.e., its plastic deformation energy calculated from the load-displacement curve obtained by nano-indentation tester is close to that of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel. Additionally, the mechanical properties of γ'-Fe 4N phase were also characterized by first-principles calculations. The calculated results indicate that the hardness value and the ratio of bulk to shear modulus ( B/ G) of the γ'-Fe 4N phase are 10.15 GPa and 3.12 (>1.75), respectively. This demonstrates that the γ'-Fe 4N phase has higher hardness and better ductility.

  11. Theoretical prediction of Grüneisen parameter for SiO2.TiO2 bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pandey, Anjani K.; Pandey, Brijesh K.

    2016-05-01

    The Grüneisen parameter (γ) is very important to decide the limitations for the prediction of thermoelastic properties of bulk metallic glasses. It can be defined in terms of microscopic and macroscopic parameters of the material in which former is based on vibrational frequencies of atoms in the material while later is closely related to its thermodynamic properties. Different formulation and equation of states are used by the pioneer researchers of this field to predict the true sense of Gruneisen parameter for BMG but for SiO2.TiO2 very few and insufficient information is available till now. In the present work we have tested the validity of two different isothermal EOS viz. Poirrior-Tarantola EOS and Usual-Tait EOS to predict the true value of Gruneisen parameter for SiO2.TiO2 as a function of compression. Using different thermodynamic limitations related to the material constraints and analyzing obtained result it is concluded that the Poirrior-Tarantola EOS gives better numeric values of Grüneisen parameter (γ) for SiO2.TiO2 BMG.

  12. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; Hemker, Shelby L; Venta, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Myers, Sherry L; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with the disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. PMID:23746554

  13. Microstructure and Waer Resistance of a Composite Gr/Al2O3/Al Produced by Reciprocating Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Zhu, G. P.; Xu, C. J.; Hu, B.

    A reciprocating extrusion process was used to produce graphite and alumina reinforced pure aluminium composite. The graphite particles (0 5vol%), alumina particles (10 vol%) and pure aluminium particles (balanced) were dehydrated separately at 70°C in vacuum for 3 hours, and then mixed together. A round billet with 50 mm in diameter was prepared by hot pressing at 350°C with the mixed particles and then extruded to a fully-consolidated goblet-like sample at 480°C and 430MPa by reciprocating extrusion. The results showed that all reinforced particles were refined and uniformly distributed in the matrix by reciprocation extrusion severe plastic deformation. The presence of graphite particles caused the reduction in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the Gr/Al2O3/Al composite. Compared with the composite prepared only by alumina particles (10 vol%) and pure aluminium particles, the friction coefficient and wear rate of the Gr/Al2O3/Al composite, which contains 5vol% graphite and 10vol% alumina particles, decreased 45.3% and 33.5%, respectively, and thereafter it displays an excellent combination of low friction coefficient (0.37) and wear rate (2.2×10-7mm3/(N.m)), and appears to be more promising.

  14. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions: Insights from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M.; Árnadóttir, P.; Ófeigsson, B.; Grapenthin, R.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.; Bennett, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption in 2010 and Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 resulted in significant disruption of aviation. Three historic (last 1100 years) eruptions are known in Eyjafjallajökull volcano prior to 2010 (in 920, 1612, and 1821-23). In contrast Grímsvötn volcano is Icelands most active volcano with the last three eruptions in 1983, 1998, and 2004. Both volcanoes have been monitored with continuous GPS measurements in the last few years, revealing different style of deformation leading up to and during the eruption. On March 20 2010 a 300 m long fissure opened up on the east flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The eruption was preceded by three months of unrest with increased seismic activity and surface deformation. The deformation pattern leading up to the eruption was both spatially and temporally variable. In January and February 2010 inflation was observed at GPS sites on the flanks of the volcano indicating formations of sills. From February 20 more distant GPS stations showed a small but distinct change in horizontal velocity. Sites started moving in toward the volcano, suggesting deep pressure changes. In early March seismic activity intensified and rapid deformation leading up to the eruption suggested the upward migration of magma. During the flank eruption deformation almost ceased and the volcano remained at an inflated state. On April 14 2010, a more explosive eruption began at the ice-caped summit of the volcano. Rapid deformation toward the summit and subsidence was observed at GPS sites around the volcano during this eruption. In early May a small but significant inflation signal was observed at the GPS sites closest to the summit suggesting a renewed flux of magma from depth but was followed by a continued deformation toward the summit for a few weeks. Around 19 UTC on May 21, 2011 a phreatomagmatic eruption started at Grímsvötn volcano lasting until the May 28. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökul icecap

  15. Optical Spectrophotometric Monitoring of the Extreme Luminous Blue Variable Star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Rossi, C.; Viotti, R. F.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Norci, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the long-term, S Dor-type variability and the present hot phase of the luminous blue variable (LBV) star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33 in order to investigate possible links between the LBV and the late, nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet Stars (WNL) stages of very massive stars. We use intermediate-resolution spectra, obtained with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2008 December, when GR 290 was at minimum (V = ~18.6), as well as new low-resolution spectra and BVRI photometry obtained with the Loiano and Cima Ekar telescopes during 2007-2010. We identify more than 80 emission lines in the 3100-10000 Å range covered by the WHT spectra, belonging to different species: the hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series, neutral and ionized helium, C III, N II-III, S IV, Si III-IV, and many forbidden lines of [N II], [O III], [S III], [A III], [Ne III], and [Fe III]. Many lines, especially the He I triplets, show a P Cygni profile with an a-e radial velocity difference of -300 to -500 km s-1. The shape of the 4630-4713 Å emission blend and of other emission lines resembles that of WN9 stars; the blend deconvolution shows that the He II 4686 Å has a strong broad component with FWHM ~= 1700 km s-1. During 2003-2010 the star underwent large spectral variations, best seen in the 4630-4686 Å emission feature. Using the late-WN spectral types of Crowther & Smith, GR 290 apparently varied between the WN11 and WN8-9 spectral types; the hotter the star was the fainter its visual magnitude was. This spectrum-visual luminosity anticorrelation of GR 290 is reminiscent of the behavior of the best-studied LBVs, such as S Dor and AG Car. During the 2008 minimum, we found a significant decrease in bolometric luminosity, which could be attributed to absorption by newly formed circumstellar matter. We suggest that the broad 4686 Å line and the optical continuum formed in a central Wolf-Rayet region, while the narrow emission line spectrum originated in an extended, slowly expanding

  16. Genetic map of the region around grizzled (gr) and mocha (mh) on mouse chromosome 10, homologous to human 19p13.3

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfhamer, D.; Burmeister, M.

    1994-10-01

    Grizzled (gr) is a recessive mouse mutation resulting in a gray coat color and reduced perinatal viability. Mocha (mh) is one of several recessive mouse mutants characterized by platelet storage pool disorder, pigment abnormalities, reduced fertility, kidney function deficiencies, and, in some mutants, inner ear and natural killer cell deficiencies. Murine platelet storage pool deficient mutants may be models for Chediak-Higashi and Hermansky-Pudlak syndromes in humans. The genes for gr and mh are very closely linked to each other (0 {+-} 1.2 cM). However, their relative position with respect to molecular markers was previously unknown. Thus, genetic mapping of the gr locus will also yield information about the mh location. To map these two genes genetically, we have performed an intersubspecific backcross of grizzled mice with Mus musculus castaneus. In 539 progeny tested, we found no recombination between the gr gene, the gene for anti-Muellerian hormone (Amh), and the microsatellite markers D10Mit7, D10Mit21, and D10Mit23. One recombination event for each of the flanking markers Basigin (Bsg) and D10Mit22 was identified. These closely linked markers should provide entry points for positional cloning of the gr and mh genes. The region linked to grizzled is homologous to a gene-rich region on human Chromosome 19p13.3.

  17. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  18. Genetic map of the region around grizzled (gr) and mocha (mh) on mouse chromosome 10, homologous to human 19p13.3.

    PubMed

    Kapfhamer, D; Burmeister, M

    1994-10-01

    Grizzled (gr) is a recessive mouse mutation resulting in a gray coat color and reduced perinatal viability. Mocha (mh) is one of several recessive mouse mutants characterized by platelet storage pool disorder, pigment abnormalities, reduced fertility, kidney function deficiencies, and, in some mutants, inner ear and natural killer cell deficiencies. Murine platelet storage pool deficient mutants may be models for Chediak-Higashi and Hermansky-Pudlak syndromes in humans. The genes for gr and mh are very closely linked to each other (0 +/- 1.2 cM). However, their relative position with respect to molecular markers was previously unknown. Thus, genetic mapping of the gr locus will also yield information about the mh location. To map these two genes genetically, we have performed an intersubspecific backcross of grizzled mice with Mus musculus castaneus. In 539 progeny tested, we found no recombination between the gr gene, the gene for anti-Muellerian hormone (Amh), and the microsatellite markers D10Mit7, D10Mit21, and D10Mit23. One recombination event for each of the flanking markers Basigin (Bsg) and D10Mit22 was identified. These closely linked markers should provide entry points for positional cloning of the gr and mh genes. The region linked to grizzled is homologous to a gene-rich region on human Chromosome 19p13.3. PMID:7851892

  19. Gr-1dimCD11b+ Immature Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, but not Neutrophils, are Markers of Lethal Tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsiganov, Evgeny N.; Verbina, Elena M.; Radaeva, Tatyana V.; Sosunov, Vasily V.; Kosmiadi, George A.; Nikitina, Irina Yu.; Lyadova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis disease (TB) may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. Here we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G, but do not belong to conventional neutrophils. The cells exhibit unsegmented nuclei, have Gr-1dimLy-6GdimCD11b+ phenotype and express F4/80, CD49d, Ly-6C, CD117, CD135 markers characteristic not of neutrophils, but of immature myeloid cells. The cells accumulate in the lungs, bone marrow, spleen and blood at the advanced (pre-lethal) stage of M. tuberculosis infection and represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells at different stages of their differentiation. The accumulation of Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells is accompanied by the disappearance of conventional neutrophils (Gr-1hiLy-6Ghi-expressing cells). The Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells suppress T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in vitro via NO-dependent mechanisms, i.e. they exhibit characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These results document the generation of MDSCs during TB, suggesting their role in TB pathogenesis, and arguing that neutrophils do not contribute to TB pathology at the advanced disease stage. PMID:24711621

  20. MyD88-dependent expansion of an immature GR-1+CD11b+ population induces T cell suppression and Th2 polarization in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Delano, Matthew J.; Scumpia, Philip O.; Weinstein, Jason S.; Coco, Dominique; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; O'Malley, Kerri A.; Wynn, James L.; Antonenko, Svetlana; Al-Quran, Samer Z.; Swan, Ryan; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Atkinson, Mark A.; Ramphal, Reuben; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Reeves, Wesley H.; Ayala, Alfred; Phillips, Joseph; LaFace, Drake; Heyworth, Paul G.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Moldawer, Lyle L.

    2007-01-01

    Polymicrobial sepsis alters the adaptive immune response and induces T cell suppression and Th2 immune polarization. We identify a GR-1+CD11b+ population whose numbers dramatically increase and remain elevated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow during polymicrobial sepsis. Phenotypically, these cells are heterogeneous, immature, predominantly myeloid progenitors that express interleukin 10 and several other cytokines and chemokines. Splenic GR-1+ cells effectively suppress antigen-specific CD8+ T cell interferon (IFN) γ production but only modestly suppress antigen-specific and nonspecific CD4+ T cell proliferation. GR-1+ cell depletion in vivo prevents both the sepsis-induced augmentation of Th2 cell–dependent and depression of Th1 cell–dependent antibody production. Signaling through MyD88, but not Toll-like receptor 4, TIR domain–containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β, or the IFN-α/β receptor, is required for complete GR-1+CD11b+ expansion. GR-1+CD11b+ cells contribute to sepsis-induced T cell suppression and preferential Th2 polarization. PMID:17548519

  1. pOp6/LhGR: a stringently regulated and highly responsive dexamethasone-inducible gene expression system for tobacco.

    PubMed

    Samalova, Marketa; Brzobohaty, Bretislav; Moore, Ian

    2005-03-01

    We describe pOp/LhGR, a dexamethasone-inducible derivative of the pOp/LhG4 transcription activation system, and its use in tobacco to regulate expression of uidA (encoding beta-glucuronidase; GUS) and the cytokinin-biosnythetic gene ipt. The pOp/LhGR system exhibited stringent regulation and strong induced phenotypes in soil and tissue culture. In conjunction with an improved target promoter, pOp6, that carries six copies of an optimized lac operator sequence the pOp6/LhGR system directed induced GUS activities that exceeded those obtained with pOp/LhG4 or the CaMV 35S promoter but without increased uninduced activity. A single dose of dexamethasone was sufficient to direct cytotoxic levels of ipt expression in soil-grown plants although uninduced plants grew normally throughout a complete life cycle. In vitro, induced transcripts were detectable within an hour of dexamethasone application and 1 nM dexamethasone was sufficient for half maximal induction of GUS activity. Various methods of dexamethasone application were successfully applied under tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. We observed no inhibitory effects of dexamethasone or LhGR on plant development even with the highest concentrations of inducer, although tobacco seedlings were adversely affected by ethanol used as a solvent for dexamethasone stock solutions. The pOp/LhGR system provides a highly sensitive, efficient, and tightly regulated chemically inducible transgene expression system for tobacco plants. PMID:15743454

  2. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b(+)Gr1(+) chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. PMID:27478837

  3. Cloning and expression of porcine β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase encoding a new xenoreactive antigen

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Guerard W; Du, Zeji; Stalboerger, Paul; Kogelberg, Heide; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2014-01-01

    Background Xenograft rejection of pigs organs with an engineered mutation in the GGTA-1 gene (GTKO) remains a predominantly antibody mediated process which is directed to a variety of non-Gal protein and carbohydrate antigens. We previously used an expression library screening strategy to identify six porcine endothelial cell cDNAs which encode pig antigens that bind to IgG induced after pig-to-primate cardiac xenotransplantation. One of these gene products was a glycosyltransferase with homology to the bovine β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (B4GALNT2). We now characterize the porcine B4GALNT2 gene sequence, genomic organization, expression, and functional significance. Methods The porcine B4GALNT2 cDNA was recovered from the original library isolate, subcloned, sequenced, and used to identify a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire B4GALNT2 locus from the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute BACPAC Resource Centre (#AC173453). PCR primers were designed to map the intron/exon genomic organization in the BAC clone. A stable human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line expressing porcine B4GALNT2 (HEK-B4T) was produced. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in HEK-B4T cells was characterized by immune staining and siRNA transfection. The effects of B4GALNT2 expression in HEK-B4T cells was measured by flow cytometry and complement mediated lysis. Antibody binding to HEK and HEK-B4T cells was used to detect an induced antibody response to the B4GALNT2 produced glycan and the results were compared to GTKO PAEC specific non-Gal antibody induction. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in pig cells and tissues was measured by qualitative and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR and by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) tissue staining. Results The porcine B4GALNT2 gene shares a conserved genomic organization and encodes an open reading frame with 76 and 70% amino acid identity to the human and murine B4GALNT2 genes, respectively. The B4

  4. Assessment of efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream: an Indian multicentric study on melasma

    PubMed Central

    Madan Mohan, NT; Gowda, Adarsh; Jaiswal, Ashok Kumar; Sharath Kumar, BC; Shilpashree, P; Gangaboraiah, Bilugumba; Shamanna, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is one of the commonly reported pigmentory disorders in the Indian population. Numerous therapeutic modalities are available. However, very few have produced complete satisfactory response. 4-n-Butylresorcinol 0.3% cream has recently been introduced in India as a new hypopigmenting agent. It is a resorcinol derivative and acts by inhibiting both tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. Objective The available published literatures are with 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream, and there is paucity of clinical studies with 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream. Furthermore, considering the fact that Indian skin is more prone to irritation with hypopigmenting agents, our study explores the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream in Indian subjects with melasma. Methods Fifty-two subjects with melasma participated in this open-label, single arm, observational study. All the patients were advised twice daily application of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.3% cream for 8 weeks over the areas of melasma. Assessment parameters included modified Melasma Area Severity Index (mMASI) score. Digital photographs of all the patients at baseline, week 4, and week 8 were taken. During this 8-week study period, all the adverse events were observed and recorded. Results All the 52 subjects completed the study. Out of 52 subjects, 90.38% were females. The mean age of patients was 38.5±7.8 years. Mean ± standard error of MASI score measurements showed a significant decrease from baseline score of 14.73±0.59 to 11.09±0.53 after week 4 (P<0.001) and 6.48±0.43 at week 8 (P<0.001). The digital photographs of the study subjects taken at week 4 and week 8 also showed decrease in melasma pigmentation compared to baseline photograph and correlated with the changes in the mMASI score. The treatment was well tolerated by all the study subjects. No adverse reactions were reported throughout the study period. Conclusion Our data suggest that the 4-n

  5. RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE Ic SN 2007gr REVEAL AN ORDINARY, NON-RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, A. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Nakar, E.; Chevalier, R. A.; Bietenholz, M. F.

    2010-12-10

    We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of the nearby Type Ic SN 2007gr in NGC 1058 obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory and spanning 5 to 150 days after explosion. Through our detailed modeling of these data, we estimate the properties of the blast wave and the circumstellar environment. We find evidence for a freely expanding and non-relativistic explosion with an average blast wave velocity, v-bar {approx}0.2c, and a total internal energy for the radio emitting material of E {approx} 2 x 10{sup 46} erg assuming equipartition of energy between electrons and magnetic fields ({epsilon}{sub e} = {epsilon}{sub B} = 0.1). The temporal and spectral evolution of the radio emission points to a stellar wind-blown environment shaped by a steady progenitor mass loss rate of M-dot {approx}6x10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (wind velocity, v{sub w} = 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}). These parameters are fully consistent with those inferred for other SNe Ibc and are in line with the expectations for an ordinary, homologous SN explosion. Our results are at odds with those of Paragi et al. who recently reported evidence for a relativistic blast wave in SN 2007gr based on their claim that the radio emission was resolved away in a low signal-to-noise Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observation. Here we show that the exotic physical scenarios required to explain the claimed relativistic velocity-extreme departures from equipartition and/or a highly collimated outflow-are excluded by our detailed VLA radio observations. Moreover, we present an independent analysis of the VLBI data and propose that a modest loss of phase coherence provides a more natural explanation for the apparent flux density loss which is evident on both short and long baselines. We conclude that SN 2007gr is an ordinary Type Ibc supernova.

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammation and Cell Damage via Attenuation of ASC-Independent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming-Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is a major environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis, which leads to mammary tissue damage and cell death. We explored the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on ameliorating E. coli-induced inflammation and cell damage in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NOD1, and NOD2 mRNA expression was observed following E. coli challenge, but this increase was attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment decreased the E. coli-induced increases in the expression of the NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and the serine protease caspase 1. However, expression of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, encoded by the Pycard gene) was decreased during E. coli infection, even with L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Pretreatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1 counteracted the E. coli-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), -6, -8, and -18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression but upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduces the adhesion of E. coli to BMECs, subsequently ameliorating E. coli-induced disruption of cellular morphology and ultrastructure and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via promoting TLR2 and NOD1 synergism and attenuating ASC-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Although the residual pathogenic activity of L. rhamnosus, the dosage regimen, and the means of probiotic supplementation in cattle remain undefined, our data enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of this candidate probiotic, allowing for development of specific probiotic-based therapies and strategies for preventing pathogenic infection of the bovine mammary gland. PMID:26655757

  7. Vaccination inhibits TLR2 transcription via suppression of GR nuclear translocation and binding to TLR2 promoter in porcine lung infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Liu, Maojun; Zou, Huafeng; Li, Xian; Shao, Guoqing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) act respectively as effectors of innate immune and stress responses. The crosstalk between them is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis during the immune response. Vaccination is known to boost adaptive immunity, yet it remains elusive whether vaccination may affect GR/TLR interactions following infection. Duroc×Meishan crossbred piglets were allocated to three groups. The control group (CC) received neither vaccination nor infection; the non-vaccinated infection group (NI) was artificially infected intratracheally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae); while the vaccinated, infected group (VI) was vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated M. hyopneumoniae one month before infection. The clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were significantly reduced by vaccination. However, vaccination did not affect the concentration of M. hyopneumoniae DNA in the lung. Serum cortisol was significantly decreased in both NI and VI pigs (P<0.01), but only VI pigs demonstrated significantly diminished nuclear GR content. TLRs 1-10 were all expressed in lung, among which TLR2 was the most abundant and was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. Accordingly, GR binding to the GR response element on TLR2 promoter was significantly increased (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. These results suggest that the inhibition of GR nuclear translocation and binding to the TLR2 promoter, which results in diminished TLR2 expression, is associated with the protective effect of vaccination on M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions in the pig. PMID:24035265

  8. Field Efficacy of Vectobac GR as a Mosquito Larvicide for the Control of Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes in Natural Habitats in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Djènontin, Armel; Pennetier, Cédric; Zogo, Barnabas; Soukou, Koffi Bhonna; Ole-Sangba, Marina; Akogbéto, Martin; Chandre, Fabrice; Yadav, Rajpal; Corbel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg), a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin. Methods In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m2 against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m2 against Cx. quinquefasciatus) according to manufacturer’s product label recommendations. The dosage giving optimum efficacy under simulated field conditions were evaluated in the field. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in terms of emergence inhibition in simulated field conditions and of reduction of larval and pupal densities in rice fields and urban cesspits was measured following WHO guidelines for testing and evaluation of mosquito larvicides. Results Vectobac GR caused emergence inhibition of ≥80% until 21 [20]–[22] days for An. gambiae at 1.2 g/m2 dose and 28 [27–29] days for Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2 g/m2 in simulated field habitats. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in natural habitats was for 2 to 3 days against larvae and up to 10 days against pupae. Conclusions Treatment with Vectobac GR caused complete control of immature mosquito within 2–3 days but did not show prolonged residual action. Larviciding can be an option for malaria and filariasis vector control particularly in managing pyrethroid-resistance in African malaria vectors. Since use of larvicides among several African countries is being emphasized through Economic Community of West Africa States, their epidemiological impact should be carefully investigated. PMID:24505334

  9. Enhanced expression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells and its contribution to immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Hiroki; Tomihara, Kei; Heshiki, Wataru; Yamazaki, Manabu; Akyu-Takei, Rie; Tachinami, Hidetake; Furukawa, Ken-Ichiro; Sakurai, Kotaro; Rouwan, Moniruzzaman; Noguchi, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is often associated with dysregulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response, which in some instances is believed to result from changes in immune cell populations. For example, immunosuppressive CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been shown to proliferate in the tumor microenvironment and surrounding tissues, highlighting the relationship between tumor growth and impairment of the immune response. However, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer progression has not been fully characterized because these cells are heterogeneous with properties influenced by the type and location of the tumor. Here, we show that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are elevated in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor of mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The phenotype and function of these cells varied depending on the tissue of origin. In particular, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in tumors expressed PD-L1 more abundantly than those in other tissues. Accordingly, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from tumors, but not from the spleen, suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. The results suggest that tumor-derived or immune factors result in the accumulation of phenotypically and functionally diverse populations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data also indicate that PD-L1 expression in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells contributes to immune suppression, implying that targeting both myeloid-derived suppressor cells and PD-L1 would be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against oral cancer. PMID:27424179

  10. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320C

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, Jin Weon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the variations of local mechanical and microstructural properties in dissimilar metal weld joints consisting of the SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel, Alloy 82/182 filler metal, and F316 austenitic stainless steel. Flat or round tensile specimens and transmission electron microscopy disks were taken from the base metals, welds, and heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the joints and tested at room temperature (RT) and/or at 320 C. The tensile test results indicated that the mechanical property was relatively uniform within each material zone, but varied considerably between different zones. Further, significant variations were observed both in the austenitic HAZ of F316 SS and in the ferritic HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a. The yield stress (YS) of the weld metal was under-matched with respect to the HAZs of SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS by 0.78 to 0.92, although the YS was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1 at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably in the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 C, suggesting that the probability of ductile failure caused by a unstable deformation at the Alloy 82/182 buttering layer is low. Within the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a, the gradient of the YS and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was significant, primarily because of the different microstructures produced by the phase transformation during the welding process. The increment of YS was unexpectedly high in the HAZ of F316 SS, which was explained by the strain hardening induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal. This was confirmed by the transmission electron micrographs showing high dislocation density in the HAZ.

  11. Expression of the fructose receptor BmGr9 and its involvement in the promotion of feeding, suggested by its co-expression with neuropeptide F1 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Tanaka, Shiho; Nagata, Shinji; Takada, Tomoyuki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-08-01

    Insect gustatory receptors (Grs) are members of a large family of proteins with seven transmembrane domains that provide insects with the ability to detect chemical signals critical for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, 69 Bombyx mori Grs (BmGrs) genes have been identified via genome studies. BmGr9 has been shown to respond specifically to fructose and to function as a ligand-gated ion channel selectively activated by fructose. However, the sites where this Gr are expressed remain unclear. We demonstrated using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR that BmGr9 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as oral sensory organs. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-BmGr9 antiserum to show that BmGr9 is expressed in cells of the oral sensory organs, including the maxillary galea, maxillary palps, labrum, and labium, as well as in putative neurosecretory cells of the CNS. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical analysis showed that most BmGr9-expressing cells co-localized with putative neuropeptide F1-expressing cells in the brain, suggesting that BmGr9 is involved in the promotion of feeding behaviors. In addition, a portion of BmGr9-expressing cells in the brain co-localized with cells expressing BmGr6, a molecule of the sugar receptor clade, suggesting that sugars other than fructose are involved in the regulation of feeding behaviors in B. mori larvae. PMID:27288056

  12. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N, N-dimethylformamide( 1) and with4-( N, N-dimethylamino) pyridine ( 2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322.

  13. Synthesis, DNA binding and cleavage activities of copper (II) thiocyanate complex with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-juan; Xu, Min; Xi, Pin-xian; Liu, Hong-yang; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-10-15

    Two novel copper(II) thiocyanate complexes with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine and N,N-dimethylformamide (1) and with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) pyridine (2) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal and molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Antioxidative activity tests in vitro showed that complex 1 has significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction and also oxygen free radicals, which is better than standard antioxidants like vitamin C and mannitol. The interaction of complex 1 with calf thymus DNA was investigated by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that complex 1 can bind to DNA via partial intercalation mode. Moreover, complex 1 has been found to cleavage of plasmid DNA pBR322. PMID:21723777

  14. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Mn{sub 4}N films on MgO(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yasutomi, Yoko; Ito, Keita; Sanai, Tatsunori; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2014-05-07

    We grew Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin films capped with Au layers on MgO(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was confirmed in all the samples at room temperature from the magnetization versus magnetic field curves using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. From the ω-2θ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and ϕ-2θ{sub χ} XRD patterns, the ratios of perpendicular lattice constant c to in-plane lattice constant a, c/a, were found to be about 0.99 for all the samples. These results imply that PMA is attributed to the in-plane tensile strain in the Mn{sub 4}N films.

  15. Glucocorticoid-induced tethered transrepression requires SUMOylation of GR and formation of a SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guoqiang; Ganti, Krishna Priya; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Upon binding of a glucocorticoid (GC), the GC receptor (GR) can exert one of three transcriptional regulatory functions. We recently reported that SUMOylation of the GR at position K293 in humans (K310 in mice) within the N-terminal domain is indispensable for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression. We now demonstrate that the integrity of this GR SUMOylation site is mandatory for the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex, which is indispensable for NF-κB/AP1-mediated GC-induced tethered indirect transrepression in vitro. Using GR K310R mutant mice or mice containing the N-terminal truncated GR isoform GRα-D3 lacking the K310 SUMOylation site, revealed a more severe skin inflammation than in WT mice. Importantly, cotreatment with dexamethasone (Dex) could not efficiently suppress a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation in these mutant mice, whereas it was clearly decreased in WT mice. In addition, in mice selectively ablated in skin keratinocytes for either nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors or histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), Dex-induced tethered transrepression and the formation of a repressing complex on DNA-bound NF-κB/AP1 were impaired. We previously suggested that GR ligands that would lack both (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression activities of GCs may preferentially exert the therapeutically beneficial GC antiinflammatory properties. Interestingly, we now identified a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory selective GR agonist (SEGRA) that selectively lacks both Dex-induced (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression functions, while still exerting a tethered indirect transrepression activity and could therefore be clinically lesser

  16. The first quaternary lanthanide(III) nitride iodides: NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} (M=La-Nd)

    SciTech Connect

    Schurz, Christian M.; Schleid, Thomas

    2010-10-15

    In attempts to synthesize lanthanide(III) nitride iodides with the formula M{sub 2}NI{sub 3} (M=La-Nd), moisture-sensitive single crystals of the first quaternary sodium lanthanide(III) nitride iodides NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} (orthorhombic, Pna2{sub 1}; Z=4; a=1391-1401, b=1086-1094, c=1186-1211 pm) could be obtained. The dominating structural features are {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}{l_brace}[NM{sub 4/2}{sup e}]{sup 3+}{r_brace} chains of trans-edge linked [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, which run parallel to the polar 2{sub 1}-axis [001]. Between the chains, direct bonding via special iodide anions generates cages, in which isolated [NaI{sub 6}]{sup 5-} octahedra are embedded. The IR spectrum of NaLa{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} recorded from 100 to 1000 cm{sup -1} shows main bands at {upsilon}=337, 373 and 489 cm{sup -1}. With decreasing radii of the lanthanide trications these bands, which can be assigned as an influence of the vibrations of the condensed [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, are shifted toward higher frequencies for the NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} series (M=La-Nd), following the lanthanide contraction. - Abstract: View at the main structural features of the NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} series (M=La-Nd): The {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}{l_brace}[NM{sub 4/2}{sup e}]{sup 3+}{r_brace} chains, consisting of trans-edge connected [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, and the special kind of iodide anions, namely (I7){sup -}, form cages, in which isolated [NaI{sub 6}]{sup 5-} octahedra are embedded.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a cadmium bipyridinium compound (CdCl{sub 4})(N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Hui; Zhu, Li-Cheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-12-15

    A cadmium bipyridinium compound (CdCl{sub 4})(N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium), in which the (N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium){sup 2+} moieties were generated in situ, has been prepared via solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized with single crystal X-ray diffraction method. Fluorescence measurement revealed a broad and strong emission band in the blue region.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of substituted 4-(N-benzylamino)cinnamate esters as potential anti-cancer agents and HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Faridoon; Edkins, Adrienne L; Isaacs, Michelle; Mnkandhla, Dumisani; Hoppe, Heinrich C; Kaye, Perry T

    2016-08-01

    Encouraging selectivity and low micromolar activity against HeLa cervical carcinoma (IC50⩾3.0μM) and the aggressive MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast carcinoma (IC50⩾9.6μM) cell lines has been exhibited by a number of readily accessible 4-(N-benzylamino)cinnamate esters. The potential of the ligands as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors has also been examined. PMID:27317645

  19. Evaluation of four mathematical models to describe dissipation kinetics of 4-n-nonylphenol and bisphenol-A in groundwater-aquifer material slurry.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Rohan, Maheswaran

    2011-01-01

    The performance of four mathematical models (hockey stick, biexponential, first-order double exponential decay, and first-order two-compartment) was evaluated to describe the dissipation kinetics for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in groundwater-aquifer material slurry under aerobic and anaerobic conditions conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The fit of each model to the measured values under both conditions was tested using an array of statistical indices to judge the model's ability to fit the measured datasets. Corresponding 50% (DT(50)) and 90% (DT(90)) dissipation values for each compound were numerically obtained and compared against each model. The model derived DT(50) values in groundwater-aquifer material ranged from 1.06 to 1.24 (4-n-NP) and 0.341 to 0.568 days (BPA) under aerobic condition, while they were 2- to 4-fold higher under anoxic condition. DT(90) values for 4-n-NP ranged anywhere between 2.3 and 4.45 days under both conditions, while DT(90) values for BPA ranged from around 1 day to as high as 12 days under both conditions tested. A visual examination of the measured and fitted plots as well as the statistical indices showed that, with the exception of the hockey stick model, the models performed satisfactorily. Despite having only 3 parameters, the biexponential model could describe the dissipation kinetics very well and this was supported by the statistical indices generated for each case. PMID:21069247

  20. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A.; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response. PMID:25689019

  1. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response. PMID:25689019

  2. On the volume-dependence of the Grüneisen parameter and the Lindemann law of melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwah, S. S.; Tomar, Y. S.; Upadhyay, A. K.

    2013-08-01

    It has been shown by Errandonea (Physica B 357 (2005) 356) that the Lindemann law cannot reproduce the high pressure melting curves of transition metals. Using an expression for the volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ originally due to Burakovsky and Preston (J. Phys. Chem. Solids 65 (2004) 1581), Errandonea determined the constants appearing in the expression of gamma by making the Lindemann law to match the experimental melting data. The results for the volume dependence of gamma thus obtained by Errandonea are shown here to be much different from those determined using the Burakovsky-Preston approach. A direct comparison of the results based on the two approaches has been presented for the transition metal Mo. It is reinforced that the Lindemann law does not work satisfactorily for the transition metals with low slopes of melting curves.

  3. Mapping and classification of geoforms in the Serra de Grândola (Alentejo, South West, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto Paixão, Helena M.; Granja Martins, Fernando M.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The study of geomorphic processes is the starting point for development and sustainable land management. These processes may cause risks that represent threats to environment, population and human activities. So, studying its genesis is important to find tools that can mitigate threats. In the last few decades, geographic information systems (GIS) have become an essential tool for environmental management. The integration of digital terrain models in GIS has contributed to improve environmental studies and knowledge, as they are a support for modelling geoforms (terrain units resulting from climate and other natural processes and their interactions with the Earth's surface). In this research, geoforms from the Serra de Grândola area (Alentejo, South West, Portugal) are classified according to the most important physical and structural differences. The methodology is based on the Hammond's hierarchical criteria and in the geographical information related to soft-slopes, local relief and terrain profiles.

  4. Efficient computation of the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional diffusion derivative using adaptive time step memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Christopher L.; Bhattacharya, Nirupama; Sprouse, Brian P.; Silva, Gabriel A.

    2015-09-01

    Computing numerical solutions to fractional differential equations can be computationally intensive due to the effect of non-local derivatives in which all previous time points contribute to the current iteration. In general, numerical approaches that depend on truncating part of the system history while efficient, can suffer from high degrees of error and inaccuracy. Here we present an adaptive time step memory method for smooth functions applied to the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional diffusion derivative. This method is computationally efficient and results in smaller errors during numerical simulations. Sampled points along the system's history at progressively longer intervals are assumed to reflect the values of neighboring time points. By including progressively fewer points backward in time, a temporally 'weighted' history is computed that includes contributions from the entire past of the system, maintaining accuracy, but with fewer points actually calculated, greatly improving computational efficiency.

  5. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass

  6. Coexistence of Three Ferroic Orders in the Multiferroic Compound [(CH3 )4 N][Mn(N3 )3 ] with Perovskite-Like Structure.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aguirre, L Claudia; Pato-Doldán, Breogán; Stroppa, Alessandro; Yang, Li-Ming; Frauenheim, Thomas; Mira, Jorge; Yáñez-Vilar, Susana; Artiaga, Ramón; Castro-García, Socorro; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Señarís-Rodríguez, María Antonia

    2016-06-01

    The perovskite azido compound [(CH3 )4 N][Mn(N3 )3 ], which undergoes a first-order phase change at Tt =310 K with an associated magnetic bistability, was revisited in the search for additional ferroic orders. The driving force for such structural transition is multifold and involves a peculiar cooperative rotation of the [MnN6 ] octahedral as well as order/disorder and off-center shifts of the [(CH3 )4 N](+) cations and bridging azide ligands, which also bend and change their coordination mode. According to DFT calculations the latter two give rise to the appearance of electric dipoles in the low-temperature (LT) polymorph, the polarization of which nevertheless cancels out due to their antiparallel alignment in the crystal. The conversion of this antiferroelectric phase to the paraelectric phase could be responsible for the experimental dielectric anomaly detected at 310 K. Additionally, the structural change involves a ferroelastic phase transition, whereby the LT polymorph exhibits an unusual and anisotropic thermal behavior. Hence, [(CH3 )4 N][Mn(N3 )3 ] is a singular material in which three ferroic orders coexist even above room temperature. PMID:27072487

  7. Calculation of the thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures using an improved kinetic theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures has been calculated by means of the classical trajectory method using state-of-the-art intermolecular potential energy surfaces for the CH4-CH4, N2-N2, and CH4-N2 interactions. Results are reported in the temperature range from 70 K to 1200 K. Since the thermal conductivity is influenced by the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules, which are not included in the rigid-rotor classical trajectory computations, a new correction scheme to account for vibrational degrees of freedom in a dilute gas mixture is presented. The calculations show that the vibrational contribution at the highest temperature studied amounts to 46% of the total thermal conductivity of an equimolar mixture compared to 13% for pure nitrogen and 58% for pure methane. The agreement with the available experimental thermal conductivity data at room temperature is good, within ±1.4%, whereas at higher temperatures, larger deviations up to 4.5% are observed, which can be tentatively attributed to deteriorating performance of the measuring technique employed. Results are also reported for the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rotational collision number, Zrot, for CH4 relaxing in collisions with N2 and for N2 relaxing in collisions with CH4. Both collision numbers increase with temperature, with the former being consistently about twice the value of the latter.

  8. Calculation of the thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures using an improved kinetic theory approach.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard; Vesovic, Velisa

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of low-density CH4-N2 gas mixtures has been calculated by means of the classical trajectory method using state-of-the-art intermolecular potential energy surfaces for the CH4-CH4, N2-N2, and CH4-N2 interactions. Results are reported in the temperature range from 70 K to 1200 K. Since the thermal conductivity is influenced by the vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules, which are not included in the rigid-rotor classical trajectory computations, a new correction scheme to account for vibrational degrees of freedom in a dilute gas mixture is presented. The calculations show that the vibrational contribution at the highest temperature studied amounts to 46% of the total thermal conductivity of an equimolar mixture compared to 13% for pure nitrogen and 58% for pure methane. The agreement with the available experimental thermal conductivity data at room temperature is good, within ±1.4%, whereas at higher temperatures, larger deviations up to 4.5% are observed, which can be tentatively attributed to deteriorating performance of the measuring technique employed. Results are also reported for the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rotational collision number, Z(rot), for CH4 relaxing in collisions with N2 and for N2 relaxing in collisions with CH4. Both collision numbers increase with temperature, with the former being consistently about twice the value of the latter. PMID:27059564

  9. Local electronic states of Fe{sub 4}N films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Keita; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Oguchi, Tamio; Kimura, Akio

    2015-05-21

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at Fe L{sub 2,3} and N K-edges for Fe{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In order to clarify the element specific local electronic structure of Fe{sub 4}N, we compared experimentally obtained XAS and XMCD spectra with those simulated by a combination of a first-principles calculation and Fermi's golden rule. We revealed that the shoulders observed at Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges in the XAS and XMCD spectra were due to the electric dipole transition from the Fe 2p core-level to the hybridization state generated by σ* anti-bonding between the orbitals of N 2p at the body-centered site and Fe 3d on the face-centered (II) sites. Thus, the observed shoulders were attributed to the local electronic structure of Fe atoms at II sites. As to the N K-edge, the line shape of the obtained spectra was explained by the dipole transition from the N 1s core-level to the hybridization state formed by π* and σ* anti-bondings between the Fe 3d and N 2p orbitals. This hybridization plays an important role in featuring the electronic structures and physical properties of Fe{sub 4}N.

  10. Spectroscopic studies of non-volatile residue formed by photochemistry of solid C4N2: A model of condensed aerosol formation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Jacovi, Ronen; Piétri, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Following our recent communication (Gudipati, M.S. et al. [2013]. Nat. Commun. 4, 1648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2649) on the discovery of condensed-phase non-volatile polymeric material with similar spectral features as tholins, we present here a comprehensive spectroscopic study of photochemical formation of polymeric material from condensed dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) ice films. C4N2 is chosen as starting material for the laboratory simulations because of the detection of this and similar molecules (nitriles and cyanoacetylenes) in Titan’s atmosphere. UV-Vis and infrared spectra obtained during long-wavelength (>300 nm) photon irradiation and subsequent warming of the ice films are used to analyze changes in C4N2 ice, evolution of tholins, and derive photopolymerization mechanisms. Our data analysis revealed that many processes occur during the photolysis of condensed Titan’s aerosol analogs, including isomerization and polymerization leading to the formation of long-chain as well as aromatic cyclic polymer molecules. In the light of tremendous new data from the Cassini mission on the seasonal variations in Titan’s atmosphere, our laboratory study and its results provide fresh insight into the formation and evolution of aerosols and haze in Titan’s atmosphere.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic ε-phase Mn4N and antiferromagnetic ζ-phase Mn10N thin films on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Andrew; Corbett, Joseph; Richard, Andrea L.; Alam, Khan; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R.

    2016-07-01

    Single phase ε-Mn4N and ζ-Mn10N thin films are grown on MgO(001) using molecular beam epitaxy. The films are identified and characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, back scattered electron scanning electron microscopy, atomic/magnetic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. These films are found to be highly smooth with root-mean-squared roughnesses 3.39 nm and below. The quality of ε-Mn4N grown is strongly dependent on substrate temperature during growth. Epitaxial growth of substantial grains composed of the antiferromagnetic η-phase Mn3N2 side by side with ferrimagnetic ε-phase grains is observed when growth temperature is below 480 °C. Ising domains isolated within areas roughly 0.5 μm across are observed in the ferrimagnetic ε-phase grains of samples consisting of a mix of η- and ε-phase grains. Magnetic domains following semi-continuous paths, which are 0.7-7.2 μm across, are observed in single phase ε-Mn4N. Measurements of the ζ-phase detail the structure and magnetism of the material as high Mn content γ-type ζ-phase with a regular surface corrugation along the [100]-direction and antiferromagnetic.

  12. Adsorptive performance and catalytic activity of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 core-shell microspheres towards DDT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Tian, Hua; He, Junhui

    2014-04-01

    Due to specific properties, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 and core-shell-shell Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 nanostructures have been extensively investigated for the contamination treatment of wastewater. However, these reported materials were usually used as advanced adsorbents or catalyst-supports. In this study, we demonstrate that magnetic mesoporous silica Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 microspheres can not only exhibit excellent adsorptive performance for removal of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane) from aqueous media, but also display high catalytic activity. Over 97% of DDT could be quickly removed from aqueous media in 60 min. At 60°C the DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene) content increases greatly as DDT disappears completely, and is decomposed completely after thermal treatment at a relatively low temperature of 450°C. The obtained magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results indicate that Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 microspheres show strong superparamagnetism and have high specific surface area (577 m(2) g(-1)). PMID:24491332

  13. Thermodynamic stability, spectroscopic identification, and gas storage capacity of CO2-CH4-N2 mixture gas hydrates: implications for landfill gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Hoon; Ahn, Sook-Hyun; Nam, Byong-Uk; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Gang-Woo; Moon, Donghyun; Shin, Hyung Joon; Han, Kyu Won; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Landfill gas (LFG), which is primarily composed of CH(4), CO(2), and N(2), is produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic materials. To investigate the feasibility of the storage and transportation of LFG via the formation of hydrate, we observed the phase equilibrium behavior of CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrates. When the specific molar ratio of CO(2)/CH(4) was 40/55, the equilibrium dissociation pressures were gradually shifted to higher pressures and lower temperatures as the mole fraction of N(2) increased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrate prepared from the CO(2)/CH(4)/N(2) (40/55/5) gas mixture formed a structure I clathrate hydrate. A combination of Raman and solid-state (13)C NMR measurements provided detailed information regarding the cage occupancy of gas molecules trapped in the hydrate frameworks. The gas storage capacity of LFG hydrates was estimated from the experimental results for the hydrate formations under two-phase equilibrium conditions. We also confirmed that trace amounts of nonmethane organic compounds do not affect the cage occupancy of gas molecules or the thermodynamic stability of LFG hydrates. PMID:22380606

  14. Electronic structure, molecular interaction, and stability of the CH4-nH2O complex, for n = 1-21.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Pérez, Graciela; Cruz-Torres, Armando; Romero-Martínez, Ascención

    2008-09-18

    Molecular calculations were carried out with four different methodologies to study the CH 4- nH 2O complex, for n = 1-21. The HF and MP2 methods used considered the O atom with pseudopotential to freeze the 1s shell. The other methodologies applied the Bhandhlyp and B3lyp exchange and correlation functionals. The optimized CH 4- nH 2O structures are reported, specifying the number and type of H 2O subunits (triangle, square, pentagon, etc.) that comprised the nH 2O counterpart cluster or cage, that interacted with the CH 4 molecule, and, in the latter case, that provided its confinement. Results are focused to understand the stability of the CH 4- nH 2O complex. The quality of the electron correlation effect, as well as the size of the nH 2O cage to confine the guest molecule, and the number and type of H 2O subunits comprising the nH 2O cluster or cage are the most important factors to provide the stability of the complex and also dictate the particular n value at which the CH 4 molecule confinement occurs. This number was 14 for the HF, Bhandhlyp, and B3Lyp methods and 16 for the MP2 method. The reported hydrate structures for n < 20 could be predictive for future experiments. PMID:18714955

  15. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  16. Phosphorylation of a Ras-related GTP-binding protein, Rap-1b, by a neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM kinase Gr.

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, N; McDonald, O B; Farrell, F; Lapetina, E G

    1991-01-01

    A neuron-specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM kinase Gr, phosphorylates selectively a Ras-related GTP-binding protein (Rap-1b) that is enriched in brain tissue. The phosphorylation reaction achieves a stoichiometry of about 1 and involves a serine residue near the carboxyl terminus of the substrate. Both CaM kinase Gr and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but not CaM kinase II, phosphorylate identical or contiguous serine residues in Rap-1b. The rate of phosphorylation of Rap-1b by CaM kinase Gr is enhanced following autophosphorylation of the protein kinase. Other low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins belonging to the Ras superfamily, including Rab-3A, Rap-2b, and c-Ha-ras p21, are not phosphorylated by CaM kinase Gr. The phosphorylation of Rap-1b itself can be reversed by an endogenous brain phosphoprotein phosphatase. These observations provide a potential connection between a neuronal Ca2(+)-signaling pathway and a specific low molecular weight GTP-binding protein that may regulate neuronal transmembrane signaling, vesicle transport, or neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:1901412

  17. Substances released from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 potentiate NF-κB activity in Escherichia coli-stimulated urinary bladder cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Mattias; Scherbak, Nikolai; Khalaf, Hazem; Olsson, Per-Erik; Jass, Jana

    2012-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic bacterium used to maintain urogenital health. The putative mechanism for its probiotic effect is by modulating the host immunity. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli that frequently evade or suppress immune responses in the bladder and can target pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). We evaluated the role of L. rhamnosus GR-1 on NF-κB activation in E. coli-stimulated bladder cells. Viable L. rhamnosus GR-1 was found to potentiate NF-κB activity in E. coli-stimulated T24 bladder cells, whereas heat-killed lactobacilli demonstrated a marginal increase in NF-κB activity. Surface components released by trypsin- or LiCl treatment, or the resultant heat-killed shaved lactobacilli, had no effect on NF-κB activity. Isolation of released products from L. rhamnosus GR-1 demonstrated that the induction of NF-κB activity was owing to released product(s) with a relatively large native size. Several putative immunomodulatory proteins were identified, namely GroEL, elongation factor Tu and NLP/P60. GroEL and elongation factor Tu have previously been shown to elicit immune responses from human cells. Isolating and using immune-augmenting substances produced by lactobacilli is a novel strategy for the prevention or treatment of UTI caused by immune-evading E. coli. PMID:22620976

  18. Elevated utero/placental GR/NR3C1 is not required for the induction of parturition in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Trachsel, Alexandra; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) in canine utero/placental (Ut/Pl) units and uterine interplacental sites at selected time points during pregnancy (pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation), and at normal and antigestagen-induced parturition. The Ut/Pl expression of GR/NR3C1 did not change significantly from pre-implantation until mid-gestation; however, it was strongly induced during the prepartum luteolysis. Within the interplacental samples, expression of GR/NR3C1-mRNA was greater post-implantation than pre-implantation and did not change afterward, i.e. toward mid-gestation. Compartmentalization studies within the Ut/Pl units, involving placenta, endometrium and myometrium separately, performed at the prepartum luteolysis revealed the highest GR/NR3C1-mRNA levels in placenta compared with endometrium and myometrium. Interestingly, in antigestagen-treated mid-pregnancy dogs, Ut/Pl and interplacental GR/NR3C1-mRNA expression remained unaffected. At the cellular level, placental GR/NR3C1 was clearly detectable in placenta fetalis, i.e. in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, increased expression of GR/NR3C1 during normal parturition, but not following antigestagen-treatment, suggest that it is not required for initiating the signaling cascade of PG synthesis leading to the induction of parturition in the dog

  19. Folate deprivation modulates the expression of autophagy- and circadian-related genes in HT-22 hippocampal neuron cells through GR-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qinwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Xi; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Zhang, Nana; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-08-01

    Folic acid (FA) is an extremely important nutrient for brain formation and development. FA deficiency is highly linked to brain degeneration and age-related diseases, which are also associated with autophagic activities and circadian rhythm in hippocampal neurons. However, little is known how autophagy- and circadian-related genes in hippocampal neurons are regulated under FA deficiency. Here, hippocampal neuroncells (HT-22) were employed to determine the effect of FA deprivation (FD) on the expression of relevant genes and to reveal the potential role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR). FD increased autophagic activities in HT-22 cells, associated with significantly (P<0.05) enhanced GR activation indicated by higher ratio of GR phosphorylation. Out of 17 autophagy-related genes determined, 8 was significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated in FD group, which includes ATG2b, ATG3, ATG4c, ATG5, ATG10, ATG12, ATG13 and ATG14. Meanwhile, 4 out of 7 circadian-related genes detected, Clock, Cry1, Cry2 and Per2, were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated. The protein content of autophagy markers, LC3A and LC3B, was also increased significantly (P<0.05). ChIP assay showed that FD promoted (P<0.05) GR binding to the promoter sequence of ATG3 and Per2. Moreover, MeDIP analysis demonstrated significant (P<0.05) hypomethylation in the promoter sequence of ATG12, ATG13 and Per2 genes. Together, we speculate that FD increases the transcription of autophagy- and circadian-related genes through, at least partly, GR-mediated pathway. Our results provide a basis for future investigations into the intracellular regulatory network in response to folate deficiency. PMID:27133904

  20. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Bocking, Alan D

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection. PMID:24429676

  1. The 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series in Iceland (usually referred to as the Saksunarvatn ash). A review.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladottir, Bergrun; Thordarson, Thor; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug

    2016-04-01

    The Sakunarvatn ash was first identified as a single layer in sediment cores from lake Saksunarvatn in the Faroe Islands and its origin was traced to the volcanic system Grímsvötn in Iceland. With time more and more tephra in the North Atlantic region were identified and correlated to this single layer and thereby the layer became a well-dated (10.4-9.9ka) and widely used, early Holocene tephra marker layer in the North Atlantic region. However, tephra studies on sediment cores from Iceland and the Greenland shelf show that during these 500 years the Grímsvötn volcanic system produced several tephra layers of essentially identical major element composition, changing the Saksunarvatn ash marker layer to a marker horizon consisting of several tephra layers. Hence, the use of the name Saksunarvatn ash as a common nominator for the entire tephra horizon is inadequate. Furthermore, and more importantly, this revelation complicates its use as a marker horizon in the North Atlantic region, especially in light of higher time resolution for these types of sediment archives and much improved correlation techniques. Thus, we prefer to refer to the marker horizon as the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series. In this presentation we present a review on current state of knowledge concerning the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra series in profiles across Iceland. We describe their occurrence and state of preservation as well as assessing the number of tephra layers preserved at each locality. Our collective data base on the 10ka Grímsvötn tephra in Iceland will aid investigations on and improve the age resolution for this marker horizon elsewhere.

  2. Reflection seismic characterization of the Grängesberg iron deposit and its mining-induced structures, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Malehmir, Alireza; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Persson Nilsson, Katarina

    2014-05-01

    Reflection seismic investigation has been conducted on the Grängesberg apatite iron deposit where over 150 Mt of iron ore were produced until the mine closed in 1989. The mine infrastructure with shafts and tunnels extend down to ca. 650 m below the surface. Both natural and mine induced fracture and fault systems are today water-filled (some of them extending to the surface). The disputed ore genesis of the apatite-iron ores and its exploration potential due to large remaining quantities once again attracts both scientific and commercial interests. A good understanding of the geometry of mineral deposits and their hostrock structures at depth is essential for optimizing their exploration and exploitation. In addition, deep understanding of the fracture system is vital if mining activity is resumed as these may impact the terrain stability and seismicity, which may put at risk new populated and industrial areas. To address some of these challenging issues related to the past mining and also to obtain information about the depth continuation of the existing deposit, two E-W oriented reflection lines with a total length of 3.5 km were acquired in May 2013 by Uppsala University. A weight drop mounted on an hydraulic bobcat truck (traditionally used for concrete breaking in demolition sector) was used to generate seismic signal. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, several impacts were generated at each shot point and stacked together. The seismic lines intersect at high angle the Grängesberg ore body and open pit, as well as several mining-induced faults. A combination of cabled and wireless receivers placed at every 10 m was used for the data recording. Use of wireless receivers was necessary as deploying cabled sensors was not possible due to city infrastructures, roads and houses. A careful analysis of the data suggested that several field-related issues such as (1) the crooked geometry of the lines (due to the available path and road network), (2

  3. Epitaxial V{sub 0.6}W{sub 0.4}N/MgO(001): Evidence for ordering on the cation sublattice

    SciTech Connect

    Kindlund, H.; Lu, J.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2013-07-15

    V{sub 0.6}W{sub 0.4}N alloys are grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputtering from V and W targets in 10 mTorr pure-N{sub 2} atmospheres at temperatures T{sub s} ranging from 600 to 900 Degree-Sign C. Based on x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results, all films have the B1-NaCl crystal structure and grow with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship to the substrate, (001){sub VWN} Double-Vertical-Line (001){sub MgO} and [100]{sub VWN} Double-Vertical-Line [100]{sub MgO}. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses show that the N content in V{sub 0.6}W{sub 0.4}N{sub x} alloys decreases with increasing T{sub s} from overstoichiometric with x = 1.13 at 600 Degree-Sign C, to approximately stoichiometric with x = 1.08 at 700 Degree-Sign C, to understoichiometric at 800 Degree-Sign C (x = 0.80) and 900 Degree-Sign C (x = 0.75). High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, Z-contrast, and selected-area electron diffraction investigations of V{sub 0.6}W{sub 0.4}N(001) alloys grown at 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C reveal the onset of W ordering on adjacent 111 planes of the metal sublattice; no ordering is observed for understoichiometric films grown at higher temperatures.

  4. Definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for clinical stage T4N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Kim, Sang We; Lee, Jung-Shin; Kim, Su Ssan; Choi, Wonsik; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine failure patterns and survival outcomes of T4N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods Ninety-five patients with T4N0-1 NSCLC who received definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy from May 2003 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The standard radiotherapy scheme was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. The main concurrent chemotherapy regimen was 50 mg/m2 weekly paclitaxel combined with 20 mg/m2 cisplatin or AUC 2 carboplatin. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were failure patterns and toxicities. Results The median age was 64 years (range, 34 to 90 years). Eighty-eight percent of patients (n = 84) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and 42% (n = 40) experienced pretreatment weight loss. Sixty percent of patients (n = 57) had no metastatic regional lymph nodes. The median radiation dose was EQD2 67.1 Gy (range, 56.9 to 83.3 Gy). Seventy-one patients (75%) were treated with concurrent chemotherapy; of these, 13 were also administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 1 to 102 months), 3-year OS was 44%. The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence and distant recurrence were 48.8% and 36.3%, respectively. Pretreatment weight loss and combined chemotherapy were significant factors for OS. Acute esophagitis over grade 3 occurred in three patients and grade 3 chronic esophagitis occurred in one patient. There was no grade 3-4 radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion Definitive radiotherapy for T4N0-1 NSCLC results in favorable survival with acceptable toxicity rates. Local recurrence is the major recurrence pattern. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and radio-sensitizing agents would be needed to improve local tumor control. PMID:26756028

  5. Second hyperpolarizability of the calcium-doped lithium salt of pyridazine Li-H3C4N2 ⋯ Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Suélio; Castro, Marcos A.; Leão, Salviano A.; Fonseca, Tertius L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we report results of coupled cluster calculations for the second hyperpolarizability of the calcium-doped lithium salt of pyridazine (Li-H3C4N2 ⋯ Ca) molecule. In the static limit an unusual value of 4.34 ×106 au was obtained at the CCSD level of calculation. Results obtained for the dc-Kerr effect through SCF, CCS and CCSD methods show that γ (- ω; ω, 0, 0) is strongly dependent of the electron correlation treatment. Dynamic results obtained at the CCSD level are also reported for the IDRI, dc-SHG and THG nonlinear optical processes.

  6. Synthesis, spectral characteristics, and the crystal and molecular structures of 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-(N-phthalimido)pyrazolone-5

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, V. I.; Strashnova, S. B. Kovalchukova, O. V.; Sergienko, V. S.; Davydov, V. V.; Zaitsev, B. E.; Evtushenko, Yu. M.

    2008-11-15

    2,3-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-(N-phthalimido)pyrazolone-5 (I) is synthesized and isolated in the form of single crystals. The crystal structure of compound I is determined using X-ray diffraction. The phthalimide and pyrazolone rings in the molecule are not coplanar: the angle between their median planes is 56.4{sup o}. The bond lengths in the rings level off, which indicates the delocalization of the electron density. The spectral characteristics (IR and electronic spectra) of molecule I are determined.

  7. Synthesis, spectral characteristics, and the crystal and molecular structures of 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-( N-phthalimido)pyrazolone-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, V. I.; Strashnova, S. B.; Kovalchukova, O. V.; Sergienko, V. S.; Davydov, V. V.; Zaĭtsev, B. E.; Evtushenko, Yu. M.

    2008-11-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-4-( N-phthalimido)pyrazolone-5 ( I) is synthesized and isolated in the form of single crystals. The crystal structure of compound I is determined using X-ray diffraction. The phthalimide and pyrazolone rings in the molecule are not coplanar: the angle between their median planes is 56.4°. The bond lengths in the rings level off, which indicates the delocalization of the electron density. The spectral characteristics (IR and electronic spectra) of molecule I are determined.

  8. Fine specificity of domain-I of recombinant tandem-repeat-type galectin-4 from rat gastrointestinal tract (G4-N).

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Tsai, Ming-Sung; Liu, Jia-Hau; André, Sabine; Wasano, Kojiro; Kaltner, Herbert; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Galectins, a family of beta-galactoside-specific endogenous lectins, are involved in regulating diverse activities such as proliferation/apoptosis, cell-cell (matrix) interaction and cell migration. It is presently unclear to what extent the carbohydrate fine specificities of the combining sites of mammalian galectins overlap. To address this issue, we performed an analysis of the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD-I) near the N-terminus of recombinant rat galectin-4 (G4-N) by the biotin/avidin-mediated microtitre plate lectin-binding assay with natural glycoproteins (gps)/polysaccharide and by the inhibition of galectin-glycan interactions with a panel of glycosubstances. Among the 35 glycans tested for lectin binding, G4-N reacted best with human blood group ABH precursor gps, and asialo porcine salivary gps, which contain high densities of the blood group Ii determinants Galbeta1-3GalNAc (the mucin-type sugar sequence on the human erythrocyte membrane) and/or GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr ( Tn ), whereas this lectin domain reacted weakly or not at all with most sialylated gps. Among the oligosaccharides tested by the inhibition assay, Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc was the best. It was 666.7 and 33.3 times more potent than Gal and Galbeta1-3GlcNAc, respectively. G4-N has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal at the non-reducing ends of oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-3 linkage, over Galbeta1-4 and Galbeta1-6. The fraction of Tn glycopeptide from asialo ovine submandibular glycoprotein was 8.3 times more active than Galbeta1-3GlcNAc. The overall carbohydrate specificity of G4-N can be defined as Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc (lacto- N -tetraose)>Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc (lacto- N -neo-tetraose) and Tn clusters>Galbeta1-4Glc and GalNAcbeta1-3Gal>Galbeta1-3GalNAc>Galbeta1-3GlcNAc>Galbeta1-4GlcNAc>GalNAc>Gal. The definition of this binding profile provides the basis to detect differential binding properties relative to the other galectins with

  9. Inter-atomic potential energy and Grüneisen parameter: A new method for equation of state of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Peter G.; Moore, John

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a rational foundation for the computation of equation of state (EOS) data for solids at high pressure. We demonstrate a new method which makes use of an accurate relation expressing the Grüneisen parameter γ (as a function of the specific volume V of the material) in terms of the specific inter-atomic potential energy ϕ (V). Existing expressions for γ in the literature are usually approximations in terms of total pressure P. There is a variety of such " (γ, P)" formulas and one needs experience in deciding which to use in any particular application. The alternative " (γ, ϕ)" relationship presented here is both unique and exact within the Debye and harmonic approximations and allows the individual terms of the EOS to be determined separately. It is rigorously derived in this paper and solved numerically, using experimental input data for aluminium, copper, lead and gold, to predict ϕ, dϕ / dV, γ, dγ / dV and EOS data for the four metals. Comparison is made with existing computations in the literature showing good agreement. The method can be applied to any metal or non-metal using experimental input data from any suitable volume-dependent locus.

  10. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  11. Simulating atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud using a data insertion update scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Western, L. M.; Watson, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Effective modelling of atmospheric volcanic ash dispersion is important to ensure aircraft safety, and has been the subject of much study since the Eyjafjallajökull ash crisis in Europe in 2010. In this paper, a novel modelling method is presented, where the atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud is simulated using a data insertion update scheme. Output from the volcanic ash transport and dispersion model, NAME, is updated using satellite retrievals and the results of a probabilistic ash, cloud and clear sky classification algorithm. A range of configurations of the scheme are compared with each other, in addition to a simple data insertion method presented in a previous study. Results show that simulations in which ash layer heights and depths are updated using the model output generally perform worse in relation to satellite derived ash coverage and ash column loading than simulations that use satellite-retrieved heights and an assumed layer depth of 1.0 km. Simulated ash column loading and concentration tends to be under-predicted using this update scheme, but the timing of the arrival of the ash cloud at Stockholm is well captured, as shown by comparison with lidar-derived mass concentration profiles. Most of the updated simulations in this comparison make small gains in skill on the simple data insertion scheme.

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of Malassezia folliculitis and use of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain to diagnose the infection.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Murat; Güran, Mümtaz; Ilkit, Macit

    2013-08-01

    Various bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens can cause folliculitis, which is often mistakenly treated with antibiotics for months or even years. A laboratory diagnosis is required before therapy can be planned. Here, we describe the prevalence and risk factors, as well as the clinical, cytological, and mycological characteristics, of patients with Malassezia folliculitis (MF) in Adana, Turkey. We also report the treatment responses of the MF patients and describe the Malassezia spp. using culture-based molecular methods. Cytological examinations were performed in 264 folliculitis patients, 49 of whom (18.5%) were diagnosed with MF. The positivity of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) smear was higher (100%) than that of the potassium hydroxide test (81.6%). Using Wood's light, yellow-green fluorescence was observed in 66.7% of the MF patients. Identification using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region revealed that Malassezia globosa was the most common species, followed by Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia restricta, and Malassezia furfur. The MF patients were treated with itraconazole capsules (200 mg/d) for 2 weeks. Complete recovery was observed in 79.6% of the patients. These novel findings help improve our current understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of MF and establish MGG as a practical tool for the diagnosis of MF. PMID:23706503

  13. Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-ping; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo-xue

    2014-01-01

    Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. PMID:24711356

  14. Removal of ZnO nanoparticles in simulated wastewater treatment processes and its effects on COD and NH(4)(+)-N reduction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Xia, Jing; Li, Kaiyang; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Xiqing

    2013-01-01

    For many engineered nanoparticles, the primary pathway of release into the environment is via sewage and industrial wastewater discharges. In this work, the removal of uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) during simulated wastewater treatment processes and its impact on treatment performance were examined. Simulated primary clarification removed the majority (about 70%) of the dosed ZnO NPs. During simulated sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes, ZnO NPs were completely removed in each cycle throughout the 11-day experimental duration (two cycles per day). Continuous input of ZnO NPs into the wastewater (at concentrations up to 5 mg L(-1)) did not reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. NH(4)(+)-N removal was reduced at a dosing concentration of 5 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs per cycle. Inhibition of respiration of nitrifying microorganisms by ZnO NPs corroborated the reduction of NH(4)(+)-N removal. These results indicate that if the wastewater is treated, the release of ZnO NPs into receiving water bodies would be minimal and ZnO NPs would mainly accumulate in biosolids. Uncoated ZnO NPs in wastewater at very high concentrations may have some adverse effects on activated sludge process. PMID:23168621

  15. Li3VO4/N-doped graphene with high capacity and excellent cycle stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Shibing; Zhang, Jicheng; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-11-01

    Li3VO4/N-doped graphene with unique architecture of Li3VO4 nanoparticles embed in N-doped graphene is successfully prepared via a facile method, which shows superior electrochemical performance as anode for Li-ion batteries. At a specific current of 0.15 A g-1, it delivers discharge and charge capacities of 550 and 429 mAh g-1 in the initial cycle, which maintain of 478 and 476 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. After 150 cycles at various specific currents from 0.1 to 2.0 A g-1, the discharge capacity can restore to 487 mAh g-1 when reverting the specific current to 0.1 A g-1. Meanwhile, even after 900 cycles at a specific current of 2.0 A g-1, the Li3VO4/N-doped graphene electrode can deliver discharge and charge capacities of 195 and 193 mAh g-1.

  16. Cytocompatibility of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride films deposited by CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas with respect to cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Schröder, Karsten; Hippler, Rainer

    2008-10-01

    Special amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride (a-H-CNx) films have been prepared on glass substrates for the investigation of adhesion and proliferation of different mammalian cell lines. CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas were applied to deposit a-H-CNx coatings at half of the atmospheric pressure. Film quality was modified by varying the CH4:N2 ratio and deposition duration. Chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The N/C ratio was in the range of 0.20-0.55. A very small surface roughness was verified by atomic force microscopy. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were cultivated on the a-H-CNx films to investigate the cytocompatibility of these surfaces. The microscopic images show that both kinds of cells lines were unable to survive. The cells did not adhere to the surfaces, and most of the cells died after certain time spans. Increased amounts of nitrogen in the film induce an accelerated cell death. It is concluded, that the deposited CNx film behaves cytotoxic to HEK and PC12 cell lines.

  17. According to the strict solution of GR there is no the un-modeled anomalous acceleration of Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to the definition of force f = d (m v) /d t = m (d v / d t) + v (d m / d t ) and the change in masses ( the exchange of momentum-energy tensors bwtween two bodies Tµυ via the field tµν ) deduced by Bondi from Einstein equation ( H.Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990 ), we get a new gravitational equation: f GR = f P + f C , f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r), f C = -G (m M / r 2 ) (v /c) (1). The deductive process is: First if mass is invariable, which implies that the mass may produce the gravitational field but the gravitational field should not lead to the change in mass, i.e., the mass should be an invariable parameter and the fourth dimension momentum i E/c should be entirely independent of three-dimension momentum P. In other words, the energy and the momentum should not compose the four-dimension momentum-energy vector and tensor. Thus, the gravitational equation is no longer a nonlinear but a linear one and Einstein equation should be reduced to Newtonian law: f GR = f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r). Second according to the mass-energy relation we get: dm /dt = dE /c2 dt, where E = EK + m0 c2 , then from the conservation of four dimension momentum-energy vector P 2 -(E/c) 2 = 0, we obtain: dE/dt = c dP/dt, dm/dt = dP/c dt = f P /c, f C = v (dm/dt) = v (f P /c) = -G (m M /r 2 ) (v /c). Then, we educe Eq.(1) from the special relativity when the mass is variable. In Eq.(1) the gravitational mass is just the inertial mass and the equivalent principle come absolutely into existence. Einstein equation can also be deduced from Eq.(1) and is equivalent to Eq.(1). Now the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved with the one by one substitute method of masses solved by alone f P and alone f C in Eq.(1), e.g., from one loop Σf P • d s = 0, the energy loss of celestial body running one loop by f C is a typical dipole radiation and a gravitational wave of dipole radiation is predicted.When mass-point B nearing mass-point A, the masses MA and MB will

  18. GR SUMOylation and formation of an SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex is mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated transrepression.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guoqiang; Paulen, Laetitia; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Unique among the nuclear receptor superfamily, the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) can exert three distinct transcriptional regulatory functions on binding of a single natural (cortisol in human and corticosterone in mice) and synthetic [e.g., dexamethasone (Dex)] hormone. The molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced positive GC response element [(+)GRE]-mediated activation of transcription are partially understood. In contrast, these mechanisms remain elusive for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression and for tethered indirect transrepression that is mediated by DNA-bound NF-κB/activator protein 1 (AP1)/STAT3 activators and instrumental in GC-induced anti-inflammatory activity. We demonstrate here that SUMOylation of lysine K293 (mouse K310) located within an evolutionary conserved sequence in the human GR N-terminal domain allows the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-NCoR1/SMRT-HDAC3 repressing complex mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated direct repression in vitro, but does not affect transactivation. Importantly, these results were validated in vivo: in K310R mutant mice and in mice ablated selectively for nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors in skin keratinocytes, Dex-induced direct repression and the formation of repressing complexes on IR nGREs were impaired, whereas transactivation was unaffected. In mice selectively ablated for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in skin keratinocytes, GC-induced direct repression, but not bindings of GR and of corepressors NCoR1/SMRT, was abolished, indicating that HDAC3 is instrumental in IR nGRE-mediated repression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the binding of HDAC3 to IR nGREs in vivo is mediated through interaction with SMRT/NCoR1. We also show that the GR ligand binding domain (LBD) is not required for SMRT

  19. The Grapevine Root-Specific Aquaporin VvPIP2;4N Controls Root Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Gas Exchange under Well-Watered Conditions But Not under Water Stress1[W

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Irene; Gambino, Giorgio; Chitarra, Walter; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Riccomagno, Nadia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Uehlein, Norbert; Gribaudo, Ivana; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We functionally characterized the grape (Vitis vinifera) VvPIP2;4N (for Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein) aquaporin gene. Expression of VvPIP2;4N in Xenopus laevis oocytes increased their swelling rate 54-fold. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that VvPIP2;4N is the most expressed PIP2 gene in root. In situ hybridization confirmed root localization in the cortical parenchyma and close to the endodermis. We then constitutively overexpressed VvPIP2;4N in grape ‘Brachetto’, and in the resulting transgenic plants we analyzed (1) the expression of endogenous and transgenic VvPIP2;4N and of four other aquaporins, (2) whole-plant, root, and leaf ecophysiological parameters, and (3) leaf abscisic acid content. Expression of transgenic VvPIP2;4N inhibited neither the expression of the endogenous gene nor that of other PIP aquaporins in both root and leaf. Under well-watered conditions, transgenic plants showed higher stomatal conductance, gas exchange, and shoot growth. The expression level of VvPIP2;4N (endogenous + transgene) was inversely correlated to root hydraulic resistance. The leaf component of total plant hydraulic resistance was low and unaffected by overexpression of VvPIP2;4N. Upon water stress, the overexpression of VvPIP2;4N induced a surge in leaf abscisic acid content and a decrease in stomatal conductance and leaf gas exchange. Our results show that aquaporin-mediated modifications of root hydraulics play a substantial role in the regulation of water flow in well-watered grapevine plants, while they have a minor role upon drought, probably because other signals, such as abscisic acid, take over the control of water flow. PMID:22923680

  20. Crystal structures of (1,4,7,10-tetra­aza­cyclo­dodecane-κ4 N)bis­(tri­cyano­methanido-κN)nickel and (1,4,7,10-tetra­aza­cyclo­dodecane-κ4 N)(tri­cyano­methanido-κN)copper tri­cyano­methanide

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Qiu, Li-Juan; Yang, Feng; Liu, Bao-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The structures of two mononuclear transition-metal complexes with tri­cyano­methanide (tcm−) and 1,4,7,10-tetra­aza­cyclo­dodecane (cyclen) ligands, [Ni(C4N3)2(C8H20N4)], (I), and [Cu(C4N3)(C8H20N4)](C4N3), (II), are reported. In the neutral complex (I), the nickel cation is coordinated by one cyclen ligand and two monodentate N-bound tcm− anions in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The tcm− ligands are mutually cis. The CuII atom in (II) displays a distorted tetra­gonal–pyramidal geometry, with the four N-donor atoms of the cyclen ligand in the equatorial plane, and one tcm− anion bound through a single N atom in an axial site, forming a monocation. The second tcm− molecule acts as a counter-ion not directly coordinating to the copper cation. In both (I) and (II), extensive series of N—H⋯N and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds generate three-dimensional network structures. PMID:26090153

  1. Trapping of Li(+) Ions by [ThFn](4-n) Clusters Leading to Oscillating Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivity in the Molten Salt LiF-ThF4.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Kidwai, Sharif; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2016-08-18

    A molten salt mixture of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride (LiF-ThF4) serves as a fuel as well as a coolant in the most sophisticated molten salt reactor (MSR). Here, we report for the first time dynamic correlations, Onsager coefficients, Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities, and the concentration dependence of density and enthalpy of the molten salt mixture LiF-ThF4 at 1200 K in the composition range of 2-45% ThF4 and also at eutectic composition in the temperature range of 1123-1600 K using Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We have observed an interesting oscillating pattern for the MS diffusivity for the cation-cation pair, in which ĐLi-Th oscillates between positive and negative values with the amplitude of the oscillation reducing as the system becomes rich in ThF4. Through the velocity autocorrelation function, vibrational density of states, radial distribution function analysis, and structural snapshots, we establish an interplay between the local structure and multicomponent dynamics and predict that formation of negatively charged [ThFn](4-n) clusters at a higher ThF4 mole % makes positively charged Li(+) ions oscillate between different clusters, with their range of motion reducing as the number of [ThFn](4-n) clusters increases, and finally Li(+) ions almost get trapped at a higher ThF4% when the electrostatic force on Li(+) exerted by various surrounding clusters gets balanced. Although reports on variations of density and enthalpy with temperature exist in the literature, for the first time we report variations of the density and enthalpy of LiF-ThF4 with the concentration of ThF4 (mole %) and fit them with the square root function of ThF4 concentration, which will be very useful for experimentalists to obtain data over a range of concentrations from fitting the formula for design purposes. The formation of [ThFn](4-n) clusters and the reduction in the diffusivity of the ions at a higher ThF4% may limit the

  2. Ghrelin accelerates wound healing through GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways in combined radiation and burn injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Zeng, Yiping; Liu, Jing; Hao, Yuhui; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of ghrelin on wound healing was assessed using a rat model of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI). Rat ghrelin, anti-rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α polyclonal antibody (PcAb), or selective antagonists of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a (SB203580, SP600125, and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, respectively), were administered for seven consecutive days. Levels of various signaling molecules were assessed in isolated rat peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that serum ghrelin levels and levels of macrophage glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased, while phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65 nuclear factor (NF) κB increased. Ghrelin inhibited the serum induction of proinflammatory mediators, especially TNF-α, and promoted wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. Ghrelin treatment decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65NF-κB, and increased GR levels in the presence of GHS-R1a. SB203580 or co-administration of SB203580 and SP600125 decreased TNF-α level, which may have contributed to the inactivation of p65NF-κB and increase in GR expression, as confirmed by western blotting. In conclusion, ghrelin enhances wound recovery in CRBI rats, possibly by decreasing the induction of TNF-α or other proinflammatory mediators that are involved in the regulation of GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways. PMID:27271793

  3. Intrathecal dihydroergotamine inhibits capsaicin-induced vasodilatation in the canine external carotid circulation via GR127935- and rauwolscine-sensitive receptors.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna I; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2012-10-01

    It has been suggested that during a migraine attack trigeminal nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), producing central nociception and vasodilatation of cranial arteries, including the extracranial branches of the external carotid artery. Since trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation, the present study has investigated the effects of intrathecal dihydroergotamine on the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine. Anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid conductance. A catheter was inserted into the right common carotid artery for the continuous infusion of phenylephrine (to restore the carotid vascular tone), whereas the corresponding thyroid artery was cannulated for one-min intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine (which dose-dependently increased the external carotid conductance). Another cannula was inserted intrathecally (C(1)-C(3)) for the administration of dihydroergotamine, the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine or the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride monohydrate). Intrathecal dihydroergotamine (10, 31 and 100μg) inhibited the vasodilatation to capsaicin, but not that to α-CGRP or acetylcholine. This inhibition was: (i) unaffected by 10μg GR127935 or 100μg rauwolscine, but abolished by 31μg GR127935 or 310μg rauwolscine at 10μg dihydroergotamine; and (ii) abolished by the combination 10μg GR127935+100μg rauwolscine at 100μg dihydroergotamine. Thus, intrathecal (C(1)-C(3)) dihydroergotamine seems to inhibit the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin by spinal activation of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) (probably 5-HT(1B)) receptors and α(2) (probably α(2A/2C))-adrenoceptors. PMID:22841658

  4. Comparison of effects of VDR versus PXR, FXR and GR ligands on the regulation of CYP3A isozymes in rat and human intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ansar A; Chow, Edwin C Y; van Loenen-Weemaes, Anne-miek M A; Porte, Robert J; Pang, K Sandy; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2009-05-12

    In this study, we compared the regulation of CYP3A isozymes by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) against ligands of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in precision-cut tissue slices of the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver, and human ileum and liver. In the rat, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) strongly induced CYP3A1 mRNA, quantified by qRT-PCR, along the entire length of the intestine, induced CYP3A2 only in ileum but had no effect on CYP3A9. In contrast, the PXR/GR ligand, dexamethasone (DEX), the PXR ligand, pregnenolone-16 alpha carbonitrile (PCN), and the FXR ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), but not the GR ligand, budesonide (BUD), induced CYP3A1 only in the ileum, none of them influenced CYP3A2 expression, and PCN, DEX and BUD but not CDCA induced CYP3A9 in jejunum, ileum and colon. In rat liver, CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and CYP3A9 mRNA expression was unaffected by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), whereas CDCA decreased the mRNA of all CYP3A isozymes; PCN induced CYP3A1 and CYP3A9, BUD induced CYP3A9, and DEX induced all three CYP3A isozymes. In human ileum and liver, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and DEX induced CYP3A4 expression, whereas CDCA induced CYP3A4 expression in liver only. In conclusion, the regulation of rat CYP3A isozymes by VDR, PXR, FXR and GR ligands differed for different segments of the rat and human intestine and liver, and the changes did not parallel expression levels of the nuclear receptors. PMID:19429418

  5. Ghrelin accelerates wound healing through GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways in combined radiation and burn injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Zeng, Yiping; Liu, Jing; Hao, Yuhui; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of ghrelin on wound healing was assessed using a rat model of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI). Rat ghrelin, anti-rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α polyclonal antibody (PcAb), or selective antagonists of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a (SB203580, SP600125, and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, respectively), were administered for seven consecutive days. Levels of various signaling molecules were assessed in isolated rat peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that serum ghrelin levels and levels of macrophage glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased, while phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65 nuclear factor (NF) κB increased. Ghrelin inhibited the serum induction of proinflammatory mediators, especially TNF-α, and promoted wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. Ghrelin treatment decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65NF-κB, and increased GR levels in the presence of GHS-R1a. SB203580 or co-administration of SB203580 and SP600125 decreased TNF-α level, which may have contributed to the inactivation of p65NF-κB and increase in GR expression, as confirmed by western blotting. In conclusion, ghrelin enhances wound recovery in CRBI rats, possibly by decreasing the induction of TNF-α or other proinflammatory mediators that are involved in the regulation of GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways. PMID:27271793

  6. Lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells from the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Tze Wei; Bradley, Judy M.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that inhibit T cell activity and contribute to the immune suppression characteristic of most tumors. We discovered that bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells from the Muc1 knockout (KO) mice differentiated into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs in vitro under GM-CSF and IL-4 signaling. MUC1 is a tumor-associated mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (MUC1-CT) can regulate beta-catenin to promote oncogenesis. Given the importance of beta-catenin in hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that the MUC1 regulation of beta-catenin is important for MDSC development. Our current study shows that the aberrant development of BM progenitors into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs is dependent on the down regulation of beta-catenin levels that occurs in the absence of Muc1. In light of this, KO mice showed enhanced EL4 tumor growth and were able to better tolerate allogeneic BM185 tumor growth, with an accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the blood and tumor draining lymph nodes. WT mice were able to similarly tolerate allogeneic tumor growth when they were injected with CD11b+Gr1+ cells from tumor-bearing KO mice, suggesting that tolerance of allogeneic tumors is dependent on MDSC-mediated immune suppression. This further delineates the ability of Muc1 to control MDSC development which could directly impact tumorigenesis. Knowledge of the biology by which Muc1 regulates the development of myeloid progenitors into MDSCs would also be very useful in enhancing the efficacy of cancer vaccines in the face of tumor immune suppression. PMID:19351842

  7. Source parameters for the 2013-2015 earthquake sequence in Nógrád county, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wéber, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Between 2013 June and 2015 January, 35 earthquakes with local magnitude M L ranging from 1.1 to 4.2 occurred in Nógrád county, Hungary. This earthquake sequence represents above average seismic activity in the region and is the first one that was recorded by a significant number of three-component digital seismographs in the county. Using a Bayesian multiple-event location algorithm, we have estimated the hypocenters of 30 earthquakes with M L ≥1.5. The events occurred in two small regions of a few squared kilometers: one to the east of Érsekvadkert and the other at Iliny. The uncertainty of the epicenters is about 1.5-1.7 km in the E-W direction and 1.8-2.1 km in the N-S direction at the 95 % confidence level. The estimated event depths are confined to the upper 3 km of the crust. We have successfully estimated the full moment tensors of 4 M w ≥3.6 earthquakes using a probabilistic waveform inversion procedure. The non-double-couple components of the retrieved moment tensor solutions are statistically insignificant. The negligible amount of the isotropic component implies the tectonic nature of the investigated events. All of the analyzed earthquakes have strike-slip mechanism with either right-lateral slip on an approximately N-S striking or left-lateral movement on a roughly E-W striking nodal plane. The orientations of the obtained focal mechanisms are in good agreement with the main stress pattern published for the epicentral region. Both the P and T principal axes are horizontal, and the P axis is oriented along a NE-SW direction.

  8. Source parameters for the 2013–2015 earthquake sequence in Nógrád county, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wéber, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    Between 2013 June and 2015 January, 35 earthquakes with local magnitude M L ranging from 1.1 to 4.2 occurred in Nógrád county, Hungary. This earthquake sequence represents above average seismic activity in the region and is the first one that was recorded by a significant number of three-component digital seismographs in the county. Using a Bayesian multiple-event location algorithm, we have estimated the hypocenters of 30 earthquakes with M L ≥1.5. The events occurred in two small regions of a few squared kilometers: one to the east of Érsekvadkert and the other at Iliny. The uncertainty of the epicenters is about 1.5-1.7 km in the E-W direction and 1.8-2.1 km in the N-S direction at the 95 % confidence level. The estimated event depths are confined to the upper 3 km of the crust. We have successfully estimated the full moment tensors of 4 M w ≥3.6 earthquakes using a probabilistic waveform inversion procedure. The non-double-couple components of the retrieved moment tensor solutions are statistically insignificant. The negligible amount of the isotropic component implies the tectonic nature of the investigated events. All of the analyzed earthquakes have strike-slip mechanism with either right-lateral slip on an approximately N-S striking or left-lateral movement on a roughly E-W striking nodal plane. The orientations of the obtained focal mechanisms are in good agreement with the main stress pattern published for the epicentral region. Both the P and T principal axes are horizontal, and the P axis is oriented along a NE-SW direction.

  9. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of a halotolerant β-galactosidase produced by halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1.

    PubMed

    Raol, Gopalkumar G; Raol, B V; Prajapati, Vimal S; Patel, Kamlesh C

    2015-07-01

    β-Galactosidase from halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1 was purified by two-step purification process comprising ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The recovery of β-galactosidase after SEC was found to be 1.40% with 58.55-fold increase in specific activity. The molecular weight of β-galactosidase protein was found to be 93 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Activation energy for O-nitrophenol β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) hydrolysis was 32.88 kJ mol(-1), while temperature quotient (Q(10)) was found to be 1.375. The enzyme was found to be stable over wide pH range and thermally stable at 60-65°C up to 60 min of incubation while exhibited maximum activity at 65°C with pH 3.0. V(max), K(m), and K(cat) for ONPG were found to be 2000 U ml(-1), 8.33 mM (ONPG), and 101454 s(-1), respectively. Activation energy for irreversible inactivation Ea(d) of β-galactosidase was 100.017 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters of irreversible inactivation of β-galactosidase and ONPG hydrolysis were also determined. However, β-galactosidase enzyme activity was activated significantly in the presence of 15% NaCl and hence shows activity up to 30% NaCl concentration. PMID:25656109

  10. Biomimetic Trehalose Biosensor Using Gustatory Receptor (Gr5a) Expressed in Drosophila Cells and Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Bae, Tae-Eon; Jang, Hyun-June; Kwon, Jae-Young; Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-04-01

    The development of potential applications of biosensors using the sensory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates has progressed rapidly, especially in clinical diagnosis. The biosensor developed here involves the use of Drosophila cells expressing the gustatory receptor Gr5a and an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor device. Gustatory receptor Gr5a is expressed abundantly in gustatory neurons and acts as a primary marker for tastants, especially sugar, in Drosophila. As a result, it could potentially serve as a good candidate for potential biomarkers of diseases in which the current knowledge of the cause and treatment is limited. The developed ISFET was based on the outstanding electrical characteristics of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a subthreshold swing of 85 mV/dec, low leakage current of <10-12 and high on/off current ratio of 7.3×106. The SiO2 sensing membrane with a pH sensitivity of 34.9 mV/pH and drift rate 1.17 mV/h was sufficient for biosensing applications. In addition, the sensor device also showed significant compatibility with the Drosophila cells expressing Gr5a and their response to sugar, particularly trehalose. Moreover, the interactions between the transfected Drosophila cells and trehalose were consistent and reliable. This suggests that the developed ISFET sensor device could have potential use in the future as a screening device in diagnosis.

  11. Design of Advanced MnO/N-Gr 3D Walls through Polymer Cross-Linking for High-Performance Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Kang, Bong Kyun; Tiruneh, Sintayehu Nibret; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional, vertically aligned MnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (3D MnO/N-Gr) walls were prepared through facile solution-phase synthesis followed by thermal treatment. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was strategically added to generate cross-links to simultaneously form 3D wall structures and to incorporate nitrogen atoms into the graphene network. The unique wall features of the as-prepared 3D MnO/N-Gr hybirdes provide a large surface area (91.516 m(2) g(-1)) and allow for rapid diffusion of the ion electrolyte, resulting in a high specific capacitance of 378 F g(-1) at 0.25 A g(-1) and an excellent charge/discharge stability (93.7% capacity retention after 8000 cycles) in aqueous 1 m Na2 SO4 solution as electrolyte. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitors that were rationally designed by using 3D MnO/N-Gr hybrids exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance in an organic electrolyte with an energy density of 90.6 Wh kg(-1) and a power density of 437.5 W kg(-1). PMID:26689298

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells and Regulates Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youen; Li, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Aijun; Zong, Nobel C.; Li, Zhaofeng; Zhu, Hongming; Zou, Yunzeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signaling molecule, plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Using a mouse model of myocardial infarction, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). The results demonstrated that the administration of NaHS improved survival, preserved left ventricular function, limited infarct size, and improved H2S levels in cardiac tissue to attenuate the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and to regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of NaHS were enhanced by inhibiting the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells from the spleen into the blood and by attenuating post-infarction inflammation. These observations suggest that the novel mechanism underlying the cardioprotective function of H2S is secondary to a combination of attenuation the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling. PMID:24758901

  13. Geochemical and isotopic (Sr, C, O) data from the alkaline complex of Grønnedal-ĺka (South Greenland): evidence for unmixing and crustal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubald, H.; Morteani, G.; Satir, M.

    The alkaline intrusion of Grønnedal-ĺka (South Greenland) is the oldest of the ten major rift-related plutonic complexes of southern Greenland that intruded during the Gardar period between 1330 and 1150 Ma into the 2.6-Ga-old gneisses and metasediments of the Ketilidian basement. The Grønnedal-ĺka alkaline intrusion consists of carbonatites, silicocarbonatites, transitional carbonatites and nepheline-bearing syenites. The silicocarbonatites exhibit locally ocellar textures that are typical for immiscibility processes. A 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio of about 0.703184 major and trace element compositions-including REE and C-, and O-isotope data from 15 carbonatite, 12 silicocarbonatite, 10 transitional carbonatite and 8 syenite and samples-provide evidence for minor crustal contamination of the mantle-derived magma that generated by unmixing carbonatites, silicocarbonatites and syenites. A scatter in major and trace element contents and isotope ratios is related to late- to post-magmatic alteration processes. The Grønnedal-ĺka silicocarbonatites are one of the rather rare cases in which unmixing of a highly alkaline mantle-derived magma into an alkalisilicate and a carbonatitic magma-fraction under plutonic conditions is well documented by textural and geochemical data.

  14. Coordination Chemistry of [Co(acac)2 ] with N-Doped Graphene: Implications for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Reactivity of Organometallic Co-O4 -N Species.

    PubMed

    Han, Jongwoo; Sa, Young Jin; Shim, Yeonjun; Choi, Min; Park, Noejung; Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Sungjin

    2015-10-19

    Hybridization of organometallic complexes with graphene-based materials can give rise to enhanced catalytic performance. Understanding the chemical structures within hybrid materials is of primary importance. In this work, archetypical hybrid materials are synthesized by the reaction of an organometallic complex, [Co(II) (acac)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate), with N-doped graphene-based materials at room temperature. Experimental characterization of the hybrid materials and theoretical calculations reveal that the organometallic cobalt-containing species is coordinated to heterocyclic groups in N-doped graphene as well as to its parental acac ligands. The hybrid material shows high electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media, and superior durability and methanol tolerance to a Pt/C catalyst. Based on the chemical structures and ORR experiments, the catalytically active species is identified as a Co-O4 -N structure. PMID:26331625

  15. Butterfly hysteresis and slow relaxation of the magnetization in (Et 4N) 3Fe 2F 9: manifestations of a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Ralph; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Chaboussant, Grégory; Güdel, Hans U.; Loss, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    (Et 4N) 3Fe 2F 9 exhibits a butterfly-shaped hysteresis below 5 K when the magnetic field is parallel to the threefold axis, in accordance with a very slow magnetization relaxation in the timescale of minutes. This is attributed to an energy barrier Δ=2.40 K resulting from the S=5 dimer ground state of [Fe 2F 9] 3- and a negative axial anisotropy. The relaxation partly occurs via thermally assisted quantum tunneling. These features of a single-molecule magnet are observable at temperatures comparable to the barrier height, due to an extremely inefficient energy exchange between the spin system and the phonons. The butterfly shape of the hysteresis arises from a phonon avalanche effect.

  16. A bowl-shaped circular trinuclear helicate generated from a TiO4 N2 motif by a multicomponent self-assembly approach.

    PubMed

    Mobian, Pierre; Baradel, Nathalie; Kyritsakas, Nathalie; Khalil, Georges; Henry, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of a bowl-shaped trinuclear circular titanium-based helicate is reported. The strategy allowing access to this neutral architecture is based on a multicomponent self-assembly approach in which the ligands involved in the process are a bis-biphenol strand and 2,2'- bipyrimidine. By reacting the bis-biphenol ligand and 2,2'-bipyrimidine with an equimolar amount [Ti(OiPr)4 ], a bowl-shaped architecture is obtained through the formation of 18 new coordination bonds. This aggregate built from three octahedral TiO4 N2 nodes displays an unusually high stability in solution compared to related species. In addition, by modifying the stoichiometry of the initial components, two assemblies incorporating two titanium centers bridged by a 2,2'-bipyrimidine ligand are obtained. The crystal structures of these species are reported. PMID:25490957

  17. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of betel leaf extract against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    PubMed

    Bhide, S V; Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that betel leaf inhibits the mutagenic action of standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since tobacco-specific nitrosamines are the major carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, we studied the effect of an extract of betel leaf on the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of one of the most potent, 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Betel-leaf extract and hydroxychavicol suppressed the mutagenicity of NNK in both the Ames and the micronucleus test. In studies in mice, betel-leaf extract reduced the tumorigenic effects of NNK by 25%. Concurrent treatment with the extract also inhibited the decreases in levels of vitamin A in liver and plasma induced by NNK. Betel leaf thus has protective effects against the mutagenic, carcinogenic and adverse metabolic effects of NNK in mice. PMID:1855909

  18. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry as applied to flame diagnostics: study of the C2H 4/N 2O/Ar flame.

    PubMed

    Howard, S L; Newberry, J E; Sausa, R C; Miziolek, A W

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed research apparatus for characterization of low-pressure premixed flames has been developed and was used to characterize the C2H4/N2O/Ar flame at 20 torr. This instrument incorporates several diagnostic techniques in one apparatus so that individual techniques can be quantitatively compared and the usable detection range (both in terms of resolution and species detection) expanded. Results discussed in this report include mass analysis by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and temperature measurement by thermocouple. Concentration profiles in the one-dimensional flame include CO, N2, and C2H4, at nominal m/z 28 as well as CO2 and N2O at m/z 44. PMID:24234794

  19. Using Raman spectroscopy to understand the origin of the phase transitions observed in [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, M.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Bulou, A.; Hlel, F.; Gargouri, M.

    2015-06-01

    Phase transitions of the centrosymmetric compound, [(C3H7)4N]2Zn2Cl6, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and dielectric measurements. Two reversible order-disorder and displacive phase transitions are observed at T1 = 327 K and T2 = 347 K with 3 K and 4 K hysteresis respectively, indicating a first order character. The evolution of Raman line shifts, "ν", and the half-width, "Δν", versus temperature show some singularities associated with the transitions, suggesting that they are governed by the reorientational and the displacement of the organic part. Besides the results of the dielectric permittivity study confirms the conclusion drawn from the calorimetric and Raman measurements that the phase transition located in the vicinity of the temperature of the dielectric proprieties is characterized by change of dynamical state of cation.

  20. Intramolecular charge delocalization and nonlinear optical properties of push-pull chromophore 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate from vibrational spectra.

    PubMed

    John, C Jesintha; Amalanathan, M; Sajan, D; Lakshmi, K Udaya; Joe, I Hubert

    2011-01-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and the first order hyperpolarizability of the crystal have been calculated with the help of density functional theory computations. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Scaled Quantum Mechanic force field theory. Optimized geometry gives the charge transfer interaction of the pyridine ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the nonlinear optic chromophore. Electron-phonon coupling and O-H⋯O interactions in making the molecule nonlinear optical active have been analyzed based on the vibrational spectral features. The Natural Bond Orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21036101

  1. Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

  2. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 Protein, a Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Protein Involved in the Regulation of Barley Plant Development and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The timing of whole-plant senescence influences important agricultural traits such as yield and grain protein content. Post-transcriptional regulation by plant RNA-binding proteins is essential for proper control of gene expression, development, and stress responses. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution NMR structure and nucleic acid-binding properties of the barley glycine-rich RNA-binding protein HvGR-RBP1, whose transcript has been identified as being >45-fold up-regulated in early—as compared to late—senescing near-isogenic barley germplasm. NMR analysis reveals that HvGR-RBP1 is a multidomain protein comprising a well-folded N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a structurally disordered C-terminal glycine-rich domain. Chemical shift differences observed in 2D 1H–15N correlation (HSQC) NMR spectra of full-length HvGR-RBP1 and N-HvGR-RBP1 (RRM domain only) suggest that the two domains can interact both in-trans and intramolecularly, similar to what is observed in the tobacco NtGR-RBP1 protein. Further, we show that the RRM domain of HvGR-RBP1 binds single-stranded DNA nucleotide fragments containing the consensus nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCTGX-3′ with low micromolar affinity in vitro. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal glycine-rich (HvGR) domain of Hv-GR-RBP1 can interact nonspecifically with ssRNA in vitro. Structural similarities with other plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins suggest that HvGR-RBP1 may be multifunctional. Based on gene expression analysis following cold stress in barley and E. coli growth studies following cold shock treatment, we conclude that HvGR-RBP1 functions in a manner similar to cold-shock proteins and harbors RNA chaperone activity. HvGR-RBP1 is therefore not only involved in the regulation of barley development including senescence, but also functions in plant responses to environmental stress. PMID:25495582

  3. Equation of state and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of monoclinic 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Liping

    2016-10-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were conducted on 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) at pressures up to 6.8 GPa and temperatures up to 485 K. Within the resolution of the present diffraction data, our results do not reveal evidence for a pressure-induced structural phase transition near 2 GPa, previously observed in several vibrational spectroscopy experiments. Based on unit-cell volume measurements, the least-squares fit using the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) yields K 0  =  12.6  ±  1.4 GPa and [Formula: see text]  =  11.3  ±  2.1 for the α-phase of FOX-7, which are in good agreement with recently reported values for the deuterated sample, indicating that the effect of hydrogen-deuterium substitution on the compressibility of FOX-7 is negligibly small. A thermal EOS is also obtained for the α-phase of FOX-7, including pressure dependence of thermal expansivity, (∂α/∂P)T  =  -7.0  ±  2.0  ×  10(-5) K(-1) GPa(-1), and temperature derivative of the bulk modulus, (∂K T/∂T)P  =  -1.1  ×  10(-2) GPa K(-1). From these EOS parameters, we calculate heat capacity at constant volume (C V) and thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter (γ TH) as a function of temperature. At ambient conditions, the calculated γ TH is 1.055, which is in good agreement with the value (1.09) previously obtained from density functional theory (DFT). The obtained C V, however, is 13% larger than that calculated from the first-principles calculations, indicating that the dispersion correction in the DFT calculations may need to be further improved for describing intermolecular interactions of molecular crystals. PMID:27494384

  4. Structural health monitoring of the Gröndals Bridge in Sweden: the behaviour of CFRP strengthening in cold temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejll, Arvid; Täljsten, Björn; Carolin, Anders

    2006-03-01

    To obtain a better knowledge of existing structures behaviour monitoring can be used. The use of monitoring in bridge structures by the use of instruments to assess the integrity of structures is not new and there are reports from structures tested as early as in the 19th century according to ISIS Canada1 However, the term SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) is relatively new to civil engineering and the driving force to implement SHM comes from recognising the limitations of conventional visual inspections and evaluations using conservative codes of practice. The possibilities to monitor existing structures with help of the rapidly evolving Information Technology are to day carried out. The objective of SHM is to monitor the in-situ behaviour of a structure accurately and efficiently, to assess its performance under various service conditions, to detect damage or deterioration, and to determine the health or condition of the structure1. In Sweden strengthening and periodic monitoring of a large freivorbau bridge (pre-stresed concrete box girder bridge) has been carried out, the Gröndals Bridge. The bridge is located in Stockholm and is approximately 400 m in length with a free span of 120 m. It was opened to tram traffic in year 2000. Just after opening cracks were noticed in the webs, these cracks have then increased, the size of the largest cracks exceeded 0.5 mm, and at the end of year 2001 the bridge was temporarily strengthened. This was carried out with externally placed prestressed steel stays. The reason for cracking is quite clear but the responsibility is still debated. Nevertheless, it was evidently that the bridge needed to be strengthened. The strengthening methods used were CFRP plates in the Service Limit State (SLS) and prestressed dywidag stays in the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). The strengthening was carried out during year 2002. At the same time monitoring of the bridge commenced, using LVDT crack gauges as well as optical fibre sensors. This

  5. Nickel(II) complexes of tripodal 4N ligands as catalysts for alkane oxidation using m-CPBA as oxidant: ligand stereoelectronic effects on catalysis.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Mani; Mayilmurugan, Ramasamy; Suresh, Eringathodi; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2011-10-01

    Several mononuclear Ni(II) complexes of the type [Ni(L)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 1-7, where L is a tetradentate tripodal 4N ligand such as N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L1), N,N-diethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L2), N,N-dimethyl-N'-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L3), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L4), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L5), tris(benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)amine (L6) and tris(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)amine (L7), have been isolated and characterized using CHN analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The single-crystal X-ray structures of the complexes [Ni(L1)(CH(3)CN)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))(2) 1a, [Ni(L2)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 2, [Ni(L3)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 3 and [Ni(L4)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 4 have been determined. All these complexes possess a distorted octahedral coordination geometry in which Ni(II) is coordinated to four nitrogen atoms of the tetradentate ligands and two CH(3)CN (2, 3, 4) or one H(2)O and one CH(3)CN (1a) are located in cis positions. The Ni-N(py) bond distances (2.054(2)-2.078(3) Å) in 1a, 2 and 3 are shorter than the Ni-N(amine) bonds (2.127(2)-2.196(3) Å) because of sp(2) and sp(3) hybridizations of the pyridyl and tertiary amine nitrogens respectively. In 3 the Ni-N(im) bond (2.040(5) Å) is shorter than the Ni-N(py) bond (2.074(4) Å) due to the stronger coordination of imidazole compared with the pyridine donor. In dichloromethane/acetonitrile solvent mixture, all the Ni(ii) complexes possess an octahedral coordination geometry, as revealed by the characteristic ligand field bands in the visible region. They efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of alkanes when m-CPBA is used as oxidant with turnover number (TON) in the range of 340-620 and good alcohol selectivity for cyclohexane (A/K, 5-9). By replacing one of the pyridyl donors in TPA by a weakly

  6. [Comparison of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification system by strain qy37 and its accelerating removal characteristic of NH4+ -N].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei-yu; Qu, Yang; Yu, De-shuang; Guo, Sha-sha; Yang, Rui-xia

    2010-08-01

    The characterization in nitrogen removal of a heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria (qy37) was studied. A strain coded as qy37 which had simultaneous heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying ability was screened. In the light of its morphological and physiological characters as well as their sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, strain qy37 was identified as Pseudomonas sp.. In heterotrophic nitrifying system utilized ammonium chloride as nitrogen source, the concentration of NH4+ -N reduced from 138.52 mg/L to 7.88 mg/L and COD reduced from 2408.39 to 1177.49 mg/L by strain qy37 in 32 hours, the maximum accumulation of NH2OH and NO2- -N were 9.42 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L respectively, it was speculated that NH2OH was transformed to N2O and N2 directly by strain qy37. In aerobic denitrifying system utilized sodium nitrite as nitrogen source, the concentration of NO2- -N reduced from 109.25 mg/L to 2.59 mg/L by strain qy37 in 24 hours, and the maximum accumulation of NH2OH was 3.28 mg/L. Compared with heterotrophic nitrifying system, aerobic denitrifying system had a higher bacterial growth whereas the lower removal rate of TN and COD, as well as the accumulation of NH2OH. NO3- -N was also detected in aerobic denitrifying system. It is considered that the upgrowth of bacterium and utilization of energy in aerobic denitrifying system were more efficient than that in heterotrophic nitrifying system. In heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification system, the removal rate of NH4+ -N improved 37.31% in 16 hours than that in heterotrophic nitrifying system, the accumulation of NH2OH was less but N2O was higher than that in both heterotrophic nitrifying system and aerobic denitrifying system. PMID:21090299

  7. Determining intensive parameters through clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium in Grímsvötn 2011 and Bárðarbunga 2014 basalts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Devidal, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Pressure (P) and temperature (T) at which magma is stored before eruption are parameters needed for better understanding of pre-eruptive signals. Putirka (2008) reviewed various igneous geothermobarometers based on crystal-liquid equilibrium. These allow evaluating early melt inclusion (MI) entrapment conditions and final crystal-matrix glass P-T equilibrium conditions. In this study, the former is based on clinopyroxene (cpx)-hosted MI and cpx-host measurements, whereas the latter is estimated from analyses of crystal rims and adjacent matrix glass. Olivine (ol)-liquid equilibrium is rapidly attained and records the last thermal equilibrium before basalt eruptions. In contrast, more sluggish reaction between cpx and liquid makes MI in cpx cores the choice for estimating the deepest (and hottest) crystal-liquid equilibrium. Equilibrium criteria were evaluated from the apparent Fe-Mg exchange and textural relationships. Tephra erupted at Grímsvötn central volcano 2011 is of quartz tholeiite composition whereas the 2014 tephra from Bárðarbunga volcanic system is a more primitive olivine tholeiite. These two basalt types are the most common in Iceland and form a crust with estimated density of 2800 kg/m3. Both basalts contain approximately 1-5% phenocrysts of plagioclases, cpx and ol with sparse sulphides and, in the Grímsvötn case, ubiquitous FeTi-oxides. The geothermobarometers suggest that cpx crystallized at P from 60 to 620 MPa (depth range: 1.7-17 km) and T between 1030 and 1135 °C before the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption. In marked contrast, the Bárðarbunga ol-tholeiite crystallized at higher P from 410 to 660 MPa (depth range: 11-18 km) at restricted T of 1176 to 1182 °C. The shallowest recorded crystallization depth at Grímsvötn coincides with geophysical depth estimates of its high-level magma chamber (1.8 km; Hreinsdóttir et al., 2014), whereas the deepest crystallization is within error of the estimated mantle-crust boundary, as also observed for

  8. Determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in serum by HPLC with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection using a fluorogenic reagent, 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulphonyl)-7-hydrazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole.

    PubMed

    Uzu, S; Imai, K; Nakashima, K; Akiyama, S

    1992-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection is described. The spiked serum containing MPA was extracted on Bond-Elut C18 columns and derivatized with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulphonyl)-7-hydrazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-H). The hydrazone of MPA with DBD-H was confirmed to be a mono-DBD-derivative. The reaction mixture was separated by direct injection onto a C18 analytical column, and quantified by PO-CL detection. The linear range of the standard curve, in serum, was 15.6-96.6 ng ml-1 with a detection limit of 9 ng ml-1 using only 100 microliters of serum, while the detection limit of standard MPA derivatized with DBD-H was 8.7 fmol per injection. The relative standard deviation of the method was 7.4% at 19.3 ng and 1.7% at 77.3 ng ml-1. PMID:1298405

  9. The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of the human histo-blood group Pk gene encodes a glycolipid-modifying α1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Insects express arthro-series glycosphingolipids, which contain an α1,4-linked GalNAc residue. To determine the genetic basis for this linkage, we cloned a cDNA (CG17223) from Drosophila melanogaster encoding a protein with homology to mammalian α1,4-glycosyltransferases and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Culture supernatants from the transformed yeast were found to display a novel UDP-GalNAc:GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAcβ1-R α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity when using either a glycolipid, p-nitrophenylglycoside or an N-glycan carrying one or two terminal β-N-acetylgalactosamine residues. NMR and MS in combination with glycosidase digestion and methylation analysis indicate that the cloned cDNA encodes an α1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. We hypothesize that this enzyme and its orthologues in other insects are required for the biosynthesis of the N5a and subsequent members of the arthro-series of glycolipids as well as of N-glycan receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin Cry1Ac. PMID:15130086

  10. Conversion of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) from a Simple Optical Material to a Versatile Optoelectronic Material

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangdong; Sun, Ziqiang; Fan, Kai; Jiang, Yadong; Huang, Rui; Wen, Yuejiang; He, Qiong; Ao, Tianhong

    2015-01-01

    4-N,N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) is an important optical material, but its poor conductivity limits applications in devices. To tackle this problem, we designed, prepared, and systematically investigated novel binary composite films that are composed of two-dimensional (2D) DAST and 2D graphene. Results indicate that both electrical and optical properties of DAST can be significantly improved by graphene addition. The negative steric effects of big DAST molecules that greatly trouble ex-situ synthesis can be efficiently overcome by in-situ synthesis, thus leading to better film quality and higher physical properties. Consequently, the in-situ composite film exhibits a low sheet resistance of 7.5 × 106 ohm and high temperature coefficient of resistance of −2.79% K−1, close to the levels of the most important bolometric materials for uncooled infrared detectors. Particularly, a new low temperature reduction of graphene oxide induced by DAST, which is further enhanced by in-situ process, was discovered. This work presents valuable information about the DAST–graphene composite films, their chemical structures, mechanisms, physical properties, and comparison on in-situ and ex-situ syntheses of graphene–based composites, all of which will be helpful for not only theoretically studying the DAST and graphene materials and expanding their applications, but also for seeking new optoelectronic sensitive materials. PMID:26192068

  11. A novel one-step strategy toward ZnMn2O4/N-doped graphene nanosheets with robust chemical interaction for superior lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yali; Wu, Gangan; Yu, Kun; Wen, Guangwu

    2016-01-01

    Ingenious hybrid electrode design, especially realized with a facile strategy, is appealing yet challenging for electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ZnMn2O4/N-doped graphene (ZMO/NG) nanohybrid with sandwiched structure via a facile one-step approach, in which ultrafine ZMO nanoparticles with diameters of 10-12 nm are well dispersed on both surfaces of N-doped graphene (NG) nanosheets. Note that one-step synthetic strategies are rarely reported for ZMO-based nanostructures. Systematical control experiments reveal that the formation of well-dispersed ZMO nanoparticles is not solely ascribed to the restriction effect of the functional groups on graphene oxide (GO), but also to the presence of ammonia. Benefitting from the synergistic effects and robust chemical interaction between ZMO nanoparticles and N-doped graphene nanosheets, the ZMO/NG hybrids deliver a reversible capacity up to 747 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1. Even at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1, an unrivaled capacity of 500 mAh g-1 can still be retained, corroborating the good rate capability.

  12. Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2 by ZIFs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bei; Smit, Berend

    2010-05-13

    In this work, molecular simulations were performed to evaluate the separation performance of two typical zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), ZIF-68 and ZIF-69, for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} mixtures. To do this, we first identified a suitable force field for describing CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} adsorption in ZIFs. On the basis of the validated force field, adsorption selectivities of the three mixtures in these ZIFs were simulated then. The results show that ZIF-69 is more beneficial for separating CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}-related mixtures than ZIF-68, mainly due to the presence of chlorine atoms in cbIM linkers in the former for the pressures we have considered. The overall separation performances of these two ZIFs for separating the chosen mixtures are comparable to typical MOFs and zeolites. In addition, this work demonstrates that the electrostatic interactions produced by the frameworks are very important for achieving high adsorption separation selectivities in ZIFs, and ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) may be applicable to ZIFs. Furthermore, the effect of water on the separation performance of the two ZIFs was also investigated.

  13. Electrical properties and conduction mechanism of [N(C2H5)4][N(CH3)4]CuCl4 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissi, N.; Karoui, K.; Jomni, F.; Rhaiem, A. Ben

    2016-09-01

    The [N(CH3)4][N(C2H5)4]CuCl4 single crystal has been synthetized in order to determinate the temperatures transition and to study the electrical properties and the conduction mechanism. At room temperature, this compound crystallizes in the tetragonal system with P-421m space group. The calorimetric study shows three anomalies at 248, 284 and 326 K. Electrical conduction and dielectrical relaxation mechanisms at various frequencies and temperatures were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy and the equivalent circuit based on the Z-View-software was proposed. The variation of fp relaxation determinate by the modulus study and σdc specific to the AC conductivity as a function of temperature and confirm the all transitions for our sample. The values of the activation energy are determined and compared by those, which are found in the similar compound. Frequencies dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law and the conduction mechanisms for each phase are determined with the Elliot's theory.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric properties of [(C4H9)4N]3Bi2Cl9 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigui, W.; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.; Hlel, F.

    2015-07-01

    A new organic-inorganic tri-tetrabutylammonium nonachlorobibismuthate(III) compound was prepared. It was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with the following lattice parameters: a=11.32(2) Å, b=22.30(3) Å, c=28.53(2) Å and β=96.52(0)°. The [Bi2Cl9]3- anions are surrounded by six [(C4H9)N]+ cations, forming an octahedral configuration. These octahedra are sharing corners in order to provide the tri-dimensional network cohesion. The differential scanning calorimetry reveals four order-disorder reversible phase transitions located at 214, 238, 434 and 477 K. The Raman and infrared spectra confirm the presence of both cationic [(C4H9)N]+ and anionic [Bi2Cl9]3- parts. The dielectric parameters, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε‧ and ε″), and dielectric loss tangent (tg δ), were measured in the frequency range of 209 kHz-5 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε″) with frequency show a distribution of relaxation times, which is probably related to the change in the dynamical state of the [(C4H9)4N]+ cations and the [Bi2Cl9]3- anions.

  15. Electrorheological characterization of dispersions in silicone oil of encapsulated liquid crystal 4-n-penthyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl in polyvinyl alcohol and in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, T.; Pereira, G.; Leal, C. R.; Gonçalves, C.; Borges, J. P.; Cidade, M. T.

    2015-03-01

    The electrorheological (ER) effect is known as the change in the apparent viscosity upon the application of an external electric field perpendicular to the flow direction. In this work we present the electrorheological behaviour of suspensions in silicone oil of two different dispersed phases: foams of liquid crystal 4-n-penthyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) encapsulated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nano/microspheres of 5CB encapsulated in silica. We will present the viscosity curves under the application of an electric field ranging between 0 and 3 kV mm-1. The ER effect was observed for the suspensions of 5CB/PVA but not in the case of 5CB/silica. For the case of the suspensions of 5CB/PVA, the effect of the viscosity of the continuum phase and the concentration of the dispersed phase was analysed, showing that the enhancement of the viscosity of the suspension increases with the concentration, as expected, however the continuum phase viscosity has no significant effect, at least in the investigated viscosity range.

  16. beta1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase III potentiates beta1 integrin-mediated neuritogenesis induced by serum deprivation in Neuro2a cells.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Masaki; Shibukawa, Yukinao; Ihara, Hideyuki; Miyoshi, Eiji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Gu, Jianguo

    2006-06-01

    Aspects of the biological significance of the bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) structure on N-glycans introduced by beta1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) in Neuro2a cell differentiation are demonstrated. The overexpression of GnT-III in the cells led to the induction of axon-like processes with numerous neurites and swellings, in which beta1 integrin was localized, under conditions of serum starvation. This enhancement in neuritogenesis was suppressed by either the addition of a bisecting GlcNAc-containing N-glycan or erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E(4)-PHA), which preferentially recognizes the bisecting GlcNAc. GnT-III-promoted neuritogenesis was also significantly perturbed by treatment with a functional blocking anti-beta1 integrin antibody. In fact, beta1 integrin was found to be one of the target proteins of GnT-III, as confirmed by a pull-down assay with E(4)-PHA. These data suggest that N-glycans with a bisecting GlcNAc on target molecules, such as beta1 integrin, play important roles in the regulation of neuritogenesis. PMID:16531477

  17. A novel one-step strategy toward ZnMn2O4/N-doped graphene nanosheets with robust chemical interaction for superior lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhou, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yali; Wu, Gangan; Yu, Kun; Wen, Guangwu

    2016-01-29

    Ingenious hybrid electrode design, especially realized with a facile strategy, is appealing yet challenging for electrochemical energy storage devices. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ZnMn2O4/N-doped graphene (ZMO/NG) nanohybrid with sandwiched structure via a facile one-step approach, in which ultrafine ZMO nanoparticles with diameters of 10-12 nm are well dispersed on both surfaces of N-doped graphene (NG) nanosheets. Note that one-step synthetic strategies are rarely reported for ZMO-based nanostructures. Systematical control experiments reveal that the formation of well-dispersed ZMO nanoparticles is not solely ascribed to the restriction effect of the functional groups on graphene oxide (GO), but also to the presence of ammonia. Benefitting from the synergistic effects and robust chemical interaction between ZMO nanoparticles and N-doped graphene nanosheets, the ZMO/NG hybrids deliver a reversible capacity up to 747 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). Even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1), an unrivaled capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) can still be retained, corroborating the good rate capability. PMID:26658114

  18. Use of vibrational spectroscopy to study 2-[4-(N-dodecanoylamino)phenyl]-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bee, Saba; Agarwal, Parag; Gupta, Archana; Tandon, Poonam

    2013-10-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of geometric structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 2-[4-(N-dodecanoylamino)phenyl]-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (AF51) were carried out by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The fundamental vibrational modes were characterized depending on their potential energy distribution (PED). In order to predict the reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks of the title molecule, electrostatic potential surface has been plotted. The UV absorption spectrum was examined in chloroform solvent and compared with the calculated one in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using TD-DFT/ PCM approach. The (1)H NMR spectra was recorded. Comparison between the experimental and the theoretical results is satisfactory. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. A relationship between molecular structural features, non-linear responses and hyperpolarizability of AF51 has been established using vibrational spectra with emphasis on the role of intramolecular charge transfer mechanism in such organic NLO materials. PMID:23770512

  19. 1D μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain in complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n and ferromagnetic interactions among copper (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Lv, Xue-Chuan; Luo, Guan-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Han; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n(Im = imidazole, and Gly = glycine) with μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain, containing six-coordination distorted elongated octahedron, was synthesized and characterized. The complex belongs to space group P 21/c measured by X-ray single crystal diffraction. In the cluster, each Cu2+ ion are six-coordination by one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms of glycine, one nitrogen atoms of imidazole, and two of oxygen atoms of two perchlorate. Each Cu2+ ion has an N2O4 donor set, which forms the distorted elongated octahedron due to the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties were researched. Magnetic susceptibilities of the complex showed that ferromagnetic interactions occurred between the Cu (II) atoms. The Curie-Weiss constant C = 0.565 cm3 K·mol-1 and the Weiss constant θ = 1.0585 K were given by the Curie-Weiss law The ferromagnetic nature of the interaction could be deduced as the exchange pathway of Cusbnd Osbnd Csbnd Osbnd Cu, which involved an equatorial position at one copper (II) ion and an axial position of the nearest copper (II). The complex decomposed from 511 to 538 K as two steps.

  20. Seasonal changes of CO2, CH4, N2O, and SF6 in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over the Eurasian continent observed by commercial airliner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Murayama, Shohei; Morimoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal variations of greenhouse gases at about 11 km altitude were analyzed from monthly air samples collected aboard a commercial airliner flying between Europe and Japan from April 2012 to March 2014. Compared to lower latitudes, the upper troposphere between 50 and 70°N showed higher CH4 and SF6 and an earlier seasonal phase of CO2. However, N2O values were similar to those in the subtropics. CH4, N2O, and SF6 in the lower stratosphere with potential temperature of up to 50 K above the tropopause showed seasonal variations with maxima in November/December and minima in April/May. At potential temperatures of 37.5-50 K above the tropopause, SF6 age was estimated to be about 22 months in May and 9 months in November. This strong seasonal variation is explained by the subsidence of high-stratospheric air in spring and the effective flushing of the lowermost stratospheric air with tropospheric air in autumn.

  1. Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Shaw, J. H.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    1989-01-01

    The volume mixing ratios of five minor gases (CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3) were retrieved through the middle atmosphere from the analysis of 0.01/cm resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded near 28 N and 48 S latitudes with the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) instrument, flown on board Spacelab 3. The results, which constitute the first simultaneous observations of continuous profiles through the middle atmosphere for these gases, are in general agreement with reported measurements from ground, balloon and satellite-based instruments for the same seasons. In detail, the vertical profiles of these gases show the effects of the upper and middle atmospheric transport patterns dominant during the season of these observations. The profiles inferred at different longitudes around 28 N suggest a near-uniform zonal distribution of these gases. Although based on fewer observations, the sunrise occultation measurements point to a larger variability in the vertical distribution of these gases at 48 S.

  2. Infusion of Sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate-Conjugated MOG35–55-Coupled Spleen Cells Effectively Prevents and Reverses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lanfang; Guo, Yixian; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated our recently developed method for antigen-cell coupling using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) heterobifunctional crosslinker in prevention and reversal of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrate that infusion of MOG35–55-coupled spleen cells (MOG-SP) significantly prevents and reverses EAE. Further studies show that the protected animals exhibit significantly delayed EAE upon EAE reinduction. Moreover, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from the protected mice to naïve syngeneic mice renders the recipient mice resistant to EAE induction. Unexpectedly, CD4+ T cell proliferation is similar upon ex vivo stimulation by MOG35–55 amongst all groups. However, further analysis of those proliferating CD4+ T cells shows remarkable differences in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (70% in MOG-SP groups versus 10–25% in control groups) and in IL-17+ cells (2-3% in MOG-SP groups versus 6–9% in control groups). In addition, we discover that MOG-SP treatment also significantly attenuates MOG35–55-responding IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These findings suggest that MOG-SP treatment induces EAE protective MOG35–55-specific regulatory T cells and suppresses EAE pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells. Our study provides a novel approach for antigen-based EAE immunotherapy, which can potentially be translated into clinical application for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26258148

  3. Macrocyclic Se4N2[7,7]ferrocenophane and Se2N[10]ferrocenophane containing benzyl unit: synthesis, complexation, crystal structures, electrochemical and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian; Song, Yinglin; Ji, Wei; Jing, Su; Zhu, Dunru; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Mengxi; Li, Yanle; Ma, Jing

    2016-02-28

    Two novel macrocyclic polyselena[n]ferrocenophanes containing a pendent benzyl unit, 20-membered Se4N2[7,7]ferrocenophane (L1) and 10-membered Se2N[10]ferrocenophane (L2), were designed and synthesized. The reaction of L1 with two molar amounts of metal salts (M = Cu(+), Cu(2+), Pd(2+) and Hg(2+)) led to six dimetallic complexes 1-6. A crystallographic study revealed that each metal center in 1-5 was tetracoordinated to two selenium atoms from different ferrocene units, one aliphatic nitrogen atom and one co-ligand. The structures of the complexes contain a two-fold axis perpendicular to the molecular plane with two pendant benzyl moieties in an anti-conformation. Macrocycle L1 gives significant electrochemical, linear and third-order nonlinear optical responses to Cu(2+) and Hg(2+). The DFT/B3LYP calculations of 4 demonstrated a small HOMO-LUMO energy gap and delocalization of the π-electron cloud in the frontier molecular orbitals, which led to the enhancement of molecular NLO properties after complexation. The results show that the oxidation state of the ferrocene unit is accompanied by significant differences in the corresponding absorption spectra and third-order NLO properties. PMID:26790582

  4. Low Temperature Heat Capacities and Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of 2-Pyrazinecarboxylic Acid (C5H4N2O2)(s).

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu-Xia; Di, You-Ying; Yang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Sheng-Li; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid (C5H4N2O2)(s) were measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 400 K. A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of temperature was fitted by least squares method. Based on the fitted polynomial, the smoothed heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated and tabulated at 10 K intervals. The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T = 298.15 K was measured by a precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter to be ΔcU = -(17839.40 ± 7.40) J g-1. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound was determined to be ΔcH0m = -(2211.39 ± 0.92) KJ mol-1, according to the definition of combustion enthalpy. Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was calculated to be ΔfH0m = -(327.82 ± 1.13) kJ mol-1 in accordance with Hess law. PMID:24061733

  5. Methylated 4-N,N dimethyl aminobenzyl N,O carboxymethyl chitosan as a new chitosan derivative: Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Soheila; Mohammadi, Zohreh; Amini, Mohsen; Isaei, Elham; Taheritarigh, Sadegh; Rafiee Tehrani, Niyousha; Rafiee Tehrani, Morteza

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan, as a biocompatible polymer, is very attractive for biomedical applications. Continues studies are performing for improving its physicochemical features in order to make it more suitable for such approaches. In this study, methylated 4-N,N dimethyl aminobenzyl N,O carboxymethyl chitosan (MABCC) was synthesized,as a new chitosan derivative, in three steps. The investigations were carried out using FTIR, NMR, TGA and zeta potential measurement. Antibacterial and cell viability assessments were performed on four bacterial strains and two cell lines respectively. FTIR and NMR results showed that all substitution reactions were successfully carried out. Zeta potential of MABCC at various pH especially alkaline pH was greater than chitosan and it revealed increasing the solubility of the derivative. Antibacterial activity of MABCC was extremely greater than chitosan especially in Gram positive bacteria.Furthermore,it had no significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and Skov-3 cell lines in comparison to chitosan. These findings confirm that this new derivative can be introduced as a suitable compound for biomedical purposes. PMID:27261738

  6. A new method of testing pancreatin therapy in vivo by the use of a peroral chymotrypsin substrate 4-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosyl)aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Fric, P; Malis, F; Kasafírek, E; Slabý, J

    1980-06-01

    The efficacy of pancreatin in vivo was determined in 14 patients with advanced pancreatic insufficiency using a peroral test with 2 g of chymotrypsin substrate, 4-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosyl)aminobenzoic acid, the Lundh test meal and 1000 ml tea. Chymotrypsin hydrolysis was quantified by 4-aminobenzoic acid excreted in 6-hr or 8-hr urine samples. After a control test without pancreatin, one or two tablets of Panpur (Nordmark-700 mg of pancreatin and 50 mg of bile per tablet) were applied simultaneously with the Lundh meal on repeated examinations. The urinary excretion of 4-aminobenzoic acid was restored to normal values in 5 subjects during both sampling periods. With this method, stimulated and substituted chymotrypsin is measured at the same time. The conditions of the tests, both with and without pancreatin replacement, are fully comparable and thus the significance of factors modifying the activity of enzymic components in the digestive tube is limited. The method appears appropriate for the institution of an effect pancreatin therapy and its control in vivo. PMID:6970159

  7. Measurements of CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl4, N2O and SF6 in the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, R.; Juzdan, R.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the Department of Energy's High Altitude Sampling Program and some recent trace gas measurement results are presented. Analysis of whole air samples, collected in pressurized bottles, provides information on stratospheric inventories and distributions for CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl4, N2O and SF6 in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on a linear regression analysis of the data the estimated mean Northern Hemisphere stratospheric concentration of each gas increased as follows: CCl3F changed from 54 to 142 p1/1 (4/74-11/83); CCl2F2 changed from 133 to 268 p1/1 (4/76-11/83); SF6 changed from 160 to 480 f1/1 (4/74-11/83); CC1, changed from 58 to 91 p1/1 (4/75-11/83); N2O changed from 246 to 261 n1/1 (4/76-11/83). The calculated mean Northern Hemisphere stratospheric concentrations of N2O, CCl3F, CCl2F2, and CCl4 after 1980 show larger than expected fluctuations with time. Recent volcanic activity may be a partial cause for these fluctuations through induced changes in stratospheric dynamical processes.

  8. Cross section limits for the {sup 248}Cm({sup 25}Mg,4n-5n){sup 268,269}Hs reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, J.; Dvorakova, Z.; Schuber, R.; Tuerler, A.; Yakushev, A.; Bruechle, W.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Jaeger, E.; Schaedel, M.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle, P.; Eichler, R.; Nagame, Y.; Qin, Z.; Semchenkov, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    2009-03-15

    We report on an attempt to produce and detect {sup 268}Hs and {sup 269}Hs in the nuclear fusion reaction {sup 25}Mg+{sup 248}Cm using the gas phase chemistry apparatus COMPACT. No decay chains attributable to the decay of hassium isotopes were observed during the course of this experiment. From the nonobservation of {sup 269}Hs we derive a cross section limit of 0.4 pb (63% confidence limit) for the reaction {sup 248}Cm({sup 25}Mg,4n){sup 269}Hs at a center-of-target beam energy of 140 MeV. The evaluated cross section limit for the {sup 248}Cm({sup 25}Mg,5n){sup 268}Hs reaction depends on the assumed half-life of unknown {sup 268}Hs. Current systematics of the half-lives for even-even Hs isotopes suggests a value of 0.5 s, resulting in a cross section limit of 1.3 pb.

  9. Evaluation of 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid as a potential monitor of endogenous nitrosation of nicotine and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Scherer, G; Conze, C; Adlkofer, F; Pachinger, A; Klus, H

    1993-07-01

    The potential endogenous nitrosation of nicotine and cotinine to yield 4-(N-methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)butyric acid (Iso-NNAC) has been studied in smokers and non-smokers. Following i.v. administration of 100 micrograms Iso-NNAC to rats, excretion in urine (67.4 +/- 25.4%) and feces (6.1 +/- 1.6%) occurred within 24 h. The urinary excretion of nitrate, nicotine, cotinine and Iso-NNAC were determined in 24 h urine samples from 19 smokers and 10 non-smokers. Iso-NNAC excretion was found on four occasions (44, 65, 74 and 163 ng/day) in smokers; non-smokers did not excrete Iso-NNAC. Oral administration of nicotine (n = 8; 12-40 mg) and cotinine (n = 3; 40-60 mg) to abstinent smokers did not result in Iso-NNAC excretion, even after oral nitrate (150 mg) supplementation. However, Iso-NNAC was found in cigarette tobacco (10-330 ng/g) and mainstream cigarette smoke (1.1-5.5 ng/cig.). Our studies suggest that the occasional presence of Iso-NNAC in smokers' urine results from exogenous exposure to the preformed compound in mainstream cigarette smoke and not from endogenous nitrosation of nicotine and its metabolites. PMID:8330358

  10. Ring-strain release in neutral and dicationic 7,8,17,18-tetra-bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin: crystal structures of C44H26Br4N4 and C44H28Br4N4 (2+)·2ClO4 (-)·3CH2Cl2.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, W Robert; Duval, Hugues F; Oliver, Allen G

    2016-06-01

    Two porphyrin complexes were studied to determine the effects of protonation on ring deformation within the porphyrin. The porphyrin 7,8,17,18-tetra-bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin, C44H26Br4N4, was selected because the neutral species is readily doubly protonated to yield a dication, which was crystallized here with perchlorate counter-ions as a di-chloro-methane tris-olvate, C44H28Br4N4 (2+)·2ClO4 (-)·3CH2Cl2. The centrosymmetric neutral species is observed to have a mild 'ruffling' of the pyrrole rings and is essentially planar throughout; intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur. In contrast, the dication exhibits considerable deformation, with the pyrrole rings oriented well out of the plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a 'saddle' conformation of the ring. The charged species forms N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate anions, which lie above and below the plane of the porphyrin ring. Distortions to the planarity of the pyrrole rings in both cases are very minor. The characterization of the neutral species represents a low-temperature redetermination of the previous room-temperature analyses [Zou et al. (1995 ▸). Acta Cryst. C51, 760-761; Rayati et al. (2008 ▸). Polyhedron, pp. 2285-2290], which showed disorder and physically unrealistic displacement parameters. PMID:27308051

  11. α-Lipoic acid attenuates LPS-induced liver injury by improving mitochondrial function in association with GR mitochondrial DNA occupancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqing; Guo, Jun; Sun, Hailin; Huang, Yanping; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been demonstrated to be a key regulator of energy metabolism. However, whether LA can protect the liver from inflammation, as well as the underlying mechanism involved, are still largely unclear. In the present study, mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and injected with LA were used as a model. Liver injury, energy metabolism and mitochondrial regulation were investigated to assess the protective effect of LA on the liver and explore the possible mechanisms involved. Our results showed that LA attenuated liver injury, as evidenced by the decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels after LA treatment compared with the LPS-treated group. The hepatic ATP and NADH levels, expression levels of most mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes as well as mitochondrial complex I, IV and V activities were all significantly increased in the LA-treated group compared with the LPS-treated group. Levels of Sirt3 protein, which is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, were also increased in the LA-treated group. Regarding the regulation of mtDNA-encoded genes expression, we observed no obvious change in the methylation status of the mtDNA D-loop region. However, compared to the LPS-treated group, LA treatment increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression in the liver, as well as the level of GR occupancy on the mtDNA D-loop region. Our study demonstrates that LA exerts a liver-protective effect in an inflammation state by improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that GR may be involved in this effect via an enhanced binding to the mtDNA transcriptional control region, thereby regulating the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. PMID:26133658

  12. Deformation of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, 1992-2014: Constraints on magma flow in relation to eruptions in 1998, 2004 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Einarsson, Pall; Roberts, Matthew; Grapenthin, Ronni; Villemin, Thierry; Arnadottir, Thora; Geirsson, Halldor

    2014-05-01

    A time series of ground deformation at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland from 1992 to 2014 reveals deformation due to plate movements, glacial-isostatic uplift in response to the melting of the Vatnajökull ice cap, annual changes due to snow loading and magma movements. GPS measurements have been made at one nunatak, conducted intermittently since 1992 and continuously since 2004. During this period eruptions have occurred at Grímsvötn in 1998, 2004 and 2011. The component of displacement related to magma movements is obtained after the time series are corrected for signals due to other processes. Uplift and displacement away from the caldera occurs between eruptions at a rate of few cm/yr, interrupted by sudden co-eruptive subsidence and displacement towards the caldera (up to half a meter). This inflation/deflation pattern suggests deformation driven by pressure change in an upper crustal magma chamber, similar to other highly active calderas in Iceland such as Askja and Krafla. A simple model of pressure change variation in a magma chamber at shallow depth, with variable inflow between eruptions and outflow during eruptions can explain the observed deformation pattern. The erupted volume of magma in the 2011 eruption is about 10 times larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of magma in the chamber. The magma compressibility is inferred to have remained constant during the 2011 eruption, as about constant scale factor is found during that eruption between eruption rate and displacement rate. This scale factor is, however, about five times lower for the 2004 eruption. This difference implies higher compressibility of magma in the shallow Grímsvötn magma chamber during the 2011 eruption compared to 2004, assuming the active part of the Grimsvötn magma plumbing system remained the same in both eruptions.

  13. Volcanic ash leaching as a means of tracing the environmental impact of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Cabré, J; Aulinas, M; Rejas, M; Fernandez-Turiel, J L

    2016-07-01

    The Grímsvötn volcanic eruption, from 21 to 28 May, 2011, was the largest eruption of the Grímsvötn Volcanic System since 1873, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of magnitude 4. The main geochemical features of the potential environmental impact of the volcanic ash-water interaction were determined using two different leaching methods as proxies (batch and vertical flow-through column experiments). Ash consists of glass with minor amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, diopside, olivine and iron sulphide; this latter mineral phase is very rare in juvenile ash. Ash grain morphology and size reflect the intense interaction of magma and water during eruption. Batch and column leaching tests in deionised water indicate that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl, S and F had the highest potential geochemical fluxes to the environment. Release of various elements from volcanic ash took place immediately through dissolution of soluble salts from the ash surface. Element solubilities of Grímsvötn ash regarding bulk ash composition were <1 %. Combining the element solubilities and the total estimated mass of tephra (7.29 × 10(14) g), the total inputs of environmentally important elements were estimated to be 8.91 × 10(9) g Ca, 7.02 × 10(9) g S, 1.10 × 10(9) g Cl, 9.91 × 10(8) g Mg, 9.91 × 10(8) g Fe and 1.45 × 10(8) g P The potential environmental problems were mainly associated with the release of F (5.19 × 10(9) g). PMID:27055895

  14. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  15. [Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining: literature review and insights from the quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Piaton, Eric; Fabre, Monique; Goubin-Versini, Isabelle; Bretz-Grenier, Marie-Françoise; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Vincent, Serge; Belleannée, Geneviève; Thivolet, Françoise; Boutonnat, Jean; Debaque, Hervé; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Vielh, Philippe; Cochand-Priollet, Béatrix; Egelé, Caroline; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain is a Romanowsky-type, polychromatic stain as those of Giemsa, Leishman and Wright. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of air-dried preparations (lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations). In the context of their actions of promoting the principles of quality assurance in cytopathology, the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP) and the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) conducted a proficiency test on MGG stain in 2013. Results from the test, together with the review of literature data allow pre-analytical and analytical steps of MGG stain to be updated. Recommendations include rapid air-drying of cell preparations/imprints, fixation using either methanol or May-Grünwald alone for 3-10minutes, two-step staining: 50% May-Grünwald in buffer pH 6.8 v/v for 3-5minutes, followed by 10% buffered Giemsa solution for 10-30minutes, and running water for 1-3minutes. Quality evaluation must be performed on red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, not on tumour cells. Under correct pH conditions, RBCs must appear pink-orange (acidophilic) or buff-coloured, neither green nor blue. Leukocyte cytoplasm must be almost transparent, with clearly delineated granules. However, staining may vary somewhat and testing is recommended for automated methods (slide stainers) which remain the standard for reproducibility. Though MGG stain remains the reference stain, Diff-Quik(®) stain can be used for the rapid evaluation of cell samples. PMID:26188673

  16. The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 abolishes the retching activity of neurons comprising the central pattern generator for vomiting in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Koga, T; Furukawa, N; Nakamura, E; Shiroshita, Y

    1999-01-01

    Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists are known to act centrally and to have broad-spectrum antiemetic effects, but their precise site of action has not yet been defined. To identify this site, the effects of the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 on the activities of neurons comprising the central pattern generator (CPG) for vomiting were observed in decerebrate paralyzed dogs. A non-respiratory neuron in each of nine dogs was considered to be a CPG neuron based on its response to abdominal vagal stimulation, its location in the CPG area in the reticular formation dorsomedial to the retrofacial nucleus, its firing patterns in prodromal and retching phases and its response to apomorphine. In response to vagal stimulation at 3-10 Hz, the firing of these neurons transiently increased at the onset of stimulation (fast component), gradually increased again (slow component), and finally developed into rhythmic bursts synchronous with retching bursts of the phrenic and abdominal muscle nerves. GR205171 (25-50 microg/kg, i.v.) abolished the slow component and retching bursts in the neurons, and the retching activities of both nerves, but did not change the fast component. The responses of these neurons to repetitive pulse-train vagal stimulation exhibited a vigorous 'wind-up' and finally developed into retching bursts. Both the 'wind-up' phenomenon and retching bursts disappeared after the application of GR205171. These results suggest that the site of the antiemetic action of NK1 receptor antagonists is located in the CPG or in the pathway connecting the solitary nucleus to the CPG. PMID:10096468

  17. Exact period-four solutions of a family of n-dimensional quadratic maps via harmonic balance and Gröbner bases.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, María Belén; Calandrini, Guillermo L

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the period-four orbits exhibited by a classical family of n-dimensional quadratic maps are presented. Exact expressions are obtained by applying harmonic balance and Gröbner bases to a single-input single-output representation of the system. A detailed study of a generalized scalar quadratic map and a well-known delayed logistic model is included for illustration. In the former example, conditions for the existence of bistability phenomenon are also introduced. PMID:26627573

  18. Scaling theory of the mott transition and breakdown of the Grüneisen scaling near a finite-temperature critical end point.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Lorenz; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael

    2010-06-18

    We discuss a scaling theory of the lattice response in the vicinity of a finite-temperature critical end point. The thermal expansivity is shown to be more singular than the specific heat such that the Grüneisen ratio diverges as the critical point is approached, except for its immediate vicinity. More generally, we express the thermal expansivity in terms of a scaling function which we explicitly evaluate for the two-dimensional Ising universality class. Recent thermal expansivity measurements on the layered organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X close to the Mott transition are well described by our theory. PMID:20867311

  19. GR@PPA 2.8: Initial-state jet matching for weak-boson production processes at hadron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2012-04-01

    The initial-state jet matching method introduced in our previous studies has been applied to the event generation of single W and Z production processes and diboson (WW, WZ and ZZ) production processes at hadron collisions in the framework of the GR@PPA event generator. The generated events reproduce the transverse momentum spectra of weak bosons continuously in the entire kinematical region. The matrix elements (ME) for hard interactions are still at the tree level. As in previous versions, the decays of weak bosons are included in the matrix elements. Therefore, spin correlations and phase-space effects in the decay of weak bosons are exact at the tree level. The program package includes custom-made parton shower programs as well as ME-based hard interaction generators in order to achieve self-consistent jet matching. The generated events can be passed to general-purpose event generators to make the simulation proceed down to the hadron level. Catalogue identifier: ADRH_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRH_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 112 146 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 596 667 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran; with some included libraries coded in C and C++ Computer: All Operating system: Any UNIX-like system RAM: 1.6 Mega bytes at minimum Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRH_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 665 External routines: Bash and Perl for the setup, and CERNLIB, ROOT, LHAPDF, PYTHIA according to the user's choice. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No, this version supports only a part of the processes included in the previous versions. Nature of problem: We

  20. One-pot synthesis and Nb4N5 surface modification of Nb(4+) self-doped KNbO3 nanorods for enhanced visible-light-driven hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Xia; Cui, Zhentao; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2015-06-01

    Herein, rhombohedral self-doped KNbO3 (S-KN) nanorods were fabricated via a one pot, solvothermal method without using any surfactant. The presence of Nb(4+) in S-KN greatly narrows its band gap and thus extends its photoresponse from UV to the visible light region. Moreover, S-KN/Nb4N5 nanorod heterostructures were obtained by nitriding S-KN nanorods for different times, which exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. The junction formed between S-KN and Nb4N5 and the Nb(4+) self-doping of KN are supposed to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of S-KN/Nb4N5. This study also paves the way for the synthesis of other similar photocatalysts. PMID:25960360

  1. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. PMID:24709424

  2. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 Axes Contribute to the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells in Hypoxic Microenvironment of HNSCC12

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. PMID:24709424

  3. Identification of Transient Radical Anions (LiClO4)(n)(-) (n = 1-3) in THF Solutions: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Electron Localization in Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Archirel, Pierre; Pernot, Pascal; Schmidhammer, Uli; Le Caër, Sophie; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2016-02-01

    Picosecond pulse radiolysis measurements of tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions containing LiClO4 over a wide range of concentration are performed to investigate the formation of transient species. The (35)Cl NMR measurements of these solutions prior to irradiation show that the salt is in the form of (LiClO4)n oligomers. Kinetics and transient absorption spectra of intermediates in each solution are obtained on the time scale from 10 to 3800 ps. A global spectro-kinetic matrix of the data is analyzed by the multicurve resolution alternated least-squares (MCR-ALS) method. It shows the presence of 3 transient species induced by electron pulse, in addition to the solvated electron. A hybrid Monte Carlo/DFT molecular simulation method is elaborated, using the MPW1K functional for the configuration sampling and B3LYP for the spectra calculations. The maximum of the absorption band of the monomer (LiClO4)(-), dimer (LiClO4)2(-), trimer (LiClO4)3(-), and tetramer (LiClO4)4(-) anions are deduced from the simulations. They enable one to label the MCR-ALS spectra (differences are below 0.1 eV) and to interpret the kinetic data. The simulations show also that Li(I) ion catalyzes the reduction of perchlorate by excess electrons. Only the dimer anion, due to its unique structure with a stable Li2(+) core and two nonbridging perchlorates, presents higher stability toward ClO4(-) reduction into ClO3(-). It corresponds to the long-lived species observed in the experiments. PMID:26741165

  4. Conformational analysis of antineoplastic antifolates: the crystal structure of trimetrexate and the aminopterine derivative 4-[N-[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P A; Cody, V

    1987-10-01

    The crystal structures of trimetrexate (TMQ) (2,4-diamino-5-methyl-6-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyanilino)methyl]quinazoli ne) and 4-[N-[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoic acid (PMAB) were determined to examine their conformational features with respect to the enzyme-bound form of methotrexate (MTX). TMQ and MTX are antineoplastic drugs that act by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. The molecular conformation of TMQ is extended with the trimethoxyanilino ring twisted 89 degrees from the quinazoline plane, and the molecular conformation of PMAB is completely planar. The geometry of the 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline rings are sensitive to protonation, and both TMQ and PMAB have geometries characteristic to a free base. TMQ crystallizes as a dimethyl sulfoxide hydrate. The quinazoline ring forms an antiparallel stacking arrangement in the lattice and forms a network of N...O hydrogen bonds with the solvent molecules. In PMAB there are both pteridine-benzoic acid (N...O) hydrogen bonds and pteridine-pteridine (N...N) hydrogen bonds. Although the molecular conformation of TMQ and PMAB differ from enzyme-bound MTX, rotational energy barriers calculated using CAMSEQ indicate that they can adopt a similar conformation to that seen for MTX complexed with dihydrofolate reductase. These energy calculations show that PMAB is quite flexible and further suggest that the 5-methyl in TMQ reduces its conformational flexibility in a different manner than the N(10)-methyl in MTX. These structural data also show that full geometry optimization and proper parameterization of electronic effects at N(10) are required to accurately represent antifolate conformational preferences for enzyme binding. PMID:2958629

  5. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2009-09-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21´ E, 53°24´N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  6. A single gas chromatograph for accurate atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2009-05-01

    We present an adapted gas chromatograph capable of measuring simultaneously and semi-continuously the atmospheric mixing ratios of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 and the trace gas CO with high precision and long-term stability. The novelty of our design is that all species are measured with only one device, making it a very cost-efficient system. No time lags are introduced between the measured mixing ratios. The system is designed to operate fully autonomously which makes it ideal for measurements at remote and unmanned stations. Only a small amount of sample air is needed, which makes this system also highly suitable for flask air measurements. In principle, only two reference cylinders are needed for daily operation and only one calibration per year against international WMO standards is sufficient to obtain high measurement precision and accuracy. The system described in this paper is in use since May 2006 at our atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad near Groningen, The Netherlands at 6°21' E, 53°24' N, 1 m a.s.l. Results show the long-term stability of the system. Observed measurement precisions at our remote research station Lutjewad were: ±0.04 ppm for CO2, ±0.8 ppb for CH4, ±0.8 ppb for CO, ±0.3 ppb for N2O, and ±0.1 ppt for SF6. The ambient mixing ratios of all measured species as observed at station Lutjewad for the period of May 2007 to August 2008 are presented as well.

  7. Nano-crystalline p-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si as a new heterojunction diode

    SciTech Connect

    Sakr, G.B.; Fouad, S.S.; Yahia, I.S.; Abdel Basset, D.M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/Si thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique. ► XRD and AFM graphs support the nano-crystalline of the studied device. ► Dark current–voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated. ► Electrical parameters and conduction mechanism were determined. ► Conduction mechanisms were controlled by TE, SCLC and TCLC. -- Abstract: In this communication, ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation technique on n-Si substrate. P-ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4}/n-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated. The structure of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film was checked by XRD pattern and confirmed by AFM micrographs. The dark current–voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode were investigated to determine the electrical parameters and conduction mechanism as a function of forward and reverse biasing conditions in the range (−10 V to 10 V) at temperature interval (303–423 K). The conduction mechanism was controlled by thermionic emission, space charge limited (SCLC) and trap-charge limited current (TCLC) mechanisms. The basic parameters such as the series resistance R{sub s}, the shunt resistance R{sub sh}, the ideality factor n and the barrier height φ{sub b} of the diode, the total density of trap states N{sub 0} and the exponential trapping distribution P{sub o} were determined. The obtained results showed that ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate for the applications of electronic devices.

  8. Radical Prostatectomy versus External Beam Radiotherapy for cT1-4N0M0 Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Patient Outcomes Including Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Satoru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have been considered as comparable treatments for localized prostate cancer (PC), it is controversial which treatment is better. The present study aimed to compare outcomes, including mortality, of RP and EBRT for localized PC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 891 patients with cT1-4N0M0 PC who underwent either RP (n = 569) or EBRT (n = 322) with curative intent at our single institution between 2005 and 2012. Of the EBRT patients, 302 (93.8%) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Related to these, other-cause mortality (OCM) was also calculated. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was assessed as a secondary endpoint. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median follow-up durations were 53 and 45 months, and median ages were 66 and 70 years (P <0.0001), in the RP and EBRT groups, respectively. As a whole, significantly better prognoses of the RP group than the EBRT group were observed for both OS and CSS, although OCM was significantly higher in the EBRT group. There was no death from PC in men with low and intermediate D’Amico risks, except one with intermediate-risk in the EBRT group. In high-risk patients, significantly more patients died from PC in the EBRT group than the RP group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the RP group to be an independent prognostic factor for better CSS. On the other hand, the EBRT group had a significantly longer biochemical recurrence-free survival than the RP group. Conclusions Mortality outcomes of both RP and EBRT were generally favorable in low and intermediate risk patients. Improvement of CSS in high risk patients was seen in patients receiving RP over those receiving EBRT. PMID:26506569

  9. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and healing of rat tibial fractures through regulation of GR-dependent BMP-2/SMAD signaling.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qin; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Fracture healing is closely related to the number and activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) near the fracture site. The present study was to investigate the effect of Rg1 on osteogenic differentiation of cultured BMSCs and related mechanisms and on the fracture healing in a fracture model. In vitro experiments showed that Rg1 promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Rg1 promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, X-ray examination showed that callus growth in rats treated with Rg1 was substantially faster than that in control rats after fracture. The results of H&E and Safranin-O/Fast Green staining revealed that, compared with controls, rats in the Rg1 treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of trabecular bone but a much lower proportion of fibers and cartilage components inside the callus. Micro-CT suggested that bone mineral density (BMD), percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly increased in the treatment group, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was significantly reduced. Thus, Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the GR/BMP-2 signaling pathway, enhances bone calcification, and ultimately accelerates the fracture healing in rats. PMID:27141994

  10. An analysis of the origin of an early medieval group of individuals from Gródek based on the analysis of stable oxygen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Gaczorek, A; Kozieł, S; Cienkosz-Stepańczak, B; Mądrzyk, K; Pawlyta, J; Gronkiewicz, S; Wołoszyn, M; Szostek, K

    2016-08-01

    In the early Middle Ages, the region of the Cherven Towns, which is now located on both sides of the Polish-Ukrainian border, was fiercely contested by Slavs in the process of forming their early states. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the homogeneity of an early medieval population uncovered in that region, in the town of Gródek on the Bug River, by screening for non-local individuals. The origin of the studied skeletons was ascertained using analysis of oxygen isotopes in the phosphates isolated from bone tissue. In this paper, the isotope ratios obtained for samples collected from 62 human skeletons were compared to the background δ(18)O (in precipitation water) from the regions of Kraków (south-eastern Poland), Lviv (western Ukraine), Brest (western Belarus), and Gródek, as well as to the ratios determined for the animals coexisting with the studied population. Proportions of oxygen isotopes obtained for all the studied individuals were found to be similar to those for the precipitation water and animals, which indicates the absence of bone fragments of individuals originating in other regions. PMID:27255160

  11. Energy response of GR-200A thermoluminescence dosemeters to 60Co and to monoenergetic synchrotron radiation in the energy range 28-40 keV.

    PubMed

    Emiro, F; Di Lillo, F; Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Longo, R; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-01

    The response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (type GR-200A) to monoenergetic radiation of energy 28, 35, 38 and 40 keV was evaluated with respect to irradiation with a calibrated (60)Co gamma-ray source. High-precision measurements of the relative air kerma response performed at the SYRMEP beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) showed a significant deviation of the average response to low-energy X-rays from that to (60)Co, with an over-response from 6 % (at 28 keV) to 22 % (at 40 keV). These data are not consistent with literature data for these dosemeters, where model predictions gave deviation from unity of the relative air kerma response of about 10 %. The authors conclude for the need of additional determinations of the low-energy relative response of GR-200A dosemeters, covering a wider range of monoenergetic energies sampled at a fine energy step, as planned in future experiments by their group at the ELETTRA facility. PMID:25737582

  12. Icariin Ameliorates Cigarette Smoke Induced Inflammatory Responses via Suppression of NF-κB and Modulation of GR In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lulu; Sun, Jing; Xu, Changqing; Zhang, Hongying; Wu, Jinfeng; Liu, Baojun; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of icariin, a major constituent of flavonoids isolated from the herb Epimedium, on cigarette smoke (CS) induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro. Methods In vivo, BALB/c mice were exposed to smoke of 15 cigarettes for 1 h/day, 6 days/week for 3 months and dosed with icariin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). In vitro, A549 cells were incubated with icariin (10, 50 and 100 µM) followed by treatments with CSE (2.5%). Results We found that icariin significantly protected pulmonary function and attenuated CS-induced inflammatory response by decreasing inflammatory cells and production of TNF-α, IL-8 and MMP-9 in both the serum and BALF of CS-exposed mice and decreasing production of TNF-α and IL-8 in the supernatant of CSE-exposed A549 cells. Icariin also showed properties in inhibiting the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 protein and blocking the degradation of IΚB-α protein. Further studies revealed that icariin administration markedly restore CS-reduced GR protein and mRNA expression, which might subsequently contribute to the attenuation of CS-induced respiratory inflammatory response. Conclusion Together these results suggest that icariin has anti-inflammatory effects in cigarette smoke induced inflammatory models in vivo and in vitro, possibly achieved by suppressing NF-κB activation and modulating GR protein expression. PMID:25089961

  13. Sensitive voltammetric sensor based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of clenbuterol in pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Ran; Chen, Jing; Li, Jianjun; Qu, Lingbo; de B Harrington, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) functionalized graphene (GR) was synthesised via a simple one-step chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxides in the presence of PSS. Characterisation of as-made nanocomposite using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) clearly demonstrate the successful attachment of PSS to graphene sheets. A novel clenbuterol (CLB) electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR composite film modified glassy carbon electrode. In the Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.2), the sensor exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of CLB. Applying linear sweep voltammetry, a good linear relationship of the oxidation peak current with respect to concentrations of CLB cross the range of 7.5 × 10(-8)-2.5 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of CLB in pork. PMID:24996313

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and healing of rat tibial fractures through regulation of GR-dependent BMP-2/SMAD signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanqing; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qin; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Fracture healing is closely related to the number and activity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) near the fracture site. The present study was to investigate the effect of Rg1 on osteogenic differentiation of cultured BMSCs and related mechanisms and on the fracture healing in a fracture model. In vitro experiments showed that Rg1 promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Western blot analyses demonstrated that Rg1 promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, X-ray examination showed that callus growth in rats treated with Rg1 was substantially faster than that in control rats after fracture. The results of H&E and Safranin-O/Fast Green staining revealed that, compared with controls, rats in the Rg1 treatment group had a significantly higher proportion of trabecular bone but a much lower proportion of fibers and cartilage components inside the callus. Micro-CT suggested that bone mineral density (BMD), percent bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were significantly increased in the treatment group, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) was significantly reduced. Thus, Rg1 promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating the GR/BMP-2 signaling pathway, enhances bone calcification, and ultimately accelerates the fracture healing in rats. PMID:27141994

  15. Ring-strain release in neutral and dicationic 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin: crystal structures of C44H26Br4N4 and C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, W. Robert; Duval, Hugues F.; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Two porphyrin complexes were studied to determine the effects of protonation on ring deformation within the porphyrin. The porphyrin 7,8,17,18-tetra­bromo-5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin, C44H26Br4N4, was selected because the neutral species is readily doubly protonated to yield a dication, which was crystallized here with perchlorate counter-ions as a di­chloro­methane tris­olvate, C44H28Br4N4 2+·2ClO4 −·3CH2Cl2. The centrosymmetric neutral species is observed to have a mild ‘ruffling’ of the pyrrole rings and is essentially planar throughout; intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur. In contrast, the dication exhibits considerable deformation, with the pyrrole rings oriented well out of the plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a ‘saddle’ conformation of the ring. The charged species forms N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate anions, which lie above and below the plane of the porphyrin ring. Distortions to the planarity of the pyrrole rings in both cases are very minor. The characterization of the neutral species represents a low-temperature redetermination of the previous room-temperature analyses [Zou et al. (1995 ▸). Acta Cryst. C51, 760–761; Rayati et al. (2008 ▸). Polyhedron, pp. 2285–2290], which showed disorder and physically unrealistic displacement parameters. PMID:27308051

  16. Investigation of Seasonal Cycles of CO, CH4, N2O, and O3 in the High Arctic at Eureka, Canada and Barrow, Alaska using Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, S.; Mariani, Z.; Conway, S. A.; Lutsch, E.; Rowe, P. M.; Kasai, Y.; Strong, K.

    2015-12-01

    The High Arctic experiences prolonged periods of total darkness in the winter and continuous daylight in the summer, influencing the atmosphere and its composition in ways that are still not fully understood. Making atmospheric measurements in this remote region is challenging, particularly during polar night when solar-viewing instruments are not operational. By using infrared emission spectroscopy, which is independent of sunlight, we are able to document year-round the total column abundances of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). Measurements made at two Arctic sites are presented in this study: the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, 80.05°N, 86.42°W) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA, Barrow, Alaska, 71.19°N, 156.36°W). At both sites, Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (E-AERIs), are used to measure the absolute downwelling infrared emission from the atmosphere between 400 and 3000 cm-1. The E-AERI has a moderate resolution of 1 cm-1 and provides information about trace gases columns with high sensitivity to the lower troposphere. At PEARL, the instrument was installed in October 2008. In addition, a similar instrument, the University of Idaho's Polar AERI (P-AERI) was installed at PEARL from March 2006 to June 2009. At NSA, the E-AERI has been operating since February 1998. Total columns of CO, CH4, N2O and O3 have been retrieved from 2006 to 2015 at PEARL and from 1998 to 2014 at NSA using the SFIT4 algorithm. These two datasets will be compared along with measurements made by high-resolution solar-viewing infrared spectrometers located at PEARL and at Poker Flat, Alaska (65.12°N, 147.47°W) to validate our results. These measurements will be used to present the annual, seasonal and diurnal variabilities of trace gases in the high Arctic at two different

  17. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  18. Drivers of small scale variability in soil-atmosphere fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 in a forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Nicolai, Clara; Wheeler, Denis; Lang, Friedeike; Paulus, Sinikka

    2016-04-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 can vary on different spatial scales, on large scales between ecosystems but also within apparently homogenous sites. While CO2 and CH4 consumption is rather evenly distibuted in well aerated soils, the production of N2O and CH4 seems to occur at hot spots that can be associated with anoxic or suboxic conditions. Small-scale variability in soil properties is well-known from field soil assesment, affecting also soil aeration and thus theoretically, greenhouse gas fluxes. In many cases different plant species are associated with different soil conditions and vegetation mapping should therefor combined with soil mapping. Our research objective was explaining the small scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes in an apparently homogeneous 50 years old Scots Pine stand in a former riparian flood plain.We combined greenhouse gas measurements and soil physical lab measurments with field soil assessment and vegetation mapping. Measurements were conducted with at 60 points at a plot of 30 X 30 m at the Hartheim monitoring site (SW Germany). For greenhouse gas measurements a non-steady state chamber system and laser analyser, and a photoacoustic analyser were used. Our study shows that the well aerated site was a substantial sink for atmospheric CH4 (-2.4 nmol/m² s) and also a for N2O (-0.4 nmol/m² s), but less pronounced, whereas CO2 production was a magnitude larger (2.6 μmol/m² s). The spatial variability of the CH4 consumption of the soils could be explained by the variability of the soil gas diffusivity (measured in situ + using soil cores). Deviations of this clear trend were only observed at points where decomposing woody debris was directly under the litter layer. Soil texture ranged from gravel, coarse sand, fine sand to pure silt, with coarser texture having higher soil gas diffusivity. Changes in texture were rather abrupt at some positions or gradual at other positions, and were well reflected in the vegetation

  19. Relativistic effects on nuclear magnetic shieldings of CHnX4-n and CHXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Juan I.; Maldonado, Alejandro F.; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic shieldings of both carbon and hydrogen atoms of haluro methyl molecules are highly influenced by the substitution of one or more hydrogen by halogen heavy atoms. We applied the linear response elimination of small components, LRESC, formalism to calculate such shieldings and learn whether including only few terms is enough for getting quantitative reproduction of the total shieldings or not. First, we discuss the contribution of all leading relativistic corrections to σ(C), in CHX2I molecular models with X = H, F, and Cl, and show that spin-orbit (SO) effects are the main ones. After adding the SO effects to the non-relativistic (NR) results, we obtain ˜ 97% (93%) of the total LRESC values for σ(C) (σ(H)). The magnitude of SO terms increases when the halogen atom becomes heavier. In this case, such contributions to σ(C) can be extrapolated as a function of Z, the halogen atomic number. Furthermore, when paramagnetic spin-orbit (PSO) contributions are also considered, we obtain results that are within 1% of the total LRESC value. Then we study in detail the main electronic mechanisms involved to contribute C and H shieldings on CHnX4 - n (n = 1, 3), and CHXYZ (X, Y, Z = F, Cl, Br, I) model compounds. The pattern of σ(C) for all series of compounds follows a normal halogen dependence (NHD), though with different rate of increase. A special family of compounds is that of CHF2X for which σnr(C) follows an inverse halogen dependence though the total shielding have a NHD due to the SO contributions. For the series CH3X (X = F, Cl, Br and I), we found that σSO ˜ Z_X^{2.53}. Another important finding of this work is the logarithmic dependence of σSO(C) with the substituent atomic number: ln σSO(C) = A_X + a_X Z_Y for both family of compounds CH2XY and CHX2Y. We also performed four-component calculations using the spin-free Hamiltonian to obtain SO contributions within a four-component framework.

  20. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity and distribution of viral antigen in chickens after infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H4N6) isolated from wild ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four-week-old commercial chickens were intranasally inoculated with an H4N6 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolated from a duck in Ukraine. Cecum, spleen, lung, and trachea samples were collected from birds from 1 to 21 days post inoculation (dpi) and examined by immunohistochemica...

  1. The Reaction of DABCO with 4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles: Synthesis and Chemistry of 4-[N-(2-Chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles.

    PubMed

    Koyioni, Maria; Manoli, Maria; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2016-01-15

    N-(4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)anilines react with DABCO in hot PhCl to give N-{4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene}anilines in high yields (70-92%). The reaction also works with 4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-one and -thione, giving the corresponding products in 85% and 76% yields, respectively. While the reaction of several (4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)methanes with DABCO failed to give {4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene}methanes, these can be prepared in moderate yields via classical cycloaddition-retrocycloaddition strategies from 4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazole-5-thione. The 2-chloroethyl moiety on selected dithiazoles was also modified without cleavage of the 1,2,3-dithiazole by reaction with various nucleophiles, giving access to 4-[N-(2-substituted)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles in moderate to high yields. PMID:26671065

  2. Fabrication of MgAl2O4 tunnel barrier by radio frequency-sputtering method and magnetoresistance effect through it with Fe or Fe4N ferromagnetic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Chiba, Ryoichi; Kabara, Kazuki

    2015-05-01

    Spinel MgAl2O4 thin films were deposited on MgO single-crystal substrates and epitaxial Fe (or Fe4N) thin films by RF-sputtering from a ceramic target. Epitaxial relationship was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis between the crystalline spinel MgAl2O4 films and the respective substrate and underlayers, while no diffraction peak was observed from the films deposited on amorphous substrates. Spin-valve type magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a stacking structure of Fe [Fe4N]/MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ru/Fe/MnIr exhibited normal [inverse] tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect, reflecting the sign of spin polarization of Fe [Fe4N]. The maximum magnitude of the TMR ratio obtained for the Fe-based and Fe4N-based MTJs was 67% and 18%, respectively. The resistance area product values of the MTJs were significantly larger than the reported values for the MTJs with a post-oxidized spinel MgAl2O4 barrier.

  3. Fabrication of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} tunnel barrier by radio frequency-sputtering method and magnetoresistance effect through it with Fe or Fe{sub 4}N ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Chiba, Ryoichi; Kabara, Kazuki

    2015-05-07

    Spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were deposited on MgO single-crystal substrates and epitaxial Fe (or Fe{sub 4}N) thin films by RF-sputtering from a ceramic target. Epitaxial relationship was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis between the crystalline spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} films and the respective substrate and underlayers, while no diffraction peak was observed from the films deposited on amorphous substrates. Spin-valve type magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a stacking structure of Fe [Fe{sub 4}N]/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFeB/Ru/Fe/MnIr exhibited normal [inverse] tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect, reflecting the sign of spin polarization of Fe [Fe{sub 4}N]. The maximum magnitude of the TMR ratio obtained for the Fe-based and Fe{sub 4}N-based MTJs was 67% and 18%, respectively. The resistance area product values of the MTJs were significantly larger than the reported values for the MTJs with a post-oxidized spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} barrier.

  4. A novel yellow-emitting SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor for solid state lighting: Synthesis, electronic structure and photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jian; Xie, Rong-Jun; Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Takeda, Takashi; Suehiro, Takayuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Li, Yuan-Qiang

    2013-12-15

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped and Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}-codoped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} phosphors were synthesized by gas pressure sintering of powder mixtures of Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2}, AlN, α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, CeN and Li{sub 3}N. The phase purity, electronic crystal structure, photoluminescence properties of SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}(Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}) were investigated in this work. The band structure calculated by the DMol{sup 3} code shows that SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} has a direct band gap of 3.87 eV. The single crystal analysis of Ce{sup 3+}-doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} indicates a disordered Si/Al distribution and nitrogen vacnacy defects. SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} was identified as a major phase of the fired powders, and Sr{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 21}N{sub 35}O{sub 2} and AlN as minor phases. Both Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +} doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-UV or blue light and show a broadband yellow emission peaking around 565 nm. A highest external quantum efficiency of 38.3% under the 450 nm excitation was observed for the Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}-doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (5 mol%). A white light LED lamp with color temperature of 6300 K and color rendering index of Ra=78 was achieved by combining Sr{sub 0.97}Al{sub 1.03}Si{sub 3.997}N/94/maccounttest14=t0005{sub 1}8193 {sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}{sub 0.03} with a commercial blue InGaN chip. It indicates that SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} is a promising yellow emitting down-conversion phosphor for white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: One-phosphor converted white light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated by combining a blue LED chip and a yellow-emitting SrAlSi4N7:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor (see inset), which has the color rendering index of 78 and color temperature of 6300 K. - Highlights: • We reported a new yellow nitride phosphor suitable for solid state lighting. • We solved the crystal structure and evidenced a disordered Si/Al distribution. • We fabricated a high color rendering

  5. Aggregate sound velocities and acoustic Grüneisen parameter of iron up to 300 GPa and 1,200 K

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Dubrovinskaia, N. A.; Le Bihan, T.

    2001-01-01

    Successful interpretation of available geophysical data requires experimental and theoretical information on the elasticity of solids under physical conditions of Earth's interior. Because iron is considered as major component in Earth's core, elastic properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures are very important for modeling its composition and dynamics. We use in situ x-ray diffraction data on ɛ-iron at static pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures to 1,200 K to determine the Debye–Waller temperature factors and calculate aggregate sound velocities and Grüneisen parameter of ɛ-iron by using an approach that is based on Rietveld refinement at high pressures and temperatures. PMID:11504937

  6. MODIS-derived albedo changes of Vatnajökull (Iceland) due to tephra deposition from the 2004 Grímsvötn eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Björnsson, Helgi; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Pálsson, Finnur; Oddsson, Björn; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Occasionally, the surface albedo of glaciers may be abruptly altered by deposition of light-absorbing aerosols, which consequently has a sustained impact on their energy- and mass balance. Volcanic eruptions may spread tephra deposits over regional-scale glacierized areas. In November 2004, an explosive, phreatomagmatic eruption of the subglacial Grímsvötn volcano, located in the centre of the Icelandic ice cap Vatnajökull, produced ash fall covering an area of ∼1280 km2 in the northwestern part of the ice cap. This event affected the surface albedo of the glacier over several years after the eruption. We use MODIS surface-albedo data and an ash-dispersal dataset obtained from in situ measurements on the ice cap to develop a novel, empirically based modelling approach to describe the albedo decrease across the glacier surface caused by the deposited tephra. We present analyses of the temporal and spatial variability of the albedo pattern over the post-eruption period from November 2004 to December 2008. The tephra-induced albedo changes were largest and most widely distributed over the glacier surface during the summer season 2005. The observed albedo decrease reached 0.35 when compared to modelled, undisturbed conditions. In the low-lying ablation area, where strong surface melting takes place, the tephra influence on albedo diminished with time and completely faded out within four years after the eruption. In contrast, at the rim of the Grímsvötn caldera surrounding the eruption site the tephra influences on albedo considerably increased with time. Throughout the rest of the high-lying accumulation area, the influences were scattered in both space and time.

  7. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Timothy; Climstein, Mike; Keogh, Justin William Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC) facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females) living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE) programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys) completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17) of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3) attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants “Benefited from the programme.” There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078) = 8.265, p = 0.007), sit to stand performance (F(3.24) = 11.033, p = 0.002) and handgrip strength (F(3.697) = 26.359, p < 0.001). Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults. PMID:27231652

  8. Spatial variability of greenhouse gases emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir flooding primary forest (Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailleaud, Emilie; Guérin, Frédéric; Bouillon, Steven; Sarrazin, Max; Serça, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    At the Petit Saut Reservoir (PSR, French Guiana, South America), vertical profiles were performed at 5 stations in the open waters (OW) and 6 stations in two shallow flooded forest (FF) areas between April 2012 and September 2013. Measurements included physico-chemical parameters, ammonium, nitrate and dissolved greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (PN), δ13C-POC and δ15N-PN . The diffusive fluxes were calculated from surface concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial variations of greenhouse gas emissions at a dentrical hydroelectric reservoir located in the tropics and flooding primary forest. Twenty years after impoundment, the water column of the PSR is permanently and tightly stratified thermally in the FF whereas in the OW, the thermal gradients are not as stable. The different hydrodynamical behaviours between the two different zones have significant consequences on the biogeochemistry: oxygen barely diffuses down to the hypolimnion in the FF whereas destratification occurs sporadically during the rainy season in the OW. Although we found the same range of POC in the FF and the OW (2.5-29 μmol L-1) and 20% more DOC at the bottom of OW than in the FF (229-878 μmol L-1), CO2 and CH4 concentrations were always significantly higher in the FF (CO2: 11-1412 μmol L-1, CH4: 0.001-1015 μmol L-1) than in the OW. On average, the CO2 concentrations were 30-40% higher in the FF than in the OW and the CH4 concentrations were three times higher in the FF than in the OW. The δ13C-POC and C:N values did not suggest substantial differences in the sources of OM between the FF and OW. At all stations, POC at the bottom has an isotopic signature slightly lighter than the terrestrial OM in the surrounding forest whereas the isotopic signature of surface POM would result from phytoplankton and methanotrophs. The vertical profiles of nitrogen compounds reveal that the main

  9. New Main-Group-Element-Rich nido-Octahedral Cluster System: Synthesis and Characterization of [Et4N][Fe2(CO)6(μ3-As){μ3-EFe(CO)4}2].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Desmond E; Ikhlef, Djamila; Khalal, Samila; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Whitmire, Kenton H

    2016-07-01

    A series of clusters of the form [Et4N][Fe2(CO)6(μ3-As)}(μ3-EFe(CO)4)], where E is either P or As, were synthesized from [Et4N]2[HAs{Fe(CO)4}3] and ECl3. AsCl3 gives the As-only compound; PCl3 produces compounds having two As atoms with one P atom, or one As atom and two P atoms, and they can exist as two possible isomers, one of which is chiral. The As2P and AsP2 clusters cocrystallize, and their structure as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction is given along with the structure of the As-only cluster. Analytical data as well as density functional theory calculations support the formation and geometries of the new molecules. PMID:27310439

  10. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on E. coli: Influence of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar gases

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Palm, Gottfried J.

    2009-10-15

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed on Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli BL21. Treatment was carried out using plasma generated with different compositions of gases: CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} (1:2), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (1:1), N{sub 2}, and Ar, and by varying plasma power and treatment time. E. coli cells were exposed under the DBD plasma in triplicates, and their surviving numbers were observed in terms of colony forming units. It has been observed that the CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma exhibits relatively higher sterilization property toward E. coli compared to plasma generated by using O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and Ar gas mixtures. The time to kill up to 90% of the initial population of the E. coli cells was found to be about 2-3 min for CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas mixture DBD plasma. A prolongation of treatment time and an increase in the dissipated power significantly improved the E. coli killing efficiency of the atmospheric pressure DBD plasma.

  11. [Effects of application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Guo, Xi-sheng; Yang, Xiao-hu; Huang, Xiao-rong

    2008-11-01

    Field trials were conducted to study the effects of different application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat. The results showed that soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents decreased with increasing soil depth. Both the application time and the basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer had significant effects on the NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents in 0-20 cm soil layer. Compared with basal application, later fertilization and higher topdressing ratio could promote the nitrogen uptake by wheat plant and increase the plant nitrogen recovery significantly, decrease the soil nitrogen recovery during wheat growth, and improve the grain quality significantly, while had less effects on the grain yield. Topdressing too much nitrogen fertilizer at booting stage could result in a significant decrease of grain yield. Under the condition of this experiment, the optimal nitrogen fertilization mode for good wheat grain yield and its quality and good ecological benefits was 5:3:2 of basal application: topdressing at jointing stage: topdressing at booting stage. PMID:19238836

  12. Could a first-trimester blood phosphatidylethanol concentration ⩾4 nM be useful to identify women with moderate-to-heavy prenatal alcohol exposure who are at high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Young; Kwak, Ho-Seok; Han, Jung-Yeol; Choi, June-Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Oh, Young-Jun; Velázquez-Armenta, E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2015-12-01

    It is accepted that blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth) concentrations are reliable biomarkers of ethanol (alcohol) exposure. We therefore conducted a preliminary study to test the hypothesis that elevated blood PEth concentrations can help to identifying women with prenatal alcohol exposure who are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study included 35 first-trimester pregnant women who self-reported alcohol ingestion and had PEth blood concentration ⩾4 nM at recruitment. As a control group, 233 first-trimester pregnant women who self-reported as being either abstainers or light alcohol drinkers and had blood PEth concentrations <4 nM, were also included. All participants were followed up until completion of their pregnancies. Women with prenatal alcohol exposure and PEth concentrations ⩾4 nM had a risk ratio of spontaneous abortions of 3.21 (95%CI 0.93-11.06; P=0.074). Because of the potential implications in the prenatal care of women reporting risky alcohol exposure, the preliminary results from the present study indicate the need for testing the hypothesis in a more definitive approach. PMID:26365248

  13. Extension of the T{sub z} = {minus}3/2, A = 4n + 1 series of beta-delayed proton emitters to {sup 65}Se and {sup 73}Sr, and low energy beta-delayed proton emission from the T{sub z} = {minus}3/2, A = 4n + 3 nucleus {sup 23}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelder, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The series of known Tz = {minus}3/2, A = 4n + 1 nuclei has been extended to include the previously undiscovered isotopes {sup 65}Se and {sup 73}Sr, through the observation of beta-delayed proton emission via the isobaric analog state (IAS) of the beta-daughter (emitter). Due to the relatively large proton energies involved, these experiments were conducted using standard Si-Si {Delta}E-E telescopes. Beta-delayed protons arising from {sup 65}Se have been observed at an energy (laboratory) of 3.55 {plus_minus} 0.03 MeV, corresponding to the decay of the T = 3/2 isobaric analog state in {sup 65}As to the ground state of {sup 64}Ge. Similarly, beta-delayed protons from {sup 73}Sr at an energy of 3.75 {plus_minus} 0.04 MeV have been observed, corresponding to decay of the T = 3/2 isobaric analog state in {sup 73}Rb to the ground state of {sup 72}Kr. From the energies of these proton transitions, an improved prediction of the mass excesses of the two parent nuclei ({sup 65}Se and {sup 73}Sr) is made through the use of a Coulomb displacement formula. These predictions are {minus}33.41 {plus_minus} 0.26 and {minus}31.87 {plus_minus} 0.24 MeV for {sup 65}Se and {sup 73}Sr, respectively. Studies of low energy (down to {approximately}200 keV) beta-delayed protons from {sup 23}Al necessitated that a particle identification telescope with a low energy threshold for observation and identification of protons be developed. {sup 23}Al is of interest because of its role in the breakout of the hot CNO cycle leading to the astrophysical rp process.

  14. Mediation of 5-HT-induced external carotid vasodilatation in GR 127935-pretreated vagosympathectomized dogs by the putative 5-HT7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Luján-Estrada, Miguel; Terrón, José A; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1997-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the external carotid bed of anaesthetized dogs with intact sympathetic tone are mediated by prejunctional sympatho-inhibitory 5-HT1B/1D receptors and postjunctional 5-HT receptors. The prejunctional vasodilator mechanism is abolished after vagosympathectomy which results in the reversal of the vasodilator effect to vasoconstriction. The blockade of this vasoconstrictor effect of 5-HT with the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR 127935, unmasks a dose-dependent vasodilator effect of 5-HT, but not of sumatriptan. Therefore, the present study set out to analyse the pharmacological profile of this postjunctional vasodilator 5-HT receptor in the external carotid bed of vagosympathectomized dogs pretreated with GR 127935 (20 μg kg−1, i.v.).One-minute intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-HT (0.330 μg min−1), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 0.010.3 μg min−1), 5-methoxytryptamine (1100 μg min−1) and lisuride (31000 μg min−1) resulted in dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow (without changes in blood pressure or heart rate) with a rank order of agonist potency of 5-CT>>5-HT⩾5-methoxytryptamine>lisuride, whereas cisapride (1001000 μg min−1, i.c.) was practically inactive. Interestingly, lisuride (mean dose of 85±7 μg kg−1, i.c.), but not cisapride (mean dose of 67±7 μg kg−1, i.c.), specifically abolished the responses induced by 5-HT, 5-CT and 5-methoxytryptamine, suggesting that a common site of action may be involved. In contrast, 1 min i.c. infusions of 8-OH-DPAT (33000 μg min−1) produced dose-dependent decreases, not increases, in external carotid blood flow and failed to antagonize (mean dose of 200±33 μg kg−1, i.c.) the agonist-induced vasodilator responses.The external carotid vasodilator responses to 5-HT, 5-CT and 5-methoxytryptamine were not modified by intravenous (i.v.) pretreatment with either saline, (±)-pindolol (4

  15. Combination of erythromycin and dexamethasone improves corticosteroid sensitivity induced by CSE through inhibiting PI3K-δ/Akt pathway and increasing GR expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Jiao; Li, Zhan-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Guang; Zhang, Jian-Quan; Deng, Jing-Min; Bai, Jing; Liu, Guang-Nan; Li, Mei-Hua; MacNee, William; Zhong, Xiao-Ning; He, Zhi-Yi

    2015-07-15

    Corticosteroid insensitivity, which is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE), is a significant barrier when treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Erythromycin (EM) has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role in some chronic airway inflammatory diseases, particularly diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. Here, we explored whether the combination therapy of EM and dexamethasone (Dex) reverses corticosteroid insensitivity and investigated the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. We demonstrated that the combination of EM and Dex restored corticosteroid sensitivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COPD patients and U937 cells after CSE exposure. Moreover, pretreatment with 10, 50, or 100 μg/ml EM reversed the HDAC2 protein reduction induced by CSE exposure in a dose-dependent manner. U937 cells exposed to CSE show a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which was potently reversed by EM or combination treatment. Although 10 and 17.5% CSE increased phosphorylated Akt (PAkt) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, preapplication of EM and the combination treatment in particular blocked this PAkt increase. Total Akt levels were unaffected by CSE or EM treatments. Furthermore, the combination treatment enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α expression. Our results demonstrate that the combination therapy of EM and Dex can restore corticosteroid sensitivity through inhibition of the PI3K-δ/Akt pathway and enhancing GRα expression. PMID:25957293

  16. Dynamics, stratigraphy and proximal dispersal of supraglacial tephra during the ice-confined 2004 eruption at Grímsvötn Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jude-Eton, T. C.; Thordarson, T.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    The basaltic, phreatomagmatic eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, in November 2004 (G2004) lasted for 5 days, during which time two separate vents were active. Significant deposition of tephra occurred in the first 45 h only. We have subdivided the deposit into seven units (A-G) on the basis of differences in texture, grain size and componentry, and the presence of sharp contacts between the layers. The distribution of tephra lobes was used to infer the vent of origin for each unit. The G2004 deposit is poorly sorted overall and consists of non-vesicular to highly vesicular juvenile components. Units A and B comprise almost exclusively non- to poorly vesicular glass fragments, whereas units C-G contain at least 30 vol.% highly vesicular pumice. The proportion of non-juvenile fragments increases significantly in the final unit (unit F) of the main phase; non-juvenile fragments are restricted to the coarse (>0 Φ) fraction of the deposit. Main phase units C and E account for 80% of the total deposit volume, including the entire distal portion, and are interpreted to represent a mixture of (1) a widely dispersed component that fell from the upper margins of a strongly inclined (˜45°), 6-10 km high plume and (2) a locally dispersed (<3 km from source) component originating from pyroclastic density currents and minor tephra jets.

  17. Simulation of the effect of diabatic heating in a case of explosive cyclogenesis in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aid of the model COSMO-GR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroutzoglou, John; Avgoustoglou, Evripides; Flocas, Helena A.; Hatzaki, Maria; Karvelis, Haralambos; Keay, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The effect of low-level diabatic heating is considered as an important factor in the development and evolution of explosive cyclones in the Mediterranean that, however, presents significant differences among different sub-areas and cases. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of the parameterization scheme of the regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model (COSMO-GR) to simulate the spatial and temporal variations of low-level diabatic heating in a case of explosive cyclogenesis that occurred in the Cyprus area. Model runs are performed for a series of different values of the model parameter "sea roughness" that has proved to significantly affect the simulation of the sea surface fluxes. Then, the derived sea pressure values for each run are compared with observations from surface meteorological stations and ECMWF analyses. It was found that smaller values of the sea roughness parameter compared to the default parameterization, lead to significant enhancement of the magnitude of the surface deepening rates during the explosive deepening period and, thus, to lower minimum pressures that are closer to the observed values. Moreover, the tests demonstrated that the inclusion of latent heat release in the middle troposphere is required to determine a more suitable parameterization of the model physics in order to avoid the underestimation of the thermodynamic mechanisms and, thus, the non-effective evolution of the surface cyclone.

  18. Influence of xc functional on thermal-elastic properties of Ceria: A DFT-based Debye-Grüneisen model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hwan; Tak, Youngjoo; Lee, Taehun; Soon, Aloysius

    Ceria (CeO2-x) is widely studied as a choice electrolyte material for intermediate-temperature (~ 800 K) solid oxide fuel cells. At this temperature, maintaining its chemical stability and thermal-mechanical integrity of this oxide are of utmost importance. To understand their thermal-elastic properties, we firstly test the influence of various approximations to the density-functional theory (DFT) xc functionals on specific thermal-elastic properties of both CeO2 and Ce2O3. Namely, we consider the local-density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE) with and without additional Hubbard U as applied to the 4 f electron of Ce, as well as the recently popularized hybrid functional due to Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzehof (HSE06). Next, we then couple this to a volume-dependent Debye-Grüneisen model to determine the thermodynamic quantities of ceria at arbitrary temperatures. We find an explicit description of the strong correlation (e.g. via the DFT + U and hybrid functional approach) is necessary to have a good agreement with experimental values, in contrast to the mean-field treatment in standard xc approximations (such as LDA or GGA-PBE). We acknowledge support from Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics (SRFC-MA1501-03).

  19. Hydrothermal activity during tectonic building of the Variscan orogen recorded by U-Pb systematics of xenotime in the Grès Armoricain formation, Massif Armoricain, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartèse, Romain; Poujol, Marc; Gloaguen, Eric; Boulvais, Philippe; Drost, Kerstin; Košler, Jan; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-08-01

    In the Saint-Aubin-des-Châteaux deposit (Massif Armoricain, France), the Ordovician Grès Armoricain sandstones have undergone several fluid-rock interaction events, including diagenetic cementation and orogenic base metal-As-Sb-Au mineralisation. Ironstone layers interbedded in the sandstones contain several generations of spectacular authigenic xenotime overgrowths that formed around detrital zircon grains in response to successive hydrothermal events. Textural and chemical characterisations allow to distinguish three generations of xenotime overgrowths, differing notably in their REE characteristics. In-situ U-Pb data obtained on these xenotime overgrowths show that their U-Pb systematics were largely disturbed by successive hydrothermal events over about 90 Ma between ~ 330 and ~ 420 Ma, a time interval encompassing most phases of the construction of the Variscan orogen in France. The younger dates cluster around ~ 330-340 Ma and likely correspond to the age of the deposition of massive sulphides and base-metals in the Saint-Aubin-des-Châteaux deposits, which is consistent with the structural contexts where they formed. Finally, this study shows that similarly to monazite, another phosphate widely used for U-Pb and Th-Pb dating studies, the U-Pb chronometric system in xenotime appears to be highly sensitive to fluid circulations.

  20. Influence of xc functional on thermal-elastic properties of metal oxides: A DFT-based Debye-Gr"uneisen model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehun; Soon, Aloysius

    2012-02-01

    For high-temperature applications, the chemical stability, as well as the mechanical integrity of the oxide material used is of utmost importance. Solving these problems demands a thorough and fundamental understanding of their thermal-elastic properties. In this work, we report density-functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the influence of the xc functional on specific thermal-elastic properties of some common oxides CeO2, Cu2O, and MgO. Namely, we consider the local-density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation due to Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (GGA-PBE), as well as a recently popularized hybrid functional due to Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzehof (HSE06). In addition, we will also report DFT+U results where we introduce a Hubbard U term to the Cu 3d and the Ce 4f states. Upon obtaining the DFT total energies, we then couple this to a volume-dependent Debye-Gr"uneisen model [1] to determine the thermodynamic quantities of these oxides at arbitrary pressures and temperatures. We find an explicit description of the strong correlation (e.g. via the DFT+U approach and using HSE06) is necessary to have a good agreement with experimental values. [1] A. Otero-de-la-Roza, D. Abbasi-P'erez et al. Com. Phys. Com. 182 (2011) 2232

  1. Crime detection of R. F. Navarro building using terrestrial/close-range photogrammetry as used in a Supreme Court case GR-102313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Angel A.; Navarro, Marcela Z.

    1993-10-01

    Our space organization expertise has already been in full-blown space high-technological operations for pedagogical uses. Our space sciences are integrated into a cycle on terrestrial/close-range photogrammetry and remote sensing laboratory set-up. We have used terrestrial/close-range photogrammetry for crime detection on the R. F. Navarro Building as used for support in Supreme Court Case No. 102313 because of the principal need for accurate scale references. But if the photogrammetric work must be tied to an object coordinate system, this can usually be done later by rigid transformations to a few (even partially) known points on the object and as our organization is now specializing with the crime detection of a certain prewar R. F. Navarro Building with Cadastral Record Survey No. 189 (MNL-Manila, Philippines) using terrestrial/close-range photogrammetry to detect the criminal culprits in using preponderance-of-evidence for legal and scientific uses in Supreme Court Case G.R. No. 102313. So far, the results of our legal and scientific uses in Supreme Court case research are outlined and the outcome of this position paper.

  2. Increased neurokinin-1 receptor availability in the amygdala in social anxiety disorder: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]GR205171.

    PubMed

    Frick, A; Ahs, F; Linnman, C; Jonasson, M; Appel, L; Lubberink, M; Långström, B; Fredrikson, M; Furmark, T

    2015-01-01

    The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor is abundantly expressed in the fear circuitry of the brain, including the amygdala, where it modulates stress and anxiety. Despite its proposed involvement in psychopathology, only a few studies of NK1 receptor availability in human subjects with anxiety disorders exist. Here, we compared NK1 receptor availability in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 17) using positron emission tomography and the radiotracer [11C]GR205171. The Patlak Graphical plot using a cerebellar reference region was used to model the influx parameter, Ki measuring NK1 receptor availability. Voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed increased NK1 receptor availability specifically in the right amygdala in SAD patients relative to controls. Thus, we demonstrate that exaggerated social anxiety is related to enhanced NK1 receptor availability in the amygdala. This finding supports the contribution of NK1 receptors not only in animal models of stress and anxiety but also in humans with anxiety disorders. PMID:26151925

  3. Age, sex and NK1 receptors in the human brain -- a positron emission tomography study with [¹¹C]GR205171.

    PubMed

    Engman, Jonas; Åhs, Fredrik; Furmark, Tomas; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Appel, Lieuwe; Frans, Örjan; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    The substance P/neurokinin 1 (SP/NK1) system has been implicated in the processing of negative affect. Its role seems complex and findings from animal studies have not been easily translated to humans. Brain imaging studies on NK1 receptor distribution in humans have revealed an abundance of receptors in cortical, striatal and subcortical areas, including the amygdala. A reduction in NK1 receptors with increasing age has been reported in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as in hippocampal areas. Also, a previous study suggests sex differences in cortical and subcortical areas, with women displaying fewer NK1 receptors. The present PET study explored NK1 receptor availability in men (n=9) and women (n=9) matched for age varying between 20 and 50years using the highly specific NK1 receptor antagonist [¹¹C]GR205171 and a reference tissue model with cerebellum as the reference region. Age by sex interactions in the amygdala and the temporal cortex reflected a lower NK1 receptor availability with increasing age in men, but not in women. A general age-related decline in NK1 receptor availability was evident in the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices, as well as in the brainstem, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Women had lower NK1 receptor availability in the thalamus. The observed pattern of NK1 receptor distribution in the brain might have functional significance for brain-related disorders showing age- and sex-related differences in prevalence. PMID:22225860

  4. beta 1-4N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase can synthesize both asialoglycosphingolipid GM2 and glycosphingolipid GM2 in vitro and in vivo: isolation and characterization of a beta 1-4N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase cDNA clone from rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH7974F.

    PubMed Central

    Hidari, J K; Ichikawa, S; Furukawa, K; Yamasaki, M; Hirabayashi, Y

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding beta 1-4N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.92) (GalNAc-T) from rat ascites hepatoma of the free-cell type AH7974F. The cell line only expressed asialo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) including asialo-GM2 [Taki, T., Hirabayashi, Y., Ishiwata, Y., Matsumoto, M., and Kojima, K. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 572, 113-120]. The cDNA, pGNA56, was isolated by screening AH7974F cDNA library in lambda gt10 with a probe. The probe was obtained from AH7974F cDNA by PCR using primers with the nucleotide sequence of the human GalNAc-T cDNA. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of pGNA56 exhibited 88% similarity to the human GalNAc-T sequence. The enzyme was a typical type II membrane protein, which consisted of a short N-terminal residue, a transmembrane region, and a long C-terminal residue, including the catalytic domain. The substrate specificity of rat GalNAc-T was determined using homogenates from cells into which the cDNA clone was transfected. The enzyme catalysed not only the formation of GM2 and GD2 from GM3 and GD3 respectively, but also asialo-GM2 from CDH. It also acted on GSL substrates, including GM1b, sialylparagloboside and GD1 alpha. On the other hand, the enzyme did not transfer GalNAc to soluble substrates such as glycoproteins and oligosaccharide. The GSL compositional and immunocytochemical analyses of stable transfectants obtained by transfection of the cDNA showed simultaneous expression of asialo-GM2 and GM2 on the plasma membrane. Therefore, we concluded that the formation of asialo-GM2, GM2 and GD2 was catalysed by the single GalNAc-T. Northern-blot hybridization showed that the GalNAc-T mRNA was strongly expressed in rat brain, testis, and spleen. The gene was also expressed in rat normal liver to a lesser extent. We found the GSLs in asialo- and alpha-pathways such as asialo-GM1 and GD1 alpha in the rat tissues by using a sensitive t.l.c.-immunostaining method. These observations also

  5. Sunscreens and T4N5 liposomes differ in their ability to protect against ultraviolet-induced sunburn cell formation, alterations of dendritic epidermal cells, and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Cox, P; Yarosh, D B; Kripke, M L

    1995-02-01

    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can lead to diverse biologic effects, including inflammation, sunburn cell formation, alterations of cutaneous immune cells, and impaired induction of contact hypersensitivity responses. The molecular mechanisms of these UV-induced effects are not completely understood. We investigated the ability of sunscreens and liposomes containing the DNA excision repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V to prevent these effects of UV radiation. The use of T4N5 liposomes, which increase the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, provides an approach for assessing the role of DNA damage in the effects of UV radiation on the skin. Exposing C3H mice to 500 mJ/cm2 UVB radiation from FS40 sunlamps resulted in skin edema, sunburn cell formation, and morphologic alterations and decreased numbers of Langerhans cells and Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal T cells. In addition, the induction of contact hypersensitivity after application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene on UV-irradiated skin was diminished by 80%. Applying sunscreens containing octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, or benzophenone-3 before this dose of UV irradiation gave nearly complete protection against all of these effects of UV irradiation. In contrast, topical application of T4N5 liposomes after UV irradiation had no effect on UV-induced skin edema and only partially protected against sunburn cell formation and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, although its ability to protect against alterations in dendritic immune cells was comparable to that of the sunscreens. These results suggest that DNA damage is involved in only some of the local effects of UV radiation on the skin. In addition, T4N5 liposomes may be a useful adjunct to sunscreens because they can reduce some of the deleterious effects of UV radiation on skin even after a sunburn has been initiated. PMID:7829886

  6. In Situ Coupling of Strung Co4N and Intertwined N-C Fibers toward Free-Standing Bifunctional Cathode for Robust, Efficient, and Flexible Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanlu; Zhong, Haixia; Bao, Di; Yan, Junmin; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-08-17

    Flexible power sources with high energy density are crucial for the realization of next-generation flexible electronics. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible zinc-air (Zn-air) batteries could provide high specific energy, while their large-scale applications are still greatly hindered by high cost and resources scarcity of noble-metal-based oxygen evolution reaction (OER)/oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts as well as inferior mechanical properties of the air cathode. Combining metallic Co4N with superior OER activity and Co-N-C with perfect ORR activity on a free-standing and flexible electrode could be a good step for flexible Zn-air batteries, while lots of difficulties need to be overcome. Herein, as a proof-of-concept experiment, we first propose a strategy for in situ coupling of strung Co4N and intertwined N-C fibers, by pyrolyzation of the novel pearl-like ZIF-67/polypyrrole nanofibers network rooted on carbon cloth. Originating from the synergistic effect of Co4N and Co-N-C and the stable 3D interconnected conductive network structure, the obtained free-standing and highly flexible bifunctional oxygen electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for both OER and ORR in terms of low overpotential (310 mV at 10 mA cm(-2)) for OER, a positive half-wave potential (0.8 V) for ORR, and a stable current density retention for at least 20 h, and especially, the obtained Zn-air batteries exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (1.09 V at 50 mA cm(-2)) and long cycle life (up to 408 cycles). Furthermore, the perfect bendable and twistable and rechargeable properties of the flexible Zn-air battery particularly make it a potentially power portable and wearable electronic device. PMID:27463122

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a new (2-NH{sub 2}-6-CH{sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)H{sub 2}XO{sub 4} (X=P, As)

    SciTech Connect

    Chtioui, A.; Jouini, A. . E-mail: amor.jouini@fsm.rnu.tn

    2006-03-09

    Crystals of 2-amino-6-methylpyridinium dihydrogenmonophosphate (denoted as 2A6MPP) and 2-amino-6-methylpyridinium dihydrogenmonoarsenate (denoted as 2A6MPAs), have been prepared and grown at room temperature. They crystallize with triclinic unit cells and are isotopic. The following unit cell parameters were found, (2-NH{sub 2}-6-CH{sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}: a=7.5165(6), b=8.2640(5), c=8.5674(7)A, {alpha}=64.845(5), {beta}=80.156(3), {gamma}=85.783(5), Z=2, V=474.61(6)A{sup 3}; (2-NH{sub 2}-6-CH{sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)H{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}: a=7.6011(4), b=8.4261(6), c=8.7074(6)A, {alpha}=64.228(3), {beta}=81.047(4), {gamma}=85.972(4), Z=2, V=496.09(6)A{sup 3}. The common space group is P1-bar . We have determined the structure of the phosphate. It exhibits infinite (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub n}{sup -n} chains. The organic groups (2-NH{sub 2}-6-CH{sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N){sup +} are anchored between adjacent polyanions through multiple hydrogen bonds. The thermal property of the compound was investigated as well as was the IR property supported by group theoretical analyses.

  8. Synthesis and Mechanical Wear Studies of Ultra Smooth Nanostructured Diamond (USND) Coatings Deposited by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition with He/H2/CH4/N2 Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, S.; Borham, J.; Catledge, S. A.; Eberhardt, A. W.; Johnson, P. S.; Vohra, Y. K.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra smooth nanostructured diamond (USND) coatings were deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique using He/H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture. The RMS surface roughness as low as 4 nm (2 micron square area) and grain size of 5–6 nm diamond coatings were achieved on medical grade titanium alloy. Previously it was demonstrated that the C2 species in the plasma is responsible for the production of nanocrystalline diamond coatings in the Ar/H2/CH4 gas mixture. In this work we have found that CN species is responsible for the production of USND coatings in He/H2/CH4/N2 plasma. It was found that diamond coatings deposited with higher CN species concentration (normalized by Balmer Hα line) in the plasma produced smoother and highly nanostructured diamond coatings. The correlation between CN/Hα ratios with the coating roughness and grain size were also confirmed with different set of gas flows/plasma parameters. It is suggested that the presence of CN species could be responsible for producing nanocrystallinity in the growth of USND coatings using He/H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture. The RMS roughness of 4 nm and grain size of 5–6 nm were calculated from the deposited diamond coatings using the gas mixture which produced the highest CN/Hα species in the plasma. Wear tests were performed on the OrthoPOD®, a six station pin-on-disk apparatus with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins articulating on USND disks and CoCrMo alloy disk. Wear of the UHMWPE was found to be lower for the polyethylene on USND than that of polyethylene on CoCrMo alloy. PMID:19112519

  9. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The GR19 meeting was held in México City from 6-9 July 2010. The decision to have the meeting in México was taken during the GR18 meeting in Sydney, Australia in 2007, and represented a great milestone for the scientific community working in the fields related to gravitation in México. This fact was evidenced by the commitment of the most important institutions in México where the field is developed, by the support the meeting received at various governmental levels, and also by a promotional campaign dedicated to educate the public about our subject, which was undertaken by important segments of the gravitational physics community in Mexico. This campaign was named 'El Mes de Einstein' or 'The Einsteinian Month', and consisted of a series of presentations, talks and movies about topics related to General Relativity which culminated with the public talk of the GR19 meeting (now a traditional aspect of the GR events). This talk was given by George Smoot, Nobel laureate in physics 2006, on the amazing developments around the detailed studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and was held at the Nezahualc'oyotl Hall in the main campus of the National Autonomous University of México, which was filled to capacity by enthusiastic crowds of lay people fascinated with the subject. The meeting itself was a very successful one with participants from dozens of countries spanning the five continents, with a rich, varied and informative plenary program. Highlights, featured in this issue, were perhaps the talk by Veronika Hubeny on the fluid/gravity correspondence, a subject that has grown dramatically during the last few years, the lecture by Tarun Souradeep on the enormous potential for discovery offered by the ever increasing accuracy of cosmological observations, the presentation by Jeffrey McClintock, about accreting black holes and the exciting possibility of measuring their spins, the informative review about Loop Quantum Gravity from one of the pioneers of the

  10. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The GR19 meeting was held in México City from 6-9 July 2010. The decision to have the meeting in México was taken during the GR18 meeting in Sydney, Australia in 2007, and represented a great milestone for the scientific community working in the fields related to gravitation in México. This fact was evidenced by the commitment of the most important institutions in México where the field is developed, by the support the meeting received at various governmental levels, and also by a promotional campaign dedicated to educate the public about our subject, which was undertaken by important segments of the gravitational physics community in Mexico. This campaign was named 'El Mes de Einstein' or 'The Einsteinian Month', and consisted of a series of presentations, talks and movies about topics related to General Relativity which culminated with the public talk of the GR19 meeting (now a traditional aspect of the GR events). This talk was given by George Smoot, Nobel laureate in physics 2006, on the amazing developments around the detailed studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and was held at the Nezahualc'oyotl Hall in the main campus of the National Autonomous University of México, which was filled to capacity by enthusiastic crowds of lay people fascinated with the subject. The meeting itself was a very successful one with participants from dozens of countries spanning the five continents, with a rich, varied and informative plenary program. Highlights, featured in this issue, were perhaps the talk by Veronika Hubeny on the fluid/gravity correspondence, a subject that has grown dramatically during the last few years, the lecture by Tarun Souradeep on the enormous potential for discovery offered by the ever increasing accuracy of cosmological observations, the presentation by Jeffrey McClintock, about accreting black holes and the exciting possibility of measuring their spins, the informative review about Loop Quantum Gravity from one of the pioneers of the

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Limits Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Attenuating MyD88-Dependent and MyD88-Independent Pathway Activation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Mengling; Fu, Yunhe; Wang, Jiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine Escherichia coli infection after calving reduces fertility and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. We investigated the protective effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on E. coli-induced cell damage and inflammation in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs). L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduced ultrastructure alterations and the percentage of BEECs apoptosis after E. coli challenge. Increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of immune response indicators, including pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]1, and NOD2), inflammasome proteins (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1), TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules (myeloid differentiation antigen 88 [MyD88], toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [TICAM2]), nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-β, was observed following E. coli challenge. However, these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 ameliorates the E. coli-induced disruption of cellular ultrastructure, subsequently reducing the percentage of BEECs apoptosis and limiting inflammatory responses, partly via attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway activation. Certain probiotics could potentially prevent postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, ultimately reducing the use of antibiotics. PMID:27236308

  12. A brain-specific Ca sup 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase-Gr) is regulated by autophosphorylation. Relevance to neuronal Ca sup 2+ signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Frangakis, M.V.; Ohmstede, C.A.; Sahyoun, N. )

    1991-06-15

    A neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase-Gr) undergoes autophosphorylation on a serine residue(s) in response to Ca2+ and calmodulin. Phosphate incorporation leads to the formation of a Ca(2+)-independent (autonomous) activity state, as well as potentiation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent response. The autonomous enzyme activity of the phosphorylated enzyme {approximately} equals the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated activity of the unphosphorylated enzyme, but displays diminished affinity toward ATP and the synthetic substrate, syntide-2. The Km(app) for ATP and syntide-2 increased 4.3- and 1.7-fold, respectively. Further activation of the autonomous enzyme by Ca2+/calmodulin yields a marked increase in the affinity for ATP and peptide substrate such that the Km(app) for ATP and syntide-2 decreased by 14- and 8-fold, respectively. Both autophosphorylation and the addition of Ca2+/calmodulin are required to produce the maximum level of enzyme activation and to increase substrate affinity. Unlike Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II that is dephosphorylated by the Mg(2+)-independent phosphoprotein phosphatases 1 and 2A, CaM kinase-Gr is dephosphorylated by a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase that may be related to the type 2C enzyme. Dephosphorylation of CaM kinase-Gr reverses the effects of autophosphorylation on enzyme activity. A comparison between the autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions of CaM kinase-Gr and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II provides useful insights into the operation of Ca(2+)-sensitive molecular switches.

  13. Long-term observations of snow spatial distributions at Hellstugubreen and Gråsubreen, Norway: An investigation in winter balance, time stability, probing reliability, and reduced survey designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Alexander; Andreassen, Liss; Ove Hagen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Snow accumulation is the most spatially heterogeneous component of glacier mass balance calculations, yet it exhibits robust time stability in spatial distributions. This investigation examines the characteristics of time stability, the reliability and representativeness of snow probing locations, and the scope for reducing the snow measurement surveys at two glaciers. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate's (NVE) long-term snow distribution archives at Hellstugubreen and Gråsubreen cover 48 and 44 years respectively, and provide a unique opportunity to investigate snow distributions on two proximate glaciers, allowing inter-comparisons. Throughout, data years are categorised into quarters, thus exposing variable snow spatial distribution patterns relative to overall precipitation levels. Stability maps and statistics are computed on a cell-by-cell basis on a 30 m x 30 m grid. Results find strong spatial heterogeneity in snow distributions, and increasing time stability with snow levels at both glaciers. Good time stability is also found at low precipitation levels at Gråsubreen. Overall, Hellstugubreen is more time stable than Gråsubreen. Reliability maps of representative probing locations are used to reduce survey designs, allowing resampling and reconstructions of winter balances. One index site for glacier-wide winter balance and one probing location per 50 m elevation interval are used. These calculations are done for all compiled data years, or combined quarters of data years based on the winter balances. Winter balance reconstructions produce records within <0.10 m w.e. and <0.15 m w.e. of official winter balances at Hellstugubreen and Gråsubreen. Mean percentage errors are <6.2 % and <13.7 % respectively. The most accurate winter balance reconstructions use one probing per 50 m elevation interval, and quartered data years. Using centreline only probings underestimates winter balance, most dramatically at Hellstugubreen. Several strongly

  14. Kinematics of long lived faults in intraplate settings: case study of the Río Grío Fault (Iberian Range).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcén, Marcos; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio; Calvín-Ballester, Pablo; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; García-Lasanta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the comparison of structural analysis and AMS data of Río Grío Fault, associated with the Datos Fault System, in the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate, Spain). The Río Grío Fault, with NW-SE strike, has a tectonic evolution of probably Mesozoic extension and Tertiary transpressive dextral movement, and it is characterized by the presence of a well-developed cataclastic zone 200m width. The structure of the core is characterized by elongated along strike and narrow lenses separated by subvertical fault planes with well-developed fault breccias and gouges. The lenses usually conserve intact stratification, and it may be recognized several lithologies, including Ordovician quartzites, slates and clay, and red-colored Permo-triassic clay and sandstones. The internal structure of these lenses shows folds, brechified zones, and localized foliation in clay lenses. Cinematic indicators (striations, S/C structures…) show strong reverse dip-slip and dextral strike-slip components, indicating strain partitioning between the different lenses, and it is interpreted as the result of the reactivation of previous normal faults, like a strike-slip shear, during the NNE-SSW to NE-SW Cenozoic compression of the NE Iberian Plate. Samples of AMS study were collected from two areas (SG and RG) of the fault zone, separated by 4.5km along strike. Samples provide a magnetic susceptibility highly dependent on lithology, between ±5*10-5 [SI] in the white fault gouge and ±20*10-5 [SI] in red-colored clay. The low susceptibility in several sites results in high imprecise AMS measurements. AMS results for the first area (SG), obtained in red and black colored clays, show the same magnetic fabric in all sites. K-min axis of the magnetic ellipsoid corresponds to the pole of the fault planes measured in the outcrop, and the magnetic lineation is nearly horizontal, probably related to strike-slip movements. In the second area (RG), the AMS shows a grater

  15. Seismic tremor signals from Bárðarbunga, Grímsvötn and other glacier covered volcanoes in Iceland's Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Eibl, Eva; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2016-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes, like Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga are located under glaciers giving rise to a range of volcanic hazards having both local and cross-border effects on humans, infrastructures and aviation. Volcanic eruptions under ice can lead to explosive hydromagmatic volcanism and generate small to catastrophic subglacial floods that may take hours to days to emerge from the glacier edge. Unrest in subglacial hydrothermal systems and the draining of subglacial meltwater can also lead to flood hazards. These processes and magma-ice interactions in general, generate seismic tremor signals that are commonly observed on seismic systems during volcanic unrest and/or eruptions. The tremor signals exhibit certain characteristics in frequency content, amplitude and behavior with time, but their characteristics overlap. Ability to discriminate between the different processes in real-time or near-real time can support early eruption and flood warnings and help mitigate their detrimental effects. One of the goals set forth in the FUTUREVOLC volcano supersite project was in fact to understand and discriminate between the different types of seismic tremor recorded at subglacial volcanoes. In that pursuit, the seismic network was expanded into the Vatnajökull glacier with four permanent stations on rock and in the ice, in addition to three seismic arrays installed at the ice margin, to enable location and possible tracking of the tremor sources. To track subglacial floods with better resolution three GPS receivers were also installed on the ice, one in an ice cauldron above the Skaftárkatlar geothermal melting area and two down glacier, above the track of the expected subglacial flood. During FUTUREVOLC this infrastructure has recorded all the types of process expected: Magmatic dyke intrusion and propagation from Bárðarbunga, subaerial fissure eruption of that magma at Holuhraun, two subglacial floods, one small and one large, draining from the

  16. Increased Biomass, Seed Yield and Stress Tolerance Is Conferred in Arabidopsis by a Novel Enzyme from the Resurrection Grass Sporobolus stapfianus That Glycosylates the Strigolactone Analogue GR24

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sharmin; Griffiths, Cara A.; Blomstedt, Cecilia K.; Le, Tuan-Ngoc; Gaff, Donald F.; Hamill, John D.; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of gene transcripts from desiccated leaf tissues of the resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus, resulted in the identification of a gene, SDG8i, encoding a Group 1 glycosyltransferase (UGT). Here, we examine the effects of introducing this gene, under control of the CaMV35S promoter, into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results show that Arabidopsis plants constitutively over-expressing SDG8i exhibit enhanced growth, reduced senescence, cold tolerance and a substantial improvement in protoplasmic drought tolerance. We hypothesise that expression of SDG8i in Arabidopsis negatively affects the bioactivity of metabolite/s that mediate/s environmentally-induced repression of cell division and expansion, both during normal development and in response to stress. The phenotype of transgenic plants over-expressing SDG8i suggests modulation in activities of both growth- and stress-related hormones. Plants overexpressing the UGT show evidence of elevated auxin levels, with the enzyme acting downstream of ABA to reduce drought-induced senescence. Analysis of the in vitro activity of the UGT recombinant protein product demonstrates that SDG8i can glycosylate the synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24, evoking a link with strigolactone-related processes in vivo. The large improvements observed in survival of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under cold-, salt- and drought-stress, as well as the substantial increases in growth rate and seed yield under non-stress conditions, indicates that overexpression of SDG8i in crop plants may provide a novel means of increasing plant productivity. PMID:24224034

  17. Determination of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field by combined geophysical (magnetotellurics) and geochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Attila; Klébesz, Rita; Szabó, Csaba; Patkó, Levente; Liptai, Nóra; Kovács, Zoltán; Wesztergom, Viktor; Ádám, Antal; Lemperger, István; Kis, Árpád; Molnár, Csaba; Szendrői, Judit

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the fundamental role of LAB is substantial for the investigation of the geodynamic evolution of the Earth. The LAB depths can be estimated by different geophysical methods (seismology, magnetotellurics), however these depths are controversial. It has been emphasized in the literature that combined geophysical and geochemical approach may lead to better understanding of these depths. The magnetotellurics (MT) is very powerful method because it indicates the sudden increase in conductivity at the LAB. The mantle xenoliths (small fragments of the lithospheric mantle) provide the information to reconstruct their P-T paths. In the Carpathian-Pannon region (CPR) five, well-studied occurrences of mantle xenoliths-bearing Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts are known, which makes the CPR a very promising area for investigating the inconsistency in the LAB estimates. As a test area Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (NGVF) has been chosen. The host basalt erupted at the NGVF collected mantle xenoliths from a small volume of the upper mantle in a depth of about 40-50 km. The major element geochemistry of the studied xenoliths indicates that most of them represent common lherzolitic mantle, whereas others show strong wehrlitisation process. This metasomatism is supposed to be caused by a migrating mafic melt agent, resulting in the transformation of a large portion of lherzolite to wehrlite beneath the NGVF, possibly just below the crust mantle boundary. In aim to detect the LAB at the research area and find the correlation with petrologic and geochemical results we carried out MT deep soundings. The campaign contained 12 long period MT stations with 3-5 km average spacing along 60 km long profile SSE to NNW direction. This presentation summarizes the preliminary results of the combined geophysical and geochemical approaches to determine the LAB depths.

  18. Yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 helps resolve moderate diarrhea and increases CD4 count in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Osazuwa, Emanual O; Osadolor, Humphrey B; Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2008-03-01

    HIV/AIDS is changing the human landscape in sub-Saharan Africa. Relatively few patients receive antiretroviral therapy, and many suffer from debilitating diarrhea that affects their quality of life. Given the track record of probiotics to alleviate diarrhea, conventional yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbruekii var bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14. Twenty-four HIV/AIDS adult female patients (18 to 44 y) with clinical signs of moderate diarrhea, CD4 counts over 200, and not receiving antiretrovirals or dietary supplements, consumed either 100 mL supplemented or unsupplemented yogurt per day for 15 days. Hematologic profiles, CD4 cell counts, and quality of life was evaluated at baseline, 15 and 30 days postprobiotic-yogurt feeding. There was no significant alteration in the hematologic parameters of both groups before and after the probiotic-yogurt feeding. The probiotic yogurt group at baseline, 15 and 30 days had a mean WBC count of 5.8+/-0.76 x 10(9)/L, 6.0+/-1.02 x 10(9)/L, and 5.4+/-0.14 x 10(9)/L, respectively. However, the mean CD4 cell count remained the same or increased at 15 and 30 days in 11/12 probiotic-treated subjects compared to 3/12 in the control. Diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea resolved in 12/12 probiotic-treated subjects within 2 days, compared to 2/12 receiving yogurt for 15 days. This is the first study to show the benefits of probiotic yogurt on quality of life of women in Nigeria with HIV/AIDS, and suggests that perhaps a simple fermented food can provide some relief in the management of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. PMID:18223503

  19. Wehrlitisation in the upper mantle beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (Northern Pannonian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patkó, Levente; Előd Aradi, László; Liptai, Nóra; Szabó, Csaba

    2013-04-01

    The Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field is situated in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin, where Plio-Pleistocene alkaline basalts brought upper mantle xenoliths to the surface. We collected great number of ultramafic xenoliths from the central part of the region, Medves-plateau (Eresztvény, Magyarbánya) and Baby hill (Ratka, Filakovske Kovace, Terbelovce), and detailed petrographic studies were carried out. As a result, beside the dominating lherzolite xenoliths, large number of wehrlite xenoliths also appeared, in which the modal proportion of clinopyroxene was increased in contrast to the descending amount of ortopyroxene. These wehrlite xenoliths show very unique texture, which is characterized by irregularly shaped olivine grains hosted in clinopyroxene and vermicular spinel inclusions in clinopyroxenes. According to petrographic features, ten wehrlite xenoliths have been selected for a detailed study. Based on the major elements of rock forming minerals, Fe and Mn enrichment in olivines, Ti, Al and Fe enrichment in clinopyroxenes, and Fe and Ti enrichment in spinels can be observed compared to those of lherzolite xenoliths. In the studied wehrlite xenoliths silicate, fluid and sulfide inclusions are also abundant. We focused on the latter ones in this thesis. The mineralogy of these multi-phase sulfides is in agreement with those usually found in the upper mantle with domination of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. However, bulk composition of the sulfides slightly differs from the lherzolite xenoliths. Sulfides in wehrlite xenoliths show higher Fe and lower Cu concentrations. Based on our detailed petrography and geochemistry of rock forming constituents and sulfide minerals, wehrlite xenoliths are products of a process called stealth mantle metasomatism where new minerals, in our case clinopyroxene is introduced to the system that is mineralogically indistinguishable from common upper mantle peridotites. This metasomatism is supposed to be

  20. Additional insights. Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Henik, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    In their paper "The Musical Stroop Effect: Opening a New Avenue to Research on Automatisms," Grégoire, Perruchet, and Poulin-Charronnat (2013) use a musical Stroop-like task to demonstrate the automaticity of musical note naming in musicians. In addition, the authors suggest that music training can serve as a tool in order to study the acquisition of automaticity. In the following commentary, we aim to address three main issues concerning the paper by Grégoire et al. (2013). First, we will suggest some additional interpretations of the results; specifically, we will relate to the association between music and space. Second, we will discuss a methodological issue dealing with interference, facilitation, and the role of the neutral condition. We suggest that the study by Grégoire et al. (2013) lacks a proper neutral condition and thus it is impossible to assert that the congruency effect is interference based. Third, we will discuss the authors' suggestion of using the musical Stroop effect as a tool for studying automatism. We consider the practical relevance of music training as a tool for studying the acquisition of automaticity by pointing out that music training is highly heterogeneous. PMID:24449650

  1. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the single-monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett film of C16NaphOH and C10AzoNaphC4N-SDS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Zhao, Bing; Xu, Weiqing; Li, Guowen; Li, Bofu

    2003-04-01

    Raman spectra were measured for Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of C(16)NaphOH and C(10)AzoNaphC(4)N-SDS on Calcium Fluorite substrate for the first time. In order to find out favorable excitation condition, Raman spectra of the single and multi-monolayer LB films excited at different lines at 244, 514, 633 and 778 nm are recorded and compared in the present study. Raman spectrum of the monolayer LB film of C(16)NaphOH excited by 244 nm demonstrate that excellent signal to noise is achieved even for one monolayer LB film with an extremely short integrating time as 60 s because of being resonantly enhanced, while no meaningful spectra were recorded under the same condition for the monolayer LB film of C(10)AzoNaphC(4)N-SDS because of burning. Using a HeNe 633 nm excitation the problem with strong substrate fluorescence was partially solved, since under these conditions this fluorescence is mainly outside the fingerprint region of the LB film molecules (1000-2000 cm(-1)). Therefore by using the HeNe laser excitation, Raman spectra with high signal to noise ratio of LB films of C(16)NaphOH were collected and shown in this paper. These findings stress again the necessity to define an appropriate Raman system for this special application of LB film diagnosis. PMID:12659885

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genomic Deletion of the Beta-1, 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 Gene in Murine P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells Results in Low Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type C

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Ozeki, Chikako; Kohda, Tomoko; Tsuji, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum cause flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter release at peripheral nerve terminals. Previously, we found that neurons derived from the murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line exhibited high sensitivity to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In order to prove the utility of P19 cells for the study of the intracellular mechanism of botulinum neurotoxins, ganglioside-knockout neurons were generated by deletion of the gene encoding beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 in P19 cells using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats combined with Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. By using this system, knockout cells could be generated more easily than with previous methods. The sensitivity of the generated beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1-depleted P19 neurons to botulinum neurotoxin type C was decreased considerably, and the exogenous addition of the gangliosides GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b restored the susceptibility of P19 cells to botulinum neurotoxin type C. In particular, addition of a mixture of these three ganglioside more effectively recovered the sensitivity of knockout cells compared to independent addition of GD1a, GD1b, or GT1b. Consequently, the genome-edited P19 cells generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system were useful for identifying and defining the intracellular molecules involved in the toxic action of botulinum neurotoxins. PMID:26177297

  3. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajlaoui, S.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.; Bulou, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393 K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800 cm- 1 covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(Snsbnd O) + νs(Snsbnd Cl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length.

  4. Volumetric properties of CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} fluids at 200{degree}C and 1000 bars: A comparison of equations of state and experimental data. Chapter 4

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, J.C.; Blencoe, J.G.; Joyce, D.B.; Bodnar, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Predictions of molar volume, excess molar volume, and isochoric P-T trajectories from 13 published equations of state are compared with one another and with preliminary volumetric data for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} fluids at 200{degrees}C and 1000 bars. The equations of state investigated represent a wide variety of empirical and semi-empirical approaches to the modeling of fluids. The experimental data indicate that excess volumes of CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2} mixtures are small (<3% of the total volume of the mixture, except near the critical point of CO{sub 2}). The NIST software package DDMIX yields volumetric properties that are most consistent with our experimental results. Differences in the calculated volumetric properties of mixtures from the different equations of state are significant For example, estimates of the equilibrium trapping temperature of a fluid inclusion (2000 bars, 60% CO{sub 2}-20% CH{sub 4}20% N{sub 2}mixture, V=59.10 cm{sup 3}/mole) calculated from various equations of state range from 462-570{degrees}C. The major source of error in calculated volumetric properties of fluid mixtures is the inability of equations of state to accurately predict the volumetric properties of the pure components.

  5. Monitoring dehydration of the organic-inorganic [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound using simultaneous thermal and Raman studies.

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, S; Chaabane, I; Guidara, K; Bulou, A

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report the experimental studies of the structural phase transition in the [(C3H7)4N]SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O compound by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Raman spectroscopic. The X-ray powder diffraction study of the [(C3H7)4N][SnCl5(H2O)]·2H2O sample at room temperature showed that this compound is monoclinic and has P121/c1 space group. Differential scanning calorimetric disclosed two types of phase transitions in the temperature range 356-376 (T1) K and at 393K (T2) characterized, by a loss of water molecules and probably a reconstruction of new anionic parts after T2 transition. The Raman scattering spectra recorded at various temperatures in the wavenumber range from 100 to 3800cm(-1) covering the domains of existence of changes in the vicinity of the two phase transitions detected by DSC measurement. A detailed study of the spectral parameters (wave number, reduced intensity and the full width at half maximum) as a function of temperature of a chosen band, associated with (νs(SnO)+νs(SnCl)), based on an order-disorder model allowed us to obtain information relative to the activation energy and correlation length. PMID:27070530

  6. Determination of bisphenol A, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol by temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Xie, Guohong

    2011-09-15

    Present study described a simple, sensitive, and viable method for the determination of bisphenol A, 4-n-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol in water samples using temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector. In this experiment, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)MIM][PF(6)]) was used as the extraction solvent, and bisphenol A, 4-n-nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were selected as the model analytes. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as the volume of [C(8)MIM][PF(6)], dissolving temperature, extraction time, sample pH, centrifuging time and salting-out effect have been investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, good linear relationship was found in the concentration range of 1.0-100 μg L(-1) for BPA, 1.5-150 μg L(-1) for 4-NP, and 3-300 μg L(-1) for 4-OP, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) were in the range of 0.23-0.48 μg L(-1). Intra day and inter day precisions (RSDs, n=6) were in the range of 4.6-5.5% and 8.5-13.3%, respectively. This method has been also successfully applied to analyze the real water samples at two different spiked concentrations and excellent results were obtained. PMID:21807227

  7. G-quadruplexes with (4n - 1) guanines in the G-tetrad core: formation of a G-triad·water complex and implication for small-molecule binding

    PubMed Central

    Heddi, Brahim; Martín-Pintado, Nerea; Serimbetov, Zhalgas; Kari, Teuku Mahfuzh Aufar; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are non-canonical structures of nucleic acids, in which guanine bases form planar G-tetrads (G·G·G·G) that stack on each other in the core of the structure. G-quadruplexes generally contain multiple times of four (4n) guanines in the core. Here, we study the structure of G-quadruplexes with only (4n - 1) guanines in the core. The solution structure of a DNA sequence containing 11 guanines showed the formation of a parallel G-quadruplex involving two G-tetrads and one G-triad with a vacant site. Molecular dynamics simulation established the formation of a stable G-triad·water complex, where water molecules mimic the position of the missing guanine in the vacant site. The concept of forming G-quadruplexes with missing guanines in the core broadens the current definition of G-quadruplex-forming sequences. The potential ability of such structures to bind different metabolites, including guanine, guanosine and GTP, in the vacant site, could have biological implications in regulatory functions. Formation of this unique binding pocket in the G-triad could be used as a specific target in drug design. PMID:26673723

  8. Growth of silicon-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N with low carbon concentration at high growth rate using high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenaga, Kazutada; Mishima, Akira; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Koh

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the carbon concentration and electrical characteristics of silicon-doped AlGaN (Al > 0.5) was investigated using a high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The carbon concentration and electrical properties of AlGaN (Al > 0.5) were measured as a function of the growth rate, V/III ratio, and growth temperature. The growth rate of Al0.6Ga0.4N was linearly controlled up to 7.2 µm/h under a constant ammonia (NH3) flow rate. However, a decrease in V/III ratio resulted in an increase in carbon concentration to 8 × 1017 cm‑3. With increased growth temperature, the carbon concentration decreased to less than 2 × 1017 cm‑3 without showing any reduction in growth rate. As a result, n-type Al0.6Ga0.4N with a carrier concentration of 5.4 × 1018 cm‑3 and a resistivity of 2.2 × 10‑2 Ω·cm was obtained.

  9. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  10. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    Widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. Plant grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is about 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows: a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a

  11. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    Widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. Plant grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is about 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows: a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a

  12. Responses of dissolved trace gases (CH4, N2O, CO, NMHCs, CH3Cl) to phytoplankton bloom during in situ iron enrichment (SEEDII) in the western subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, S.; Nakagawa, F.; Sasakawa, M.; Yamaguchi, J.; Komatsu, D. D.; Ijiri, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Horiguchi, T.; Kawamura, H.; Tsuda, A.

    2006-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in ocean surface are known to play important roles in the global circulation of many trace gases: not only CO2 but also non-CO2 gases, such as CH4, N2O, CO, NMHCs and CH3Cl. The mixing ratios of these components in air are highly responsible for controlling global warming, stratospheric and tropospheric O3, tropospheric OH, organic aerosols, and peroxides. While future global changes could alter air-sea fluxes of these components in ocean surface, the detailed processes to produce/consume these components, as well as the range of the variations, are not clarified as yet. The iron fertilization experiment offers us a wonderful chance to quantify the effect of phytoplankton bloom to the production of the trace gases. During 2004 iron-enrichment experiment in the northwest subarctic Pacific (SEEDSII), we monitored mixing ratios of the trace gases (CH4, N2O, CO, NMHCs and CH3Cl) within the phytoplankton bloom. Besides, the stable isotopic ratios were also monitored to clarify the processes that are responsible for the variations. Both the mixing ratios and the stable isotopic ratios of dissolved CH4, N2O and CH3Cl exhibit little changes during the 23 days observation. On the other hand, dissolved CO exhibit remarkable change in the carbon isotopic composition as phytoplankton bloomed. The maximum variation reached to about 25‰ depletion in δ13C. We conclude that the enrichment of the CO precursor must be responsible for the variation. Furthermore, in accordance with the phytoplankton bloomed, the concentration of NMHCs, especially alkane, exhibit remarkable enrichment in the mixing rations: 3 times for ethane, 4 times for propane, 13 times for butane compared with those prior to the bloom. In accordance with the enrichment, the stable carbon isotopic composition of ethane and propane increased, while that of butane decreased. To clarify the source of alkane during the bloom, we determined both concentration and δ13C of alkane emitted from

  13. Carbon dioxide and water budget of grazed grassland in Grünschwaige (Munich, Bavaria) measured by EC-method with an open path gas analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, S.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Auerswald, K.

    2009-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems like grasslands can act as a sink or source for greenhouse gases (GHG) like carbon dioxide. This is important for scientific and political stakeholders as GHG cause the climate change. The eddy covariance method has become a major tool for quantifying such fluxes. It depends, however, on a number of corrections applied to the measured data. The influence of air density is often considered following the WPL-correction (Webb-Pearman-Leuning), which does not take the heating of the instrument surface into account in contrast to the recently published method by Burba et al. (2008). The aim of the study is the comparison of the influence of the two density correction on the CO2 fluxes. The fluxes of water and carbon dioxide were measured with the eddy covariance method from 2002 to 2008 on a grazed grassland site located in Grünschwaige close to Munich (Bavaria) in the South of Germany. The climate in this area is temperate with an annual precipitation of 800 mm and an annual mean temperature of 9 °C. For eddy covariance measurements an open path CO2/H2O analyzer was used. Wind speed (3D) and temperature were measured by a sonic anemometer. The sensible/latent heat flux and the carbon dioxide flux were calculated and corrected using EdiRe. The application of the two density correction methods resulted in important differences of the carbon dioxide flux. The fluxes corrected according to Burba et al. (2008) indicated small CO2 sinks (= negative net carbon exchange) or even sources while the WPL-correction showed (larger) CO2 sinks. Additionally, with both correction methods the results showed a high sensitivity to weather conditions but the effects were stronger using the correction following Burba et al. (2008). The most important drivers of flux variability were precipitation and temperature. The seasonal pattern of precipitation was important especially during the vegetation period. Drought and heat periods, which lasted at last one month like

  14. Constraints on the seismic properties of the mantle beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (Northern Pannonian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebesz, Rita; Liptai, Nora; Kovacs, Istvan; Patko, Levente; Pinter, Zsanett; Falus, Gyorgy; Graczer, Zoltan; Szanyi, Gyongyver; Wesztergom, Viktor; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    In the Carpathian Pannonian Region (CPR) Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts have sampled the upper mantle at five known occurrences, bringing upper mantle xenoliths to the surface. One of these is the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (NGVF), which is located in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. For this study, 25 representative lherzolite and wehrlite xenoliths were selected from the central and southern parts of the NGVF. These xenoliths sample a small volume (~4000 km3) of the upper mantle from a depth of about 35-50 km. Xenoliths collected from the southern part of NGVF originate from shallower depth (35-40 km) than those from the central part (40-50 km) [1]. Crystal preferred orientations (CPO) of the minerals were measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Two distinct orientation types (A-Type, D-Type) based on the distribution and alignment of crystallographic axes were recognized, which show some correlation not only with the macroscopic texture, but also with olivine J-factors that indicate the strength of the xenolith fabric [2]. The seismic properties, i.e. seismic anisotropy and velocities, of these 25 mantle xenoliths were calculated based on the CPO and volume fractions of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene. It was found that P wave and fast split shear wave polarization direction is always close to the density maximum of the a-axis of olivine. Seismic anisotropy is higher for stronger CPO. Maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy ranges are 4.5%-6.9% and 5.3%-11.9%, for the southern and the central area respectively. Maximum S wave polarization anisotropy ranges are 2.92%-5.31% and 3.97%-7.46%for the southern area and the central area respectively. The anisotropy that would be measured by SKS, Rayleigh and Love waves for end-member orientations of the lineation and foliation could be predicted based on the already calculated seismic properties of the xenoliths [3]. The calculated anisotropy is compared to the results of S receiver function

  15. Interpretation of observed microwave signatures from ground dual polarization radar and space multi frequency radiometer for the 2011 Grímsvötn volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, M.; Vulpiani, G.; Cimini, D.; Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.

    2013-07-01

    The important role played by ground-based microwave weather radars for the monitoring of volcanic ash clouds has been recently demonstrated. The potential of microwaves from satellite passive and ground-based active sensors to estimate near-source volcanic ash cloud parameters has been also proposed, though with little investigation of their synergy and the role of the radar polarimetry. The goal of this work is to show the potentiality and drawbacks of the X-band Dual Polarization radar measurements (DPX) through the data acquired during the latest Grímsvötn volcanic eruptions that took place on May 2011 in Iceland. The analysis is enriched by the comparison between DPX data and the observations from the satellite Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and a C-band Single Polarization (SPC) radar. SPC, DPX, and SSMIS instruments cover a large range of the microwaves spectrum, operating respectively at 5.4, 3.2, and 0.16-1.6 cm wavelengths. The multi-source comparison is made in terms of Total Columnar Concentration (TCC). The latter is estimated from radar observables using the "Volcanic Ash Radar Retrieval for dual-Polarization X band systems" (VARR-PX) algorithm and from SSMIS brightness temperature (BT) using a linear BT-TCC relationship. The BT-TCC relationship has been compared with the analogous relation derived from SSMIS and SPC radar data for the same case study. Differences between these two linear regression curves are mainly attributed to an incomplete observation of the vertical extension of the ash cloud, a coarser spatial resolution and a more pronounced non-uniform beam filling effect of SPC measurements (260 km far from the volcanic vent) with respect to the DPX (70 km from the volcanic vent). Results show that high-spatial-resolution DPX radar data identify an evident volcanic plume signature, even though the interpretation of the polarimetric variables and the related retrievals is not always straightforward, likely due to the

  16. Incorporation of the thermal radiative effect of CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chyung; Shi, Guang-Yu; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1991-05-01

    This paper documents the incorporation of the radiative effect of trace gases CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCMl) longwave scheme, which presently includes the radiative effect of H2O, CO2, and O3. This development is intended for using the CCMl to study the combined greenhouse effect of increasing atmospheric CO2, CH4, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, and N2O. The radiative effect of the trace gases in a homogeneous layer is parameterized based on Wang and Shi's (1988) analytical expression for the total band absorptance. For an inhomogeneous path, a scaling approximation is used to calculate the effective total band model parameters. The same treatment of the overlapping gaseous absorption bands used in the present CCMl scheme is adopted for the new trace gases.

  17. Incorporation of the thermal radiative effect of CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1991-05-01

    This paper documents the incorporation of the radiative effect of trace gases CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community climate model (CCM1) longwave scheme, which presently includes the radiative effect of H2O, CO2, and O3. This development is intended for using the CCM1 to study the combined greenhouse effect of increasing atmospheric CO2, CH4, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, and N2O. The radiative effect of the trace gases in a homogeneous layer is parameterized based on Wang and Shi's (1988) analytical expression for the total band absorptance. For an inhomogeneous path, a scaling approximation is used to calculate the effective total band model parameters. The same treatment of the overlapping gaseous absorption bands used in the present CCM1 scheme is adopted for the new trace gases.

  18. Structural and spectral studies of an iron(III) complex [Fe(Pranthas) 2][FeCl 4] derived from 2-acetylpyridine- N(4), N(4)-(butane-1, 4-diyl) thiosemicarbazone (HPranthas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Prathapachandra Kurup, M. R.

    2005-02-01

    A novel iron(III) complex of 2-acetylpyridine N(4), N(4)-(butyl-1, 4-diyl) thiosemicarbazone (HPranthas), [Fe(Pranthas) 2]FeCl 4 was synthesized and physico-chemically characterized by means of partial elemental analysis, magnetic measurements (polycrystalline state), UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies. The presence of spin-paired iron(III) cation with dxz2dyz2dxy1 ground state is revealed by the EPR and Mössbauer spectral data. Structure of the free ligand HPranthas and the complex [Fe(Pranthas) 2]FeCl 4 were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The framework of iron(III) complex consists of a discrete monomeric cationic entity containing low spin iron(III) in a slightly distorted octahedral environment. The metal ion is bonded to one sulfur and two nitrogens of each thiosemicarbazone molecule. The tetrachloroferrate(III) ion acts as counterion.

  19. Magnetic Properties of [Ni(C_4H_12N_2)_2(μ-N_3)]_n(ClO_4)_n: A Quasi-One-Dimensional Antiferromagnetic S = 1 Ladder-Like Material.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. H.; Talham, D. R.; Granroth, G. E.; Meisel, M. W.

    1997-03-01

    [Ni(1,2-diamino-2-methylpropane)_2(μ-N_3)]_n(ClO_4)n forms a helicoidal nickel(II)-azido skeleton due to the cis position of the azido bridging ligands( J. Ribas et al.), Inorg. Chem. 34 (1995) 4986.. The resulting S = 1 ladder-like structure is reminiscent of the one possessed by the S = 1/2 material Cu_2(C_5H_12N_2)_2Cl_4.( B. Chiari et al., Inorg. Chem.) 29 (1990) 1172.^,( P.R. Hammer and D.H. Reich, J. Appl. Phys.) 79 (1996) 5392. The magnetic properties of powder, polycrystalline, and oriented single crystal samples have been measured down to 2 K in fields up to 5 T, where no evidence for long-range order is observed. Various possible theoretical fits of the data will be presented, and magnetic and thermodynamic measurements at millikelvin temperatures are in progress.

  20. Lack of genotoxic properties of the hair-dye component N-methyl-amino-2-nitro-4-N',N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-aminobenzene, in mammalian cells in vitro, and in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Mariani, L; Rusciano, D

    1983-02-01

    N-Methyl-amino-2-nitro-4-N',N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-aminobenzene is a hair-dye ingredient. Its potential ability to induce gene mutations, in the yeast S. pombe and in cultured mammalian CH-V79 cells, mitotic gene conversion in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured human HeLa cells was evaluated. The chemical proved unable to induce detectable genotoxic effects according to these tests. The present data, together with others that show that the chemical is not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Drosophila, and is not clastogenic in mammalian cytogenetic assays (in vitro or in vivo), strongly support the non-genotoxicity of the chemical. PMID:6402693

  1. A Fe/Fe3O4/N-carbon composite with hierarchical porous structure and in situ formed N-doped graphene-like layers for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Meng, Qing; Zhu, Shen-min; Sun, Zeng-hui; Yang, Hao; Chen, Zhi-xin; Zhu, Cheng-ling; Guo, Zai-ping; Zhang, Di

    2015-03-14

    A Fe/Fe3O4/N-carbon composite consisting of a porous carbon matrix containing a highly conductive N-doped graphene-like network and Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles was prepared. The porous carbon has a hierarchical structure which is inherited from rice husk and the N-doped graphene-like network formed in situ. When used as an anode material for lithium batteries, the composite delivered a reversible capacity of approximately 610 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) even after 100 cycles, due to the synergism between the unique hierarchical porous structures, highly electrically conductive N-doped graphene-like networks and nanosized particles of Fe/Fe3O4. This work provides a simple approach to prepare N-doped porous carbon activated nanoparticle composites which could be used to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries. PMID:25655996

  2. Crystal structure of (4-cyano­pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc–4-cyano­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra­phenyl­benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano­pyridine, respectively], the ZnII cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn—N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano­pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol­ecules are linked together via weak C—H⋯N, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming supra­molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol­ecules, via weak C—H⋯N inter­actions and π-π stacking or via weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano­pyridine mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  3. Crystal structure of (4-cyano-pyridine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(benzoyloxy)phenyl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc-4-cyano-pyridine (1/1).

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Amiri, Nesrine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Daran, Jean-Claude; Nasri, Habib

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C6H4N2)]·C6H4N2 or [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy]·(4-CNpy) [where TPBP and 4-CNpy are 5,10,15,20-(tetra-phenyl-benzoate)porphyrinate and 4-cyano-pyridine, respectively], the Zn(II) cation is chelated by four pyrrole-N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and coordinated by a pyridyl-N atom of the 4-CNpy axial ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.060 (6) Å and the Zn-N(4-CNpy) bond length is 2.159 (2) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.319 (1) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the 4-cyano-pyridine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling and doming deformations. In the crystal, the [Zn(TPBP)(4-CNpy)] complex mol-ecules are linked together via weak C-H⋯N, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming supra-molecular channels parallel to the c axis. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecules are located in the channels and linked with the complex mol-ecules, via weak C-H⋯N inter-actions and π-π stacking or via weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions. The non-coordinating 4-cyano-pyridine mol-ecule is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.666 (4):0.334 (4). PMID:26958379

  4. 1H, 13C, 15N backbone and side chain NMR resonance assignments for the N-terminal RNA recognition motif of the HvGR-RBP1 protein involved in the regulation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) senescence

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Katelyn E.; Tripet, Brian P.; Parrott, David; Fischer, Andreas M.; Copié, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence is an important process in the developmental life of all plant species. Senescence efficiency influences important agricultural traits such as grain protein content and plant growth, which are often limited by nitrogen use. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating this highly orchestrated process. To enhance our understanding of leaf senescence and its regulation, we have undertaken the structural and functional characterization of previously unknown proteins that are involved in the control of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Previous microarray analysis highlighted several barley genes whose transcripts are differentially expressed during senescence, including a specific gene which is greater than 40 fold up-regulated in the flag leaves of early- as compared to late-senescing near-isogenic barley lines at 14 and 21 days past flowering (anthesis). From inspection of its amino acid sequence, this gene is predicted to encode a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein herein referred to as HvGR-RBP1. HvGR-RBP1 has been expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli, and preliminary NMR data analysis has revealed that its glycine-rich C-terminal region [residues: 93–162] is structurally disordered whereas its N-terminal region [residues: 1–92] forms a well-folded domain. Herein, we report the complete 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of backbone and sidechain atoms, and the secondary structural topology of the N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain of HvGR-RBP1, as a first step to unraveling its structural and functional role in the regulation of barley leaf senescence. PMID:23417794

  5. Une maladie immunoproliférative de l'intestin grêle révélée par une invagination intestinale aigue: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Bennani, Amal; Znati, Kaoutar; Rezzouk, Salima; Bouhadouti, Hicham; Maazaz, Khalid; Amarti, Affaf

    2014-01-01

    La maladie immunoproliférative de l'intestin grêle IPSID est un lymphome rare qui se développé à partir du système lymphoïde associé aux muqueuses au niveau de l'intestin grêle. Sa révélation par une invagination intestinale aigue est exceptionnelle et n'a jamais été rapporté dans la littérature auparavant. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 65ans, admis aux urgences dans un tableau d'invagination intestinale aigue. Le scanner abdominal a mis en évidence masse grêlique à paroi concentrique avec incarcération du segment mésentérique au sein de la lésion fortement évocatrice d'une invagination intestinale. Le patient a été opéré et a bénéficié d'une résection iléale emportant le boudin d'invagination. L'examen histologique de la masse a été en faveur d'une maladie des chaines alpha transformée en un lymphome B diffus à grandes cellules. Les auteurs rapportent un cas rare d'une IPSID révélée par une invagination intestinale aigue et à travers cette observation, mettent en relief les principaux aspects cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques de cette entité avec une revue de la littérature. PMID:24932323

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence of (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}N{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Hisanori; Yoshimura, Fumitaka

    2015-08-15

    Crystalline grains of (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}N{sub 9} were obtained from samples synthesized by heating mixtures of binary nitride powders at 2000 °C and 0.85 MPa of N{sub 2} gas. The fundamental reflections of electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measured for some grains could be indexed with orthorhombic cell parameters: a=10.028(2) Å, b=53.353(9) Å, and c=5.9215(11) Å. Streaks and diffuse lines along the b axis were observed in the ED and XRD photographs, indicating stacking faults. A statistical average structure was analyzed using the intensity data of the fundamental reflections with the space group Fdd2. Local structure models were presented based on the average structure. Similar streaks and diffuse lines with fundamental reflections indexed with mono