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Sample records for a549 lung cells

  1. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells. PMID:25650339

  2. [Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibits the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yehan; Ye, Xiufeng; Shi, Yao; Wang, Ke; Wan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Objective To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods Trypan blue dye exclusion assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effect of varying doses of GSPs on the BEAS-2B normal human pulmonary epithelial cells. After treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 μg/mL GSP, the proliferation of A549 cells was detected by MTT assay; the invasion and migration of A549 cells were determined by Transwell(TM) assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. The levels of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin, N-cadherin in A549 cells treated with GSPs were detected by Western blotting. Results (0-40) μg/mL GSPs had no significant toxic effect on BEAS-2B cells, while 80 μg/mL GSPs had significant cytotoxicity to BEAS-2B cells. The proliferation of A549 cells was significantly inhibited within limited dosage in a dose-dependent manner, and the abilities of invasion and migration of A549 cells were also inhibited. Western blotting showed that the expression of EGFR and N-cadherin decreased, while E-cadherin increased after GSPs treatment. Conclusion GSPs could inhibit the abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells, which might be related to the dow-regulation of EGFR and N-cadherin and the up-regulation of E-cadherin. PMID:26927375

  3. Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptotic Signalling in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell A549

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Min; Lee, Mu-Jang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is widely used as a traditional herb for its antibacterial activity in Taiwan. Recently, antitumor effect of OG on breast cancer cell is also reported; however, the effects of OG on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell A549 remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether aqueous OG extract (OGE) affects viability of A549 cells and the signals induced by OGE in A549 cells. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of A549 cell but not that of BEAS-2B cell. Morphological examination and DAPI staining indicated that OGE induced cell shrinkage and DNA condensation for A549 cells. Further investigation showed that OGE enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8 and increased protein level of Apaf-1 and Bak, but diminished the level of Bcl-2. Additionally, OGE inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) yet enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). In conclusion, our findings indicate that OGE suppressed the cell viability of A549 cells, which may result from the activation of apoptotic signaling and the inhibition of anti-apoptotic signaling, suggesting that OGE might be beneficial to lung carcinoma treatment. PMID:20953389

  4. Gene expression profiling of cancer stem cell in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Cheol; Sung, Ji-Min; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Seo, Kun-Ho; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Dong-Ku; Kim, Jin-Suk; El-Aty AM, Abd; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Background The studies on cancer-stem-cells (CSCs) have attracted so much attention in recent years as possible therapeutic implications. This study was carried out to investigate the gene expression profile of CSCs in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Results We isolated CSCs from A549 cell line of which side population (SP) phenotype revealed several stem cell properties. After staining the cell line with Hoechst 33342 dye, the SP and non-side population (non-SP) cells were sorted using flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA expression profiles were measured using an Affymetrix GeneChip® oligonucleotide array. Among the sixty one differentially expressed genes, the twelve genes inclusive three poor prognostic genes; Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1/C2 (AKR1C1/C2), Transmembrane 4 L six family member 1 nuclear receptor (TM4SF1), and Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (NR0B1) were significantly up-regulated in SP compared to non-SP cells. Conclusion This is the first report indicating the differences of gene expression pattern between SP and non-SP cells in A549 cells. We suggest that the up-regulations of the genes AKR1C1/C2, TM4SF1 and NR0B1 in SP of human adenocarcinoma A549 cells could be a target of poor prognosis in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18034892

  5. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  6. Effect of recombinant Newcastle disease virus transfection on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YAN, YULAN; JIA, LIJUAN; ZHANG, JIN; LIU, YANG; BU, XUEFENG

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been reported to selectively duplicate in and then destroy tumor cells, whilst sparing normal cells. However, the effect of NDV on lung cancer has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, recombinant NDV (rl-RVG) was applied to lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell tumor-bearing mice to explore its effect on the proliferation of the cells and the immune response of the mice. Following rl-RVG transfection, RVG and NDV gene expression, decreased tumor growth, subcutaneous tumor necrosis, tumor apoptosis and an increased number of cluster of differentiation (CD)3−/CD49+ natural killer cells were more evident in the rl-RVG group. The present study demonstrated that rl-RVG transfection effectively restrained lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell growth in vivo, which may have been accomplish by inducing tumor cell apoptosis and regulating the cell immune response. PMID:25364430

  7. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-02-12

    Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that {beta}-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of {beta}-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  8. Edaravone Decreases Paraquat Toxicity in A549 Cells and Lung Isolated Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shaki, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Rezagholizadeh, Neda; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided into control group, PQ group, edaravone group and PQ plus edaravone-pretreated group. Cellular and mitochondrial viability assayed using MTT test and ROS generations in both cellular and mitochondrial fraction were determined by fluorometry using DCFH-DA as indicator. Our results showed that edaravone (5–100 µM) prevented PQ (500 µM) induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that the best protective effect was observed at concentration of 50 µM of edaravone. In addition, PQ-induced ROS generation in A549 cells significantly inhibited by edaravone. Moreover, PQ decreased mitochondria viability and also increased ROS generation in lung isolated mitochondria that edaravone (25–400 µM) markedly inhibited these toxic effects. In overall, the results of this study suggest that lung mitochondria maintenance is essential for maintaining PQt cytotoxicity and Edaravone is a protective drug against PQ toxicity in-vitro. PMID:25237364

  9. Effect of fucoidan from Turbinaria conoides on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Alwarsamy, Madhavarani; Gooneratne, Ravi; Ravichandran, Ramanibai

    2016-11-01

    Fucoidan was purified from seaweed, Turbinaria conoides. Isolated fragments were characterized with NMR ((13)C, (1)H), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectronomy (GC-MS) and HPLC analysis. The autohydrolysate of fucoidans consisted of sulfated fuco-oligosaccharides having the backbone of α-(1, 3)-linked fuco-pyranose derivatives and minor components of galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose sugars. Fucoidan induced a dose-dependent reduction in cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells by MTT assay (GI50, 75μg/mL). However, it was not cytotoxic to a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line of skin tissue (HaCaT) (GI50>1.0mg/mL). The apoptotic cells in fucoidan-treated A549 cells were visualized by laser confocal microscopy and cell cycle analysis showed induction of G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell progression cycle. Further, CFSE labeling and flow cytometry highlighted that fucoidan significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the proliferation rate of A549 cells by up to 2-fold compared with the control cells. It is concluded that fucoidan has the potential to act as an anti-proliferative agent on lung carcinoma (A549) cells. PMID:27516266

  10. Sinomenine inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell invasion by mediating the STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shulong; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Liu, Rui; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xia; Li, Jie; Bao, Yanju; Zheng, Honggang; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the failure of lung cancer treatment may occur as a result of tumor invasion and metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor, is a key signaling molecule involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound with an antineoplastic potential against a variety of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor mechanisms of sinomenine in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that sinomenine manifested dose-dependent cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The protein expression of Janus kinase 2, STAT3, phosphorylated-STAT3, Snail, N-cadherin and vimentin decreased in sinomenine-treated cells, while E-cadherin protein expression increased. The regulation of STAT3, N-cadherin and E-cadherin by sinomenine was further confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that sinomenine exerts inhibitory effects on A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, possibly through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These results provide a novel insight into the role of sinomenine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27446441

  11. An important role for peroxiredoxin II in survival of A549 lung cancer cells resistant to gefitinib

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taeho; Kyung Rho, Jin; Cheol Lee, Jae; Park, Young-Ho; Shin, Hye-Jun; Cho, Sunwha; Kang, Yong-Kook; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Redox adaptation is an important concept that explains the mechanisms by which cancer cells survive under persistent endogenous oxidative stress and become resistant to certain anticancer agents. To investigate this concept, we determined the expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prxs), antioxidant enzymes in drug-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Prx II was remarkably increased only in A549/GR (gefitinib-resistant) cells compared with A549 cells, consistent with methylation/demethylation. Prx II was highly methylated in the A549 cells but was demethylated in the A549/GR cells. The elevated expression of Prx II resulted in the downregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death and upregulation of cell cycle progression in the A549/GR cells. When Prx II mRNA in the A549/GR cells was knocked down, the levels of ROS and apoptosis were significantly recovered to the levels of the controls. In addition, signaling molecules involved in apoptosis were increased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells. There was no difference in the expression of MAPK/ERK between the A549/GR cells and A549/GR-shPrx II cells, but the phosphorylation of JNK was increased in the A549/GR cells and was markedly decreased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells. Colony number and tumor growth were significantly decreased in the A549/GR-shPrx II cells compared with the A549/GR cells. Our findings suggest that Prx II has an important role in cancer cell survival via the modulation of signaling molecules involved in apoptosis and the phosphorylation of JNK by the downregulation of ROS levels in A549/GR cells. PMID:26021759

  12. Xanthohumol induces apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Wai Kuan; Ho, Yen Fong; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthohumol, a major prenylated chalcone found in female hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was reported to have various chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties. However, its apoptotic effect on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of xanthohumol on apoptosis in A549 human NSCLC cells. Materials and Methods: A549 cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Morphological changes of the cells were studied via phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activity studies. Results: Xanthohumol was found to decrease cell proliferation in A549 cells but had relatively low cytotoxicity on normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Typical cellular and nuclear apoptotic features were also observed in A549 cells treated with xanthohumol. Onset of apoptosis in A549 cells was further confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells after treatment. Xanthohumol induced accumulation of cells in sub G1 and S phase based on cell cycle analysis and also increased the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Conclusion: This work suggests that xanthohumol as an apoptosis inducer, may be a potent therapeutic compound for NSCLC. PMID:26664015

  13. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell A549 by gypenosides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Sen; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate antiproliferative effect and mechanisms of bioactive compounds from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) on lung carcinoma cell A549. Saponins, carotenoids and chlorophylls were extracted and fractionated by column chromatography, and were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The saponin fraction, which consisted mainly of gypenoside (Gyp) XXII and XXIII, rather than the carotenoid and chlorophyll ones, was effective in inhibiting A549 cell growth in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner as evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of Gyp on A549 cells was 30.6 μg/ml. Gyp was further demonstrated to induce an apparent arrest of the A549 cell cycle at both the S phase and the G2/M phase, accompanied by a concentration- and a time-dependent increase in the proportions of both the early and late apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Gyp down-regulated cellular expression of cyclin A and B as well as BCL-2, while up-regulated the expression of BAX, DNA degradation factor 35 KD, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p53, p21 and caspase-3. Nevertheless, both the treatment of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, and the small hairpin RNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the A549 cells did not alter the growth inhibition effect induced by Gyp. As a result, the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells induced by Gyp would most likely proceed through p53-independent pathway(s). PMID:25781909

  14. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell A549 by gypenosides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jung-Sen; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate antiproliferative effect and mechanisms of bioactive compounds from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) on lung carcinoma cell A549. Saponins, carotenoids and chlorophylls were extracted and fractionated by column chromatography, and were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The saponin fraction, which consisted mainly of gypenoside (Gyp) XXII and XXIII, rather than the carotenoid and chlorophyll ones, was effective in inhibiting A549 cell growth in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner as evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Gyp on A549 cells was 30.6 μg/ml. Gyp was further demonstrated to induce an apparent arrest of the A549 cell cycle at both the S phase and the G2/M phase, accompanied by a concentration- and a time-dependent increase in the proportions of both the early and late apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Gyp down-regulated cellular expression of cyclin A and B as well as BCL-2, while up-regulated the expression of BAX, DNA degradation factor 35 KD, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p53, p21 and caspase-3. Nevertheless, both the treatment of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, and the small hairpin RNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the A549 cells did not alter the growth inhibition effect induced by Gyp. As a result, the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells induced by Gyp would most likely proceed through p53-independent pathway(s). PMID:25781909

  15. Cell-cycle changes and oxidative stress response to magnetite in A549 human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiss, Adilka; Stangenberg, Evi; Gminski, Richard; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gieré, Reto; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-05-20

    In a recent study, magnetite was investigated for its potential to induce toxic effects and influence signaling pathways. It was clearly demonstrated that ROS formation leads to mitochondrial damage and genotoxic effects in A549 cells. On the basis of these findings, we wanted to elucidate the origin of magnetite-mediated ROS formation and its influence on the cell cycle of A549 and H1299 human lung epithelial cells. Concentration- and size-dependent superoxide formation, measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), was observed. Furthermore, we could show that the GSH level decreased significantly after exposure to magnetite particles, while catalase (CAT) activity was increased. These effects were also dependent on particle size, albeit less pronounced than those observed with EPR. We were able to show that incubation of A549 cells prior to particle treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, leads to decreased ROS formation, but this effect was not observed for the NOX inhibitor apocynin. Soluble iron does not contribute considerably to ROS production. Analysis of cell-cycle distribution revealed a pronounced sub-G1 peak, which cannot be linked to increased cell death. Western blot analysis did not show activation of p53 but upregulation of p21 in A549. Here, we were unexpectedly able to demonstrate that exposure to magnetite leads to p21-mediated G1-like arrest. This has been reported previously only for low concentrations of microtubule stabilization drugs. Importantly, the arrested sub-G1 cells were viable and showed no caspase 3/7 activation. PMID:23607891

  16. Human lung epithelial cell A549 proteome data after treatment with titanium dioxide and carbon black.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Goegan, Patrick; Mohottalage, Susantha; Breznan, Dalibor; Ariganello, Marianne; Williams, Andrew; Elisma, Fred; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Premkumari

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have described the dataset relevant to the A549 cellular proteome changes after exposure to either titanium dioxide or carbon black particles as compared to the non-exposed controls, "Proteomic changes in human lung epithelial cells (A549) in response to carbon black and titanium dioxide exposures" (Vuong et al., 2016) [1]. Detailed methodologies on the separation of cellular proteins by 2D-GE and the subsequent mass spectrometry analyses using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS are documented. Particle exposure-specific protein expression changes were measured via 2D-GE spot volume analysis. Protein identification was done by querying mass spectrometry data against SwissProt and RefSeq protein databases using Mascot search engine. Two-way ANOVA analysis data provided information on statistically significant A549 protein expression changes associated with particle exposures. PMID:27508218

  17. Anacardic acid induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yeong-Ae; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Kim, Gun-Do

    2013-03-01

    Anacardic acid (AA) is a constituent of the cashew nut shell and is known as an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We investigated the cytotoxicity of AA on cancer cells and more experiments to reveal the cell death mechanism focused on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells for our interest in lung cancer. To examine the molecular mechanism of cell death in AA treated A549 cells, we performed experiments such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), genomic DNA extraction and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). For the first time we revealed that AA induces caspase-independent apoptosis with no inhibition of cytotoxicity by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, in A549 cells. Our results showed the possibility of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and an intrinsic pathway executioner such as cytochrome c. This study will be helpful in revealing the cell death mechanisms and in developing potential drugs for lung cancer using AA. PMID:23314312

  18. Effect of evodiamine on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Ren, Li; Wen, Liujing; Wang, Yu; Qi, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Evodia rutaecarpa is a plant, which has antitumor activity. Evodiamine is an alkaloid with antitumor activity present in E. rutaecarpa and has potential to be developed into a therapeutic antitumor agent. The present study investigated the effect of evodiamine on the proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells and the mechanism underlying these effects. The results indicated that evodiamine significantly inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and the expression of reactive oxygen species, arrested the cell cycle, regulated the expression of Survivin, Bcl-2 and Cyclin B1, regulated the activity of caspase-3/8 and glutathione in tumor cells, and decreased the activity of AKT/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and Sonic hedgehog/GLI family zinc finger 1 (SHH/GLI1) signaling pathways in A549 cells. In conclusion, the evodiamine-induced inhibition of the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells may be attributable to its ability to promote oxidative injury in the cells, induce apoptosis, arrest the cell cycle and regulate the AKT/NF‑κB and SHH/GLI1 signaling pathways, subsequently controlling the expression of tumor‑associated genes. PMID:27485202

  19. Cytotoxic effects of natural and semisynthetic cucurbitacins on lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Silva, Izabella Thaís; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Persich, Lara; Dudek, Sabine Eva; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Ludwig, Stephan; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Cucurbitacins and their derivatives are triterpenoids that are found in various plant families, and are known for their pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-cancer effects. Lung cancer represents a major public health problem, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the most frequent and aggressive type of lung cancer. The objective of this work was to evaluate four cucurbitacins (CUCs) for their cytotoxic activity, effects on apoptosis induction, cell cycle progression, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive effects on the human NSCLC cell line (A549 cells). Our findings showed that these CUCs could suppress human NSCLC cell growth in vitro through their effects on the PI3Kinase and MAPK pathways, which lead to programmed cell death induction, as well as inhibition of cell migration and cell invasion. Additionally, these effects culminate in apoptosis induction and G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating cyclin B1 expression, and in the mitigation of strategic steps of lung cancer metastasis, including migration and invasion of A549 cells. These results suggest that two natural (DDCB and CB) and two novel semisynthetic derivatives of cucurbitacin B (ACB and DBCB) could be considered as promising compounds with antitumor potential. PMID:26780083

  20. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21.

    PubMed

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration. PMID:27307721

  1. Cytotoxic Effect of a Novel Synthesized Carbazole Compound on A549 Lung Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Molatlhegi, Refilwe P.; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Gengan, Robert M.; Tiloke, Charlette; Chuturgoon, Anil A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased death rates due to lung cancer have necessitated the search for potential novel anticancer compounds such as carbazole derivatives. Carbazoles are aromatic heterocyclic compounds with anticancer, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. The study investigated the ability of the novel carbazole compound (Z)-4-[9-ethyl-9aH-carbazol-3-yl) amino] pent-3-en-2-one (ECAP) to induce cytotoxicity of lung cancer cells and its mechanism of action. ECAP was synthesized as a yellow powder with melting point of 240-247 °C. The 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lipid peroxidation and comet assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of the compound on A549 lung cancer cells. Protein expression was determined using western blots, apoptosis was measured by luminometry (caspase-3/7, -8 and -9) assay and flow cytometry was used to measure phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation. ECAP induced a p53 mediated apoptosis of lung cancer cells due to a significant reduction in the expression of antioxidant defence proteins (Nrf2 and SOD), Hsp70 (p < 0.02) and Bcl-2 (p < 0.0006), thereby up-regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This resulted in DNA damage (p < 0.0001), up-regulation of Bax expression and caspase activity and induction of apoptosis in lung cancer cells. The results show the anticancer potential of ECAP on lung cancer. PMID:26134408

  2. Knockdown of Aurora-B inhibits the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    YU, JING JING; ZHOU, LONG DIAN; ZHAO, TIAN TIAN; BAI, WEI; ZHOU, JING; ZHANG, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Elevated expression of Aurora-B affects cell apoptosis and proliferation in a variety of solid tumors. However, the role of Aurora-B has been poorly evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, it was found that Aurora-B was overexpressed in tissue specimens obtained from 174 patients with lung cancer. It was also demonstrated that knockdown of Aurora-B induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it was found that silencing Aurora-B decreased the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Therefore, it was concluded that knockdown of Aurora-B induces apoptosis and inhibits growth in NSCLC A549 cells, in addition to inhibiting the activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Targeting Aurora-B may provide a novel target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:26622725

  3. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27371847

  4. [Effects of paclitaxel loaded-drug micelles on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yu, Rui-shuang; Yang, Wen-liang; Luan, Shu-juan; Qin, Ben-kai; Pang, Xiao-bin; Du, Guan-hua

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the paclitaxel loaded by hydrazone bonds in poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) micelles (mPEG-PCL-PTX) on proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells and its possible mechanisms of anti-tumor activity. The cell proliferation was measured with MTT assay. Flow cytometry were used to analyze the cell cycle. The cell apoptosis was analyzed using Hoechst/P staining. The expression levels of apoptotic genes expression in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The mPEG-PCL-PTX could inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells and promote the apoptosis. The Bax, caspase-3 protein expression were increased while Bcl-2 protein expression was decreased in A549 cells. Results showed that the polymer containing hydrazone bond is non-toxic in vitro, the mPEG-PCL-PTX micelles can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. Key words: paclitaxel; micelle; A549 cell; proliferation; cell cycle; apoptosis PMID:26837168

  5. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  6. PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules promote cell cycle arrest in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selol is an oily mixture of selenitetriacylglycerides that was obtained as a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite. Selol is effective against cancerous cells and less toxic to normal cells compared with inorganic forms of selenite. However, Selol’s hydrophobicity hinders its administration in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce a formulation of Selol nanocapsules (SPN) and to test its effectiveness against pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Results Nanocapsules were produced through an interfacial nanoprecipitation method. The polymer shell was composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) copolymer. The obtained nanocapsules were monodisperse and stable. Both free Selol (S) and SPN reduced the viability of A549 cells, whereas S induced a greater reduction in non-tumor cell viability than SPN. The suppressor effect of SPN was primarily associated to the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle, as was corroborated by the down-regulations of the CCNB1 and CDC25C genes. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by Selol in a discrete percentage of A549 cells. SPN also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cellular damage and to the overexpression of the GPX1, CYP1A1, BAX and BCL2 genes. Conclusions This study presents a stable formulation of PVM/MA-shelled Selol nanocapsules and provides the first demonstration that Selol promotes G2/M arrest in cancerous cells. PMID:25149827

  7. Genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation via miR-27a and MET signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zang, Aimin; Jia, Youchao; Shang, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhuoqi; Ge, Kun; Zhang, Jinchao; Fan, Wufang; Wang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soybean isoflavone; in its aglycone it has various biological activities. Animal experiments, clinical studies and epidemiological investigations suggest that genistein has preventative and curative functions for a number of diseases, particularly in cancer. The present study explored the potential anti-cancer effect of genistein by observing its role in inhibiting A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation and investigating the possible mechanism. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM; dissolved in physiological saline) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Subsequently, the viability of A549 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell apoptosis was examined using a flow cytometer, caspase 3/9 activity was measured using commercial kits, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the miR-27a expression and western blotting was used to investigate MET protein expression. The results suggested a significant inhibition of A549 cell growth following treatment with genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The current study also indicated that treatment with genistein significantly induces cell apoptosis and promotes caspase-3/9 activation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further functional assays revealed that the anti-cancer effect of genistein activated microRNA-27a (miR-27a) expression levels and reduced MET protein expression in A549 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, this study reports, for the first time, a correlation between the anti-cancer effect of genistein and miR-27a-mediated MET signaling. PMID:27602162

  8. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  9. Effects of autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu; Yang, Yunmei; Xu, Liqian; Yang, Ji; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-01

    It is reported that the autocrine loop of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for the survival and proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. In this study we aimed to systematically investigate the role of autocrine vascular VEGF in NSCLC cell line A549 through inhibition of endogenous VEGF. A549 cells were transfected with florescence-labeled VEGF oligodeoxynucleotide with lipofectamine. For the experimental group, cells were transfected with VEGF anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN), sense oligodeoxynucleotide (SODN) and mutant oligodeoxynuleotide (MODN) respectively. For the control group cells were mock transfected with lipofectamine or culture medium. At indicated time point after transfection, the expression levels of VEGF mRNA and protein in A549 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry. As revealed by RT-PCR assay, the mRNA level of VEGF in cells transfected with ASDON was significantly lower than the other four groups (P < 0.05) at 24 and 48 h after transfection. ELISA assay yielded similar result with significantly decreased level of VEGF protein expression (P < 0.05). The survival fraction of A549 cells transfected with ASDON was significantly lower than the other four groups (P < 0.05) at 24 h after transfection. Also the percentage of G2 phase cells of ASODN group was significantly lower than other four groups. Our data indicate that VEGF expression is efficiently inhibited in A549 cells by ASODN transfection and this inhibition leads to inhibited cell growth and impaired cell cycle distribution. PMID:23459872

  10. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  11. Role of Rad52 in fractionated irradiation induced signaling in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishna, Malini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fractionated doses of γ-irradiation (2Gy per fraction over 5 days), as delivered in cancer radiotherapy, was compared with acute doses of 10 and 2Gy, in A549 cells. A549 cells were found to be relatively more radioresistant if the 10Gy dose was delivered as a fractionated regimen. Microarray analysis showed upregulation of DNA repair and cell cycle arrest genes in the cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. There was intense activation of DNA repair pathway-associated genes (DNA-PK, ATM, Rad52, MLH1 and BRCA1), efficient DNA repair and phospho-p53 was found to be translocated to the nucleus of A549 cells exposed to fractionated irradiation. MCF-7 cells responded differently in fractionated regimen. Silencing of the Rad52 gene in fractionated group of A549 cells made the cells radiosensitive. The above result indicated increased radioresistance in A549 cells due to the activation of Rad52 gene. PMID:22001234

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  13. Caveolin-1 regulates cell apoptosis and invasion ability in paclitaxel-induced multidrug-resistant A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Yongxin; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of caveolin-1 (Cav1) knockdown in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells. The human paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cell line A549/Taxol was transfected with a Cav1 shRNA lentiviral vector. Interference efficiency for Cav1 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle stage and apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion capability were detected by a transwell assay. Protein levels of related signaling molecules were detected by Western blotting. We successfully constructed a stable A549/Taxol cell line expressing low levels of Cav1. Cav1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 arrest and cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these effects correlated significantly with a reduction in cyclin D1 expression and activation of the Bcl-2/Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of Cav1 inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this may be related to the inhibition of AKT and the subsequent decreased protein expression of MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9. PMID:26464635

  14. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) expression increases in human lung carcinoma. •CAC1 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. •CAC1 promotes human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer.

  15. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via STAT3 pathway inhibition in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MENG; BIAN, ZHI-GANG; ZHANG, YI; WANG, JIA-HE; KAN, LIANG; WANG, XIN; NIU, HUI-YAN; HE, PING

    2014-01-01

    Natural products are a great source of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was conducted to investigate whether cucurbitacin B (CuB), one of the most potent and widely used cucurbitacins, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in the A549 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, CuB induced apoptosis of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The present study also demonstrated that CuB dose-dependently inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, with cell cycle inhibition and cyclin B1 downregulation. Apoptosis induced by CuB was shown to be associated with cytochrome c release, B-cell lymphoma 2 downregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway inhibition. CuB may prove to be a useful approach for the chemotherapy of lung cancer. PMID:25242136

  16. Cucurbitacin B inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via STAT3 pathway inhibition in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Bian, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jia-He; Kan, Liang; Wang, Xin; Niu, Hui-Yan; He, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Natural products are a great source of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was conducted to investigate whether cucurbitacin B (CuB), one of the most potent and widely used cucurbitacins, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in the A549 lung cancer cell line. Furthermore, CuB induced apoptosis of A549 cells in a -concentration-dependent manner, as determined by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The present study also demonstrated that CuB dose-dependently inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, with cell cycle inhibition and cyclin B1 downregulation. Apoptosis induced by CuB was shown to be associated with cytochrome c release, B-cell lymphoma 2 downregulation and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway inhibition. CuB may prove to be a useful approach for the chemotherapy of lung cancer. PMID:25242136

  17. Different mechanisms for metal-induced adaptation to cadmium in the human lung cell lines A549 and H441.

    PubMed

    Sauvageau, Josée-Anne; Jumarie, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Sensitivity to Cd and Zn as well as the capacity to develop tolerance were characterized in human lung cells A549 and H441. In the A549 cells, a 2-fold lower LC(50) was obtained for Cd compared to Zn, whereas H441 cells were similarly sensitive to both metals. H441 cells were twice as resistant to Cd as the A549 cells. Higher HSP70, but not metallothionein (MT) or glutathione (GSH) levels, could contribute to this better resistance. A 1.5- and 2-fold increase in the LC(50) for Cd was obtained in the A549 cells pre-exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cd (20 μM) or Zn (40 μM) for 24 h. On the other hand, only Zn increased H441 cells' resistance to Cd. Maximum Zn- and Cd-induced tolerances were reached as early as 3 and 12 h, respectively. Increases in MT-IIa and HSP70 messenger RNA levels were higher in A549 cells, but cycloheximide eliminated the induction of tolerance only in the H441 cells. Protein synthesis is a prerequisite for metal-induced tolerance to Cd in the H441 cells but not the A549 cells. Results obtained with L-buthionine sulfoximine revealed that GSH synthesis is not responsible for the acquired tolerance in both cell lines. However, GSH plays a critical role against Cd toxicity, and pro-oxidant conditions sensitized cells to Cd with different impacts on the metal-induced mechanisms of acquired tolerance. GSH and catalase both provide antioxidative protection, but only the stress related to low GSH content, not that resulting from catalase inhibition, may be alleviated with Zn. PMID:23584637

  18. MicroRNA-490-3p inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells by targeting CCND1

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Haihua; Yang, Tao; Fu, Shaozi; Chen, Xiaofan; Guo, Lei; Ni, Yiming

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • We examined the level of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cell line. • We are the first to show the function of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells. • We demonstrate CCND1 may be one of the targets of miR-490-3p. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the translation of messenger RNAs by binding their 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). In this study, we found that miR-490-3p is significantly down-regulated in A549 lung cancer cells compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line. To better characterize the role of miR-490-3p in A549 cells, we performed a gain-of-function analysis by transfecting the A549 cells with chemically synthesized miR-490-3P mimics. Overexpression of miR-490-3P evidently inhibits cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. We also found that forced expression of miR-490-3P decreased both mRNA and protein levels of CCND1, which plays a key role in G1/S phase transition. In addition, the dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-490-3P directly targets CCND1 through binding its 3′UTR. These findings indicated miR-490-3P could be a potential suppressor of cellular proliferation.

  19. Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Jarosz, Paulina; Czech, Joanna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cells. As data on capsaicin-induced genotoxicity are limited and the effects of capsaicin against human lung A549 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were not explored in detail, we were interested in determining whether capsaicin-associated genotoxicity may also provoke A549 and DU145 cell death. Capsaicin-induced decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation, and changes in the cell cycle were limited to high concentrations used (≥ 100 μM), whereas, at lower concentrations, capsaicin stimulated both DNA double strand breaks and micronuclei production. Capsaicin was unable to provoke apoptotic cell death when used up to 250 μM concentrations. Capsaicin induced oxidative stress, but was ineffective in provoking the dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. A different magnitude of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) recruitment contributed to diverse capsaicin-induced genotoxic effects in DU145 and A549 cells. Capsaicin was also found to be a DNA hypermethylating agent in A549 cells. In summary, we have shown that genotoxic effects of capsaicin may contribute to limited susceptibility of DU145 and A549 cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro, which may question the usefulness of capsaicin-based anticancer therapy, at least in a case of lung and prostate cancer. PMID:25813723

  20. Feroniellin A-induced autophagy causes apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Surapinit, Serm; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Tip-Pyang, Santi; Johnston, Randal N; Koh, Sang Seok; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of natural chemicals that can reverse multidrug resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto), we discovered that Feroniellin A (FERO), a novel furanocoumarin, shows toxicity toward A549RT-eto cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FERO reduced the expression of NF-κB, leading to downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1, which eventually sensitized A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis. FERO specifically diminished transcription and promoter activity of MDR1 but did not inhibit the expression of other multidrug resistance genes MRP2 and BCRP. Moreover, co-administration of FERO with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB, accelerated apoptosis of A549RT-eto cells through decreased expression of P-gp, indicating that NF-κB is involved in multidrug resistance. Conversely, addition of Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells but did not block downregulation of P-gp, indicating that a decrease in P-gp expression is necessary but not sufficient for FERO-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that FERO also induces autophagy, which is characterized by the conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II, induction of GFP-LC3 puncta, enhanced expression of Beclin-1 and ATG5, and inactivation of mTOR. Furthermore, suppression of Beclin-1 by siRNA reduced FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells and activation of autophagy by rapamycin accelerated FERO-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy plays an active role in FERO-induced apoptosis. Herein, we report that FERO reverses multidrug resistance in A549RT-eto cells and exerts its cytotoxic effect by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, which suggests that FERO can be a useful anticancer drug for multidrug-resistant lung cancer. PMID:24535083

  1. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxia-induced radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chongwen; Gu, Runxia; Jin, Honglin; Sun, Yao; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Jing; Wu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Hypoxia-induced radioresistance has been well known as the main obstacle in cancer radiotherapy. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) was previously demonstrated to play an important role in hypoxia-induced biological behaviors, such as metastasis and angiogenesis, through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is an important contributing factor to radioresistance in tumor cells. However, how LOX plays a role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance has yet to be determined. Here, we found that LOX expression was in accordance with HIF-1α expression, and LOX expression at the mRNA and protein level, and enzymatic activity were remarkably upregulated in the hypoxic A549 cells, compared with normoxic A549 cells. Inhibition of LOX resulted in the reduction of the ability to repair double-stranded breaks (DSBs), promotion of apoptosis, relief of G2/M cycle arrest, and eventually reduction of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in the hypoxic A549 cells. This suggests that LOX may play an important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Together, our results might suggest a novel potential therapeutic target in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:26515140

  2. The omega-hydroxy palmitic acid induced apoptosis in human lung carcinoma cell lines H596 and A549.

    PubMed

    Abe, Akihisa; Yamane, Mototeru; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Isamu

    2002-02-01

    We have found that omega-hydroxy palmitic acid (16-hydroxy palmitic acid, omega-HPA) has both cell growth inhibiting and cell death inducing actions on human lung adenosquamous carcinoma cell line H596 and adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Further, these effects were dose- and time-dependent in both cell lines. However, in squamous carcinoma cell line H226, omega-HPA had no cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, in the human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line H128, this compound showed weak cytotoxicity. The sensitivity toward omega-HPA was higher in H596 cells than in A549 cells. In both H596 and A549 cells, cell growth was inhibited to 24.4 and 9.4%, respectively, by treatment with 100 microM omega-HPA for 12 h. In the 24 h treatment cells, growth inhibition was increased to 100 and 38.1%, respectively. In cytotoxicity experiments, the number of dead cells increased with incubation times in the presence of omega-HPA: on three days incubation with 100 microM omega-HPA, viability was 0 and 13.5%, respectively, in H596 and A549 cells. Further, the fragmentation of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized ladder fragments, which is an index of apoptosis, was observed in both cell lines on treatment with omega-HPA. Therefore, it is assumed that these cell deaths induced by omega-HPA, were apoptosis in these cell lines. Since the number of dead cells following treatment with omega-HPA decreased by treatment with omega-HPA in combination with Z-VAD-fmk, a caspase family inhibitor, it is thought that apoptotic cell death was related to caspase activity. PMID:12186781

  3. Characterization of indoor dust from Brazil and evaluation of the cytotoxicity in A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, E; Weidler, P G; Friedrich, F; Weiss, C; Diabaté, S

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been clearly associated with adverse health effects. In Brazil, small and poor communities are exposed to indoor dust derived from both natural sources, identified as blowing soil dust, and anthropogenic particles from mining activities. This study investigates the physicochemical and mineralogical composition of indoor PM10 dust samples collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluates its cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential. The mean PM10 mass concentration was 206 μg/m(3). The high dust concentration in the interior of the residences is strongly related to blowing soil dust. The chemical and mineralogical compositions were determined by ICP-OES and XRD, and the most prominent minerals were clays, Fe-oxide, quartz, feldspars, Al(hydr)oxides, zeolites, and anatase, containing the transition metals Fe, Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ti, and Mn as well as the metalloid As. The indoor dust samples presented a low water solubility of about 6 %. In vitro experiments were carried out with human lung alveolar carcinoma cells (A549) to study the toxicological effects. The influence of the PM10 dust samples on cell viability, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was analysed. The indoor dust showed little effects on alamarBlue reduction indicating unaltered mitochondrial activity. However, significant cell membrane damage, ROS production, and IL-8 release were detected in dependence of dose and time. This study will support the implementation of mitigation actions in the investigated area in Brazil. PMID:23990125

  4. Study of the radiotherapy sensitization effects and mechanism of capecitabine (Xeloda) against non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Shan, J J; Sun, L B; Qiu, W S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the radiotherapy sensitization effects and the mechanism of capecitabine (Xeloda) against the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, A549. γ-[(60)Co] radiation was used as the intervention method. Proliferative inhibition of capecitabine on A549 cells was determined by the CCK-8 method. The effects of capecitabine on the apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution of A549 were detected with the flow cytometric method. We found that capecitabine inhibited the proliferation of A549 in a dose-dependent manner, notably increased the cell apoptosis rate and blocked the cellular G0/G1 phase after radiotherapy by γ-[(60)Co]. Therefore, capecitabine can significantly increase the radiosensitivity of A549; its mechanism may be related to cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. PMID:26662434

  5. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  6. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  7. H9 induces apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sae-Bom; Kim, Min-Je; Ham, Sun Young; Park, Ga Wan; Choi, Kang-Duk; Jung, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Do-Young

    2015-03-01

    H9 is an ethanol extract prepared from nine traditional/medicinal herbs. This study was focused on the anticancer effect of H9 in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. The effects of H9 on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Δφm), and apoptosis-related protein expression were investigated in A549 human lung cancer cells. In this study, H9-induced apoptosis was confirmed by propidium iodide staining, expression levels of mRNA were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, protein expression levels were checked by western blot analysis, and MMP (Δφm) was measured by JC- 1 staining. Our results indicated that H9 decreased the viability of A549 cells and induced cell morphological changes in a dose-dependent manner. H9 also altered expression levels of molecules involved in the intrinsic signaling pathway. H9 inhibited Bcl-xL expression, whereas Bax expression was enhanced and cytochrome C was released. Furthermore, H9 treatment led to the activation of caspase-3/caspase-9 and proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADPribose) polymerase; the MMP was collapsed by H9. However, the expression levels of extrinsic pathway molecules such as Fas/FasL, TRAIL/TRAIL-R, DR5, and Fas-associated death receptor were downregulated by H9. These results indicated that H9 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis by activating intrinsic pathways but not extrinsic pathways in human lung cancer cells. Our results suggest that H9 can be used as an alternative remedy for human non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:25563417

  8. Effects of water soluble PM2.5 extracts exposure on human lung epithelial cells (A549): A proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Siyuan; Tian, Meiping; Chen, Jinsheng; Shen, Heqing

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM)2.5, a PM with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm, is known to be associated with a variety of adverse health effects. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in fine PM toxicity are still not well characterized. The present study aims to provide new insights into the cytotoxicity of PM2.5 on human lung epithelial cells (A549) at the proteomic level. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed a total of 27 protein spots, whose abundance were significantly altered in A549 cells exposed to water-soluble PM2.5 extracts (WSPE). Among these, 12 spots were upregulated while 15 were downregulated. Twenty-two proteins were further identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass/mass spectrometry and database search. The results revealed that oxidative stress, metabolic disturbance, dysregulation of signal transduction, aberrant protein synthesis and degradation, as well as cytoskeleton disorganization are major factors contributing to WSPE-mediated toxicity in human lung cells. It is further proposed that induction of apoptosis through p53, c-Myc and p21 pathways may be one of the key toxicological events occurred in A549 cells under WSPE stress. The data obtained here will aid our understanding of the toxic mechanisms related to PM2.5, and develop useful biomarkers indicative of inhalable PM2.5 exposure. PMID:23943255

  9. Differential Regulation of Gene Expression of Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma-Derived A549 Clones

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Keiko; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy appears to be promising for restoring damaged or irreparable lung tissue. However, establishing a simple and reproducible protocol for preparing lung progenitor populations is difficult because the molecular basis for alveolar epithelial cell differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated an in vitro system to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of alveolus-specific gene expression using a human alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell line, A549. After cloning A549 subpopulations, each clone was classified into five groups according to cell morphology and marker gene expression. Two clones (B7 and H12) were further analyzed. Under serum-free culture conditions, surfactant protein C (SPC), an ATII marker, was upregulated in both H12 and B7. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), an ATI marker, was upregulated in H12 and significantly induced in B7. When the RAS/MAPK pathway was inhibited, SPC and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression levels were enhanced. After treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), 8-bromoadenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), surfactant protein B and TTF-1 expression levels were enhanced. We found that A549-derived clones have plasticity in gene expression of alveolar epithelial differentiation markers and could be useful in studying ATII maintenance and differentiation. PMID:26167183

  10. Synergistic effect of ERK inhibition on tetrandrine-induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Chang, Seung Hee; Chung, Youn Sun; Shin, Ji Young; Park, Sung Jin; Lee, Eun Sun; Hwang, Soon Kyung; Kwon, Jung Taek; Tehrani, Arash Minai; Woo, Minah; Noh, Mi Sook; Hanifah, Huda; Jin, Hua; Xu, Cheng Xiong; Cho, Myung Haing

    2009-03-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to have anti-tumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism by which TET inhibits tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. The present studies were performed to characterize the potential effects of TET on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways since these signaling pathways are known to be responsible for cell growth and survival. TET suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. TET treatment resulted in a down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation in both time-/concentration-dependent manners. The inhibition of ERK using PD98059 synergistically enhanced the TET-induced apoptosis of A549 cells whereas the inhibition of Akt using LY294002 had a less significant effect. Taken together, our results suggest that TET: i) selectively inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells by blocking Akt activation and ii) increases apoptosis by inhibiting ERK. The treatment of lung cancers with TET may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and increase the apoptotic potential of lung cancer cells. PMID:19255520

  11. In vitro evaluation of the cellular effect of indium tin oxide nanoparticles using the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or plasma and mobile phone displays. Elevated production and usage of ITO in such displays have led to increased concerns over the safety of industrial workers exposed to particulate aerosols produced during cutting, grinding and polishing of these materials. However, the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs) are still unclear, although it has been reported that micro-scale ITO particles induce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of ITO NPs to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Here, stable dispersions of a medium containing ITO NPs were obtained using pre-adsorption and centrifugal fractionation methods, and the A549 cells were incubated in this medium. The ITO NPs showed low cytotoxic effects as shown by the WST-1 and LDH assays. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the cellular uptake of ITO NPs. The ITO NPs increased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species and the expression of the heme oxygenase 1 gene. Further, the results of alkaline comet assays showed that ITO NPs induced DNA damage. Thus, these results suggest that ITO NPs possess a genotoxic potential on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. PMID:25781390

  12. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits cell proliferation via AKT/GSK3β/cyclinD1 pathway and induces apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kui; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhiling

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) includes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, Non small cell lung carcinoma accounts for about 80% of the total lung cancer cases. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of DHA on cell growth and proliferation in lung cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that DHA inhibited cell proliferation in the A549 lung cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. DHA significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTS assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that DHA treatment of A549 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. These results suggest that DHA is a potential natural product for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25674233

  13. Rhizoma Paridis Saponins Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jue; Yang, Yixi; Lei, Lei; Tian, Mengliang

    2015-01-01

    Background As a traditional Chinese medicine herb, Chonglou (Paris polyphylla var. chinensis) has been used as anticancer medicine in China in recent decades, as it can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in numerous cancer cells. The saponins extract from the rhizoma of Chonglou [Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS)] is known as the main active component for anticancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effect of RPS is unknown. Material/Methods The present study evaluated the effect of RPS in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. Subsequently, the expression of several genes associated with cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Results RPS was revealed to inhibit cell growth, causing a number of cells to accumulate in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to apoptosis. In addition, the effect was dose-dependent. Moreover, the results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were significantly downregulated, and that BCL2, BAX, and p21 were upregulated, by RPS treatment. Conclusions We speculated that the RPS could act on a pathway, including p53, p21, BCL2, BAX, and CDK2, and results in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells. PMID:26311066

  14. Dendrotoxin-κ suppresses tumor growth induced by human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels have been considered to be a regulator of membrane potential and neuronal excitability. Recently, accumulated evidence has indicated that several Kv channel subtypes contribute to the control of cell proliferation in various types of cells and are worth noting as potential emerging molecular targets of cancer therapy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Kv1.1-specific blocker, dendrotoxin-κ (DTX-κ), on tumor formation induced by the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 in a xenograft model. Kv1.1 mRNA and protein was expressed in A549 cells and the blockade of Kv1.1 by DTX-κ, reduced tumor formation in nude mice. Furthermore, treatment with DTX-κ significantly increased protein expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, and p15INK4B and significantly decreased protein expression of cyclin D3 in tumor tissues compared to the control. These results suggest that DTX-κ has anti-tumor effects in A549 cells through the pathway governing G1-S transition. PMID:21368561

  15. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling; Yin, Hong

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  16. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  17. Induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in human lung carcinoma A549 cells by anacardic acid.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yeong-Ae; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Yoon, Jin-Soo; Yadunandam, Anandam Kasin; Kim, Gun-Do

    2014-03-01

    Anacardic acid (AA, 2-hydroxy-6-pentadecylbenzoic acid), a constituent of the cashew-nut shell, has a variety of beneficial effects on the treatment of cancer and tumors. However, the fact that AA induces ER stress and autophagy in cancer cell is not known. We investigated the effect of AA on ER-stress and autophagy-induced cell death in cancer cells. Because of our interest in lung cancer, we used the non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells treated with 3.0 μg/ml of AA for this research. In this research we found that AA induces intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and ER stress. AA induced the ER stress-inducing factors, especially IRE1α, and the hallmarks of UPR, Grp78/Bip and GADD153/CHOP. AA inhibited the expression of p-PERK and its downstream substrate, p-elF2α. We also demonstrated that AA induces autophagy. Up-regulation of autophagy-related genes and the appearance of autophagosome in transfected cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 and GFP-Beclin1 plasmids showed the induction of autophagy in AA-treated A549 cells. The morphological analysis of intracellular organelles by TEM also showed the evidence that AA induces ER stress and autophagy. For the first time, our research showed that AA induces ER stress and autophagy in cancer cells. PMID:23955513

  18. Chemosensitization and radiosensitization of a lung cancer cell line A549 induced by a composite polymer micelle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Li, Xiang-Long; Xu, Wen-Hong; Zhou, Juan; Shen, Li; Wei, Qi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to Doxorubicin (DOX) remains a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. The present study sought to overcome the MDR of lung cancer cells and achieve radiosensitization by developing a composite DOX-loaded micelle (M-DOX). M-DOX containing PEG-PCL/Pluronic P105 was prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Lung cancer cell line A549 was adopted in this study. In vitro cytotoxicity, cellular uptake behavior, subcellular distribution, and radiosensitivity were evaluated by the treatment with M-DOX, and free DOX was used as a control. A549 cells treated with M-DOX as opposed to free DOX showed greater cellular uptake as well as greater cytotoxicity. Furthermore, M-DOX reached the mitochondria and lysosome effectively after cellular uptake, and fluorescence used to track M-DOX was found to be surrounding the nucleus. Finally, colony-forming assays demonstrated that M-DOX treatment improved radiosensitization when compared to free DOX. Based on the increased cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, M-DOX could be considered as a promising drug delivery system to overcome MDR in lung cancer therapy. PMID:27585226

  19. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  20. E-Cadherin repression increases amount of cancer stem cells in human A549 lung adenocarcinoma and stimulates tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Farmakovskaya, M; Khromova, N; Rybko, V; Dugina, V; Kopnin, B; Kopnin, P

    2016-04-17

    Here we show that cancer stem cells amount in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 depends on E-cadherin expression. In fact, downregulation of E-cadherin expression enhanced expression of pluripotent genes (c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT3/4 and SOX2) and enriched cell population with the cells possessing the properties of so-called 'cancer stem cells' via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Repression of E-cadherin also stimulated cell proliferation and migration in vitro, decreased cell amount essential for xenografts formation in nude mice, increased tumors vascularization and growth. On the other hand, E-cadherin upregulation caused opposite effects i.e. diminished the number of cancer stem cells, decreased xenograft vascularization and decelerated tumor growth. Therefore, agents restoring E-cadherin expression may be useful in anticancer therapy. PMID:26940223

  1. β-Elemonic acid inhibits the cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: The role of MAPK, ROS activation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Tuan; Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    β-elemonic acid, a known triterpene, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, yet research on the pharmacological effects of β-elemonic acid is rare. We investigated the anticancer effects and the related molecular mechanisms of β-elemonic acid on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. The effects of β-elemonic acid on the growth of A549 cells were studied using a 3-(4,5)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V staining. The effect of β-elemonic acid on the cell cycle of A549 cells was assessed using the propidium iodide method. The change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using a dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay with microscopic examination. The expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family proteins and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using western blot analysis. Our data revealed that β-elemonic acid strongly induced human A549 lung cancer cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as determined by the MTT assay. β-elemonic acid-induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic when the phosphatidylserine exposure was observed using Annexin V staining. The death of human A549 lung cancer cells was caused by apoptosis induced by activation of ROS activity, increase in the sub-G1 proportion, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, upregulation of Bax expression and inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathways. These results clearly demonstrated that β-elemonic acid inhibits proliferation by inducing hypoploid cells and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the anticancer effects of β-elemonic acid were related to the MAPK signaling pathway, ROS activation and glutathione depletion in human A549 lung cancer cells. PMID:26530631

  2. Coenzyme Q0 from Antrodia cinnamomea in Submerged Cultures Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cheng-Han; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer effects of Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom from Taiwan, on A549 human lung cancer cells using the ethyl acetate extract from submerged culture filtrates. Our results showed that 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (coenzyme Q0; CoQ0) derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates has anticancer activity. CoQ0 treatment reduced the viability of A549, HepG2, and SW480 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, CoQ0 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in A549 cells, which was inhibited by the antioxidant ascorbic acid. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that CoQ0 derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates exerts its anticancer effect through the induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. PMID:25431605

  3. In vitro and in vivo studies on the inhibitory effects of myocardial cell culture medium on growth of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Fu, S.Z.; Fan, J.; Wu, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardiac myocyte–conditioned medium (cmcm) on the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods An mtt assay was used to detect the inhibition ratio with respect to A549 proliferation. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell strain) were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to produce tumours. The xenograft tumour growth in mice was observed after selected drug administration. Results After treatment with cmcm and cisplatin (Cis), A549 cell viability significantly declined (p < 0.001). The cell viability in the cmcm and Cis groups were 53.42% ± 3.45% and 58.45% ± 6.39% respectively. Growth of implanted tumour cells in vivo was significantly inhibited in the cmcm group, the group treated with recombinant human adenovirus–p53, and the Cis-treated group compared with a control group. The inhibition rates were 41.44% in the cmcm group, 41.34% in the p53 group, and 64.50% in the Cis group. Lung metastasis capacity was significantly reduced in the presence of cmcm (p < 0.05). Lung metastasis inhibition rates in mice were 56.52% in the cmcm group, 47.83% in the p53 group, and 82.61% in the Cis group. With cmcm, the lives of A549-tumour-bearing mice could be significantly prolonged without any effect on weight loss. Conclusions Use of cmcm has the effect of reducing A549 cell viability, tumour volume, and lung metastasis rate, while prolonging survival duration without severe toxicity. PMID:26966411

  4. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  5. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  6. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway. PMID:26472723

  7. Isodeoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber (Didancao) induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Isodeoxyelephantopin (IDOE) isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. (Didancao) is used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of some types of cancer. The anti-cancer mechanism of IDOE remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative activity of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of IDOE on breast carcinoma T47D cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells, and normal lymphocytes were evaluated by the MTT assay. Morphological analysis of apoptosis induction was performed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual-staining and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. The cell cycle profile, caspase-3 expression, and annexin V staining were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results IDOE inhibited the growth of A549 and T47D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 10.46 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. IDOE was not significantly toxic to normal lymphocytes. The cells became detached from the monolayer and rounded up, had fragmented nuclei and condensed chromatin, and the numbers of apoptotic cells increased (P = 0.0003). IDOE-induced cell death was associated with activated caspase-3 expression followed by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Conclusions IDOE inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells and lung carcinoma cells and induced caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the treated cells. PMID:24742378

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Lestari, F; Hayes, A J; Green, A R; Chattopadhyay, G

    2012-04-01

    The application of polymer and composites in building and modern transport interiors raises concerns of potential health hazards during combustion. Cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549) has been investigated. A laboratory scale vertical tube furnace was used for the generation of combustion products. A range of materials used in the building and transport industry including high density-polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRPs), and melamine faced plywood (MFP) were studied. The exposure of combustion toxicants to human lung cells (A549) at the air/liquid interface was acquired using a Harvard Navicyte Chamber. Cytotoxic effects on human cells were assessed based on cell viability using a selected in vitro cytotoxicity assays, including NRU (neutral red uptake) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Morphological assessment on the effects of combustion products in human lung cells from selected materials including PVC, FRP and MFP was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The volatile organic compounds from thermal decomposition products were identified using ATD-GCMS (Automatic Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry). NOAEC (No Observable Adverse Effect Concentration), IC(10) (10% inhibitory concentration), IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration), and TLC (Total Lethal Concentration) values (mg/l) were generated. The following toxicity ranking was observed from the most toxic material to the least toxic using the NRU assay: PVC>PP>HDPE>PC >FRP-10>MFP>FRP-16; and the ATP assay: PVC>HDPE>PP>FRP-10>FRP-16>MFP>PC. The method described here could potentially be an alternative to current fire toxicity standards. PMID:22227179

  9. Deguelin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells via regulating actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Zuncheng

    2015-01-01

    Deguelin, the main components from Mundulea sericea, was reported to suppress the growth of various cancer cells. However, the effect of Deguelin on tumor cell invasion and metastasis and its mechanism still unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the effects of Deguelin on the cell invasion in human lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. Our results demonstrate that Deguelin can significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. Moreover, Deguelin could also affected reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and decreased filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed decreased the tumor metastasis related genes such as CD44, MMP2 and MMP9 at protein and mRNA levels and the content of CEA, SCC, NSE, CYFAR21-1. In addition, Deguelin down-regulated protein expression of Rac1 and Rock1, which are impotent in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility. Together, our results suggest that Deguelin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and might be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer. PMID:26884827

  10. Upregulation of Id3 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549/DDP human lung cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Qinfei; Wang, Shuxia; Wang, Haiyong; Li, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)3 is a member of the Id multigene family of dominant‑negative helix‑loop-helix transcription factors, which function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancers. Its upregulation was recently shown to have inhibitory effects on lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. As drug resistance represents a major bottleneck of cancer therapy, the present study assessed the ability of Id3 to inhibit cisplatin‑resistant A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549/DDP). A549/DPP cells were transiently transfected with enhanced green fluorescence protein overexpression plasmid (pEGFP) or Id3 overexpression plasmid (Id3/pEGFP), which was confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, PCR and western blot analysis. The effects of Id3 on the viability and apoptosis of A549/DDP were determined using an MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry following Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. The results revealed that overexpression of Id3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and viability of A549/DDP cells in a time‑dependent manner. Furthermore, overexpression of Id3 significantly increased the apoptotic rate of A549/DDP cells from 2.73 to 16.92%, confirming the implication of Id3 in the negative control of tumour growth. The results of the present study revealed that overexpression of Id3 may serve as a novel strategy for inhibiting cisplatin‑sensitive lung cancer. Further experiments will be performed to determine whether Id3 overexpression could enhance the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to DDP. PMID:27176047

  11. Water-insoluble fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10 ) induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuo; Zhang, Fang; Qu, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10 ) links with public health hazards and increases risk for lung cancer and other diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying the toxic effects of exposure to PM10 . Several components of water-soluble fraction of PM10 (sPM10 ) have been known to be capable of inducing oxidative stress in in vitro studies. In this study, we investigated if water-insoluble fraction of PM10 (iPM10 ) could be also capable of inducing oxidative stress and oxidative damage. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were exposed to 10 μg/mL of sPM10 , iPM10 or total PM10 (tPM10 ) preparation for 24 h. Here, we observed that all three PM10 preparations reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. We further found that, similar to the exposure to sPM10 and tPM10 , the intracellular level of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in the iPM10 -exposed cells was increased significantly; meanwhile the activity of catalase was decreased significantly as compared with the unexposed control cells, resulting in significant DNA damage. Our data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) assays showed that iron is the most abundant metal in all three PM10 preparations. Thus, we have demonstrated that, similar to sPM10 , iPM10 is also capable of inducing oxidative stress by probably inducing generation of H2 O2 and impairing enzymatic antioxidant defense, resulting in oxidative DNA damage and even apoptotic cell death through the iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction. PMID:22331617

  12. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta by antisense oligonucleotides sensitises A549 lung cancer cells to vincristine and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Brischwein, Klaus; Liu, Chao; Bader, Peter; Müller, Cornelia; Niethammer, Dietrich; Beck, James F

    2004-06-25

    Previous studies point to protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme eta as a resistance factor in cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether down-regulation of PKCeta with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) would sensitise A549 human lung carcinoma cells to cytostatics. The effects were compared to the outcome of Bcl-xL down-regulation. Upon treatment with antisense ODNs, PKCeta and Bcl-xL were both significantly reduced on mRNA and protein level. Down-regulation of either PKCeta or Bcl-xL in combination with vincristine or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in caspase-3 activity compared to that in the control oligonucleotide treated cells. In addition, PKCeta down-regulation augmented vincristine-induced dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In conclusion, these results confirm that PKCeta might represent a considerable resistance factor and an interesting target to improve anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:15159020

  13. Zerumbone Suppresses Osteopontin-Induced Cell Invasion Through Inhibiting the FAK/AKT/ROCK Pathway in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-22

    Lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and Korea. We have previously demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) induces cell invasion through inactivating cofilin. Inactivation of cofilin is mediated by the FAK/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Zerumbone (1) has been shown to exert anticancer activities. In this study, whether and how 1 affects OPN-induced cell invasion was determined in NSCLC A549 cells. Results from Boyden chamber assays suggested that OPN induced invasion of A549 cells and that 1 strongly suppressed this activity without affecting cell viability. Compound 1 effectively inhibited OPN-induced protein expression of ROCK1, the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. In addition, immunofluorescence staining showed that OPN caused a significant increase in lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells. However, 1 dramatically decreased OPN-induced lamellipodia formation. Compound 1 impaired OPN-induced phosphorylation of FAK and AKT, as determined by Western blot analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that 1 causes considerable suppression of OPN-induced cell invasion through inhibiting the FAK/AKT/ROCK pathway in NSCLC A549 cells. PMID:26681550

  14. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  15. Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, attenuates the cell viability of human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells via reducing Bcl-xL expression

    PubMed Central

    SONODA, JUN-ICHIRO; IKEDA, RYUJI; BABA, YASUTAKA; NARUMI, KEIKO; KAWACHI, AKIO; TOMISHIGE, ERISA; NISHIHARA, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YASUO; YAMADA, KATSUSHI; SATO, KEIZO; MOTOYA, TOSHIRO

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea has a number of beneficial effects on health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), the major polyphenolic compound present in green tea, has received much attention as an active ingredient. Among the numerous promising profiles of EGCg, the present study focused on the anticancer effects. Apoptosis induced by EGCg and subsequent cell growth suppression have been demonstrated in a number of cell culture studies. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the major molecule that mediates proapoptotic cell death by EGCg. The effect of EGCg on cell proliferation and the induction of mRNA that modulates apoptotic cell death was evaluated in the A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. In addition, morphological changes were assessed by microscopy in A549 cells that had been treated with 100 μM EGCg for 24 h. The MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was significantly reduced by EGCg in a dose-dependent manner (3–100 μM). The mRNA expression level of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) was decreased in A549 cells following 24 h incubation with 100 μM EGCg. Therefore, the results indicated that the inhibition of cell proliferation by EGCg may be achieved via suppressing the expression of the cell death-inhibiting gene, Bcl-xL. PMID:24944597

  16. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Lee, Ho Jeong; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Charles, Shobana Nancy; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup

    2016-01-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka belongs to the Rutaceae family and is widely used in folk medicines in Korea due to its anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer effect is not well understood. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism of flavonoids from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on A549 cells. FCP displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on A549 cells proliferation. Further, flow cytometry revealed that FCP significantly increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic cell population) and G2/M phase population, and the total number of apoptotic cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were also observed upon staining with Hoechst 33342 in FCP-treated A549 cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated a dose-dependent downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle 25c, pro-caspases −3, −6, −8 and −9, and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in FCP-treated A549 cells. In addition, FCP induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PARP cleavage, and increased the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-extra large ratio in A549 cells. These findings suggest that FCP induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. The present study provides evidence that FCP may be useful in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:27446443

  17. Benzopyrene promotes lung cancer A549 cell migration and invasion through up-regulating cytokine IL8 and chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Chang, Li; Jin, Hanyu; Xia, Yaoxiong; Wang, Li; He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Chen, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco-sourced carcinogen including benzopyrene (B[a]P) in lung cancer metastasis has not been fully reported. In this study, lung carcinoma A549 cell line was used to investigate the potential roles of tobacco-sourced B[a]P on cell metastasis and invasion and to assess its underlying mechanism. Effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on A549 cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch method, respectively. The effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on cytokines and chemokines secretion were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, correlation between inflammatory factor expression and cancer cell migration and invasion was assessed using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Data showed that both B[a]P and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone either at high or low dose performed no significant difference on A549 cell proliferation with time increasing. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone performed no significant difference on A549 cell migration and invasion while B[a]P significantly increased A549 cell migration and invasion compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Consequently, except for IL-6, IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3, secretions were significantly increased by B[a]P treatment compared to the control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, when CCL-2 and CCL-3 were silenced, the migrated and invasive A549 cells were significantly decreased compared to the control, respectively (P < 0.05), while silenced IL-8 drastically decreased the migrated and invasive cells compared to the control (P < 0.01). Taken together, this study illustrated that there may be significant correlation between smoking and lung cancer metastasis. B[a]P maybe an excellent contributor for lung cancer metastasis through up-regulating IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3 expression. PMID:27075927

  18. Efficacy of an AC sinusoidal electric field for apoptosis induction in lung carcinoma cells (A549)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Hoon Lee, Dae

    2012-08-01

    An AC sinusoidal electric field was applied to lung carcinoma cells for the induction of apoptosis. The occurrence of apoptosis was determined by analysis of Annexin V/PI and DNA fragmentation. Additional evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by caspase-3 cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated that the expression of apoptosis can be controlled by varying the magnitude and the duration of the field, and that the application of an AC electric field can stimulate the apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  19. Small interfering RNA targeting S100A4 sensitizes non-small-cell lung cancer cells (A549) to radiation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ruixue; Qiao, Tiankui; Zhuang, Xibing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of S100A4-small interfering RNA (S100A4-siRNA) on apoptosis and enhanced radiosensitivity in non-small-cell lung cancer (A549) cells. We also explored the mechanisms of radiosensitization and identified a new target to enhance radiosensitivity and gene therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods RNA interference is a powerful tool for gene silencing. In this study, we constructed an effective siRNA to knock down S100A4. A549 cells were randomly divided into three groups: blank, negative control, and S100A4-siRNA. To investigate the effect of S100A4-siRNA, the expression of S100A4, E-cadherin, and p53 proteins and their messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Transwell chambers were used to assess cell invasion. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Radiosensitivity was determined by colony formation ability. Results Our results demonstrate that S100A4-siRNA effectively silenced the S100A4 gene. When siRNA against S100A4 was used, S100A4 protein expression was downregulated, whereas the expressions of E-cadherin and p53 were upregulated. In addition, a clear reduction in S100A4 mRNA levels was noted compared with the blank and negative control groups, whereas E-cadherin and p53 mRNA levels increased. Transfection with S100A4-siRNA significantly reduced the invasiveness of A549 cells. S100A4 silencing induced immediate G2/M arrest in cell cycle studies and increased apoptosis rates in A549 cells. In clonogenic assays, we used a multitarget, single-hit model to detect radiosensitivity after S100A4 knockdown. All parameters (D0, Dq, α, β) indicated that the downregulation of S100A4 enhanced radiosensitivity in A549 cells. Furthermore, S100A4-siRNA upregulated p53 expression, suggesting that S100A4 may promote A549 cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating the expression of other proteins. Therefore, si

  20. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to A549 lung cancer cells by CXCR4 antagonist conjugated PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chittasupho, Chuda; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Kewsuwan, Prartana; Sarisuta, Narong

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin is used to treat a variety of cancers, but dose limiting toxicity or intrinsic and acquired resistance limits its application in many types of cancer. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor which implicates in metastasis of cancers including lung cancer. LFC131, a peptide inhibitor of CXCR4-ligand binding, is a linear type of low molecular weight CXCR4 antagonist. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using LFC131 conjugated nanoparticles for targeted delivering doxorubicin to CXCR4 expressing lung cancer cells. The LFC131 peptide was conjugated to sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose coated poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Binding and cellular uptake of doxorubicin-loaded LFC131 conjugated nanoparticles (LFC131-DOX NP) in adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells called A549 cells were higher and faster than that of untargeted nanoparticles. The specificity of CXCR4-mediated internalization of LFC131-DOX NPs was confirmed by using free LFC131 peptide or anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody. Cell studies suggested that sustained release of doxorubicin afforded by PLGA nanoparticles may enable LFC131-DOX NP as a targeted and controlled release drug delivery system. PMID:25119723

  1. Dichloroacetate alters Warburg metabolism, inhibits cell growth, and increases the X-ray sensitivity of human A549 and H1299 NSC lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kah Tan; Chin-Sinex, Helen; DeLuca, Thomas; Pomerening, Joseph R; Sherer, Jeremy; Watkins, John B; Foley, John; Jesseph, Jerry M; Mendonca, Marc S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether altering Warburg metabolism (aerobic glycolysis) by treatment with the metabolic agent dichloroacetate (DCA) could increase the X-ray-induced cell killing of the radiation-resistant human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549 and H1299. Treatment with 50mM DCA decreased lactate production and glucose consumption in both A549 and H1299, clear indications of attenuated aerobic glycolysis. In addition, we found that DCA treatment also slowed cell growth, increased population-doubling time, and altered cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, we report that treatment with 50mM DCA significantly increased single and fractionated X-ray-induced cell killing of A549 and H1299 cells. Assay of DNA double-strand break repair by neutral comet assays demonstrated that DCA inhibited both the fast and the slow kinetics of X-ray-induced DSB repair in both A549 and H1299 NSCL cancer cells. Taken together the data suggest a correlation between an attenuated aerobic glycolysis and enhanced cytotoxicity and radiation-induced cell killing in radiation-resistant NSCLC cells. PMID:26393423

  2. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 adhesion to and invasion of A549 lung epithelial cells by natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ghada F; Elkhatib, Walid F; Noreddin, Ayman M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs in cystic fibrosis (CF) and mechanically ventilated patients by binding to the cellular receptors on the surface of the lung epithelium. Studies have shown that blocking this interaction could be achieved with sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance is a probable drawback of such an intervention. The use of natural extracts to interfere with bacterial adhesion and invasion has recently gained substantial attention and is hypothesized to inhibit bacterial binding and consequently prevent or reduce pathogenicity. This study used an A549 lung epithelial cell infection model, and the results revealed that a combination of aqueous cranberry extract with ciprofloxacin could completely prevent the adhesion and invasion of P. aeruginosa PAO1 compared to the untreated control. All of the natural extracts (cranberry, dextran, and soybean extracts) and ciprofloxacin showed a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in P. aeruginosa PAO1 adhesion to and invasion of lung epithelial cells relative to the control. The cranberry, dextran, and soybean extracts could substantially increase the anti-adhesion and anti-invasion effects of ciprofloxacin to the averages of 100% (P<0.0001), 80% (P<0.0001), and 60% (P<0.0001), respectively. Those extracts might result in a lower rate of the development of bacterial resistance; they are relatively safe and inexpensive agents, and utilizing such extracts, alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin, as potential anti-adhesion and anti-invasion remedies, could be valuable in preventing or reducing P. aeruginosa lung infections. PMID:24894307

  3. In vitro effects of mitomycin C on the proliferation of the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549

    PubMed Central

    An, Qi; Han, Chao; Zhou, Yubing; Li, Feng; Li, Duolu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Yu, Zujiang; Duan, Zhenfeng; Kan, Quancheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Chemotherapy prolongs survival among patients with advanced disease, but at the cost of clinically significant adverse effects. As a novel promising oncotherapy method, induced differentiation by mitomycin C has been applied for NSCLC therapy at recent year. In this study, the molecular mechanism of differentiation interruption by mitomycin C in the NSCLC line A549 was investigated. High dosage of mitomycin C (300 µM) could significantly inhibit cell proliferation (P < 0.05) by 48.39 ± 3.32% (P < 0.05), under which cell shrinkage and disruption were observed. Flow cytometry assay showed that the proportion of G1/G0 cells significantly increased, while that of S and G2/M cells significantly decreased after treatment of mitomycin C (10 or 300 µM) for 24 h. These results indicated that cell arrest by mitomycin C appeared. Additionally, up-regulation of retinoblastoma (Rb) gene by low concentration of mitomycin C (10 µM) was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assay, indicating a role in the regulation of cell cycle inhibition of this cell line. PMID:26884968

  4. In vitro effects of mitomycin C on the proliferation of the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    An, Qi; Han, Chao; Zhou, Yubing; Li, Feng; Li, Duolu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Yu, Zujiang; Duan, Zhenfeng; Kan, Quancheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Chemotherapy prolongs survival among patients with advanced disease, but at the cost of clinically significant adverse effects. As a novel promising oncotherapy method, induced differentiation by mitomycin C has been applied for NSCLC therapy at recent year. In this study, the molecular mechanism of differentiation interruption by mitomycin C in the NSCLC line A549 was investigated. High dosage of mitomycin C (300 µM) could significantly inhibit cell proliferation (P < 0.05) by 48.39 ± 3.32% (P < 0.05), under which cell shrinkage and disruption were observed. Flow cytometry assay showed that the proportion of G1/G0 cells significantly increased, while that of S and G2/M cells significantly decreased after treatment of mitomycin C (10 or 300 µM) for 24 h. These results indicated that cell arrest by mitomycin C appeared. Additionally, up-regulation of retinoblastoma (Rb) gene by low concentration of mitomycin C (10 µM) was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assay, indicating a role in the regulation of cell cycle inhibition of this cell line. PMID:26884968

  5. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of a New Cucurbitacin B Derivative and Chemotherapy Drugs on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Silva, Izabella Thaís; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Persich, Lara; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-10-19

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important cause of mortality worldwide due to its aggressiveness and growing resistance to currently available therapy. Cucurbitacins have emerged as novel potential anticancer agents showing strong antiproliferative effects and can be promising candidates for combined treatments with clinically used anticancer agents. This study investigates the synergistic antiproliferative effects of a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) with three chemotherapy drugs: cisplatin (CIS), irinotecan (IRI), and paclitaxel (PAC) on A549 cells. The most effective combinations were selected for studies of the mechanism of action. Using an in silico tool, DACE seems to act by a different mechanism of action when compared with that of different classes of drugs already used in clinical settings. DACE also showed potent synergic effects with drugs, and the most potent combinations induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating survivin and p53 expression, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton, and cell death by apoptosis. These treatments completely inhibited the clonogenic potential and did not reduce the proliferation of nontumoral lung cells (MRC-5). DACE also showed relevant antimigratory and anti-invasive effects, and combined treatments modulated cell migration signaling pathways evolved with metastasis progression. The effects of DACE associated with drugs was potentiated by the oxidant agent l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), and attenuated by N-acetilcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant agent. The antiproliferative effects induced by combined treatments were attenuated by a pan-caspase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of these treatments are dependent on caspase activity. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of DACE used in combination with known chemotherapy drugs and offer important insights for the development of more effective and selective therapies against lung cancer. PMID:26372186

  6. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. PMID:27006094

  7. Extract of Bryophyllum laetivirens reverses etoposide resistance in human lung A549 cancer cells by downregulation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Johnston, Randal N; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main reasons for failure in cancer treatment, its suppression may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In the present study we attempted to identify a new and effective anticancer drug against MDR cancer cells. We first found that lung cancer A549 cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto) exhibit upregulation of NF-κB and SIRT1 in comparison to A549 parental cells. During a search for anticancer drug candidates from medicinal plant sources, we found that an extract fraction (F14) of Bryophyllum laetivirens leaves downregulated expression of NF-κB and SIRT1, sensitizing the levels of A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis through downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene. To address whether NF-κB is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB. We then observed that Bay11-7802 treatment reduced P-gp expression levels, and furthermore combined treatment with the F14 extract and Bay11-7802 accelerated apoptosis through a decrease in P-gp levels, suggesting that NF-κB is involved in MDR. To address whether upregulation of SIRT1 is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with SIRT1 siRNA or nicotinamide (NAM), an inhibitor of SIRT1. we found that suppression of SIRT1 did not reduce P-gp levels. furthermore, the combined treatment with the F14 extract, and SIRT1 siRNA or NAM did not accelerate apoptosis, indicating that SIRT1 is not involved in the regulation of P-gp levels in A549RT-eto cells. Taken together, we suggest that upregulation of NF-κB determines etoposide resistance through P-gp expression in human A549 lung cancer cells. We herein demonstrated that B. laetivirens extract reverses etoposide resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells through downregulation of NF-κB. PMID:24220725

  8. Latcripin-13 domain induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wan, Xianyao; Gao, Yifan; Zhong, Mintao; Sha, Li; Liu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Li; Ruan, Wenjing; Cao, Shuyun; Huang, Min

    2016-07-01

    Latcripin-13 domain, isolated from the transcriptome of Lentinula edodes C91-3, contains a regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC1) domain/β-lactamase-inhibitor protein II (BLIP-II) and a plant homeodomain (PHD). Latcripin-13 domain has been shown to have antitumor effects. However, the underlying molecular pharmacology is largely unknown. We report here that Latcripin-13 domain induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and caused the apoptosis of human lung carcinoma A549 cells via the GSK3β-cyclin D1 and caspase-8/NF-κB signaling pathways. Western blot analysis showed that Latcripin-13 domain decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), while it increased the ratio of GSK3β/phosphorylated GSK3β. Importantly, Latcripin-13 domain induced nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation in the A549 cells. In addition, treatment of the A549 cells with Latcripin-13 domain resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Intriguingly, western blot analysis revealed that NF-κB was significantly downregulated by Latcripin-13 domain. These results demonstrated that Latcripin-13 domain induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in the A549 cells, providing a mechanism for the antitumor effects of Latcripin-13 domain. PMID:27221765

  9. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Ebenus boissieri Barbey on human lung cancer cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Esra Arslan; Simsek, Ece; Imir, Nilüfer; Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Yesilada, Erdem; Fiskin, Kayahan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fabaceae family members are known to possess preventive and therapeutic potentials against various types of cancers. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of an endemic Ebenus species; Ebenus boissieri Barbey in human lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: After treatment with hydroalcoholic extracts cytotoxic activities of both extracts were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, whereas caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-a lpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) releasewere measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: According to in vitro assay results, the increase in all caspases activity suggested that extracts induce cells to undergo apoptosis. Especially, induction in caspase-3 activity was the most remarkable result of this study. Both aerial part and root extracts induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 activity, TNF-α and IFN-γ release. When compared to their relative controls, the concentrations of both TNF-α and IFN-γ in extract-treated groups were significantly and dose dependently exalted. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that the hydroalcoholic extracts of E. boissieri can be considered as a source of new anti-apoptotic and therefore anti-carcinogenic agent. PMID:26109772

  10. Induction of G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis by ZGDHU-1 in A549 and RERF-LC-MA lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xinfeng; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Sufeng; Chen, Yu; Xia, Jun; Lv, Yaping; Zhou, Yonglie

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a major public health issue worldwide and is associated with high mortality and poor prognosis. Chemotherapy has the potential to reduce tumor size, increase operability and eradicate micrometastases; therefore, novel chemicals to treat lung cancer are urgently required. In the present study, the effects of N, N′-di-(m-methylphenyi)-3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4, 5-tetrazine-1,4-dicarboamide (ZGDHu-1), a novel tetrazine derivative, were investigated in A549 and RERF-LC-MA lung cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism of ZGDHu in treating lung cancer was determined. Following incubation with different concentrations of ZGDHu-1, flow cytometry analysis results indicated that ZGDHu-1 could induce G2/mitotic (M) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 and RERF-LC-MA cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of G2/M regulatory molecules, including cyclin B1, Cdc2 and cell division cycle 25c, decreased following treatment with ZGDHu-1, whilst p53 expression increased. In addition, A549 and RERF-LC-MA cell apoptosis was induced by cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB. These results suggest that ZGDHu-1 may induce G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of lung cancer cells, and may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27446382

  11. N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 overexpression reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and cell invasion of A549 lung cancer cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Seyed Nooredin; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a candidate gene for tumor suppression. The expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated in several tumors including lung cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on invasion, migration, and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Materials and Methods: A recombinant plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NDRG2 (pCMV6-AC-NDRG2-GFP) was used to overexpress GFP-tagged NDRG2 in A549 cells. The cells in the experimental group and those in the control group were transfected with pCMV6-AC-NDRG2-GFP and a control plasmid without NDRG2 (pCMV6-AC-GFP), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry analysis of GFP expression were used to evaluate the cellular expression of GFP-tagged NDRG2 and the efficiency of transfection. The effects of NDRG2 expression on cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell filter migration assay. The gelatinase activity of secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured by gelatin zymography. Results: Our results demonstrated the expression of GFP-tagged NDRG2 in the cytoplasm and nucleus of A549 cells. The findings of transwell assay showed that NDRG2 overexpression reduced migration and invasion of A549 cells compared to control cells. Gelatin zymography analyses revealed that NDRG2 overexpression decreased the gelatinase activity of secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NDRG2 may be a new anti-invasion factor in lung cancer that inhibits MMPs activities. PMID:26557966

  12. Inhibition of microRNA-196a might reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP non-small-cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Huang; Luo, Ning; Zhong, Mei-Zuo; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Xin; Yao, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Yun; Cao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to explore the possible mechanism of microRNA-196a (miR-196a) inhibition and reversion of drug resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of the A549/DDP non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect expression differences of miR-196a in the drug-resistant A549/DDP NLCLC cell line and the parental A549 cell line, and expressions of miR-196a in the A549/DDP NLCLC cell line transfected with miR-196a inhibitor (anti-miR-196a group) and the miR-196a negative control (miR-NC) group and blank group (without transfection). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was applied in examining the cell viability of A549/DDP cell line before and after transfection. Clonogenic assay was used to detect cell proliferation ability. Flow cytometry was applied in detecting apoptosis rate of assayed tumor cell and rhodamine-123 changes in cells. Western blot was applied in detecting proteins of drug-resistant related gene in A549/DDP cell line. Significantly higher expression of miR-196a was detected in the drug-resistant A549/DDP cell line than that in the parental A549 cell line (P < 0.05). However, miR-196a expression in the anti-miR-196a group decreased obviously compared to that in the blank group and the miR-NC group (both P < 0.05); The value of IC50 in the anti-miR-196a group showed remarkably lower than that in the blank group and the miR-NC group (both P < 0.05); Rh-123 absorbing ability in the anti-miR-196a group increased 2.51 times and 2.49 times respectively compared to that in the blank group and the miR-NC group (both P < 0.05). No statistical differences in the apoptosis rate of A549/DDP cell line in the early stage were found among the three groups (all P > 0.05), but the late-stage apoptosis rate in the anti-miR-196a group was significantly higher than that in the blank group and the miR-NC group (both P < 0.05); The expressions of human

  13. The combination of antitumor drugs, exemestane and erlotinib, induced resistance mechanism in H358 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kritikou, Ismini; Giannopoulou, Efstathia; Koutras, Angelos K; Labropoulou, Vassiliki T; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Estrogens in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are important, and their interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) might be crucial. Objective: This study investigates the effect of exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, and erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, on human NSCLC cell lines; H23, H358 and A549. Materials and methods: A cell proliferation assay was used for measuring cell number, apoptosis assay for detecting apoptosis and necrosis and immunoblotting for beclin-1 and Bcl-2 proteins detection. An immunofluorescence assay was used for EGFR localization. A migration assay and zymography were used for cell motility and metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, respectively. Results: Exemestane, erlotinib or their combination decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Exemestane's half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 50 μM for H23 and H358 cells and 20 μM for A549. The IC50 of erlotinib was 25 μM for all cell lines. Apoptosis increase induced by exemestane was 58.0 (H23), 186.3 (H358) and 34.7% (A549) and by erlotinib was 16.7 (H23), 65.3 (H358) and 66.3% (A549). A synergy effect was observed only in H23 cells. Noteworthy, the combination of exemestane and erlotinib decreased beclin-1 protein levels (32.3 ± 19.2%), an indicator of autophagy, in H23 cells. The combination of exemestane and erlotinib partially reversed the EGFR translocation to mitochondria and decreased MMP levels and migration. Discussion and conclusions: The benefit from a dual targeting of aromatase and EGFR seems to be regulated by NSCLC cell content. The diverse responses of cells to agents might be influenced by the dominance of certain molecular pathways. PMID:24192333

  14. Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Ghareghomi, Somayyeh; Haddadchi, Gholamreza; Milani, Morteza; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Daroushnejad, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum generally known as fenugreek, has been normally cultivated in Asia and Africa for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used widely for therapeutic purposes. Fenugreek seed is recognized to show anti-diabetic and anti-nociceptive properties and other things such as hypocholesterolaemic, and anti-cancer. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin from therapeutic herbs, fenugreek (T. foenum-graceum L.), has been well-known to have anticancer properties. Telomerase activity is not identified in usual healthy cells, while in carcinogenic cell telomerase expression is reactivated. Therefore telomerase illustrates a promising cancer therapeutic target. We deliberate the inhibitory effect of pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin on human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) expression which is critical for telomerase activity. MTT-assay and qRT-PCR analysis were achieved to discover cytotoxicity effects and hTERT gene expression inhibition properties, separately. MTT results exhibited that IC50 for pure diosgenin were 47, 44 and 43 µM and for fenugreek extract diosgenin were 49, 48 and 47 µM for 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Culturing cells with pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin treatment caused in down regulation of hTERT expression. These results indication that pure and impure diosgenin prevents telomerase activity by down regulation of the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line, with the difference that pure compound is more effective than another. PMID:24973886

  15. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  16. PrtT-Regulated Proteins Secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus Activate MAPK Signaling in Exposed A549 Lung Cells Leading to Necrotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Haim; Amar, David; Levdansky, Emma; Mircus, Gabriel; Shadkchan, Yana; Shamir, Ron; Osherov, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered mold pathogen of humans, predominantly infecting the respiratory system. Colonization and penetration of the lung alveolar epithelium is a key but poorly understood step in the infection process. This study focused on identifying the transcriptional and cell-signaling responses activated in A549 alveolar carcinoma cells incubated in the presence of A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔPrtT protease-deficient germinating conidia and culture filtrates (CF). Microarray analysis of exposed A549 cells identified distinct classes of genes whose expression is altered in the presence of germinating conidia and CF and suggested the involvement of both NFkB and MAPK signaling pathways in mediating the cellular response. Phosphoprotein analysis of A549 cells confirmed that JNK and ERK1/2 are phosphorylated in response to CF from wild-type A. fumigatus and not phosphorylated in response to CF from the ΔPrtT protease-deficient strain. Inhibition of JNK or ERK1/2 kinase activity substantially decreased CF-induced cell damage, including cell peeling, actin-cytoskeleton damage, and reduction in metabolic activity and necrotic death. These results suggest that inhibition of MAPK-mediated host responses to treatment with A. fumigatus CF decreases cellular damage, a finding with possible clinical implications. PMID:21412410

  17. miR-107 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line by targeting cyclin dependent kinase 8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Lu; Yin, Zhi-Yi; Fan, Xing-Long; Hu, Bo; Wang, Lun-Qing; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the acquired drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was related to deregulation of miRNAs. However, the effects of miR-107 and the mechanism through which miR-107 affects the cisplatin chemoresistance in NSCLC have not been reported. TaqMan RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-107 and cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) protein. The viabilities of treated cells were analyzed using MTT assay. We found that the expression level of miR-107 in A549 cells was significantly lower than that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 1.00 ± 0.29, P = 0.032). The MTT assay showed that the A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics were significantly more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin than control cells. A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics showed a decreased CDK8 protein expression. Downregulation of CDK8 expression by siRNAs, A549 cells became more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin. In addition, the enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by the miR-107 mimic transfection was enhanced after the addition of CDK8 siRNA. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that miR-107 plays a key role in cisplatin resistance by targeting the CDK8 protein in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-107 can be used to predict a patient's response to chemotherapy as well as serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25400821

  18. Isolinderalactone inhibits proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and inducing a Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-An; Lin, En-Shyh; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. In Taiwan, lung cancer is also the type of malignancy that is the major cause of cancer-mortality. Investigating the mechanism of apoptosis of lung cancer cells is important in the treatment of lung cancer. In the present study, isolinderalactone was demonstrated to exhibit anticancer effects in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The effect of isolinderalactone on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution p21 levels and the Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were assayed in order to determine the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of isolinderalactone. It was demonstrated that isolinderalactone may induce p21 expression and then cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. The data of the present study also revealed that the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system is significant in the mechanism of isolinderalactone‑induced apoptosis of A549 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that isolinderalactone may cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells by induction of p21, and induce apoptosis of A549 human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells through the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system. PMID:24604009

  19. Comparison of oxycodone and morphine on the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of related molecules in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mi; Jin, Li; Li, Renqi; Zhu, Sihai; Ji, Muhuo; Li, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of oxycodone and morphine hydrochloride on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of A549 lung cancer cells. A549 human lung cancer cells were cultured in vitro and treated with oxycodone or morphine at various concentrations (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). Cell migration was determined using a wound healing assay, whereas apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to assess the apoptosis-related gene expression levels, including p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were determined by immunofluorescence. In the present study, oxycodone and morphine induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells with similar potency; however, >20 µg/ml oxycodone was more effective at inhibiting cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05), as compared with morphine at the same concentration. Oxycodone induced a dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of p53 and Bax apoptosis-related genes, whereas it decreased the gene expression levels of Bcl-2. Furthermore, oxycodone decreased, whereas morphine increased, the expression levels of ICAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, at 40 µg/ml, the expression levels of VEGF and uPA in the morphine group were significantly higher than those demonstrated in the oxycodone group (P<0.05). In conclusion, oxycodone was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of A549 lung cancer cells, as compared with morphine. PMID:27446244

  20. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  1. Treatment with a Small Synthetic Compound, KMU-193, induces Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells through p53 Up-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Lee, Jinho; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality still is increasing. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of KMU-193, 2-(4-Ethoxy-phenyl)-N-{5-[2-fluoro-4-(4-methyl- piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenylamino]-1H-indazol-3-yl}-acetamide in a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. KMU-193 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, but it did not have anti-proliferative effect in other types of cancer cell lines. KMU-193 further induced apoptosis in association with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PLC-γ1. However, KMU-193 had no apoptotic effect in untransformed cells such as TMCK-1 and BEAS-2B. Interestingly, pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, strongly abrogated KMU- 193-induced apoptosis. KMU-193 treatment enhanced the expression levels of p53 and PUMA. Importantly, p53 siRNA transfection attenuated KMU-193-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate that KMU-193 has strong apoptotic effects on A549 cells and these are largely mediated through caspase-3- and p53-dependent pathways. PMID:26320467

  2. Molecular Switch Role of Akt in Polygonatum odoratum Lectin-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Kailiang; Qi, Wei; Bao, Jinku; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), isolated from traditional Chinese medicine herb (Mill.) Druce, has drawn rising attention due to its wide biological activities. In the present study, anti-tumor effects, including apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of POL, were determined by a series of cell biology methods such as MTT, cellular morphology observation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting. Herein, we found that POL could simultaneously induce apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. POL initiated apoptosis through inhibiting Akt-NF-κB pathway, while POL triggered autophagy via suppressing Akt-mTOR pathway, suggesting the molecular switch role of Akt in regulating between POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, ROS was involved in POL-induced inhibition of Akt expression, and might therefore mediate both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, POL displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward normal human embryonic lung fibroblast HELF cells. Due to the anti-tumor activities, POL might become a potent anti-cancer drug in future therapy, which might pave the way for exploring GNA-related lectins into effective drugs in cancer treatment. PMID:24992302

  3. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-09-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3'-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53(-/-) cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. PMID:27498003

  4. Claudin-18 inhibits cell proliferation and motility mediated by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Shun; Taga, Saeko; Akizuki, Risa; Hichino, Asami; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko; Ikari, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal expression of claudin subtypes has been reported in various cancers. However, the pathological role of each claudin has not been clarified in detail. Claudin-18 was absent in human non-small cell and small cell lung cancers, although it is expressed in normal lung tissues. Here, we examined the effect of claudin-18 expression on the expression of junctional proteins, cell proliferation, and cell motility using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting showed that exogenous expression of claudin-18 had no effect on the expression of junctional proteins including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Claudin-18 was mainly distributed in cell-cell contact areas concomitant with ZO-1. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased at 48 and 72h after seeding of claudin 18-expressing cells. Claudin-18 suppressed cell motility, whereas it increased cell death in anoikis. Claudin-18 decreased phosphorylated (p)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and p-Akt levels without affecting p-epidermal growth factor receptor and p-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) levels. Furthermore, claudin-18 was bound with PDK1 and suppressed the nuclear localization of PDK1. We suggest that claudin-18 suppresses the abnormal proliferation and motility of lung epithelial cells mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26919807

  5. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species. PMID:26582127

  6. Quercetin metabolites inhibit MMP-2 expression in A549 lung cancer cells by PPAR-γ associated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Yeh, Chiao-Lin; Yeh, Shu-Lan; Lin, En-Shyh; Wang, Li-Yu; Wang, Ying-Hsuna

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that quercetin-metabolite-enriched plasma (QP) but not quercetin itself upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression to induce G2/M arrest in A549 cells. In the present study, we incubated A549 cells with QP as well as quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) and quercetin-3'-sulfate (Q3'S), two major metabolites of quercetin, to investigate the effects of quercetin metabolites on cell invasion and migration, the possible mechanisms and the role of PPAR-γ. We also compared the effects of QP with those of quercetin and troglitazone (TGZ), a PPAR-γ ligand. The results showed that QP significantly suppressed cell invasion and migration, as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 activity and expression in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of 10% QP on those parameters were similar to those of 10μM quercetin and 20μM TGZ. However, QP and TGZ rather than quercetin itself increased the expressions of nm23-H1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2). Furthermore, we demonstrated that Q3G and Q3'S also inhibited the protein expression of MMP-2. GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, significantly diminished such an effect of Q3G and Q3'S. Silencing PPAR-γ expression in A549 cells also significantly diminished the suppression effect of Q3G and Q3'S on MMP-2 expression. Taken together, our study demonstrated that QP inhibited cell invasion and migration through nm23-H1/TIMP-2/MMP-2 associated mechanisms. The upregulation of PPAR-γ by quercetin metabolites such as Q3G and Q3'S could play an important role in the effects of QP. PMID:27260467

  7. MiR-92b regulates the cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line and target PTEN.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Li; Guan, Yan; Liu, Xiuju; Meng, Qingyong; Guo, Qisen

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged to play important roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance of human cancer. Fewer studies were explored the roles of miR-92b on human lung cancer cell growth and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP). In this paper, we utilized real-time PCR to verify miR-92b was significantly up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues. In vitro assay demonstrated that knock-down of miR-92b inhabits cell growth and sensitized the A549/CDDP cells to CDDP. Furthermore, we found miR-92b could directly target PTEN, a unique tumor suppressor gene, which was downregulated in lung cancer tissues compared to the matched adjacent normal tissues. These data indicate that the miR-92b play an oncogene roles by regulates cell growth, cisplatin chemosensitivity phenotype, and could serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:24099768

  8. Α-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang; He, Lingli; Meng, Yao; Li, Gangrui; Li, Linli; Meng, Yanfa

    2015-05-01

    α‑Momorcharin (α‑MMC) and momordica anti‑human immunodeficiency virus protein (MAP30), produced by Momordica charantia, are ribosome‑inactivating proteins, which have been reported to exert inhibitory effects on cultured tumor cells. In order to further elucidate the functions of these agents, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on cell viability, the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA integrity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. α‑MMC and MAP30 were purified from bitter melon seeds using ammonium sulfate precipitation in combination with sulfopropyl (SP)‑sepharose fast flow, sephacryl S‑100 and macro‑Cap‑SP chromatography. MTT, flow cytometric and DNA fragmentation analyses were then used to determine the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. The results revealed that A549 cells were sensitive to α‑MMC and MAP30 cytotoxicity assays in vitro. Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed following α‑MMC and MAP30 treatment in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner; in addition, the results indicated that MAP30 had a more potent anti‑tumor activity compared with that of α‑MMC. Cell cycle arrest in S phase and a significantly increased apoptotic rate were observed following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30. Furthermore, DNA integrity analysis revealed that the DNA of A549 cells was degraded following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30 for 48 h. The pyrogallol autoxidation method and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride staining were used to determine SOD activity, the results of which indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 did not possess SOD activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer. PMID:25573293

  9. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment. PMID:26831369

  10. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  11. Fluoride-induced apoptosis in human epithelial lung cells (A549 cells): role of different G protein-linked signal systems.

    PubMed

    Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E; Holme, Jørn A; Låg, Marit

    2003-03-01

    In the present study, possible mechanisms involved in fluoride-induced apoptosis in a human epithelial lung cell line (A549) were examined. Sodium fluoride (NaF) induced apoptosis in the A549 cells, with a maximum at 5-7.5 mM after 20 hours of exposure. The number of cells with plasma membrane damage (PI-positive cells) increased moderately up to 5 mM, but markedly at 7.5 mM. Deferoxamine (an Al3+ chelator) almost completely prevented these NaF-induced responses, which may suggest a role for G protein activation. The apoptotic effect was partially reduced by the PKA inhibitor H89. NaF induced a weak but sustained increase in PKC activity, whereas the PKC activator TPA induced a transient effect. TPA, which enhanced the NaF-induced PKC activity, was not apoptotic when added alone, but facilitated the NaF-induced apoptosis and the increase in PI-positive cells. PKC downregulation induced by TPA pretreatment almost completely prevented the NaF-induced apoptosis and the increase in PI-positive cells. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, which abolished the PKC activity after 3 hours, enhanced the NaF-induced apoptosis. KN93 (a CaM kinase II inhibitor) and W7 (a calmodulin inhibitor) seem to reduce the apoptotic effect of NaF, whereas BAPTA-AM (a Ca2+ chelator) was without effect. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein also markedly reduced the NaF-induced apoptosis, whereas the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin augmented the response. In conclusion, the present results suggest that NaF induces an apoptotic effect and an increase in PI-positive A549 cells via similar mechanisms, involving PKC, PKA, tyrosine kinase and Ca2+-linked enzymes, whereas PI-3 kinase seems to exert a counteracting effect. PMID:12723891

  12. MicroRNA-7 Inhibits the Growth of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through Targeting BCL-2

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shudao; Zheng, Yijie; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Xiaoming; Chu, Yiwei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in tumorigenesis. Increasing evidences have indicated microRNA-7(miR-7) to be a potential tumor suppressor in several human cancers. However, only a limited number of target genes have been identified so far and its biological function in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we observed a reduction of miR-7 level in NSCLC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-7 not only suppressed NSCLC A549 cells proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration in vitro, but also reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. Bioinformatics predictions revealed a potential binding site of miR-7 on 3'UTR of BCL-2 and it was further confirmed by luciferase assay. Moreover, subsequent experiments showed that BCL-2 was downregulated by miR-7 at both transcriptional and translational levels. These results suggest that miR-7 regulates the expression of BCL-2 through direct 3'UTR interactions. Therefore, we postulate BCL-2 to be a novel target possibly involved in miR-7-mediated growth suppression and apoptosis of A549 cells. These findings may provide a basic rationale for the use of miR-7 in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:21750649

  13. Costunolide induces lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells apoptosis through ROS (reactive oxygen species)-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Xin; Gong, Xingguo

    2016-03-01

    Costunolide is an active sesquiterpene lactone derived from many herbal medicines. It has a broad spectrum of bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory and potential anti-tumor effects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the inhibitory effects of costunolide on A549 cell growth and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis revealed that costunolide induced apoptosis. To study the mechanism, we found that costunolide exposure activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, as shown by the up-regulation of GRP78 and IRE1α and the activation of ASK1 and JNK. Meanwhile, siRNA knockdown of IRE1α significantly attenuated costunolide-induced apoptosis and partly restored the mitochondrial membrane potential. ER stress-activated JNK phosphorylated Bcl-2 at Ser70, which changes the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-2, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and leading to mitochondrial activation of apoptosis. Furthermore, costunolide induced ROS generation, while the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked ER stress and apoptosis activation, suggesting that ROS acts as an upstream signaling molecule in triggering ER stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Taken together, our research demonstrates that costunolide exhibits its anti-tumor activity though inducing apoptosis, which is mediated by ER stress. We further confirm that Bcl-2 is a key molecule connecting the ER stress and mitochondrial pathways. PMID:26609913

  14. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  15. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  16. Responses of genes involved in cell cycle control to diverse DNA damaging chemicals in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huijun; Smith, Catherine; Ansah, Charles; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    Background Many anticancer agents and carcinogens are DNA damaging chemicals and exposure to such chemicals results in the deregulation of cell cycle progression. The molecular mechanisms of DNA damage-induced cell cycle alteration are not well understood. We have studied the effects of etoposide (an anticancer agent), cryptolepine (CLP, a cytotoxic alkaloid), benzo [a]pyrene (BaP, a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, a cooked-meat derived carcinogen) on the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes to understand the molecular mechanisms of the cell cycle disturbance. Results A549 cells were treated with DMSO or chemicals for up to 72 h and periodically sampled for cell cycle analysis, mRNA and protein expression. DMSO treated cells showed a dominant G1 peak in cell cycle at all times examined. Etoposide and CLP both induced G2/M phase arrest yet the former altered the expression of genes functioning at multiple phases, whilst the latter was more effective in inhibiting the expression of genes in G2-M transition. Both etoposide and CLP induced an accumulation of p53 protein and upregulation of p53 transcriptional target genes. Neither BaP nor PhIP had substantial phase-specific cell cycle effect, however, they induced distinctive changes in gene expression. BaP upregulated the expression of CYP1B1 at 6–24 h and downregulated many cell cycle regulatory genes at 48–72 h. By contrast, PhIP increased the expression of many cell cycle regulatory genes. Changes in the expression of key mRNAs were confirmed at protein level. Conclusion Our experiments show that DNA damaging agents with different mechanisms of action induced distinctive changes in the expression pattern of a panel of cell cycle regulatory genes. We suggest that examining the genomic response to chemical exposure provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism involved in cellular response to toxicants. PMID

  17. Study of the Effects of Betaine and/or C-Phycocyanin on the Growth of Lung Cancer A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Chantal; Pigeon, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of betaine, C-phycocyanin (C-PC), and their combined use on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. When cells were coincubated with betaine and C-PC, an up to 60% decrease in viability was observed which is significant compared to betaine (50%) or C-PC treatment alone (no decrease). Combined treatment reduced the stimulation of NF-κB expression by TNF-α and increased the amount of the proapoptotic p38 MAPK. Interestingly, combined treatment induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase for ~60% of cells. In vivo studies were performed in pathogen-free male nude rats injected with A549 cells in their right flank. Their daily food was supplemented with either betaine, C-PC, both, or neither. Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. This data indicates that C-PC and betaine alone may efficiently inhibit tumour growth in rats. The synergistic activity of betaine and C-PC on A549 cells growth observed in vitro remains to be further confirmed in vivo. The reason behind the nature of their interaction is yet to be sought.

  18. Reversal of multidrug resistance by cisplatin-loaded magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in A549/DDP lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Chen, Baoan; Xu, Lin; Feng, Jifeng; Xia, Guohua; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Jun; Gao, Feng; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNP) loaded with cisplatin (Fe3O4-MNP-DDP) can reverse DDP resistance in lung cancer cells and to investigate mechanisms of multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay showed that DDP inhibited both A549 cells and DDP-resistant A549 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and that this inhibition was enhanced by Fe3O4-MNP. An increased rate of apoptosis was detected in the Fe3O4-MNP-DDP group compared with a control group and the Fe3O4-MNP group by flow cytometry, and typical morphologic features of apoptosis were confirmed by confocal microscopy. Accumulation of intracellular DDP in the Fe3O4-MNP-DDP group was greater than that in the DDP group by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Further, lower levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein-1, lung resistance-related protein, Akt, and Bad, and higher levels of caspase-3 genes and proteins, were demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in the presence of Fe3O4-MNP-DDP. We also demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNP enhanced the effect of DDP on tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice bearing DDP-resistant human A549 xenografts by decreasing localization of lung resistance-related protein and Ki-67 immunoreactivity in cells. There were no apparent signs of toxicity in the animals. Overall, these findings suggest potential clinical application of Fe3O4-MNP-DDP to increase cytotoxicity in lung tumor xenografts. PMID:23690684

  19. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property. PMID:27468464

  20. Gene Expression Profile of the A549 Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Line following Treatment with the Seeds of Descurainia sophia, a Potential Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Joon; Bang, Ok-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Descurainia sophia has been traditionally used in Korean medicine for treatment of diverse diseases and their symptoms, such as cough, asthma, and edema. Our previous results showed that ethanol extract of the seeds of D. sophia (EEDS) has a potent cytotoxic effect on human cancer cells. In this study, we reveal the molecular events that are induced by EEDS treatment in A549 human lung cancer cells. The dose-dependent effect of EEDS on gene expression was measured via a microarray analysis. Gene ontology and pathway analyses were performed to identify functional involvement of genes regulated by EEDS. From gene expression analyses, two major dose-dependent patterns were observed after EEDS treatment. One pattern consisted of 1,680 downregulated genes primarily involved in metabolic processes (FDR < 0.01). The second pattern consisted of 1,673 upregulated genes primarily involved in signaling processes (FDR < 0.01). Pathway activity analyses revealed that the metabolism-related pathways and signaling-related pathways were regulated by the EEDS in dose-dependent and reciprocal manners. In conclusion, the identified biphasic regulatory mechanism involving activation of signaling pathways may provide molecular evidence to explain the inhibitory effect of EEDS on A549 cell growth. PMID:23935669

  1. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Mathew, Bijo; Gokul, S.; Krishna, Rahul; Farisa, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pennisetum alopecuroides (Poaceae) is a grass predominantly distributed in tropics and sub tropics. It is used as a cattle feed in many regions. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activity of ethanol extract of P. alopecuroides (EEPA) on cultured A549 human lung cancer cell lines. Settings and Design: The anti-oxidant activity of ethanol extract was evaluated at dose level 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was measured at doses of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml. Materials and Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the EEPA was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and in vitro antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung cancer cells was conducted by using MTT assay method. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the P. alopecuroides contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites. The IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was found to be 44.41 μg/ml and 31.02 μg/ml  for a mixture of EEPA and standard ascorbic acid, respectively. In vitro MTT assay showed that EEPA had anti-proliferation effects on A549 cells in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: This is the 1st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines. PMID:26120234

  2. Studies on cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chang-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2014-01-01

    Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7), 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10), uvaol (11), betulin (12), lupeol (13), kaempferol (14), aromadendrin (15), epigallocatechin (16), cis-tiliroside (17), trans-tiliroside (18), isoamericanol B (19), trans-p-coumaric acid (20), protocatechuic acid (21), salicylic acid (22), trans-ferulic acid (23), syringic acid (24) and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25). Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8-25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50=8.56±0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87±1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect. PMID:25000464

  3. Surfactant lipids regulate LPS-induced interleukin-8 production in A549 lung epithelial cells by inhibiting translocation of TLR4 into lipid raft domains

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Wondwossen; Alghaithy, Abdulaziz A.; Parton, Joan; Jones, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to providing mechanical stability, growing evidence suggests that surfactant lipid components can modulate inflammatory responses in the lung. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory action of surfactant lipids. This study investigates the effect of the lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and the major surfactant phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene and protein expression in human A549 lung epithelial cells using immunoassay and PCR techniques. To examine potential mechanisms of the surfactant lipid effects, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, and membrane lipid raft domains were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and DPPC, at physiological concentrations, significantly downregulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-8 expression in A549 cells both at the mRNA and protein levels. The surfactant preparations did not affect the cell surface expression of TLR4 or the binding of LPS to the cells. However, LPS treatment induced translocation of TLR4 into membrane lipid raft microdomains, and this translocation was inhibited by incubation of the cells with the surfactant lipid. This study provides important mechanistic details of the immune-modulating action of pulmonary surfactant lipids. PMID:19648651

  4. Indomethacin induces cellular morphological change and migration via epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 human lung cancer cells: a novel cyclooxygenase-inhibition-independent effect.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomoko; Fujino, Hiromichi; Oyama, Satomi; Kawashima, Tatsuo; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are frequently increased in colon cancer and other cancers including lung cancer. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered to have chemo-preventive effects on these diseases by reducing the biosynthesis of PGE(2) via their inhibition of COX-2. Although the COX-2/PGE(2) pathway may directly impact on lung carcinogenesis, some population-based cohort studies of NSAIDs showed no significant protective effects. In this study, using human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells, we examined the effects of indomethacin, a potent NSAID, on the growth and motility of lung cancer cells. Besides inhibiting PGE(2) production and cellular growth, indomethacin caused drastic morphological changes with a loss of stress fibers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the change in cellular shape caused by indomethacin was not seen when the cells were treated with aspirin or diclofenac, two other NSAIDs, despite the concentrations used being sufficient to inhibit PGE(2) production. The indomethacin-induced morphological changes in A549 cells were accompanied by a reduction in levels of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and a component of basal lamina, collagen IV, as well as an increase in the activity of a collagenase, matrix metalloprotease-9. Furthermore, indomethacin-induced shape changes resulted in enhanced motility via regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The dual effects of indomethacin, inhibition of cellular growth and enhancement of migration, would explain, to some extent, the difficulty in using this NSAID for lung cancer therapy. PMID:21840302

  5. Effects of Fatty Acids on Benzo[a]pyrene Uptake and Metabolism in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Rola; Mouneimne, Youssef; Chapkin, Robert S.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with natural chemoprotective agents is receiving considerable attention because of health benefits and lack of toxicity. In recent in vivo and in vitro experimental studies, diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to provide significant anti-tumor action. In this investigation, the effects of control fatty acids (oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA)) and n-3 PUFA, e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the uptake and metabolism of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was investigated in A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial cell line. A549 cells activate BaP through the cytochrome P450 enzyme system to form reactive metabolites, a few of which covalently bind to DNA and proteins. Therefore, multiphoton microscopy spectral analysis combined with linear unmixing was used to identify the parent compound and BaP metabolites formed in cells, in the presence and absence of fatty acids. The relative abundance of select metabolites was associated with altered P450 activity as determined using ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in cells cultured in the presence of BSA-conjugated fatty acids. In addition, the parent compound within cellular membranes increases significantly in the presence of each of the fatty acids, with the greatest accumulation observed following DHA treatment. DHA treated cells exhibit significantly lower pyrene-like metabolites indicative of lower adducts including DNA adducts compared to control BSA, OA or LA treated cells. Further, DHA reduced the abundance of the proximate carcinogen BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and the 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyene metabolites compared to other treatments. The significant changes in BaP metabolites in DHA treated cells may be mediated by the effects on the physicochemical properties of the membrane known to affect enzyme activity related to phase I and phase II metabolism. In summary, DHA is a highly bioactive chemo

  6. Induction of apoptotic effects of antiproliferative protein from the seeds of Borreria hispida on lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rupachandra, S; Sarada, D V L

    2014-01-01

    A 35 KDa protein referred to as F3 was purified from the seeds of Borreria hispida by precipitation with 80% ammonium sulphate and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 column. RP-HPLC analysis of protein fraction (F3) on an analytical C-18 column produced a single peak, detected at 220 nm. F3 showed an apparent molecular weight of 35 KDa by SDS PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of F3 showed the closest homology with the sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase of Pyrococcus horikoshii. The protein (F3) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 10 µg to 1000 µg/mL, as revealed by the MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed the increased growth of sub-G0 population in both cell lines exposed to a concentration of 1000 µg/mL of protein fraction F3 as examined from flow cytometry. This is the first report of a protein from the seeds of Borreria hispida with antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. PMID:24605320

  7. Induction of Apoptotic Effects of Antiproliferative Protein from the Seeds of Borreria hispida on Lung Cancer (A549) and Cervical Cancer (HeLa) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Rupachandra, S.; Sarada, D. V. L.

    2014-01-01

    A 35 KDa protein referred to as F3 was purified from the seeds of Borreria hispida by precipitation with 80% ammonium sulphate and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 column. RP-HPLC analysis of protein fraction (F3) on an analytical C-18 column produced a single peak, detected at 220 nm. F3 showed an apparent molecular weight of 35 KDa by SDS PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of F3 showed the closest homology with the sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase of Pyrococcus horikoshii. The protein (F3) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 10 µg to 1000 µg/mL, as revealed by the MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed the increased growth of sub-G0 population in both cell lines exposed to a concentration of 1000 µg/mL of protein fraction F3 as examined from flow cytometry. This is the first report of a protein from the seeds of Borreria hispida with antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. PMID:24605320

  8. Induction of COX-2 protein expression by vanadate in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line through EGF receptor and p38 MAPK-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, P.-S.; Mak, O.-T.; Huang, H.-J. . E-mail: haojen@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-01-13

    Vanadate is a transition metal widely distributed in the environment. It has been reported that vanadate associated with air pollution particles can modify DNA synthesis, causing cell growth arrest, and apoptosis. Moreover, vanadium exposure was also found to cause the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, and prostaglandin E{sub 2}. Here, we found that exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma cells to vanadate led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinases (JNKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) activation, and COX-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not PD098059 and SP600125, specific inhibitor of MKK1 and selective inhibitor of JNK, respectively, suppressed COX-2 expression. Furthermore, the epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor specific inhibitor (PD153035) reduced vanadate-induced COX-2 expression. However, scavenging of vanadate-induced reactive oxygen species by catalase, a specific H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibitor, or DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, resulted in no inhibition on COX-2 expression. Together, we suggested that EGF receptor and p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in vanadate-induced COX-2 protein expression in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line.

  9. The mechanisms and significance of up-regulation of RhoB expression by hypoxia and glucocorticoid in rat lung and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gao-Xiang; Pan, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Yi-Duo; Wang, Yan; Song, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Chang-Hui; Li, Yi-Dong; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein RhoB is an important stress sensor and contributes to the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, cell proliferation and survival. However, whether RhoB is involved in the hypoxic response and action of glucocorticoid (GC) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia or/and GC on the expression and activition of RhoB in the lung of rats and human A549 lung carcinoma cells, and further studied its mechanism and significance. We found that hypoxia and dexamethasone (Dex), a synethic GC, not only significantly increased the expression and activation of RhoB independently but also coregulated the expresion of RhoB in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulation of RhoB by hypoxia was in part through stabilizing the RhoB mRNA and protein. Inhibiting hypoxia-activated hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with their specific inhibitors significantly decreased hypoxia-induced RhoB expression, indicating that HIF-1α, JNK and ERK are involved in the up-regulation of RhoB in hypoxia. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of RhoB expression by RhoB siRNA not only significantly reduced hypoxia-enhanced cell migration and cell survival in hypoxia but also increased the sensitivity of cell to paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, and reduced Dex-enhanced resistance to PTX-chemotherapy in A549 cells. Taken together, the novel data revealed that hypoxia and Dex increased the expression and activation of RhoB, which is important for hypoxic adaptation and hypoxia-accelerated progression of lung cancer cells. RhoB also enhanced the resistance of cell to PTX-chemotherapy and mediated the pro-survival effect of Dex. PMID:26915688

  10. MicroRNA-1290 promotes asiatic acid‑induced apoptosis by decreasing BCL2 protein level in A549 non‑small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Bbeum; Kim, Karam; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Yeonghmin; Cha, Hwa Jun; Kim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, So Hyeon; Jung, Ho Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan

    2014-09-01

    Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derived from Centella asiatica, is a putative anticancer agent in several types of cancer cells. Investigations of its biological role in negative regulation of cell growth have focused on the extent of induction of apoptosis in a cell-type-specific manner. In this study, we identified an important regulator of asiatic acid-induced cell death, microRNA (miR)-1290, which sensitizes cells to asiatic acid-induced cytotoxicity and negatively regulates BCL2 expression. Asiatic acid significantly upregulated miR-1290, and asiatic acid-induced cell death was shown to be dependent on miR-1290 activity. Molecular assays demonstrated that BCL2 mRNA is a direct target of miR-1290-mediated RNA interference. The results of functional studies suggest that miR-1290 suppresses cell viability and cell cycle progression. These data provide insight into miR-1290-mediated cellular mechanisms in asiatic acid-treated A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. PMID:25016979

  11. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin inhibits A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUE; LI, CHANG-FENG; PAN, LI-MING; GAO, ZHONG-LI

    2013-01-01

    The Akt/NF-κB pathways are involved in numerous anti-apoptotic and drug-resistance events that occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, the role of 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin in the regulation of the anti-apoptotic Akt and NF-κBp65 signaling pathways was explored. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin with a final concentration of 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l for 48 h. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that anti-apoptotic phospho-Akt1 (pAkt1), phospho-IκBα (pIκBα), NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 were inhibited and pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 100 μmol/l, the anti-apoptotic NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels decreased 0.12 (5.82/48.5, treated/control)-fold and 0.17 (6.7/39.4, treated/control)-fold, respectively. The pro-apoptotic caspase-3 mRNA was upregulated 4.43 (39.4/8.9, treated/control)-fold. The anti-apoptotic pAkt1, pIκBα, NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 proteins were downregulated, with blot grayscale values of 7.3 (vs. 52.4 control), 4.3 (vs. 42.2 control), 5.08 (vs. 44.5 control) and 5.92 (vs. 38.5 control), respectively. The proapoptotic caspase-3 was upregulated to a blot grayscale value of 27.8 (vs. 5.8 control). The proliferative activity of A549 cells was reduced significantly compared with that of the control cells (83.7, 27.2 and 9.5 vs. 100%, respectively; P<0.05 for each). 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis via suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin may be a candidate naturally-occurring drug for the treatment and prevention of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23837071

  12. Enhancement of radiosensitivity by topoisomerase II inhibitor, amrubicin and amrubicinol, in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and kinetics of apoptosis and necrosis induction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Sachiko; Hatashita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Shioura, Hiroki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kano, Eiichi

    2006-11-01

    The effects of amrubicin (AMR) and its active metabolite, amrubicinol (AMROH), on the sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to ionizing radiation were investigated in vitro. Further, the kinetics of apoptosis and necrosis induction were also analyzed. The cytocidal effects of X-ray irradiation on A549 cells resulted in a low level of radiosensitivity with a D0 value of 12 Gy. The slopes of the survival curves in the exponential phase were plotted on semilogarithmic paper for radiation combined with AMR (2.5 microg/ml) and AMROH (0.02 microg/ml) treatment, and were shown to be approximately parallel to treatment with irradiation alone. The initial shoulder-shape portion of the survival curve for radiation alone, indicating the repair of sublethal damage, was reduced as compared to that for sequential combined treatment with AMR or AMROH. Sequential treatments with AMR or AMROH prior to ionizing radiation resulted in an additive radio-enhancement effect that reduced not only survival, but also the shoulder width. Fractionated irradiation with 2 Gy per fraction of A549 cells was carried out in vitro similar to that commonly performed in clinical radiotherapy and the radio-resistance of the cells was shown to be inhibited by AMR and AMROH. Similar to AMR and AMROH, adriamycin and etoposide (VP-16) are DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. The effects of these 4 agents on cells that received X-ray irradiation were compared and all of the agents exhibited comparable radio-enhancement effects. The induction of apoptosis was investigated at 48 and 72 h after administration of AMROH, radiation or combined treatment, and apoptosis was not significantly induced after any of the treatments. We also examined the induction of necrosis, and found that the incidence of necrosis following combined treatment was approximately 2 times higher than that with either of the single treatments. PMID:17016621

  13. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. PMID:26164626

  14. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  15. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  16. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  17. Growth arrest of lung carcinoma cells (A549) by polyacrylate-anchored peroxovanadate by activating Rac1-NADPH oxidase signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirupama; Anwar, Tarique; Islam, Nashreen S; Ramasarma, T; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is often required in sublethal, millimolar concentrations to show its oxidant effects on cells in culture as it is easily destroyed by cellular catalase. Previously, we had shown that diperoxovanadate, a physiologically stable peroxovanadium compound, can substitute H2O2 effectively in peroxidation reactions. We report here that peroxovanadate when anchored to polyacrylic acid (PAPV) becomes a highly potent inhibitor of growth of lung carcinoma cells (A549). The early events associated with PAPV treatment included cytoskeletal modifications, increase in GTPase activity of Rac1, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, and also increase in phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA damage. These effects persisted even at 24 h after removal of the compound and culminated in increased levels of p53 and p21 together with growth arrest. The PAPV-mediated growth arrest was significantly abrogated in cells pre-treated with the N-acetylcysteine, Rac1 knocked down by siRNA and DPI an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our results show that polyacrylate derivative of peroxovanadate efficiently arrests growth of A549 cancerous cells by activating the axis of Rac1-NADPH oxidase leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:27435854

  18. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Ray, K. P.; Freshney, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts. Images Figure 5 PMID:1654985

  19. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:27045080

  20. BMP9 inhibits the growth and migration of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in a bone marrow stromal cell‑derived microenvironment through the MAPK/ERK and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Weng, Yaguang; Zhang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Fan, Mengtian; Guo, Yangliu; Sun, Yanting; Li, Wang; Shi, Qiong

    2016-07-01

    Bone is the most common distant metastatic site of lung cancer, and is particularly prone to osteolytic damage. Soluble factors secreted from bone marrow-derived cells and tumor cells contribute to the growth and metastasis of cancer cells, and enhance osteolytic damage. BMP9, as the most powerful osteogenetic factor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, can regulate the development of various tumors. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of BMP9 in regards to lung cancer and the bone metastatic microenvironment are poorly understood. Here, we determined the inhibitory effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. When a co-culture system of A549 cells and bone marrow-derived cells (HS-5) was established, it was shown that HS-5 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of A549 cells, and metastasis and osteoclast-related factors IL-6 and IL-8 were increased in the A549 and HS-5 cells. However, BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and migration of the A549 cells in the bone microenvironment, and decreased the levels of IL-6 and IL-8. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway may be involved in these effects. PMID:27177272

  1. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  2. Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

  3. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level. PMID:25825284

  4. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Treatment Reveals Crosstalks among Proteome, Ubiquitylome and Acetylome in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level. PMID:25825284

  5. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  6. Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Studies of a Fluorophore-Labeled Dirhodium Compound: Visualizing Metal–Metal Bonded Molecules in Lung Cancer (A549) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The new dirhodium compound [Rh2(μ-O2CCH3)2(η1-O2CCH3)(phenbodipy)(H2O)3][O2CCH3] (1), which incorporates a bodipy fluorescent tag, was prepared and studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. It was determined that 1 localizes mainly in lysosomes and mitochondria with no apparent nuclear localization in the 1–100 μM range. These results support the conclusion that cellular organelles rather than the nucleus can be targeted by modification of the ligands bound to the Rh24+ core. This is the first study of a fluorophore-labeled metal–metal bonded compound, work that opens up new venues for the study of intracellular distribution of dinuclear transition metal anticancer complexes. PMID:24854400

  7. Radio-sensitization effect of an mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ushijima, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Oike, Takahiro; Komachi, Mayumi; Yoshimoto, Yuya; Ando, Ken; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Sato, Hiro; Noda, Shin-ei; Saito, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) correlates with cell survival under hypoxia and regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a key protein in hypoxia-related events. However, the role of mTOR in radio-resistance has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the effect of mTOR on the radio-resistance of cancer cells under hypoxia was evaluated using the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Clonogenic survival was examined in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under normoxia or hypoxia, with or without temsirolimus. An oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculated using the D10 values, the doses giving 10% survival. Western blotting was performed to investigate the effect of temsirolimus on mTOR and the HIF-1α pathway under normoxia and hypoxia. A549 cells showed a radio-resistance of 5.1 and 14.2 Gy, as indicated by D10 values under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively; the OER was 2.8. The cell survival rates under hypoxia and with temsirolimus remarkably decreased compared with those under normoxia. The D10 values of the cells under normoxia and hypoxia were 4.8 and 5.4 Gy, respectively (OER = 1.1). mTOR expression was suppressed by temsirolimus under both normoxia and hypoxia. HIF-1α expression decreased under hypoxia in the presence of temsirolimus. These results suggest that temsirolimus can overcome the radio-resistance induced by hypoxia. When the fact that mTOR acts upstream of HIF-1α is considered, our data suggest that the restoration of radiation sensitivity by temsirolimus under hypoxia may be associated with the suppression of the HIF-1α pathway. Temsirolimus could therefore be used as a hypoxic cell radio-sensitizer. PMID:25887043

  8. Encapsulated paclitaxel nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in A549 non-small lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guojin; Zang, Bao; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Jianqiang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, paclitaxel (PTX) were encapsulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polylactide (PLA)/D-α tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) (PEG-PLA/TPGS) and the enhanced anti-tumor activity of this PTX mixed micelles (PTX-MM) was evaluated in lung cancer cells. The PTX-MM prepared by a solvent evaporation method was demonstrated to have high drug-loading efficiency (23.2%), high encapsulation efficiency (76.4%), and small size (59 nm). In vitro release assay showed the slow release behavior of PTX-MM, suggesting the good stability of the PTX-MM essential for long circulation time. In vitro kinetics assay demonstrated that PTX-MM could promote absorption and increase relative bioavailability. The anti-cancer efficiency of PTX-MM was also examined by both in vitro and in vivo studies. PTX-MM exhibits obvious cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells with much lower IC50 value when compared with commercial formulated PTX or PTX + TPGS. The xenograft tumor model studies on nude mice indicated that PTX-MM inhibits tumor growth more effectively than other formulations. It was also found that most of mixed micelles were integral in tumor site to exhibit anti-cancer activity. Our results suggested that the use of PTX-MM as an anti-cancer drug may be an effective approach to treat lung cancer. PMID:26525950

  9. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of /sup 125/I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not /sup 125/I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) /sup 125/I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, Kholoud; Iratni, Rabah; Takahashi, Takashi; Parekh, Khatija; Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Adrian, Thomas E.; Attoub, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5–5 µM for 7 days) significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer. PMID:23805285

  11. A Series of α-Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Camptothecin: In vitro Hydrolysis and A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Manjeet; Chao, Piyun; Kutscher, Hilliard L.; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify a camptothecin (CPT) prodrug with optimal release and cytotoxicity properties for immobilization on a passively targeted microparticle delivery system. A series of α-amino acid ester prodrugs of CPT were synthesized, characterized and evaluated. Four CPT prodrugs were synthesized with increasing aliphatic chain length (glycine (Gly) (2a), alanine (Ala) (2b), aminobutyric acid (Abu) (2c) and norvaline (Nva) (2d)). Prodrug reconversion was studied at pH 6.6, 7.0 and 7.4 corresponding to tumor, lung and extracellular/physiological pH, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in A549 human lung carcinoma cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydrolytic reconversion rate to parent CPT increased with decreasing side chain length as well as increasing pH. The Hill slope of 2d was significantly less than CPT and the other prodrugs tested, indicating a higher cell death rate at lower concentrations. These results suggest that 2d is the best candidate for a passively targeted sustained release lung delivery system. PMID:20063889

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potencies of single and combined spore extracts of airborne OTA-producing and OTA-non-producing Aspergilli in Human lung A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Šegvić Klarić, Maja; Jakšić Despot, Daniela; Kopjar, Nevenka; Rašić, Dubravka; Kocsubé, Sándor; Varga, János; Peraica, Maja

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus sclerotiorum (AS) is a well-known producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) while Aspergillus pseudoglaucus (AP) produces a wide range of extrolites with poorly investigated toxicity. These species are frequently co-occur in grain mill aeromycota. The aim of this study was to determine OTA levels in spore extracts using HPLC and immunoaffinity columns, and to examine the cytotoxicity of pure OTA, OTA-positive (AS-OTA(+)) and OTA-negative (AS-OTA(-)) spore extracts, as well as of AP spore extract, on human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549, individually and in combination, using a colorimetric MTT test (540nm). To establish which type of cell death predominated after treatments, a quantitative fluorescent assay with ethidium bromide and acridine orange was used, and the level of primary DNA damage in A549 cells was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay. OTA was detected in spore extracts (0.3-28µg/mL) of 3/6 of the AS strains, while none of the tested AP strains were able to produce OTA. Taking into account the maximum detected concentration of OTA in the spores, the daily intake of OTA by inhalation was calculated to be 1ng/kg body weight (b.w.), which is below the tolerable daily intake for OTA (17ng/kg b.w.). Using the MTT test, the following IC50 values were obtained: single OTA (53μg/mL); AS-OTA(+) (mass concentration 934μg/mL corresponds to 10.5μg/mL of OTA in spore extract); and 2126μg/mL for AP. The highest applied concentration of AS-OTA(-) spore extract (4940μg/mL) decreased cell viability by 30% and IC50 for the extract could not be determined. Single OTA and AS-OTA(+) and combinations (AP+AS-OTA(+) and AP+AS-OTA(-)) in subtoxic concentrations provoked significant primary DNA damage, apoptosis, and to a lesser extent, necrosis in A549 cells. Mixture of AP+AS-OTA(+) and AP+AS-OTA(-) in subtoxic concentrations showed dominant additive interactions. Despite the low calculated daily intake of OTA by inhalation, our results suggest that chronic exposure

  13. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. PMID:27492069

  14. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  15. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng; Ma, Qunfeng; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Zhipei; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-10-15

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level of MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.

  16. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. PMID:25451571

  17. Aspirin-triggered lipoxins (15-epi-LX) are generated by the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549)-neutrophil interactions and are potent inhibitors of cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Clària, J.; Lee, M. H.; Serhan, C. N.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which aspirin (ASA) acts to protect against human cancer is not yet known. We recently showed that ASA triggers the formation of a new series of potent bioactive eicosanoids, 15-epi-lipoxins (15-epi-LXs or ASA-triggered LX [ATL]), during interactions between prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PGHS-2) in endothelial cells and 5-lipoxygenase (LO) in leukocytes. Here, we investigated the transcellular biosynthesis of these eicosanoids during costimulation of the human tumor A549 cell line (alveolar type II epithelial cells) and neutrophils, and evaluated their impact on cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 cells and isolated neutrophils were coincubated and mRNA expression levels of key enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis were measured. In addition, product formation was analysed by physical methods. The effect of LX on cell proliferation was determined by using a soluble microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay and by measuring [3H]-thymidine incorporation. RESULTS: Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-primed A549 cells showed selective elevation in the levels of PGHS-2 mRNA and generated 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). ASA markedly increased 15-HETE formation by A549 cells, while treatment with an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 reduced by approximately 50%, implicating both PGHS-2- and cytochrome P450-initiated routes in 15-HETE biosynthesis in these cells. Maximal production of 15-HETE from endogenous sources occurred within 24 hr of cytokine (IL-1 beta) exposure and declined thereafter. Chiral analysis revealed that approximately 85% of ASA-triggered epithelial-derived 15-HETE carries its carbon 15 alcohol group in the R configuration. Costimulation of ASA-treated A549 cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) led to production of both LXA4 and LXB4, as well as 15-epi-LXA4 and 15-epi-LXB4 (9.5 +/- 0.5 ng LX/10(7) A549 cells). 15-epi-LXA4 accounted for approximately 88% of the total amount of LXA4 produced

  18. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor induces Nampt-dependent translocation of the insulin receptor out of lipid microdomains in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianyi; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Ai, Yuhang; Marshall, John C

    2015-02-15

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved pleiotropic protein reported to be an alternate ligand for the insulin receptor (IR). We sought to clarify the relationship between PBEF and insulin signaling by evaluating the effects of PBEF on the localization of the IRβ chain to lipid rafts in A549 epithelial cells. We isolated lipid rafts from A549 cells and detected the IR by immunoprecipitation from raft fractions or whole cell lysates. Cells were treated with rPBEF, its enzymatic product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), or the Nampt inhibitor daporinad to study the effect of PBEF on IRβ movement. We used coimmunoprecipitation studies in cells transfected with PBEF and IRβ constructs to detect interactions between PBEF, the IRβ, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). PBEF was present in both lipid raft and nonraft fractions, whereas the IR was found only in lipid raft fractions of resting A549 cells. The IR-, PBEF-, and Cav-1-coimmunoprecipitated rPBEF treatment resulted in the movement of IRβ- and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-1 from lipid rafts to nonrafts, an effect that could be blocked by daporinad, suggesting that this effect was facilitated by the Nampt activity of PBEF. The addition of PBEF to insulin-treated cells resulted in reduced Akt phosphorylation of both Ser⁴⁷³ and Thr³⁰⁸. We conclude that PBEF can inhibit insulin signaling through the IR by Nampt-dependent promotion of IR translocation into the nonraft domains of A549 epithelial cells. PBEF-induced alterations in the spatial geometry of the IR provide a mechanistic explanation for insulin resistance in inflammatory states associated with upregulation of PBEF. PMID:25516545

  19. The repair capacity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 depends on HMGB1 expression level and the p53 status.

    PubMed

    Yusein-Myashkova, Shazie; Stoykov, Ivan; Gospodinov, Anastas; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the cellular components responsive to chemotherapeutic agents as cisplatin rationalizes the strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. The removal of the cisplatin/DNA lesions gives the chance to the cancer cells to survive and compromises the chemotherapeutical treatment. Therefore, the cell repair efficiency is substantial for the clinical outcome. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is considered to be involved in the removal of the lesions as it binds with high affinity to cisplatin/DNA adducts. We demonstrated that overexpression of HMGB1 protein inhibited cis-platinated DNA repair in vivo and the effect strongly depended on its C-terminus. We registered increased levels of DNA repair after HMGB1 silencing only in p53 defective H1299 lung cancer cells. Next, introduction of functional p53 resulted in DNA repair inhibition. H1299 cells overexpressing HMGB1 were significantly sensitized to treatment with cisplatin demonstrating the close relation between the role of HMGB1 in repair of cis-platinated DNA and the efficiency of the anticancer drug, the process being modulated by the C-terminus. In A549 cells with functional p53, the repair of cisplatin/DNA adducts is determined by а complex action of HMGB1 and p53 as an increase of DNA repair capacity was registered only after silencing of both proteins. PMID:26896489

  20. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Tanja . E-mail: tanja.hansen@item.fraunhofer.de; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  1. Gracilaria edulis exhibit antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 without causing adverse toxic effect in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Archunan, Govindaraju; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2016-02-17

    In the present study, the antiproliferative potential of various solvent extracts of Gracilaria edulis (GE) was tested against various cancer cell lines. In the A549 lung cancer cell line model, GE ethyl acetate extract (GEEA) (100 μg mL(-1)) treated group showed the maximum and significant (P < 0.05) growth inhibition at 48 h. The IC50 value was found to be 24.5 ± 19.1 μg mL(-1) at 48 h. Moreover, a low level of LDH release was observed at 48 h at various concentrations of (40, 60, 80 and 100 μg mL(-1)) GEEA extract-treated group compared to a control group. Changes in the cell morphology and echinoid spikes formation were observed at 48 h. Safety evaluation of GEEA in a non-cancerous liver cell line, PBMC and in Wistar rats positively revealed that the extract did not show any adverse toxic effects. The GEEA extract was partially purified by column chromatography and the active fraction was characterized through LC-MS analysis. Furthermore, HPLC and FT-IR analysis of the active fractions confirmed the presence of phytol, a diterpene compound with potent antiproliferative activity, which positively suggests that the red alga G. edulis contains a potent anticancer active principle. PMID:26822457

  2. CpG ODN 1826 enhances radiosensitivity of the human lung cancer cell line A549 in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Sun, T-Y; Yang, C-M; Jia, M; Li, J; Tang, H-L; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of CpG ODN1826 plus radiotherapy (RT) on tumor growth and angiogenesis of subcutaneous tumor in a rat model. Four treatment groups were tested in which rats were injected with 100 μL CpG ODN1826 (1 μg/μL) or 100 μL vehicle, with and without exposure to 8 Gy after 2 h. At 7 days after inoculation of lung cancer cells, drugs were injected in the tumor and radiation was administered over 5 days, after which the rate of tumor inhibition was calculated. Expression of VEGF-C in tumor tissue was seen in 10, 50, 80, and 100% of tumors in the CpG ODN1826 + RT, CpG ODN1826, vehicle + RT, and vehicle alone groups, respectively, while positive expression of NRP-1 was seen in 10, 40, 90, and 100% of tumors. The decreases in expression of VEGF-C mRNA in the CpG ODN1826 + RT and CpG ODN1826 groups compared with the NS + RT and NS groups were significant (P < 0.01), as were the decreases in NRP-1 mRNA in the CpG ODN1826 + RT group compared with the CpG ODN1826 group (P < 0.01). Thus, CpG ODN1826 can significantly inhibit tumor growth in a rat model, the mechanism of which may be related to inhibition of the expression of VEGF-C and NRP-1, which have an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. PMID:26345913

  3. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hoon Hong, Sang; Deuk Kim, Nam; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical Research Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 73-86, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971531

  4. Resveratrol reduces IL-6 and VEGF secretion from co-cultured A549 lung cancer cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Erhan; Baycu, Cengiz; Koparal, Ayse Tansu; Burukoglu Donmez, Dilek; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are important treatment methodologies used in many areas of experimental or clinical medicine. In recent studies of cancer models, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suppressed the growth of cancer cells. However, also in some studies, stem cell treatments have been shown to induce cancer formation, increase tumor volume, induce the formation of new vessels, and lead to cancer invasion. The presence of MSC-secreted cytokines and their effects on cancer cells limits the reliability of MSC-based treatments. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), an antioxidant found in red wine, has been shown to have therapeutic effects against several cancers. The aim of this study was to co-culture MSCs with A549 cancer cells to suppress the release of cancer-promoting cytokines from MSCs and to increase the applicability and reliability of stem cell therapies with resveratrol. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red cell viability assays were used to find safety dose of resveratrol. The MSCs secreted the cytokines IL-6 and VEGF, and the effect of resveratrol on these cytokines was analyzed by ELISA and western blot analysis of conditioned medium. One μM of resveratrol was found to be the safety dose for the A549 cancer cells and MSCs. We observed the highest release of IL-6 and VEGF from the co-cultured A549 cells and MSCs, and resveratrol was found to significantly decrease the release of these cytokines. Our study suggests that resveratrol exerts a positive effect on the release of cytokines. The safety dose of resveratrol can be administered together with stem cells during stem cell treatment. PMID:26687643

  5. Inhibition of the formation of benzo[a]pyrene adducts to DNA in A549 lung cells exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Genies, Camille; Jullien, Amandine; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Revol, Morgane; Maitre, Anne; Douki, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, which exhibit carcinogenic properties especially in lungs. In the present work, we studied the effect of mixtures of 12 PAHs on the A549 alveolar cells. We first assess the ability of each PAH at inducing gene expression of phase I metabolization enzymes and at generating DNA adducts. A good correlation was found between these two endpoints. We then exposed cells to either binary mixtures of the highly genotoxic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) with each PAH or complex mixtures of all studied PAHs mimicking by real emissions including combustion of wood, cigarette smoke, and atmospheres of garage, silicon factory and urban environments. Compared to pure B[a]P, both types of mixtures led to reduced CYP450 activity measured by the EROD test. A similar trend was observed for the formation of DNA adducts. Surprisingly, the complex mixtures were more potent than B[a]P used at the same concentration for the induction of genes coding for CYP. Our results stress the lack of additivity of the genotoxic properties of PAH in mixtures. Interestingly, an opposite synergy in the formation of B[a]P adducts were observed previously in hepatocytes. Our data also show that measurement of the metabolic activity rather than quantification of gene expression reflects the actual bioactivation of PAHs into DNA damaging species. PMID:27196671

  6. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase activates tirapazamine (SR4233) to restore hypoxic and oxic cytotoxicity in an aerobic resistant derivative of the A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, M P; Patterson, A V; Chinje, E C; Harris, A L; Stratford, I J

    2000-01-01

    Tirapazamine (TPZ, SR4233, WIN 59075) is a bioreductive drug that is activated in regions of low oxygen tension to a cytotoxic radical intermediate. This labile metabolite shows high selective toxicity towards hypoxic cells, such as those found in solid tumours. Under aerobic conditions, redox cycling occurs with subsequent generation of superoxide radicals, which are also cytotoxic. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase (P450R) is a one-electron reducing enzyme that efficiently activates TPZ. Recently a derivative of the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549c50) was generated that showed substantially reduced P450R activity compared to its parental line (Elwell et al (1997) Biochem Pharmacol54: 249–257). Here, it is demonstrated that the A549c50 cells are markedly more resistant to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, these cells have a dramatically impaired ability to metabolize TPZ to its two-electron reduction product, SR4317, under hypoxic conditions when compared to wild-type cells. P450R activity in the A549c50 cells was reintroduced to similar levels as that seen in the parental A549 cells by transfection of the full-length cDNA for human P450R. These P450R over-expressing cells exhibit restored sensitivity to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions, comparable to that found in the original parental A549 cells. Further, the ability of the transfected cells to metabolize TPZ to SR4317 under hypoxic conditions is also shown to be restored. This provides further evidence that P450R can play an important role in the activation, metabolism and toxicity of this lead bioreductive drug. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682679

  7. Pattern of stress protein expression in human lung cell-line A549 after short- or long-term exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Croute, F; Beau, B; Arrabit, C; Gaubin, Y; Delmas, F; Murat, J C; Soleilhavoup, J P

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of pulmonary damage such as emphysema and lung cancer. This metal is also a powerful inducer of stress proteins in many biologic models. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether an overexpression of the heat shock protein (hsp)72 stress protein, which indicates repair of damaged proteins, could be a sensitive and early biomarker of environmental pollution by Cd. In comparative studies, we examined the effects of exposure to Cd (as CdCl(2)) on the growth rate of the A549 pulmonary cell line, and (by Western blot analyses) on the induction of the hsp72 stress protein and metallothioneins (MTs). CdCl(2) exposure was studied for periods of 2 hr to 1 month. For short-term exposure (2-6 hr) to Cd concentrations higher than 50 microM, an overexpression of hsp72 appeared 6 hr later, suggesting that hsp72 might be considered an early biomarker of acute exposure to Cd. For exposures lasting more than 4 days, lower doses of Cd (0.1-10 microM) similar to levels encountered in occupational exposure induced a significant increase of the hsp72 level. Because the increase of hsp72 occurs for doses that did not affect cell proliferation, our work supports the idea that its overexpression might be used as a sensitive indicator of occupational exposure to Cd. However, increased resistance to Cd appeared in A549 cells exposed for 1 month and overexpression of hsp72 disappeared simultaneously. It is possible that, in vivo, cell adaptation also occurs throughout chronic exposure to Cd, with a decrease of hsp induction as a consequence. A dose-related increase of MTs was found after 4 days of exposure to Cd concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 microM without change of overexpression during chronic exposure, suggesting that MT expression could be a more constant indicator of Cd pollution. Because 0.1 microM Cd (11 microg/L) induces hsp72 expression, showing the presence of damaged proteins, our work suggests that the

  8. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  9. Cedrol induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells through the P13K/Akt signaling pathway, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the generation of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Yi; Li, Xue-Bo; Hou, Sheng-Guang; Sun, Yao; Shi, Yi-Ran; Lin, Song-Sen

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of cedrol in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells by examining the effects of cedrol on apoptosis induction, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The anticancer effects of cedrol were examined using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as an in vitro model. Cell viability was determined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and an inverted phase contrast microscope was used to examine the morphological changes in these cells. Cedrol‑triggered autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the cells, as well as by western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3)B expression. Intracellular ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry using 5-(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-DCFH2-DA) staining and MTP was measured using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that cedrol reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic evaluations indicated that cedrol induced apoptosis by reducing the MTP and by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-Akt. Cedrol induced autophagy, which was confirmed by TEM analysis, by increasing intracellular ROS formation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was almost completely reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol. Taken together, these findings reveal that cedrol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Our findings also reveal that cedrol induced pro-death autophagy by increasing intracellular ROS production. PMID:27177023

  10. A Novel Bufalin Derivative Exhibited Stronger Apoptosis-Inducing Effect than Bufalin in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Lower Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Feng, Li-Xing; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-Hong; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    BF211 is a synthetic molecule derived from bufalin (BF). The apoptosis-inducing effect of BF211 was stronger than that of BF while the acute toxicity of BF211 was much lower than that of BF. BF211 exhibited promising concentration-dependent anti-cancer effects in nude mice inoculated with A549 cells in vivo. The growth of A549 tumor xenografts was almost totally blocked by treatment with BF211 at 6 mg/kg. Notably, BF and BF211 exhibited differences in their binding affinity and kinetics to recombinant proteins of the α subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. Furthermore, there was a difference in the effects of BF or BF211 on inhibiting the activity of porcine cortex Na+/K+-ATPase and in their time-dependent effects on intracellular Ca2+ levels in A549 cells. The time-dependent effects of BF or BF211 on the activation of Src, which was mediated by the Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome, in A549 cells were also different. Both BF and BF211 could induce apoptosis-related cascades, such as activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) in A549 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the effects of BF211 on apoptosis-related cascades was stronger than that of BF. The results of the present study supported the importance of binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunits in the mechanism of cardiac steroids and also suggested the possibility of developing new cardiac steroids with a stronger anti-cancer activity and lower toxicity as new anti-cancer agents. PMID:27459387

  11. TLR2 ligation induces corticosteroid insensitivity in A549 lung epithelial cells: Anti-inflammatory impact of PP2A activators.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Prabhala, Pavan; Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Wickop, Thomas; Hansbro, Philip M; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-09-01

    Corticosteroids are effective anti-inflammatory therapies widely utilized in chronic respiratory diseases. But these medicines can lose their efficacy during respiratory infection resulting in disease exacerbation. Further in vitro research is required to understand how infection worsens lung function control in order to advance therapeutic options to treat infectious exacerbation in the future. In this study, we utilize a cellular model of bacterial exacerbation where we pretreat A549 lung epithelial cells with the synthetic bacterial lipoprotein Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2 ligand) to mimic bacterial infection and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to simulate inflammation. Under these conditions, Pam3CSK4 induces corticosteroid insensitivity; demonstrated by substantially reduced ability of the corticosteroid dexamethasone to repress TNFα-induced interleukin 6 secretion. We then explored the molecular mechanism responsible and found that corticosteroid insensitivity induced by bacterial mimics was not due to altered translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor into the nucleus, nor an impact on the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, Pam3CSK4 did not affect corticosteroid-induced upregulation of anti-inflammatory MAPK deactivating phosphatase-MKP-1. However, Pam3CSK4 can induce oxidative stress and we show that a proportion of the MKP-1 produced in response to corticosteroid in the context of TLR2 ligation was rendered inactive by oxidation. Thus to combat inflammation in the context of bacterial exacerbation we sought to discover effective strategies that bypassed this road-block. We show for the first time that known (FTY720) and novel (theophylline) activators of the phosphatase PP2A can serve as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory alternatives and/or corticosteroid-sparing approaches in respiratory inflammation where corticosteroid insensitivity exists. PMID:27477309

  12. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Method At first approach silane–grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX–loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox–loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. Results The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm–MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx–loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. Conclusion IC50 of DOx–loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23244711

  13. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to air pollution particles has been acknowledged to be associated with excess generation of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental model systems and humans. The use of standard reference material (SRM), such as SRM1650 and SRM2975, is advantageous because experiments can be reproduced independently, but exposure to such samples may not mimic the effects observed after exposure to authentic air pollution particles. This study was designed to compare the DNA oxidizing effects of authentic street particles with SRM1650 and SRM2975. The authentic street particles were collected at a traffic intensive road in Copenhagen, Denmark. Results All of the particles generated strand breaks and oxidized purines in A549 lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and there were no overt differences in their potency. The exposures also yielded dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity (as lactate dehydrogenase release) and reduced colony forming ability with slightly stronger cytotoxicity of SRM1650 than of the other particles. In contrast, only the authentic street particles were able to generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA, which might be due to the much higher level of transition metals. Conclusion Authentic street particles and SRMs differ in their ability to oxidize DNA in a cell-free environment, whereas cell culture experiments indicate that the particle preparations elicit a similar alteration of the level of DNA damage and small differences in cytotoxicity. Although it cannot be ruled out that SRMs and authentic street particles might elicit different effects in animal experimental models, this study indicates that on the cellular level, SRM1650 and SRM2975 are suitable surrogate samples for the study of authentic street particles. PMID:18397523

  14. Uncoordinated 51-like kinase 2 signaling pathway regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hwan; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Ha, Jung Min; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Ha, Hong Koo; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Sun Ja; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Yong, Jeongsik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical response during cancer cell metastasis. In this study, we provide evidence that uncoordinated 51-like kinase 2 (ULK2) regulates EMT. Induction of autophagy by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) or by disruption of mTORC1 by silencing raptor significantly enhanced EMT, however, disruption of mTORC2 by silencing rictor had no effect. Knockdown of ULK2 expression significantly induced autophagy, EMT, and migration but suppressed proliferation as well as tumor growth in a xenotransplantation model, whereas silencing of ULK1 had no effect. Therefore, we suggest that ULK2 regulates EMT through modulation of autophagy. PMID:27062295

  15. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-lin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  16. Antioxidant defense disruption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles in human lung cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Garçon, G; Zerimech, F; Hannothiaux, M; Gosset, P; Martin, A; Marez, T; Shirali, P

    2001-09-25

    We addressed the hypothesis that in vitro short-term exposure to hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is more deleterious by virtue of their combinations being able to cause higher oxidative stress conditions in human lung cells (A549), than either chemical alone. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase; SOD, glutathione peroxidase; GPx, glutathione reductase; GR), glutathione status (reduced glutathione; GSH, oxidized glutathione; GSSG) and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) consumption were studied in cells exposed to Fe(2)O(3), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) or pyrene, alone or in association. We found that increases in GSSG/GSH (P<0.01) and in alpha-Toc consumption (P<0.01) counteracted Fe(2)O(3)-induced lipid peroxidation. Exposure to B(a)P did not induce oxidative injury because of the involvement of non-enzymatic antioxidants in cell homeostasis. Pyrene did not induce free radicals (FR)-induced injury. Exposure to PAHs-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles damaged both the enzymatic (i.e. increases in SOD and GR activities; P<0.01) and the non-enzymatic (i.e. increases in GSSG/GSH; P<0.001, alpha-Toc consumption; P<0.01) antioxidant defenses, thereby allowing lipid peroxidation (i.e. MDA production; P<0.05). Exposure to PAHs-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles induced not only higher lipid peroxidation (i.e. MDA production; P<0.05) but also higher antioxidant alterations (i.e. SOD and GR activities; P<0.05, GSSH/GSH; P<0.01 or P<0.05) than either chemical alone. Several mechanisms could account for this result, enhanced uptake of Fe(2)O(3) and/or greater availability of PAHs. Hence, our results indicate that exposure to PAHs-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles is more deleterious in lungs than either chemical alone. PMID:11543909

  17. Biochemical synthesis of silver nanoprticles using filamentous fungi Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) and its efficacy against A-549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Bin; Dash, Gouri Kumar; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir; Nanda, Anima

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver and other metallic nanoparticles is one of the emerging research area in the field of science and technology due to their potentiality, especially in the field of nano-biotechnology and biomedical sciences in order to develop nanomedicine. In our present study, Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) was brought from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) Chandigarh and employed for extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ag-NPs formation was appeared with a dark brown color inside the conical flask. Characterization of Ag-NPs were done by UV-Spectrophotometric analysis which showed absorption peak at 430 nm determines the presence of nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis, showed amines and amides are the possible proteins involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles as capping agent. Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the particle are spherical, size was around 30 to 60 nm and also the roughness of nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed the topology of the nanoparticles and were spherical in shape. The biosynthesis process was found fast, ecofriendly and cost effective. Nano-silver particle was found to have a broad antimicrobial activity and also it showed good enhancement of antimicrobial activity of Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Sparfloxacin in a synergistic mode. These Ag-NPs showed good anti-cancer activity at 80 μg·mL(-1)upon 24 hours of incubation and toxicity increases upon 48 hours of incubation against A-549 human lung cancer cell line and the synergistic formulation of the antibiotic with the synthesized nanoparticles was found more effective against the pathogenic bacteria studied. PMID:27608951

  18. Rubus idaeus L Inhibits Invasion Potential of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Suppression Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Akt Pathway In Vitro and Reduces Tumor Growth In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chiang, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-05-01

    The metastasis of lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of patient death. Various treatment strategies have targeted the prevention of the occurrence of metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells is considered a prerequisite to acquire the invasive/migratory phenotype and to subsequently achieve metastasis. However, the effects ofRubus idaeuson cancer invasion and the EMT of the human lung carcinoma remain unclear. In this article, we test the hypothesis thatR idaeusethyl acetate (RIAE) possesses an antimetastatic effect and reverses the EMT potential of human lung A549 cells. We extract the raspberryR idaeuswith methanol (RIME), chloroform (RICE), ethyl acetate (RIAE),n-butanol (RIBE), and water (RIWE). The RIAE treatment obviously inhibits the invasive (P< .001), motility (P< .001), spreading, and migratory potential (P< .001) of highly metastatic human lung cancer A549 cells. The zymography and promoter luciferase analysis reveals that RIAE decreases the proteinase and transcription activities of MMP-2 and u-PA. Molecular analyses show that RIAE increases the E-cadherin level that is mainly localized at the cellular membrane. This result was also verified through confocal analyses. RIAE also induces the upregulation of an epithelial marker, such as α-catenin, and decreases mesenchymal markers, such as snail-1 and N-cadherin, that promote cell invasion and metastasis. RIAE inhibits MMP-2 and u-PA by attenuating the NF-κB and p-Akt expression. The inhibition of RIAE on the growth of A549 cells in vivo was also verified using a cancer cell xenograft nude mice model. Our results show the anti-invasive/antitumor effects of RIAE and associated mechanisms, which suggest that RIAE should be further tested in clinically relevant models to exploit its potential benefits against metastatic lung cancer cells. PMID:24335666

  19. The synergistic antitumor effects of all-trans retinoic acid and C-phycocyanin on the lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Gao, Mei-Hua; Chu, Xian-Ming; Teng, Lei; Lv, Cong-Yi; Yang, Peng; Yin, Qi-Feng

    2015-02-15

    The anticancer effects and mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), C-phycocyanin (C-PC) or ATRA+C-PC on the growth of A549 cells were studied in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The effects of C-PC and ATRA on the growth of A549 cells were determined. The expression of CDK-4 and caspase-3, and the cellular apoptosis levels were detected. The tumor model was established by subcutaneous injection of A549 cells to the left axilla of the NU/NU mice. The weights of tumor and the spleen were tested. The viabilities of T-cells and spleen cells, TNF levels, the expression of Bcl-2 protein and Cyclin D1 gene were examined. Results showed both C-PC and ATRA could inhibit the growth of tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. ATRA+C-PC cooperatively showed a higher antitumor activity. The dosage of ATRA was reduced when it was administered with C-PC together, and the toxicity was reduced as well. ATRA+C-PC could decrease CDK-4 but increase caspase-3 protein expression level and induce cell apoptosis. ATRA alone could lower the activities of T lymphocytes and spleen weights, but the combination with C-PC could effectively promote viability of T cells and spleen. C-PC+ATRA could up-regulate TNF, and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 gene. The combination might inhibit tumor growth by inhibiting the progress of cell cycle, inducing cell apoptosis and enhancing the body immunity. PMID:25617793

  20. Molecular Mode of Action and Role of TP53 in the Sensitivity to the Novel Epothilone Sagopilone (ZK-EPO) in A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winsel, Sebastian; Sommer, Anette; Eschenbrenner, Julia; Mittelstaedt, Kevin; Klar, Ulrich; Hammer, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Sagopilone, an optimized fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing compound that has shown high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of human tumor models. We analyzed the differential mechanism of action of sagopilone in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines in vitro. Sagopilone inhibited proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines at lower nanomolar concentration. The treatment with sagopilone caused strong disturbances of cellular cytoskeletal organization. Two concentration-dependent phenotypes were observed. At 2.5 nM sagopilone or 4 nM paclitaxel an aneuploid phenotype occur whereas a mitotic arrest phenotype was induced by 40 nM sagopilone or paclitaxel. Interestingly, treatment with 2.5 nM of sagopilone effectively inhibited cell proliferation, but - compared to high concentrations (40 nM) - only marginally induced apoptosis. Treatment with a high versus a low concentration of sagopilone or paclitaxel regulates a non-overlapping set of genes, indicating that both phenotypes substantially differ from each other. Genes involved in G2/M phase transition and the spindle assembly checkpoint, like Cyclin B1 and BUBR1 were upregulated by treatment with 40 nM sagopilone. Unexpectedly, also genes involved in DNA damage response were upregulated under that treatment. In contrast, treatment of A549 cells with a low concentration of sagopilone revealed an upregulation of direct transcriptional target genes of TP53, like CDKN1A, MDM2, GADD45A, FAS. Knockdown of TP53, which inhibited the transcriptional induction of TP53 target genes, led to a significant increase in apoptosis induction in A549 cells when treated with a low concentration of sagopilone. The results indicate that activation of TP53 and its downstream effectors like CDKN1A by low concentrations of sagopilone is responsible for the relative apoptosis resistance of A549 cells and might represent a mechanism of resistance to sagopilone. PMID:21559393

  1. In vitro and in vivo antitumour activities of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside on human lung carcinoma A549 cell line via the induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ti; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Context Pueraria lobata (Leguminoseae) shows cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; however, its active components remain unclear. Objective This study investigated the antitumour activity of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (POS) on the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. Materials and methods The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM) in vitro, and xenograft nude mice were established to evaluate the antitumour effect of POS (at 40 mg/kg/d) in vivo by 15 days intraperitoneal injection (ip). To explore its mechanism of action, flow cytometry was performed to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM). Subsequently, the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax in A549 cells were determined. Results POS showed significant cytotoxicity toward A549 cells (p < 0.05) by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with POS significantly upregulated the levels of caspase-3 (p < 0.01), caspase-7 (p < 0.01), caspase-9 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.01) in A549 cells, and Bcl-2 was downregulated (p < 0.01). Additionally, the in vivo animal study showed that POS significantly inhibited tumour growth in A549 cells (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the POS has significant antitumour activities. The mechanisms are related to increased levels of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and Bax, and reduced levels Bcl-2. PMID:26730946

  2. SchA-p85-FAK complex dictates isoform-specific activation of Akt2 and subsequent PCBP1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of TGFβ-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinying; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuxia; Teng, Guigen; Wang, Yong; Zang, Xuefeng; Wang, Kaifei; Zhang, Jinghui; Xu, Yali; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Lei

    2014-08-01

    A post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-β modulates expression of specific proteins, Disabled-2 (Dab2) and Interleukin-like EMT Inducer (ILEI), inherent to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in murine epithelial cells through Akt2-mediated phosphorylation of poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP1), has been previously elucidated. The aims of the current study were to determine if the same mechanism is operative in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Steady-state transcript and protein expression levels of Dab2 and ILEI were examined in A549 cells treated with TGF-β for up to 48 h. Induction of translational de-repression in this model was quantified by polysomal fractionation followed by qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism of isoform-specific activation of Akt2 was elucidated through a combination of co-immunoprecipitation studies. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells concomitant with translational upregulation of Dab2 and ILEI proteins through isoform-specific activation of Akt2 followed by phosphorylation of PCBP1 at serine-43. Our experiments further elucidated that the adaptor protein SchA is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues following TGF-β treatment, which initiated a signaling cascade resulting in the sequential recruitment of p85 subunit of PI3K and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The SchA-FAK-p85 complex subsequently selectively recruited and activated Akt2, not Akt1. Inhibition of the p85 subunit through phosphorylated 1257 peptide completely attenuated EMT in these cells. We have defined the underlying mechanism responsible for isoform-specific recruitment and activation of Akt2, not Akt1, during TGF-β-mediated EMT in A549 cells. Inhibition of the formation of this complex thus represents an important and novel therapeutic target in metastatic lung carcinoma. PMID:24819169

  3. Resolvin D1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition of A549 lung cancer cells via lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2 and GPR32.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ja; Park, Mi Kyung; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) is a key event for tumor cells to initiate metastasis which lead to switching of E-cadherin to N-cadherin. Resolvins are known to promote the resolution of inflammation and phagocytosis of macrophages. However, the role of resolvins in EMT of cancer is not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of resolvins on transforming growth factor, beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT. Expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in A549 lung cancer cells was evaluated by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Involvement of lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) was examined by gene silencing. TGF-β1 induced expression of N-cadherin in A549 lung cancer cells, and resolvin D1 and D2 inhibited the expression of N-cadherin at low concentrations (1-100 nM). Resolvin D1 and D2 also suppressed the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). The effects of resolvin D1 and D2 were confirmed in other lung cancer cell lines such as H838, H1299, and H1703. Resolvin D1 and D2 did not affect the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Resolvin D1 and D2 also suppressed the TGF-β1-induced morphological change. Resolvin D1 and D2 also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion of A549 cells. Resolvin D1 is known to act via ALX/FPR2 and GPR32. Thus, we examined the involvement of ALX/FPR2 and GPR32 in the suppressive effects of resolvin D1 on TGF-β1-induced EMT of A549 cells. Gene silencing of ALX/FPR2 and GPR32 blocked the action of resolvin D1. Overexpression of ALX/FPR2 or GPR32 increased the effects of resolvin D1. These results suggest that resolvin D1 inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via ALX/FPR2 and GPR32 by reducing the expression of ZEB1. PMID:24120851

  4. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Vidinský, B; Gál, P; Pilátová, M; Vidová, Z; Solár, P; Varinská, L; Ivanová, L; Mojžíš, J

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients. It is well known that the unwanted psychotropic effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated via the CB(1) receptor (R), and selective targeting of the CB(2)R would thus avoid side effects in cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of selective CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, on A549 cells (non-small lung cancer) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity assay and DNA fragmentation assay were employed to evaluate the influence of JWH-133 (3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)- 1-deoxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) on investigated cancer cells. In addition, migration assay and gelatinase zymography were performed in HUVECs to asses JWH-133 anti-angiogenic activity. Our study showed that JWH-133 exerted cytotoxic effect only at the highest concentration used (10(-4) mol/l), while inhibition of colony formation was also detected at the non-toxic concentrations (10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l). JWH-133 was also found to be able to induce weak DNA fragmentation in A549 cells. Furthermore, JWH-133 at non-toxic concentrations inhibited some steps in the process of angiogenesis. It significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration after 17 h of incubation at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-6) mol/l. In addition, JWH-133 inhibited MMP-2 secretion as assessed by gelatinase zymography. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, in nonsmall lung cancer cells and HUVECs. Our results generate a rationale for further in vivo efficacy studies with this compound in preclinical cancer models. PMID:22578958

  5. Combined metformin and resveratrol confers protection against UVC-induced DNA damage in A549 lung cancer cells via modulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Syu; Doonan, Barbara B; Wu, Joseph M; Hsieh, Tze-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Aging in humans is a multi-factorial cellular process that is associated with an increase in the risk of numerous diseases including diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Aging is linked to DNA damage, and a persistent source of DNA damage is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As such, identifying agents that confer protection against DNA damage is an approach that could reduce the public health burden of age-related disorders. Metformin and resveratrol have both shown effectiveness in preventing several age-related diseases; using human A549 cells, we investigated whether metformin or resveratrol, alone or combined, prevent UVC-induced DNA damage. We found that metformin inhibited UVC-induced upregulation of p53, as well as downregulated the expression of two DNA damage markers: γH2AX and p-chk2. Metformin also upregulated DNA repair as evidenced by the increase in expression of p53R2. Treatment with metformin also induced cell cycle arrest in UVC-induced cells, in correlation with a reduction in the levels of cyclin E/cdk2/Rb and cyclin B1/cdk1. Compared to metformin, resveratrol as a single agent showed less effectiveness in counteracting UVC-elicited cellular responses. However, resveratrol displayed synergism when combined with metformin as shown by the downregulation of p53/γH2AX/p-chk2. In conclusion, the results of the present study validate the effectiveness of metformin, alone or with the addition of resveratrol, in reducing the risk of aging by conferring protection against UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:27109601

  6. E2F1 enhances 8-chloro-adenosine-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Ying; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Qi, Jun-Juan; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Li, Shu-Yan; An, Guo-Shun; Jia, Hong-Ti; Cai, Wang-Wei; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2012-03-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor is a well known regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in response to DNA damage is less clear. 8-Chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado), a nucleoside analog, can inhibit proliferation in a variety of human tumor cells. However, it is still elusive how the agent acts on tumors. Here we show that A549 and H1299 cells formed DNA double-strand breaks after 8-Cl-Ado exposure, accompanied by E2F1 upregulation at protein level. Overexpressed wild-type (E2F1-wt) colocalized with double-strand break marker γ-H2AX and promoted G2/M arrest in 8-Cl-Ado-exposed A549 and H1299, while expressed S31A mutant of E2F1 (E2F1-mu) significantly reduced ability to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and G2/M arrest, suggesting that E2F1 is required for activating G2/M checkpoint pathway upon DNA damage. Transfection of either E2F1-wt or E2F1-mu plasmid promoted apoptosis in 8-Cl-Ado-exposed cells, indicating that 8-Cl-Ado may induce apoptosis in E2F1-dependent and E2F1-independent ways. These findings demonstrate that E2F1 plays a crucial role in 8-Cl-Ado-induced G2/M arrest but is dispensable for 8-Cl-Ado-induced apoptosis. These data also suggest that the mechanism of 8-Cl-Ado action is complicated. PMID:22803943

  7. Stellettin B Induces G1 Arrest, Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells via Blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Xin; Zhou, Chang; Zhong, Yuxu; Chen, Xi; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Gong, Min; Kong, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Until now, there is not yet antitumor drug with dramatically improved efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Marine organisms are rich source of novel compounds with various activities. We isolated stellettin B (Stel B) from marine sponge Jaspis stellifera, and demonstrated that it induced G1 arrest, apoptosis and autophagy at low concentrations in human NSCLC A549 cells. G1 arrest by Stel B might be attributed to the reduction of cyclin D1 and enhancement of p27 expression. The apoptosis induction might be related to the cleavage of PARP and increase of ROS generation. Moreover, we demonstrated that Stel B induced autophagy in A549 cells by use of various assays including monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and western blot detection of the autophagy markers of LC3B, p62 and Atg5. Meanwhile, Stel B inhibited the expression of PI3K-p110, and the phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K as well as GSK-3β, suggesting the correlation of blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with the above antitumor activities. Together, our findings indicate the antitumor potential of Stel B for NSCLC by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:27243769

  8. MiR-630 inhibits proliferation by targeting CDC7 kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple modulators in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J-X; Lu, Y; Qi, J-J; An, G-S; Mao, Z-B; Jia, H-T; Li, S-Y; Ni, J-H

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAome analyses have shown microRNA-630 (miR-630) to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. However, its apoptotic role is still debated and its participation in DNA replication is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-630 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting cell-cycle kinase 7 (CDC7) kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple activators of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. We identified a novel regulatory mechanism of CDC7 gene expression, in which miR-630 downregulated CDC7 expression by recognizing and binding to four binding sites in CDC7 3'-UTR. We found that miR-630 was highly expressed in A549 and NIH3T3 cells where CDC7 was downregulated, but lower in H1299, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa and 2BS cells where CDC7 was upregulated. Furthermore, the induction of miR-630 occurred commonly in a variety of human cancer and immortalized cells in response to genotoxic agents. Importantly, downregulation of CDC7 by miR-630 was associated with cisplatin (CIS)-induced inhibitory proliferation in A549 cells. Mechanistically, miR-630 exerted its inhibitory proliferation by blocking CDC7-mediated initiation of DNA synthesis and by inducing G1 arrest, but maintains apoptotic balance under CIS exposure. On the one hand, miR-630 promoted apoptosis by downregulation of CDC7; on the other hand, it reduced apoptosis by downregulating several apoptotic modulators such as PARP3, DDIT4, EP300 and EP300 downstream effector p53, thereby maintaining the apoptotic balance. Our data indicate that miR-630 has a bimodal role in the regulation of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Our data also support the notion that a certain mRNA can be targeted by several miRNAs, and in particular an miRNA may target a set of mRNAs. These data afford a comprehensive view of microRNA-dependent control of gene expression in the regulation of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:25255219

  9. Combination treatment with triptolide and hydroxycamptothecin synergistically enhances apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells through PP2A-regulated ERK, p38 MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guanmin; Wang, Wei; Chai, Kequn; Yang, Suwen; Li, Fangqiong; Jiang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, two plant-derived drugs triptolide (TP) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) both have shown broad-spectrum anticancer activities. Our previous study documented that combination treatment with these two drugs acted more effectively than mono-therapy, however, the molecular basis underlying the synergistic cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism of TP/HCPT anticancer effect in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, by investigating the involvement of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and PP2A-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt signaling pathways. The results showed that TP and HCPT synergistically exerted cytotoxicity in the growth of A549 cells. Combinatorial TP/HCPT treatment significantly enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and -9, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial and subsequent apoptosis. While the Akt survival pathway was inhibited, ERK and p38 MAPKs were dramatically activated. Furthermore, the activity of PP2A was significantly augmented. Regulation of p38, ERK and Akt by PP2A was demonstrated, by using a specific PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). Finally, pharmacological inhibitors OA, SB203580, SP600125 and PD98059 confirm the role of PP2A and its substrates ERK, p38 MAPK and Akt in mediating TP/HCPT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence for a synergistic TP/HCPT anticancer activity in A549 cells and also supports a critical role of PP2A and PP2A-regulated signaling pathways, providing new insight into the mode of action of TP/HCPT in cancer therapy. PMID:25573072

  10. Combination treatment with triptolide and hydroxycamptothecin synergistically enhances apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells through PP2A-regulated ERK, p38 MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    MENG, GUANMIN; WANG, WEI; CHAI, KEQUN; YANG, SUWEN; LI, FANGQIONG; JIANG, KAI

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, two plant-derived drugs triptolide (TP) and hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) both have shown broad-spectrum anticancer activities. Our previous study documented that combination treatment with these two drugs acted more effectively than mono-therapy, however, the molecular basis underlying the synergistic cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism of TP/HCPT anticancer effect in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, by investigating the involvement of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and PP2A-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt signaling pathways. The results showed that TP and HCPT synergistically exerted cytotoxicity in the growth of A549 cells. Combinatorial TP/HCPT treatment significantly enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and -9, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial and subsequent apoptosis. While the Akt survival pathway was inhibited, ERK and p38 MAPKs were dramatically activated. Furthermore, the activity of PP2A was significantly augmented. Regulation of p38, ERK and Akt by PP2A was demonstrated, by using a specific PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). Finally, pharmacological inhibitors OA, SB203580, SP600125 and PD98059 confirm the role of PP2A and its substrates ERK, p38 MAPK and Akt in mediating TP/HCPT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence for a synergistic TP/HCPT anti-cancer activity in A549 cells and also supports a critical role of PP2A and PP2A-regulated signaling pathways, providing new insight into the mode of action of TP/HCPT in cancer therapy. PMID:25573072

  11. Biological evaluation of new nickel(II) metallates: Synthesis, DNA/protein binding and mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells (A549) via ROS hypergeneration and depletion of cellular antioxidant pool.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, P; Saranya, S; Poornima, P; Prabhakaran, R; Dallemer, F; Vijaya Padma, V; Natarajan, K

    2014-07-23

    A series of novel nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes(1-4) have been prepared and characterized by various spectral, analytical techniques and X-ray crystallography. Further, their efficacy to interact with CT-DNA/BSA has been explored. From the binding studies, it is inferred that complex 4 found to be more active than other complexes. The complexes bound with CT-DNA by intercalation mode. Moreover, static quenching was observed for their interaction with BSA. The new complexes were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. The results showed that the new complexes exhibited significant degree of cytotoxicity at given experimental condition. Further, the results of LDH and NO release supported the cytotoxic nature of the complexes. The observed cytotoxicity of the complexes may be routed through ROS-hypergeneration and lipid-peroxidation with subsequent depletion of cellular antioxidant pool (GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial-membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Thus, the data from the present study disclose that the complexes could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial mediated fashion and inhibited the migration of lung cancer cells and by metastasis. PMID:24946146

  12. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Proliferation, Survival, and Migration in A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway through a Transcription-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Quintero Barceinas, Reyna Sara; García-Regalado, Alejandro; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; González-De la Rosa, Claudia Haydée

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used as an antineoplastic because of its ability to promote proliferation, inhibition, and differentiation, primarily in leukemia; however, in other types of cancer, such as lung cancer, treatment with ATRA is restricted because not all the patients experience the same results. The ERK signaling pathway is dysregulated in cancer cells, including lung cancer, and this dysregulation promotes proliferation and cell invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with ATRA can activate the ERK signaling pathway by a transcription-independent mechanism through a signaling cascade that involves RARα and PI3K, promoting growth, survival, and migration in lung cancer cells. Until now, this mechanism was unknown in lung cancer cells. The inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway restores the beneficial effects of ATRA, reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and blocks the cell migration process in lung cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of ATRA with ERK inhibitor in clinical trials for lung cancer is warranted. PMID:26557664

  13. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  14. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. PMID:27022256

  15. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. PMID:27022256

  16. Protective roles of aldo-keto reductase 1B10 and autophagy against toxicity induced by p-quinone metabolites of tert-butylhydroquinone in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Ayako; Suyama, Miho; Takemura, Mayuko; Soda, Midori; Chen, Huayue; Tajima, Kazuo; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Bunai, Yasuo; Hara, Akira; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ikari, Akira

    2015-06-01

    tert-Butylhydroquinone (BHQ), an antioxidant used as a food additive, exhibits an anticancer effect at low doses, but is carcinogenic in rodents at high doses. BHQ is metabolized into cytotoxic tert-butylquinone (TBQ), which is further converted to 6-tert-butyl-2,3-epoxy-4-hydroxy-5-cyclohexen-1-one (TBEH) through 6-tert-butyl-2,3-epoxy-4-benzoquinone (TBE). Both TBQ and TBE are cytotoxic, but their toxic mechanisms have not been fully characterized. In this study, we have investigated the toxic mechanisms of TBQ and TBE, and the defense system against the two p-quinones using lung cancer A549 cells. TBQ and TBE, but not BHQ and TBEH, showed cytotoxicity to A549 cells. Neither caspase-3 activation nor an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associating target genes was observed. TBQ and TBE reacted with reduced glutathione, and significantly decreased the glutathione level in A549 cells, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of the p-quinones is caused by their high electrophilicity reacting with biomolecules. The A549 cells treated with the p-quinones also showed increased levels of autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II protein, which are specific autophagy markers. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), decreased the LC3-II production by the p-quinones, but enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by TBQ and TBE, suggesting that autophagy contributes to alleviating the p-quinone-triggered cytotoxicity. In addition, the TBE-induced cytotoxicity and autophagy activation in the cells were significantly suppressed by overexpression of aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1B10 that efficiently reduces TBE into TBEH, and were augmented by pretreatment with a potent AKR1B10 inhibitor, C1. The effects of 3MA and C1 on the TBE-induced cytotoxicity were additive. The data provides evidence for the first time that autophagy and AKR1B10 contribute to the defense system against the cytotoxicity caused by the electrophilic p-quinone metabolites of BHQ. PMID:25289770

  17. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26676220

  18. Methotrexate influx via folate transporters into alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Kawami, Masashi; Miyamoto, Mioka; Yumoto, Ryoko; Takano, Mikihisa

    2015-08-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug used for the treatment of certain cancers as well as rheumatoid arthritis, sometimes induces serious interstitial lung injury. Although lung toxicity of MTX is related to its accumulation, the information concerning MTX transport in the lungs is lacking. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying MTX influx into human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. MTX influx into A549 cells was time-, pH-, and temperature-dependent and showed saturation kinetics. The influx was inhibited by folic acid with IC50 values of 256.1 μM at pH 7.4 and 1.6 μM at pH 5.5, indicating that the mechanisms underlying MTX influx would be different at these pHs. We then examined the role of two folate transporters in MTX influx, reduced folate carrier (RFC) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). The expression of RFC and PCFT mRNAs in A549 cells was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, MTX influx was inhibited by thiamine monophosphate, an RFC inhibitor, at pH 7.4, and by sulfasalazine, a PCFT inhibitor, at pH 5.5. These results indicated that RFC and PCFT are predominantly involved in MTX influx into A549 cells at pH 7.4 and pH 5.5, respectively. PMID:26190800

  19. Polygonatum odoratum lectin induces apoptosis and autophagy by regulation of microRNA-1290 and microRNA-15a-3p in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Yan; Li, Xin; Zhu, Yanan; Zhao, Yan; Bao, Jinku; Wu, Chuanfang

    2016-04-01

    Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), a mannose-binding specific Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin has been reported with remarkable anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects against several tumor cells. Our previous research revealed that POL can induce apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. However, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether miRNAs were involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis on A549 cells to identify altered miRNAs after POL treatment. We found that miR-1290 was down-regulated after POL treatment and down-regulated miR-1290 amplifies POL-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Moreover, we revealed that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was a direct target of miR-1290 and POL treatment could result in Wnt pathway down regulation. We also found that miR-15a-3p was up-regulated after POL treatment and over-expression of miR-15a-3p resulted in A549 cells apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, we confirmed that a miR-15a-3p mediated ROS-p53 pathway was involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. Taken together, these data provide evidence that POL induces A549 cells apoptosis and autophagy by regulation of miR-1290 and miR-15a-3p. PMID:26562549

  20. Chloroquine enhances replication of influenza A virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) in dose-, time-, and MOI-dependent manners in human lung epithelial cells A549.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqi; Dai, Jianping; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Chen, Youying; Wang, Gefei; Li, Kangsheng

    2015-07-01

    Anti-malaria drug, chloroquine, has been reported to be effective against influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and used in in-vivo experiments and clinical trial for prevention or treatment of influenza. In this study, it has been shown by immunofluorescence, hemagglutination, and plaque assays that chloroquine enhanced A/WSN/33 (H1N1) replication with pronounced cytopathic effect in dose-, time-, and MOI-dependent manners in human lung epithelial cells A549. Time-of-addition assay showed that inhibitory effect on virus replication by chloroquine pre-treatment was indistinctive, and virus productions were enhanced when the drug was applied after viral adsorption. The effectiveness of chloroquine as an anti-influenza drug is questioned, and caution in its use is recommended. PMID:25715935

  1. The biophysical property of A549 cells transferred by VEGF-D.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xu; Tian, Hong-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Li, Yang-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) together with VEGF-C is considered to be associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and involve in tumorization. This study aims to investigate the influence of exogenous VEGF-D gene on the biophysical property of cell surface of lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A panel of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined the expression of VEGF-D and VEGF-C by real-time PCR. The VEGF-D recombinant plasmid containing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was constructed and transfected to the cell line with no expression of VEGF-D and confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Topographic images of cells were obtained by using atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. Unlike VEGF-C, VEGF-D was found to have a very low expression or undetectable expression in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The VEGF-D recombinant plasmid had been constructed successfully and was transferred into the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells which had no endogenous expression of VEGF-D, and exogenous VEGF-D could be detected in mRNA and protein expression levels in the gene modified cells, while the VEGF-C gene expression had no change after VEGF-D transfection. After transfection, the irregular microspikes or nano clusters could observe on the surface of A549 cells, and VEGF-D transfected A549 cells became more rigid. The exogenous VEGF-D gene might cause the remarkable biophysical architectural changes in the A549 cells, which might as a novel biomarker for evaluation of its biological function. PMID:23526563

  2. Chloroquine rescues A549 cells from paraquat-induced death.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjie; Wang, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide associated with a high mortality rate, yet, there are no effective treatments for PQ poisoning. PQ may damage alveolar type II cells leading to moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study was undertaken to show that PQ causes alveolar type II (A549) cell death and to evaluate whether chloroquine (CQ) can protect A549 cells against PQ-induced cell death. The results showed that high concentrations of PQ resulted in toxicity, as indicated by a decrease in cell viability. More importantly, for the first time, CQ was found to improve cell viability of PQ treated A549 cells. Moreover, our data demonstrated that CQ increased lysosome-associated membrane protein-1, lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 and light chain-3 expressions, suggesting that the mechanism by which CQ rescues PQ-induced cytotoxicity may be through protection of the lysosomal membrane or up-regulation of autophagy. In conclusion, our study indicates that CQ may be used as a potential drug to rescue PQ-induced ARDS. PMID:26154125

  3. Rapamycin‐induced autophagy sensitizes A549 cells to radiation associated with DNA damage repair inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Liu, Fen; Wang, Yong; Li, Donghai; Guo, Fei; Xu, Liyao; Zeng, Zhengguo; Zhong, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Autophagy has been reported to increase in cancer cells after radiation. However, it remains unknown whether increased autophagy as a result of radiation affects DNA damage repair and sensitizes cancer cells. In this study, the radiosensitization effect of rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that induces autophagy, on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells was investigated. Methods A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of rapamycin. Cell viability was evaluated by methyl‐thiazolyl‐tetrazolium assay. Survival fraction values of A549 cells after radiotherapy were detected by colony formation assay. Autophagosome was observed by a transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, Western blot was employed to examine alterations in autophagy protein LC3 and p62, DNA damage protein γ–H2AX, and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80. Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels were examined by real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Results Rapamycin suppressed A549 cell proliferation in dose and time‐dependent manners. An inhibitory concentration (IC) 10 dose of rapamycin could induce autophagy in A549 cells. Rapamycin combined with radiation significantly decreased the colony forming ability of cells, compared with rapamycin or radiation alone. Rapamycin and radiation combined increased γ–H2AX expression levels and decreased Rad51 and Ku80 expression levels, compared with single regimens. However, rapamycin treatment did not induce any change in Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 mRNA levels, regardless of radiation. Conclusions These findings indicate that increasing autophagy sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation. PMID:27385978

  4. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by surface-capping selenium nanoparticles: an effect enhanced by polysaccharide-protein complexes from Polyporus rhinocerus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hualian; Zhu, Huili; Li, Xiaoling; Liu, Zumei; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng; Yu, Bo; Wong, Ka-Hing

    2013-10-16

    Surface-capping agents play key roles in cellular uptake and biological activity of functional nanomaterials. In the present study, functionalized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been successfully synthesized using Polyporus rhinocerus water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complexes (PRW) as the capping agent during the reduction of selenium salts. The acquired monodisperse, spherical PRW-SeNPs presented desirable size distribution and stability in the solution. Moreover, PRW surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs via endocytosis. Exposure to PRW-SeNPs significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells through induction of apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest (IC50 = 4.06 ± 0.25 μM) supported by an increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation. Caspase-3/8 activation induced by PRW-SeNPs indicated that the activation of death receptors was the main cause of PRW-SeNP-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that it is highly efficient to use PRW as a surface decorator of SeNPs to enhance cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy, and the PRW-SeNPs are potential chemopreventive agents for lung cancer therapy. PMID:24053442

  5. Overexpression of the hydatidiform mole-related gene F10 inhibits apoptosis in A549 cells through downregulation of BCL2-associated X protein and caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Song, Yali; Zhang, Gong; Zhu, Xiulan; Pang, Zhanjun; Xing, Fuqi; Quan, Song

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the overexpression of the hydatidiform mole-related gene F10 affects apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1-F10 (A549-F10) or pEGFP-N1 empty vector (A549-empty). Untransfected A549, A549-F10 or A549-empty cells were examined using the MTT cell proliferation assay and the TUNEL-FITC/Hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay. Western blotting was used to examine the expression levels of the pro-apoptotic genes, BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) and caspase-3. F10 was stably expressed in A549 cells. From 12 h, A549-F10 cells proliferated markedly faster than the untransfected and A549-empty cells. F10 overexpression also significantly inhibited apoptosis, as shown by the reduced number of TUNEL and Hoechst 33258 double-positive cells. This inhibition was likely due to an F10-induced reduction in the BAX and caspase-3 levels. The results of this study indicate that F10 overexpression inhibits apoptosis in A549 cells through the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes BAX and caspase-3. PMID:23741243

  6. Brusatol Enhances the Radiosensitivity of A549 Cells by Promoting ROS Production and Enhancing DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as a master regulatory factor in the protection of cells from oxidative and electrophilic stress. However, overexpression of Nrf2 in lung cancer may cause chemoresistance, as well as radioresistance. In this study, we examined the relationship between radioresistance and Nrf2 protein levels in H1299, A549, and H460 cells, and finally chose the A549 cell line to continue with due to its strong radioresistance and high Nrf2 protein levels. We found that the Nrf2 inhibitor, brusatol, could prevent the increase and accumulation of Nrf2 after exposure to irradiation. Additionally, following treatment with 80 nM brusatol, A549 cells became sensitive to irradiation, suffering severe DNA damage. Combination treatment with brusatol and ionizing radiation (IR) can distinctly increase the level of reactive oxygen species in A549 cells, causing a 1.8-fold increase compared with the control, and a 1.4-fold increase compared with IR alone. In fact, in the treatment with both brusatol and IR, lung cancer cell proliferation is halted, gradually leading to cell death. Because Nrf2 is closely linked to DNA damage repair, inhibiting the function of Nrf2, as in brusatol treatment, may increase the DNA damage caused by radiotherapy or chemotherapy, possibly enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Our study is the first to demonstrate brusatol's ability to enhance the responsiveness of lung cancer cells to irradiation, and its potential application as a natural sensitizer in radiotherapy. PMID:27347930

  7. Brusatol Enhances the Radiosensitivity of A549 Cells by Promoting ROS Production and Enhancing DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as a master regulatory factor in the protection of cells from oxidative and electrophilic stress. However, overexpression of Nrf2 in lung cancer may cause chemoresistance, as well as radioresistance. In this study, we examined the relationship between radioresistance and Nrf2 protein levels in H1299, A549, and H460 cells, and finally chose the A549 cell line to continue with due to its strong radioresistance and high Nrf2 protein levels. We found that the Nrf2 inhibitor, brusatol, could prevent the increase and accumulation of Nrf2 after exposure to irradiation. Additionally, following treatment with 80 nM brusatol, A549 cells became sensitive to irradiation, suffering severe DNA damage. Combination treatment with brusatol and ionizing radiation (IR) can distinctly increase the level of reactive oxygen species in A549 cells, causing a 1.8-fold increase compared with the control, and a 1.4-fold increase compared with IR alone. In fact, in the treatment with both brusatol and IR, lung cancer cell proliferation is halted, gradually leading to cell death. Because Nrf2 is closely linked to DNA damage repair, inhibiting the function of Nrf2, as in brusatol treatment, may increase the DNA damage caused by radiotherapy or chemotherapy, possibly enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Our study is the first to demonstrate brusatol’s ability to enhance the responsiveness of lung cancer cells to irradiation, and its potential application as a natural sensitizer in radiotherapy. PMID:27347930

  8. The effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 on oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs-enhanced sensitivity to X-rays in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study reported here was to further investigate the potential effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 (Chk2) on radiosensitivity enhanced by oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN7909) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods In vitro A549 cells were randomly separated into control, CpG, X-ray, CpG+ X-ray, ATM kinase-small interfering RNA (siRNA)+CpG+X-ray (ATM-siRNA), and Chk2-siRNA+CpG+X-ray (Chk2-siRNA) groups. siRNAs were adopted to silence the ATM and Chk2 genes. Expression and phosphorylation of ATM kinase and Chk2 were detected by Western blot assay. Cell colonies were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscopy. Cellular survival curves were fitted using a multi-target single-hitting model. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was similar among the control, CpG, X-ray, and CpG+X-ray groups. Phosphorylated ATM kinase and Chk2 were significantly increased in the CpG+X-ray group compared with in the X-ray group (t=6.00, P<0.01 and t=3.13, P<0.05, respectively), though these were hardly detected in the control and CpG groups. However, expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was clearly downregulated in the ATM-siRNA and Chk2-siRNA groups, respectively. Similarly, their phosphorylation levels were also significantly decreased in the ATM-siRNA group (t=14.35, P<0.01 and t=8.46, P<0.01, respectively) and a significant decrease in phosphorylated Chk2 was observed in the Chk2-siRNA group (t=7.28, P<0.01) when compared with the CpG+X-ray group. Further, the number of A549 cells at Gap 2/mitotic phase and the apoptosis rate were clearly increased in the CpG+X-ray group compared with in the other groups (all P<0.05). The multi-target single-hitting model showed that the sensitization enhancement ratio calculated by mean death dose was 1.39 in CpG+X-ray group (vs 1.04 and 1.03 in the ATM

  9. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer. PMID:25206246

  10. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  11. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  12. Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum suppresses TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via repression of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 pathway in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Do, Minh Truong; Jin, Sun Woo; Han, Hwa Jeong; Lee, Hyun Sun; Lee, Young Chun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces growth arrest, tissue fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. EMT is the differentiation switch by which polarized epithelial cells differentiate into contractile and motile mesenchymal cells. Our previous studies have shown that saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimetastatic, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CKS on TGFβ1-induced alterations characteristic of EMT in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. We found that CKS-treated cells displayed inhibited TGFβ1-mediated E-cadherin downregulation and Vimentin upregulation and also retained epithelial morphology. Furthermore, TGFβ1-increased Snail expression, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT, was reduced by CKS. CKS inhibited TGFβ1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 also blocked TGFβ1-induced GSK-3β phosphorylation and Snail activation. Furthermore, TGFβ1-increased Snail expression was reduced by selective inhibitors of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, CKS treatment attenuated TGFβ1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and upregulated Smad7 expression. These results indicate that pretreatment with the CKS inhibits the TGFβ1-induced EMT through PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, GSK-3β and Smad2/3 in human lung carcinoma cells. PMID:24341702

  13. The effect of sulforaphane on the cell cycle, apoptosis and expression of cyclin D1 and p21 in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Żuryń, Agnieszka; Litwiniec, Anna; Safiejko-Mroczka, Barbara; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Gagat, Maciej; Krajewski, Adrian; Gackowska, Lidia; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is present in plants belonging to Cruciferae family and was first isolated from broccoli sprouts. Chemotherapeutic and anticarcinogenic properties of sulforaphane were demonstrated, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the expression of cyclin D1 and p21 protein in SFN-treated A549 cells and correlated these results with the extent of cell death and/or cell cycle alterations, as well as determined a potential contribution of cyclin D1 to cell death. A549 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of SFN (30, 60 and 90 µM) for 24 h. Morphological and ultrastructural changes were observed using light, transmission electron microscope and videomicroscopy. Image-based cytometry was applied to evaluate the effect of SFN on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 and p21 expression was determined by flow cytometry, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. siRNA was used to evaluate the role of cyclin D1 in the process of suforaphane-induced cell death. We found that the percentage of cyclin D1-positive cells decreased after the treatment with SFN, but at the same time mean fluorescence intensity reflecting cyclin D1 content was increased at 30 µM SFN and decreased at 60 and 90 µM SFN. Percentage of p21-positive cells increased following the treatment, with the highest increase at 60 µM SFN, at which concentration mean fluorescence intensity of this protein was also significantly increased. The 30-µM dose of SFN induced an increased G2/M phase population along with a decreased polyploid fraction of cells, which implies a functional G2/M arrest. The major mode of cell death induced by SFN was necrosis and, to a lower degree apoptosis. Transfection with cyclin D1-siRNA resulted in significantly compromised fraction of apoptotic and necrotic cells, which suggests that cyclin D1 is an important determinant of the therapeutic efficiency of SFN in the A549 cells. PMID:27035641

  14. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. PMID:25779384

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  16. Induction of nucleolin translocation by acharan sulfate in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Ji; Yang, Hui; Park, Youmie; Park, Nam Young; Toida, Toshihiko; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2010-08-01

    Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, is a novel glycosaminoglycan, consisting primarily of the repeating disaccharide structure alpha-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl (1 --> 4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. AS shows anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Despite this activity, AS is only weakly cytotoxic towards cancer cells. We examine the interactions between AS and cell-surface proteins in an effort to explain this anti-tumor activity. Using flow cytometry and affinity column chromatography, we confirm that AS has strong affinity to specific cell-surface proteins including nucleolin (NL) in A549 human lung adenocarcinomas. Surprisingly, we found the translocation of NL from nucleus to cytoplasm under the stimulation of AS (100 microg/ml) in vitro. Also, as NL exits the nucleus, the levels of growth factors such as bFGF and signaling cascade proteins, such as p38, p53, and pERK, are altered. These results suggest that the communication between AS and NL plays a critical role on signal transduction in tumor inhibition. PMID:20564223

  17. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  18. Adhesion of MRC-5 and A549 cells on poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modified by proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuchowska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Chudy, Michal; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    PDMS is a very popular material used for fabrication of Lab-on-a-Chip systems for biological applications. Although PDMS has numerous advantages, it is a highly hydrophobic material, which inhibits adhesion and proliferation of the cells. PDMS surface modifications are used to enrich growth of the cells. However, due to the fact that each cell type has specific adhesion, it is necessary to optimize the parameters of these modifications. In this paper, we present an investigation of normal (MRC-5) and carcinoma (A549) human lung cell adhesion and proliferation on modified PDMS surfaces. We have chosen these cell types because often they are used as models for basic cancer research. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of this type of investigation. The combination of a gas-phase processing (oxygen plasma or ultraviolet irradiation) and wet chemical methods based on proteins' adsorption was used in our experiments. Different proteins such as poly-l-lysine, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, and collagen were incubated with the activated PDMS samples. To compare with other works, here, we also examined how ratio of prepolymer to curing agent (5:1, 10:1, and 20:1) influences PDMS hydrophilicity during further modifications. The highest adhesion of the tested cells was observed for the usage of collagen, regardless of PDMS ratio. However, the MRC-5 cell line demonstrated better adhesion than A549 cells. This is probably due to the difference in their morphology and type (normal/cancer). PMID:26311334

  19. Measuring Attachment and Internalization of Influenza A Virus in A549 Cells by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marie O; Stertz, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Attachment to target cells followed by internalization are the very first steps of the life cycle of influenza A virus (IAV). We provide here a detailed protocol for measuring relative changes in the amount of viral particles that attach to A549 cells, a human lung epithelial cell line, as well as in the amount of particles that are internalized into the cell. We use biotinylated virus which can be easily detected following staining with Cy3-labeled streptavidin (STV-Cy3). We describe the growth, purification and biotinylation of A/WSN/33, a widely used IAV laboratory strain. Cold-bound biotinylated IAV particles on A549 cells are stained with STV-Cy3 and measured using flow cytometry. To investigate uptake of viral particles, cold-bound virus is allowed to internalize at 37 °C. In order to differentiate between external and internalized viral particles, a blocking step is applied: Free binding spots on the biotin of attached virus on the cell surface are bound by unlabeled streptavidin (STV). Subsequent cell permeabilization and staining with STV-Cy3 then enables detection of internalized viral particles. We present a calculation to determine the relative amount of internalized virus. This assay is suitable to measure effects of drug-treatments or other manipulations on attachment or internalization of IAV. PMID:26575457

  20. Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker demonstrates angiogenic activity and inhibits A549 cell growth by targeting the KDR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bingling; Qi, Junpeng; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Yanmin

    2014-09-01

    Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker has been reported to have anticoagulation, antithrombotic, liver protective and antitumor effects. In the present study, the inhibitory effects on proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Firstly, three solvents, 70% ethanol, distilled water and 95% ethanol, were used to extract Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. The MTT assay results demonstrated that the 70% ethanol extract more potently reduced the growth of A549 cells and it was therefore adopted in the subsequent experiments. Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract significantly inhibited A549 cell migration in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner and inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Furthermore, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract effectively inhibited blood vessel formation in the established tissue model for angiogenesis. In addition, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract was demonstrated to inhibit the autophosphorylation of KDR, and downregulate the subsequent activation of AKT and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in A549 cells. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that the antitumor mechanism of Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract was through inhibiting angiogenesis. It functioned by interrupting the autophosphorylation of KDR and subsequently, AKT and ERK1/2. PMID:25059654

  1. The synergistic effect of resveratrol in combination with cisplatin on apoptosis via modulating autophagy in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Li, Xiaolin; Xu, Rongrong; Ye, Lingyun; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Hong; Xie, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that combination treatment with natural products and chemotherapy agents can improve the sensitivity and cytotoxicity of chemotherapy agents. Resveratrol, a natural product, has many biological effects including antitumor and antiviral activities, as well as vascular protective effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic anticancer effect of resveratrol in combination with cisplatin and the potential anticancer mechanisms involved in A549 cells. The results obtained from Cell Counting Kit-8 and isobolographic analysis demonstrated that combination of resveratrol and cisplatin resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects in A549 cells. Results from Hoechst staining, flow cytometry and western blot analysis suggested that resveratrol enhanced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, the changes of LC3-II and P62 levels and formation of autophagosome suggested that resveratrol in combination with cisplatin triggered autophagy. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy by 3-methyladenine markedly attenuated the apoptosis caused by combination of resveratrol and cisplatin in A549 cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that resveratrol combined with cisplatin synergistically induce apoptosis via modulating autophagic cell death in A549 cells. These findings also help us to understand the role of natural products in combination with chemotherapy agents in lung cancer. PMID:27084520

  2. Ophiopogonin B induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and autophagy in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meijuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ruolin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Miao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a saponin compound isolated from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, was verified to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in our previous study. However, the precise mechanisms of action have remained unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the effects of OP-B on adenocarcinoma A549 cells to further elaborate the underlying mechanisms of OP-B in different NSCLC cell lines. Detection by high content screening (HCS) and TUNEL assay verified that OP-B induced apoptosis in this cell line, while detection of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax showed that OP-B induced cell death was caspase and mitochondrial independent. Further experiments showed that OP-B induced cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases by inhibiting the expression of Myt1 and phosphorylation of Histone H3 (Ser10), which resulted in mitotic catastrophe in the cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of cell micro-morphology combined with detection of Atgs by western blot analysis showed that OP-B induced autophagy in this cell line. Autophagy inhibition by the lysosome inhibitor CQ or Beclin1-siRNA knockdown both attenuated cell viability, demonstrated that autophagy also being the vital reason resulted in cell death. More importantly, the xenograft model using A549 cells provided further evidence of the inhibition of OP-B on tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemistry detection of LC3 and Tunel assay both verified that high dose of OP-B (75 mg/kg) induced autophagy and apoptosis in vivo, and western blot detection of p-Histone H3 (Ser10), Survivin and XIAP further indicated the molecular mechanism of OP-B in vivo. As our findings revealed, multiple types of cell death overlapped in OP-B treated A549 cells, it displayed multitarget characteristics of the compounds extracted from the Chinese herbal, which may be used as candidate anticancer medicine in clinic. PMID:27175570

  3. BAI, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induces apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin; Lee, Jinho; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jong-Wook

    2013-02-01

    Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ(6) -isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (nonsmall cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20-60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, and inhibition of Akt. PMID:22887215

  4. Copper oxide nanoparticles induce autophagic cell death in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tingting; Yan, Yiwu; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Chengyu

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most highly produced nanomaterials, and have many diverse functions in catalysis, environmental remediation, as sensors, and in the production of personal care products. In this study, the toxicity of several widely used metal oxide NPs such as copper oxide, silica, titanium oxide and ferric oxide NPs, were evaluated In vitro. We exposed A549, H1650 and CNE-2Z cell lines to metal oxide NPs, and found CuO NPs to be the most toxic, SiO2 mild toxic, while the other metal oxide NPs had little effect on cell viability. Furthermore, the autophagic biomarker LC3-II significantly increased in A549 cells treated with CuO NPs, and the use of the autophagy inhibitors wortmannin and 3-methyladenin significantly improved cell survival. These results indicate that the cytoxicity of CuO NPs may involve the autophagic pathway in A549 cells. PMID:22916263

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of 3-Arylcoumarin Derivatives in A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    MUSA, MUSILIYU A.; JOSEPH, MOISE Y.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; BADISA, VEERA; COOPERWOOD, JOHN S.

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are naturally-occurring compounds with diverse and interesting biological activities. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of 8-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy)phenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (6); 8-(acetyloxy)-3-(4-methanesulfonyl phenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (7); 4-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (8); 3-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (9); 4-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (10); 3-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (11); 8-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (12); and 5-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy) phenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (13) in human lung (A549) cancer and normal lung (MRC-9) cell lines at different concentrations for 48 h using crystal violet dye binding assay. The cytotoxic effect of these coumarin derivatives were compared to the standard drug, docetaxel. Furthermore, the effect of the most active compound on the cell-cycle using propidium iodide, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (rhodamine-123) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (PCFDA) were also evaluated. Results Compound 7 had the greatest cytotoxic effect (cytotoxic concentration, CC50=24 μM) and selectivity (MRC-9; CC50 >100 μM; inactive) in the A549 cell line, and caused cells to arrest in the S phase of the cell cycle, loss of MMP and increased ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion These findings suggest that compound 7 could serve as a new lead for the development of novel synthetic compounds with enhanced anticancer activity. PMID:25667442

  6. Timosaponin AIII inhibits migration and invasion of A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via attenuations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by inhibitions of ERK1/2, Src/FAK and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jung, Okkeun; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Yu Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi; Son, Young-Jin; Cho, Jae Youl; Ryou, Chongsuk; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-08-15

    Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) is a type of steroidal saponins isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides. It was known to improve learning and memory deficits through anti-inflammatory effects. TAIII was also reported to induce autophagy preceding mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells and inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, thus regarded as a potential candidate for anti-cancer agent. In this study, we verified apoptosis-inducing and cell-cycle-arresting effects of TAIII in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Then, we report that TAIII suppresses migration and invasion of A549 human NSCLC cells. We propose that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are well known to be involved in cancer-metastasis, are attenuated by the treatment of TAIII. TAIII exerts its suppressive effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 via inhibitions of ERK1/2, Src/FAK and β-catenin signalings which are closely related with the regulations of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMID:27422337

  7. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in A549 Cells Exposed to 6 MV X-rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuning; Xu, Jing; Shao, Weixian; Geng, Chong; Li, Jia; Guo, Feng; Miao, Hui; Shen, Wenbin; Ye, Tao; Liu, Yazhou; Xu, Haiting; Zhang, Xuguang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the bystander effects in A549 cells that have been exposed to 6MV X-ray. Control group, irradiated group, irradiated conditioned medium (ICM)-received group, and fresh medium group were designed in this study. A549 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were irradiated with 6MV X-ray at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2. In ICM-received group, post-irradiation A549 cells were cultured for 3 h and were transferred into non-irradiated A549 cells for further cultivation. Clone forming test was applied to detect the survival fraction of cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay was used to detect the apoptosis of A549 cells 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation, and the curves of apoptosis were drawn. The changes in the cell cycles 4, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation were detected using PI staining flow cytometry. With the increase of irradiation dose, the survival fraction of A549 cells after the application of 0.5 Gy irradiation was decreasing continuously. In comparison to the control group, the apoptosis rate of the ICM-received group was increased in a time-dependent pattern, with the highest apoptosis rate observed at 72 h (p < 0.05). Cell count in G2/M stages was obviously increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05), with the highest count observed at 72 h, after which G2/M stage arrest was diminished. ICM can cause apparent A549 cell damage, indicating that 6MV X-ray irradiation can induce bystander effect on A549 cells, which reaches a peak at 72 h. PMID:25686868

  8. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer. PMID:27216943

  9. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer. PMID:27216943

  10. Downregulation of AATK mediates microRNA-558-induced resistance of A549 cells to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui-Xia; Song, Chun-Hui; Yang, Jin-Shan; Yi, Qing-Ting; Li, Bao-Jian; Liu, Si-Hai

    2016-09-01

    The deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is often implicated in the control of sensitivity to radiotherapy. The objective of the present study was to identify the association between miR‑558 and apoptosis‑associated tyrosine kinase (AATK), and their importance in regulating the development of resistance to radiotherapy. The current study demonstrated that AATK, a radiosensitization-associated gene, is a target of miR‑558 in lung cancer cells, using in silico analysis and a luciferase reporter system. Furthermore, it was determined that transfection of 30 or 50 nM miR‑558 mimics and AATK specific siRNA markedly suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of AATK. To determine whether miR‑558 was required for lung cancer cell radioresistance, A549 cells were treated with different doses of ionizing radiation, from 0 to 10 Gy, following transfection with miR‑558 mimics or AATK specific siRNA. It was determined that the administration of miR‑558 mimics or AATK specific siRNA alone did not significantly alter the survival rate of the cells. By contrast, in the cells exposed to 4, 6 or 8 Gy, the administration of miR‑558 mimics or AATK specific siRNA significantly promoted cell survival rate and overexpression of AATK reversed this effect. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the miR‑558/AATK cascade is important for the radiosensitization of lung cancer cells and may be a potential radiotherapy target. PMID:27485693

  11. Taxol-induced paraptosis-like A549 cell death is not senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-yang; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Our previous studies have shown that taxol, a potent anticancer agent, induces caspase-independent cell death and cytoplasmic vacuolization in human lung cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization are poorly understood. Cytoplasmic vacuolization have been reported to be a characteristic of cell senescence. Here, we employed confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to study the reversibility of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and whether taxol triggers senescence in A549 cells. We found that taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization at 6 or 9 h after treatment with taxol did not decrease but increase at 24 h or 72 h after refreshing the culture medium without taxol, indicating taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization is irreversible. We used SA-β-Gal (senescence-associated β-galactosidase) to assess whether taxol-induced cell death in cytoplasmic vacuolization fashion is senescence, and found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated, but not taxol-treated cells is significantly stained by the SA-β-Gal, a senescence testing kit, indicating that the form of taxol-induced cell death is not senescence.

  12. Geraniin inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonseok

    2015-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appeared cells, which, in turn, induces the metastatic of cancer. Geraniin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as antitumor, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. However, the possible role of geraniin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of geraniin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the suppressive role of geraniin in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the use of geraniin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that geraniin remarkably increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and vimentin during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Geraniin also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, geraniin markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of Smad2. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that geraniin suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT. PMID:26169124

  13. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity evaluation using A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Pavagadhi, S; Mahadevan, A; Balasubramanian, R

    2015-04-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has become an attractive area of research as it is environmentally benign. The toxicity of AuNPs synthesized by chemical routes has been widely studied. However, little is known about the toxicity associated with the biological synthesis of AuNPs. The present study was carried out to synthesize AuNPs using star anise (Illicium verum; a commercially available spice in abundance)and evaluate its toxicity using human epithelial lung cells (A549) in comparison with AuNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical methods (using sodium citrate and sodium borohydride). Apart from cell viability, markers of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione) and cell death (caspases) were also evaluated to understand the mechanisms of toxicity. Cell viability was observed to be 65.7 percent and 72.3 percent in cells exposed to chemically synthesized AuNPs at the highest dose (200nM) as compared to 80.2 percent for biologically synthesized AuNPs. Protective coating/capping of AuNPs by various polyphenolic compounds present in star anise extract appears to be a major contributor to lower toxicity observed in biologically synthesized AuNPs. PMID:24835429

  14. A novel aminothiazole KY-05009 with potential to inhibit Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) attenuates TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Moon, Seong-Hee; Kim, Bum Tae; Chae, Chong Hak; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β triggers the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells via well-orchestrated crosstalk between Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin. Since EMT-induced motility and invasion play a critical role in cancer metastasis, EMT-related molecules are emerging as novel targets of anti-cancer therapies. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as a first-in-class anti-cancer target molecule to regulate Wnt signaling pathway, but pharmacologic inhibition of its EMT activity has not yet been studied. Here, using 5-(4-methylbenzamido)-2-(phenylamino)thiazole-4-carboxamide (KY-05009) with TNIK-inhibitory activity, its efficacy to inhibit EMT in cancer cells was validated. The molecular docking/binding study revealed the binding of KY-05009 in the hinge region of TNIK, and the inhibitory activity of KY-05009 against TNIK was confirmed by an ATP competition assay (Ki, 100 nM). In A549 cells, KY-05009 significantly and strongly inhibited the TGF-β-activated EMT through the attenuation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including the Wnt, NF-κB, FAK-Src-paxillin-related focal adhesion, and MAP kinases (ERK and JNK) signaling pathways. Continuing efforts to identify and validate potential therapeutic targets associated with EMT, such as TNIK, provide new and improved therapies for treating and/or preventing EMT-based disorders, such as cancer metastasis and fibrosis. PMID:25337707

  15. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee; Lee, Su-Jae; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  16. Imaging and characterization of stretch-induced ATP release from alveolar A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Furuya, Kishio; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Mechano-transduction at cellular and tissue levels often involves ATP release and activation of the purinergic signalling cascade. In the lungs, stretch is an important physical stimulus but its impact on ATP release, the underlying release mechanisms and transduction pathways are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of unidirectional stretch on ATP release from human alveolar A549 cells by real-time luciferin–luciferase bioluminescence imaging coupled with simultaneous infrared imaging, to monitor the extent of cell stretch and to identify ATP releasing cells. In subconfluent (<90%) cell cultures, single 1 s stretch (10–40%)-induced transient ATP release from a small fraction (≤1.5%) of cells that grew in number dose-dependently with increasing extent of stretch. ATP concentration in the proximity (≤150 μm) of releasing cells often exceeded 10 μm, sufficient for autocrine/paracrine purinoreceptor stimulation of neighbouring cells. ATP release responses were insensitive to the putative ATP channel blockers carbenoxolone and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid, but were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and bafilomycin. In confluent cell cultures, the maximal fraction of responding cells dropped to <0.2%, but was enhanced several-fold in the wound/scratch area after it was repopulated by new cells during the healing process. Fluo8 fluorescence experiments revealed two types of stretch-induced intracellular Ca2+ responses, rapid sustained Ca2+ elevations in a limited number of cells and delayed secondary responses in neighbouring cells, seen as Ca2+ waves whose propagation was consistent with extracellular diffusion of released ATP. Our experiments revealed that a single >10% stretch was sufficient to initiate intercellular purinergic signalling in alveolar cells, which may contribute to the regulation of surfactant secretion and wound healing. PMID:23247110

  17. Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haijing; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong; Sun, Yue; Xue, Xinxin; Du, Shipu; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-β1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-β1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and α-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and α-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27. PMID:24998956

  18. N-acetylcysteine amide, a thiol antioxidant, prevents bleomycin-induced toxicity in human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Tobwala, S; Fan, W; Stoeger, T; Ercal, N

    2013-09-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces verticillus, is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, its clinical use is restricted due to the wide range of associated toxicities, especially pulmonary toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Previous studies have indicated disruption of thiol-redox status in lungs (lung epithelial cells) upon BLM treatment. Therefore, this study focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of BLM on lung epithelial cells (A549) and (2) elucidating whether a well-known thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), provides any protection against BLM-induced toxicity. Oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered upon BLM treatment. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, indicated that cytotoxicity is possibly mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with NACA reversed the oxidative effects of BLM. NACA decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. Our data showed that BLM induced A549 cell death by a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. NACA had a protective role against BLM-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and ΔΨm. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising adjunctive therapeutic option for patients undergoing chemotherapy with BLM. PMID:23805793

  19. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT. PMID:27243447

  20. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A549 cell in epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Jun-Ling; Du, Wen-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological changes in cells is an integral part of study on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), however, only a few papers reported the changes in quantitative parameters and no article compared different parameters for demanding better parameters. In the study, the purpose was to investigate suitable parameters for quantitative evaluation of EMT morphological changes. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was selected for the study. Some cells were stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for EMT, and other cells were as control without TGF-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, cells were placed in phase contrast microscope and three arbitrary fields were captured and saved with a personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, some cells in an image were selected, segmented out and exchanged into unique hue, and other part in the image was shifted into another unique hue. The cells were calculated with 29 morphological parameters by Image Pro Plus software. A parameter between cells with or without TGF-β1 stimulation was compared statistically and nine parameters were significantly different between them. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) of a parameter was described with SPSS software and F-test was used to compare two areas under the curves (AUCs) in Excel. Among them, roundness and radius ratio were the most AUCs and were significant higher than the other parameters. The results provided a new method with quantitative assessment of cell morphology during EMT, and found out two parameters, roundness and radius ratio, as suitable for quantification. PMID:26182364

  1. Moringa oleifera Gold Nanoparticles Modulate Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Caspase-9 Splice Variants in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Gengan, Robert M; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) facilitate cancer cell recognition and can be manufactured by green synthesis using nutrient rich medicinal plants such as Moringa oleifera (MO). Targeting dysregulated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is crucial for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of AuNP synthesized from MO aqueous leaf extracts (MLAuNP ) in A549 lung and SNO oesophageal cancer cells. A one-pot green synthesis technique was used to synthesise MLAuNP . A549, SNO cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to MLAuNP and CAuNP to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay); apoptosis was measured by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, mitochondrial depolarization (ΔΨm) (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7, -9 activity, and ATP levels (luminometry). The mRNA expression of c-myc, p53, Skp2, Fbw7α, and caspase-9 splice variants was determined using qPCR, while relative protein expression of c-myc, p53, SRp30a, Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Hsp70, and PARP-1 were determined by Western blotting. MLAuNP and CAuNP were not cytotoxic to PBMCs, whilst its pro-apoptotic properties were confirmed in A549 and SNO cells. MLAuNP significantly increased caspase activity in SNO cells while MLAuNP significantly increased PS externalization, ΔΨm, caspase-9, caspase-3/7 activities, and decreased ATP levels in A549 cells. Also, p53 mRNA and protein levels, SRp30a (P = 0.428), Bax, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 24 kDa fragment levels were significantly increased. Conversely, MLAuNP significantly decreased Bcl-2, Hsp70, Skp2, Fbw7α, c-myc mRNA, and protein levels and activated alternate splicing with caspase-9a splice variant being significantly increased. MLAuNP possesses antiproliferative properties and induced apoptosis in A549 cells by activating alternate splicing of caspase-9. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2302-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26923760

  2. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits naphthalene-induced oxidative injury and the production of inflammatory responses in A549 cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yongchun; Wang, Kaiming; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lin, Guimei; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Shanzhong; Cai, Jianhua; Cao, Jimin

    2015-12-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a garlic organosulfide that may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of some diseases. We sought to determine whether DATS could inhibit naphthalene-induced oxidative injury and the production of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. A549 cells were either pre-treated (PreTx, prevention) or concurrently treated (CoTx, treatment) with 20μM naphthalene and either 5 or 10μM DATS. PreTx and CoTx showed the prevention and the treatment potential of DATS to inhibit the generation of naphthalene-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the A549 cells. DATS showed antioxidative activity by elevating the SOD activities in the low dose groups. The mechanistic study showed that the DATS-mediated inhibition of naphthalene-induced oxidative injury and the production of inflammatory responses (i.e., TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8) were attributed to inhibiting the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, DATS inhibited the production of serum nitric oxide NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the lungs of Kunming mice. The histological analysis results indicate that DATS inhibited the naphthalene-induced lung damage, which is consistent with the in vitro study results. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that DATS may be an effective attenuator of naphthalene-induced lung damage. PMID:26548347

  3. The cytotoxicity of organophosphate flame retardants on HepG2, A549 and Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Hu, Jingwen; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yufang; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-18

    In order to elucidate the cytotoxicity of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), three human in vitro models, namely the HepG2 hepatoma cells, the A549 lung cancer cells and the Caco-2 colon cancer cells, were chosen to investigate the toxicity of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tributylphosphate (TBP), tris(2-butoxyexthyl) phosphate (TBEP) and tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP). Cytotoxicity was assayed in terms of cell viability, DNA damage status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. The results showed that all these four OPFRs could inhibit cell viability, overproduce ROS level, induce DNA lesions and increase the LDH leakage. In addition, the toxic effects of OPFRs in Caco-2 cells were relatively severer than those in HepG2 and A549 cells, which might result from some possible mechanisms apart from oxidative stress pathway. In conclusion, TBP, TPP, TBEP and TCPP could induce cell toxicity in various cell lines at relatively high concentrations as evidenced by suppression of cell viability, overproduction of ROS, induction of DNA lesions and increase of LDH leakage. Different cell types seemed to have different sensitivities and responses to OPFRs exposure, as well as the underlying potential molecular mechanisms. PMID:27336727

  4. MicroRNA Profiling of the Effect of the Heptapeptide Angiotensin-(1-7) in A549 Lung Tumor Cells Reveals a Role for miRNA149-3p in Cellular Migration Processes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Brenda de Oliveira da; Lima, Kelvin Furtado; Gonçalves, Letícia Rocha; Silveira, Marina Bonfogo da; Moraes, Karen C M

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer in humans and a leading cause of death worldwide. The high mortality rates are correlated with late diagnosis, which leads to high rates of metastasis found in patients. Thus, despite all the improvement in therapeutic approaches, the development of new drugs that control cancer cell migration and metastasis are required. The heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) [ang-(1-7)] has demonstrated the ability to control the growth rates of human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the elucidation of central elements that control the fine-tuning of cancer cells migration in the presence of the ang-(1-7), will support the development of new therapeutic approaches. Ang-(1-7) is a peptide hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and this study investigates the modulatory effect of the heptapeptide on the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung tumor cells, to elucidate mechanistic concerns about the effect of the peptide in the control of tumor migratory processes. Our primary aim was to compare the miRNA profiling between treated and untreated-heptapeptide cells to characterize the relevant molecule that modulates cellular migration rates. The analyses selected twenty one miRNAs, which are differentially expressed between the groups; however, statistical analyses indicated miRNA-149-3p as a relevant molecule. Once functional analyses were performed, we demonstrated that miRNA-149-3p plays a role in the cellular migration processes. This information could be useful for future investigations on drug development. PMID:27598578

  5. Nucleolin regulates c-Jun/Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of cPLA2alpha in phorbol ester-treated non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Jen-Hui; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wang, Wei-Chiao; Tseng, Joseph T; Su, Wu-Chou; Hung, Liang-Yi; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chen, Ben-Kuen

    2008-01-01

    The expression of cPLA2 is critical for transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is known that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated signal transduction pathway is thought to be involved in the oncogene action in NSCLC and enzymatic activation of cPLA2. However, the transcriptional regulation of cPLA2alpha in PMA-activated NSCLC is not clear. In this study, we found that PMA induced the mRNA level and protein expression of cPLA2alpha. In addition, two Sp1-binding sites of cPLA2alpha promoter were required for response to PMA and c-Jun overexpression. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of c-Jun and nucleolin inhibited PMA induced the promoter activity and protein expression of cPLA2alpha. Furthermore, PMA stimulated the formation of c-Jun/Sp1 and c-Jun/nucleolin complexes as well as the binding of these transcription factor complexes to the cPLA2alpha promoter. Although Sp1-binding sites were required for the bindings of Sp1 and nucleolin to the promoter, the binding of nucleolin or Sp1 to the promoter was independent of each other. Our results revealed that c-Jun/nucleolin and c-Jun/Sp1 complexes play an important role in PMA-regulated cPLA2alpha gene expression. It is likely that nucleolin binding at place of Sp1 on gene promoter could also mediate the regulation of c-Jun/Sp1-activated genes. PMID:18025046

  6. Platinum(II) phenanthroimidazole G-quadruplex ligand induces selective telomere shortening in A549 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Johanna; Rousseau, Philippe; Castor, Katherine J; Sleiman, Hanadi F; Autexier, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    Telomere maintenance, achieved by the binding of protective shelterin capping proteins to telomeres and by either telomerase or a recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism, is critical for cell proliferation and survival. Extensive telomere shortening or loss of telomere integrity activates DNA damage checkpoints, leading to cell senescence or death. Although telomerase upregulation is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy, the lag associated with telomere shortening and the potential activation of ALT pose a challenge. An alternative approach is to modify telomere interactions with binding proteins (telomere uncapping). G-quadruplex ligands stabilize structures generated from single-stranded G-rich 3'-telomere end (G-quadruplex) folding, which in principle, cannot be elongated by telomerase, thus leading to telomere shortening. Ligands can also mediate rapid anti-proliferative effects by telomere uncapping. We previously reported that the G-quadruplex ligand, phenylphenanthroimidazole ethylenediamine platinum(II) (PIP), inhibits telomerase activity in vitro[47]. In the current study, a long-term seeding assay showed that PIP significantly inhibited the seeding capacity of A549 lung cancer cells and to a lesser extent primary MRC5 fibroblast cells. Importantly, treatment with PIP caused a significant dose- and time-dependent decrease in average telomere length of A549 but not MRC5 cells. Moreover, cell cycle analysis revealed a significant increase in G1 arrest upon treatment of A549 cells, but not MRC5 cells. Both apoptosis and cellular senescence may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of PIP. Our studies validate the development of novel and specific therapeutic ligands targeting telomeric G-quadruplex structures in cancer cells. PMID:26724375

  7. Anti-proliferative effect of Kv1.3 blockers in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Seon Young; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2011-01-25

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are widely expressed in the plasma membranes of numerous cells and contribute to a variety of cellular functions in both excitable neuronal cells and non-excitable epithelial cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Kv channels are associated with the proliferation of several types of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppression of Kv1.3 expression on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in human lung adenocarcinoma, A549 cells. Treatment with margatoxin (MgTX), a selective blocker of Kv1.3 or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against Kv1.3, significantly blocked A549 cells' proliferation. In addition, selective inhibition of Kv1.3 significantly increased expression level of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and significantly decreased the expression level of Cdk4 and cyclin D3. We also applied the MgTX into a xenograft model using nude mice, and MgTX caused a reduction of tumor volume when it was injected into the tumor tissues. These results suggest that Kv1.3 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. PMID:21087602

  8. Regulation of MAPKs Signaling Contributes to the Growth Inhibition of 1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone on Multidrug Resistance A549/Taxol Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Wen; Luan, Jia-Jie

    2016-01-01

    1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (XAN) is a bioactive compound isolated from Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. and validated with antiproliferative activities on a panel of cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate its growth inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance (MDR) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549/Taxol and explore the possible linkage between modulation of MAPKs and the bioactivities. Its growth inhibitory potency on the cells was estimated by MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis was employed to investigate its potential cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis effects. Expressions of hallmark proteins were assessed by Western-Blot method. The results showed A549/Taxol cells were sensitive to XAN. XAN inhibited the proliferation of A549/Taxol cells in the time and concentration dependent manners. It acted as a potent inducer of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. Western-Blot investigation validated the proapoptosis and cell cycle arrest activities of XAN and the potential of MDR reversion. Upregulation of p38 by XAN, which accounted for the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase, and the downregulation of ERK associated with the proapoptosis activity were also revealed. Further analysis found p53 may be the central role mediated the bioactivities of MAPKs in A549/Taxol cells. Based on these evidences, a conclusion has been deduced that XAN could be a potential agent for MDR NSCLC therapy targeting specifically MAPKs. PMID:27403196

  9. Regulation of MAPKs Signaling Contributes to the Growth Inhibition of 1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone on Multidrug Resistance A549/Taxol Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (XAN) is a bioactive compound isolated from Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. and validated with antiproliferative activities on a panel of cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate its growth inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance (MDR) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549/Taxol and explore the possible linkage between modulation of MAPKs and the bioactivities. Its growth inhibitory potency on the cells was estimated by MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis was employed to investigate its potential cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis effects. Expressions of hallmark proteins were assessed by Western-Blot method. The results showed A549/Taxol cells were sensitive to XAN. XAN inhibited the proliferation of A549/Taxol cells in the time and concentration dependent manners. It acted as a potent inducer of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. Western-Blot investigation validated the proapoptosis and cell cycle arrest activities of XAN and the potential of MDR reversion. Upregulation of p38 by XAN, which accounted for the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase, and the downregulation of ERK associated with the proapoptosis activity were also revealed. Further analysis found p53 may be the central role mediated the bioactivities of MAPKs in A549/Taxol cells. Based on these evidences, a conclusion has been deduced that XAN could be a potential agent for MDR NSCLC therapy targeting specifically MAPKs. PMID:27403196

  10. Deactivation of A549 cancer cells in vitro by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jun; Chen Wei; Li Hui; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Wang Pengye; Khohsa, M. Latif; Guo Ming; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2011-03-01

    An inactivation mechanism study on A549 cancer cells by means of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle is presented. The neutral red uptake assay provides a quantitative estimation of cell viability after plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the efficiency of argon plasma for the inactivation process is very dependent on power and treatment time. A 27 W power and 120 s treatment time along with 900 standard cubic centimeter per minute Ar flow and a nozzle-to-sample separation of 3 mm are the best parameters of the process. According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the optical microscope images of the A549 cells after plasma treatment, it is concluded that the reactive species (for example, OH and O) in the argon plasma play a major role in the cell deactivation.