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Sample records for abandoned iron ore

  1. The Remediation of Abandoned Iron Ore Mine Subsidence in Rockaway Township, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Gartenberg, Gary; Poff, Gregory

    2010-06-30

    This report represents the twenty-seventh and Final Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this last reporting period ending June 30, 2010 and a summary of the work accomplished since the agreement inception in 1997. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperator's Agreement between the United States Government - Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperator's Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, surface monitoring continued after completion of construction in September 2003. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. In March 2007, a seventh collapse occurred over a portion of the White Meadow Mine in a public roadway at the intersection of Iowa and Erie Avenues in Rockaway Township. After test drilling, this portion of the mine was remediated by drilling and grouting the stopes.

  2. Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

    2007-01-01

    Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However

  3. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  4. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  5. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  6. The sources of our iron ores. II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  7. Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

  8. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  9. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  10. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS WESTERN SIDE OF CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS AND A SELF-UNLOADING IRON ORE SHIP AT DOCK. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Ore-blending optimization model for sintering process based on characteristics of iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng-Li; Oliveira, Dauter; Dai, Yu-Ming; Xu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    An ore-blending optimization model for the sintering process is an intelligent system that includes iron ore characteristics, expert knowledge and material balance. In the present work, 14 indices are proposed to represent chemical composition, granulating properties and high temperature properties of iron ores. After the relationships between iron ore characteristics and sintering performance are established, the "two-step" method and the simplex method are introduced to build the model by distinguishing the calculation of optimized blending proportion of iron ores from that of other sintering materials in order to improve calculation efficiency. The ore-blending optimization model, programmed by Access and Visual Basic, is applied to practical production in steel mills and the results prove that the present model can take advantage of the available iron ore resource with stable sinter yield and quality performance but at a lower cost.

  12. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS. LOOKING SOUTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. PMID:22795839

  14. Hyperspectral Mapping of Bif and Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanaidou, E. R.; Schodlok, M.

    2012-12-01

    INTRODUCTION In the last 20 years, hyperspectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength ranges have emerged as an objective and quick method to map minerals. The combination of these wavelength ranges is ideal to characterize most of the minerals occurring in banded iron-formation (BIF) and BIF-hosted high grade iron ores. VNIR is ideal for characterizing and mapping the abundance of hematite and goethite. The SWIR provides information on OH-bearing silicates and carbonates. TIR shows specific spectral absorption for anhydrous minerals. INSTRUMENTS AND SAMPLES Three hyperspectral sensors were used: (1) the NEO HYSPEX, (2) the SPECIM TIR and the CSIRO HyLogging™ systems. Samples include drill core and hand samples of Australian BIF and iron ore. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION In the VNIR and SWIR, magnetite has a very low reflectance and a featureless spectrum. The main diagnostic feature for hematite and goethite is the wavelength of the ferric oxide absorption near 900 nm. The shift of the minimum wavelength and the width of the feature are correlated to the hematite goethite ratio. In the TIR range magnetite shows a significant spectral peak at around 17.5 μm and an increase in reflectance between 6 and 14.5 μm ranging from 5 to 10%. Hematite shows an absorption at 6.5 μm. Goethite has a reflectance peak doublet; the first at 11.3 μm and the second at 12.6 μm. In the VNIR and SWIR, quartz shows no diagnostic feature. In the TIR, quartz has been identified by an absorption feature at 8.625 μm. The spectral shape of the main quartz feature shows high variability due to surface scattering. The second characteristic quartz feature is the doublet peaks at 12.5 μm and 12.8 μm. In the VNIR and SWIR, the carbonates are detected by their reflectance absorption at around 2.33 μm, a wavelength region already occupied by OH bearing Fe-Mg minerals. On the other end, in the TIR, carbonates show a

  15. Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact. PMID:24397939

  16. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  17. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  18. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  2. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  7. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the western desert of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The delineation of the geological units and geological structures through image interpretation, corroborated by field observations and structural analysis, led to the discovery of new iron ore deposits. A new locality for iron ore deposition, namely Gebel Qalamun, was discovered, as well as new occurrences within the already known iron ore region of Bahariya Oasis.

  8. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report is derived from a presentation the author presented in late September at the Iron Ore 2005 Conference sponsored by The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and held in Fremantle, Western Australia. Some slight revisions have been made for the new audience.

  9. Dynamic behavior of iron forms in rapid reduction of carbon-coated iron ore

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Katsuyasu; Morimoto, Koji; Sugawara, T.; Dranoff, J.S.

    1999-03-01

    As a part of a fundamental study of the kinetics of rapid smelting reduction of iron oxide with solid carbon, particles of carbon-coated iron ore were prepared by heating a mixture of iron ore and phenolphthalein (a model compound of coal tar) at 773 K in a nitrogen stream. The reduction behavior of the carbon-coated iron ore particles during rapid heating was studied using a drop-tube reactor at temperatures from 1,073 to 1,773 K. The reduction extent increased rapidly with the beginning of melting at temperatures over 1,650 K, reaching 60% at 1,773 within 0.7 s. The observed changes in the distribution of iron states in the particles were successfully simulated.

  10. China's emergence as the world's leading iron-ore-consuming country

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, W.S.

    2004-01-01

    China has become the leading iron ore consuming nation, and, based on recent steel production capacity increases and plans for more, its consumption will almost certainly to continue to grow. China's iron ore industry, however, faces a number of problems. China's iron ore is low-grade, expensive to process, and its mines are being depleted. For many Chinese steelmakers, particularly in the coastal regions, the delivered cost of domestic iron ore, is more than the delivered cost of foreign ore. Thus China's iron ore imports are expected to increase. As China's growth continues, it will almost certainly surpass Japan to become the leading iron ore importing country as well. Without China's increasing appetite for iron ore, the world iron ore market would be flat or declining. China's recent imports largely offset the slump in demand in North America and Europe. China is regarded by the iron ore industry as the growth sector for the next decade. Although Chinese imports are expected to continue their rapid increase and imports in other Asian countries are expected to continue growing, there appears to be enough greenfield and expansion projects to meet future demand for iron ore worldwide. Present suppliers of iron ore, Australia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will probably be the chief beneficiaries of China's increasing consumption of iron ore. How long China can continue its extraordinary growth is the primary issue for the future of the iron ore industry. Based on the number and size of planned blast furnaces it appears that China's growth could continue for several more years. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis.

  11. Direct reduction of iron ore by biomass char

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Hai-bin; Hu, Zheng-wen; Zhang, Jian-liang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zheng-jian

    2013-06-01

    By using thermogravimetric analysis the process and mechanism of iron ore reduced by biomass char were investigated and compared with those reduced by coal and coke. It is found that biomass char has a higher reactivity. The increase of carbon-to-oxygen mole ratio (C/O) can lead to the enhancement of reaction rate and reduction fraction, but cannot change the temperature and trend of each reaction. The reaction temperature of hematite reduced by biomass char is at least 100 K lower than that reduced by coal and coke, the maximum reaction rate is 1.57 times as high as that of coal, and the final reaction fraction is much higher. Model calculation indicates that the use of burden composed of biomass char and iron ore for blast furnaces can probably decrease the temperature of the thermal reserve zone and reduce the CO equilibrium concentration.

  12. Partial reduction of particulate iron ores and cyclone reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1993-07-20

    An apparatus for iron or ferro-alloy smelting is described, comprising: bath smelter means for containing a smelting bath for reductive bath smelting of iron or ferro-alloy ore by coal/oxygen injection through use of endothermic nozzles directed into a smelting bath to form liquid iron or steel; a closed cyclone reactor having an upper end including an inlet end, said closed cyclone including an open lower exit positioned above the smelting bath within the bath smelter means; feed means for directing a continuous stream of fine ore particles into the cyclone reactor; and gas supply means for tangentially directing streams of oxygen, with or without air, and a fuel gas selected from the group consisting of producer gas, natural gas and methane for burning within the cyclone reactor to maintain the interior and contents of the cyclone reactor at an elevated temperature; the equilibrium partial pressure ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide exiting the cyclone reactor being maintained at a value sufficient to cause the melted ore at the elevated temperatures within the cyclone reactor to be partially reduced during the particulate residence time within the cyclone reactor.

  13. Raman Spectroscopic Characterisation of Australian Banded Iron Formation and Iron Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. A.; Ramanaidou, E. R.

    2012-04-01

    In Australia and world-wide over the past 5-10 years, declining reserves of premium, high-grade (>64% Fe), low-P bearing iron ore, have seen iron ore producers increase their utilisation of lower Fe-grade, higher P/Al/Si ore. In Australia, the channel iron deposits (CID), bedded iron deposits (BID) and, more recently, BIF-derived magnetite iron deposits (MID) have seen increased usage driven mainly by the increased demand from Chinese steel mills (Ramanaidou and Wells, 2011). Efficient exploitation and processing of these lower-grade iron ores requires a detailed understanding of their iron oxide and gangue mineralogy and geochemistry. The common Fe-bearing minerals (e.g., hematite, magnetite, goethite and kenomagnetite) in these deposits, as well as gangue minerals such as quartz and carbonates, are all strongly Raman active (e.g., de Faria et al., 1997). Their distinct Raman spectra enable them to be easily detected and mapped in situ in either unprepared material or samples prepared as polished blocks. In this paper, using representative examples of Australian CID ore, martite-goethite bedded iron deposit (BID) ore and banded iron formation (BIF) examined as polished blocks, we present a range of Raman spectra of the key iron ore minerals, and discuss how Raman spectroscopy can be applied to characterising iron ore mineralogy. Raman imaging micrographs, obtained using a StreamLine Plus Raman imaging system, clearly identified the main Fe-oxide and gangue components in the CID, BID and BIF samples when compared to optical micrographs. Raman analysis enabled the unequivocal identification of diamond in the CID ore as a contaminant from the polishing paste used to prepare the sample, and confirmed the presence of hematite in the BID ore in the form of martite, which can be morphologically similar to magnetite and, thus, difficult to otherwise distinguish. Image analysis of Raman mineral maps could be used to quantify mineral abundance based on the number of 'pixels

  14. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials. PMID:22567574

  15. Acinetobacter guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from abandoned lead-zinc ore.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-Da; Yang, Song-Zhen; Wang, Yong-Hong; Deng, Ming-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile bacterial strain designated 1NM-4(T) was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc ore mine site in Mei County, Meizhou, Guangdong Province, southern China. The isolate was light yellow, strictly aerobic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrB gene sequences, together with DNA-DNA hybridization values less than 70%, revealed that strain 1NM-4(T) belongs to the genus Acinetobacter and may represent a novel species. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) and the major cellular fatty acids consisted of C18:1ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), C16:0 and C12:0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 1NM-4(T) was 47.17 ± 0.02 mol%. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain 1NM-4(T) should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1NM-4(T) ( = GIMCC 1.656(T) = CCTCC AB 2014199(T) = KCTC 42012(T)). PMID:25015678

  16. Effects of Iron Sand Ratios on the Basic Characteristics of Vanadium Titanium Mixed Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Wang, Yao-zu; Xue, Xun; Yan, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effects of iron sand ratios on the basic characteristics of vanadium titanium mixed ores were investigated using micro-sinter and grey relational analysis methods. The results show that iron sand presents poor assimilability, poor liquid flow capability, and low bonding phase strength. As the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores increases, the mixed ore's assimilation temperature increases, the fluidity index of liquid decreases, and the bonding phase strength first rises and then decreases. The comprehensive index of basic characteristic (CI) improves and then deteriorates with increasing iron sand ratio. The CI of vanadium titanium mixed ores is optimized when the iron sand ratio is 9 wt.%. In order to make full use of low-price iron-bearing materials and improve the sintering characteristics of vanadium titanium magnetite, the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores should be controlled within 9-12 wt.%.

  17. Mineralogy and geochemistry of banded iron formation and iron ores from eastern India with implications on their genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subrata; Venkatesh, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    The geological complexities of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Jilling-Langalata iron ore deposits, Singhbhum-North Orissa Craton, belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) eastern India have been studied in detail along with the geochemical evaluation of different iron ores. The geochemical and mineralogical characterization suggests that the massive, hard laminated, soft laminated ore and blue dust had a genetic lineage from BIFs aided with certain input from hydrothermal activity. The PAAS normalized REE pattern of Jilling BIF striking positive Eu anomaly, resembling those of modern hydrothermal solutions from mid-oceanic ridge (MOR). Major part of the iron could have been added to the bottom sea water by hydrothermal solutions derived from hydrothermally active anoxic marine environments. The ubiquitous presence of intercalated tuffaceous shales indicates the volcanic signature in BIF. Mineralogical studies reveal that magnetite was the principal iron oxide mineral, whose depositional history is preserved in BHJ, where it remains in the form of martite and the platy hematite is mainly the product of martite. The different types of iron ores are intricately related with the BHJ. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron by hydrothermal fluids of possible meteoric origin resulted in the formation of martite-goethite ore. The hard laminated ore has been formed in the second phase of supergene processes, where the deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to hematite. The massive ore is syngenetic in origin with BHJ. Soft laminated ores and biscuity ores were formed where further precipitation of iron was partial or absent.

  18. Morphostructural and constitutional features of titanomagnetite in iron ore of the Pudozhgorsky deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystrov, I. G.; Pirogov, B. I.; Yakushina, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ti-bearing iron ore of the Pudozhgorsky deposit has been studied in detail using laboratory mineralogical analytical methods in order to determine the morphostructural and constitutional features of titanomagnetite. The genesis of the ore and gangue mineral intergrowths has been established, as well as typomorphic attributes of three titanomagmetite varieties differing in degree of heterogeneity. The behavior of ore in technological processes is controlled by exsolution structures of titanomagnetite with ilmenite formation. The possibility of the complex development of this ore has been shown. Titanomagnetites of major mineral assemblages pertaining to various types of Tiand V-bearing iron ores are compared.

  19. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron...

  20. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON ORE SINTERING PLANTS: DETERMINATION OF CAUSES AND METHODS OF ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory study to develop basic information on the emission of organics from iron ore sinter beds. Samples of sinter bed mix components (including several types of iron ore fines, blast furnace flue dust, rolling mill scale, anthracite coal, and li...

  1. Innovative methodology for comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings: part 2: The residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings to prepare cementitious material.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Yi, Zhonglai; Li, Longtu

    2010-02-15

    In order to comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings, this experimental research was to investigate the possibility of using the residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings as raw materials for the preparation of cementitious material, abbreviated as TSC, including analyses of its mechanical properties, physical properties and hydration products. The TSC1 was prepared by blending 30% the residues, 34% blast-furnace slag, 30% clinker and 6% gypsum. Meanwhile, the raw iron ore tailings (before iron recovery) with the same proportion of TSC1 were selected to compare the cementitious activity of raw tailings and the residues after magnetizing roasting, denoted by TSC0. The hydration products of them were mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel, characterized by XRD, IR and SEM. It was found that ettringite and C-S-H gel were principally responsible for the strength development of TSC mortars with curing time. The results showed that the kaolinite of the tailings was decomposed completely after magnetizing roasting, which promoted the cementitious property of TSC1. Moreover, the mechanical properties of TSC1 are well comparable with those of 42.5 ordinary Portland cement according to Chinese GB175-2007 standard. PMID:19782471

  2. The North American iron ore industry: a decade into the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, John D.; Perez, A. A

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen another period of transformation, with the failure of a number of steel companies and with consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are changing rapidly. Consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures, divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes to ensure availability of feedstocks all played a role in recent developments in the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and U.S. iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream production, although isolated, must also be considered within the context of the changing global economy. Projects using new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96-98% iron content and other projects designed to produce steel at minesites may once again change the face of the iron ore industry. Social and environmental issues related to sustainable development have had a significant effect on the North American iron ore industry.

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  4. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  5. Deep magnetic anomaly sources interpreted as Otanmäki type Iron ore reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2013-04-01

    In Otanmäki ore province of Central Finland vertically integrated magnetization is estimated from two aeromagnetic coverages of different altitudes and by varying overall models of regional field. Petrophysically and geochemically determined magnetization of the mined deposits and correlation between it and ore concentration is used to evaluate iron ore reserves in the deeper part of known ore fields. Further, similar analysis is made to nearby magnetically anomalous areas covered by weakly magnetic metasediments, to estimate potential ore reserves at unexposed formations.

  6. 78 FR 34160 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Iron County, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Iron County, Utah... of the line at milepost 31.83 in Cedar City, a total distance of 1.03 miles in Iron County, Utah...

  7. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  8. Non-coke smelting reduction of iron ores: Process modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichestapong, Pipat

    The scarcity of coking coals and the high cost entailed in minimizing the emissions from the coke-making process as well as the relative inflexibility of large production capacity of the conventional blast-furnace ironmaking are the main reasons for the development of non-coke smelting reduction processes with the economical and ecological compatibility. The main objectives of the alternative processes development are to use ordinary coals directly, extend the range of usable raw materials, and allow the operation at a small scale. While most of smelting reduction processes are still in various stages of development, only the COREX ironmaking has successfully reached the industrial application with its first 300000 tpa plant operated in Pretoria, South Africa. The COREX process is composed of two main reactors: the vertical shaft furnace for the gaseous reduction of iron ore to sponge iron, and the melter-gasifier for the gasification of coal and smelting of iron. The gasification process generates the reducing gas mixture (CO and Hsb2) for use in the reduction furnace and also produces heat for smelting of the direct reduced iron. In the present work, the operating data of the COREX process are studied and process material and energy balances are prepared. The coal consumption rate of the COREX process is found higher than the coke consumption rate of the conventional process; however, the total energy consumption for the COREX process compares well with that of the blast furnace. The COREX process also generates surplus gas of high heating value which is suitable for many applications. A reduction model employing the diffusion-limited mass-transfer coupled with virtual equilibrium at core-interface is developed to determine the reduction of iron oxide pellets. The rate of oxygen-transfer between the solid and gas phases is computed by combining the Stefan-Maxwell multi-component diffusion formalism with the iterative equilibrium constant method. The computed

  9. Nanocrystalline Iron-Ore-Based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Seok; Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Ho-Tae; Yang, Jung-Il; Hong, SungJun; Jung, Heon; Chun, Dong Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline iron ore particles were fabricated by a wet-milling process using an Ultra Apex Mill, after which they were used as raw materials of iron-based catalysts for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) below 280 degrees C, which usually requires catalysts with a high surface area, a large pore volume, and a small crystallite size. The wet-milling process using the Ultra Apex Mill effectively destroyed the initial crystallite structure of the natural iron ores of several tens to hundreds of nanometers in size, resulting in the generation of nanocrystalline iron ore particles with a high surface area and a large pore volume. The iron-ore-based catalysts prepared from the nanocrystalline iron ore particles effectively catalyzed the low-temperature FTS, displaying a high CO conversion (about 90%) and good C5+ hydrocarbon productivity (about 0.22 g/g(cat)(-h)). This demonstrates the feasibility of using the iron-ore-based catalysts as inexpensive and disposable catalysts for the low-temperature FTS. PMID:27433720

  10. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Noamundi-Koira basin iron ore deposits (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Azimuddin; Alvi, Shabbar Habib; Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2015-04-01

    India is one of the richest sources of iron ore deposits in the world; and one of them is located in the Noamundi-Koira basin, Singhbhum-Orissa craton. The geological comparative studies of banded iron formation (BIF) and associated iron ores of Noamundi-Koira iron ore deposits, belonging to the iron ore group in eastern India, focus on the study of mineralogy and major elemental compositions along with the geological evaluation of different iron ores. The basement of the Singhbhum-Orissa craton is metasedimentary rocks which can be traced in a broadly elliptical pattern of granitoids, surrounded by metasediments and metavolcanics of Greenstone Belt association. The Singhbhum granitoid is intrusive into these old rocks and to younger, mid Archaean metasediments, including iron formations, schists and metaquartzites and siliciclastics of the Precambrian Iron Ore Group (Saha et al., 1994; Sharma, 1994). The iron ore of Noamundi-Koira can be divided into seven categories (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes 1986). They are massive, hard laminated, soft laminated, martite-goethite, powdery blue dust and lateritic ore. Although it is more or less accepted that the parent rock of iron ore is banded hematite jasper (BHJ), the presence of disseminated martite in BHJ suggests that the magnetite of protore was converted to martite. In the study area, possible genesis of high-grade hematite ore could have occurred in two steps. In the first stage, shallow, meteoric fluids affect primary, unaltered BIF by simultaneously oxidizing magnetite to martite and replacing quartz with hydrous iron oxides. In the second stage of supergene processes, deep burial upgrades the hydrous iron oxides to microplaty hematite. Removal of silica from BIF and successive precipitation of iron resulted in the formation of martite- goethite ore. Soft laminated ores were formed where precipitation of iron was partial or absent. The leached out space remains with time and the interstitial space is generally filled

  11. Iron ore and coal: pricing and volume up for these key export commodities

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    Australia's huge coal and iron ore industries are booming. Up until now, the majors have benefited handsomely, but smaller players are beginning to muscle in. The article discusses development in both industries. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  12. Development of carbon composite iron ore micropellets by using the microfines of iron ore and carbon-bearing materials in iron making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jagannath; Ghorai, Satadal; Das, Avimanyu

    2015-02-01

    Iron ore microfines and concentrate have very limited uses in sintering processes. They are used in pelletization; however, this process is cost intensive. Furthermore, the microfines of non-coking coal and other carbon-bearing materials, e.g., blast-furnace flue dust (BFD) and coke fines, are not used extensively in the metallurgical industry because of operational difficulties and handling problems. In the present work, to utilize these microfines, coal composite iron oxide micropellets (2-6 mm in size) were produced through an innovative technique in which lime and molasses were used as binding materials in the micropellets. The micropellets were subsequently treated with CO2 or the industrial waste gas to induce the chemical bond formation. The results show that, at a very high carbon level of 22wt% (38wt% coal), the cold crushing strength and abrasion index of the micropellets are 2.5-3 kg/cm2 and 5wt%-9wt%, respectively; these values indicate that the pellets are suitable for cold handling. The developed micropellets have strong potential as a heat source in smelting reduction in iron making and sintering to reduce coke breeze. The micropellets produced with BFD and coke fines (8wt%-12wt%) were used in iron ore sintering and were observed to reduce the coke breeze consumption by 3%-4%. The quality of the produced sinter was at par with that of the conventional blast-furnace sinter.

  13. Thermodynamic Consideration of the Removal of Iron from Titanium Ore by Selective Chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamic study of the chlorination reactions of oxides such as titanium oxides and iron oxides at elevated temperatures was carried out in order to consider the removal of iron from titanium ore using selective chlorination method. In particular, various chlorination reactions were analyzed by utilizing chemical potential diagrams, and the applicability and usefulness of this thermodynamic study for analyzing the selective chlorination of titanium ore were demonstrated. Furthermore, chlorination reactions using various types of chlorinating agents were discussed from different viewpoints. It was shown that the selective chlorination of iron from titanium ore by HCl gas is thermodynamically feasible and efficient for upgrading titanium ore. Further, thermodynamic analysis showed that under certain conditions, TiCl4 can be used as a chlorinating agent for the iron in the ore, and iron can be removed by evaporation directly from the ore as chloride gas. The results presented in this study provide useful information for developing a process for upgrading low-grade titanium ore for use as a titanium smelting feed through a dry method.

  14. Discrimination of iron ore deposits of granulite terrain of Southern Peninsular India using ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Balamurugan, G.; Shankar, K.

    2011-04-01

    This work describes a new image processing technique for discriminating iron ores (magnetite quartzite deposits) and associated lithology in high-grade granulite region of Salem, Southern Peninsular India using visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared reflectance data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Image spectra show that the magnetite quartzite and associated lithology of garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite, hornblende biotite gneiss, amphibolite, dunite, and pegmatite have absorption features around spectral bands 1, 3, 5, and 7. ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in RGB are constructed by summing the bands representing the shoulders of absorption features as a numerator, and the band located nearest the absorption feature as a denominator to map iron ores and band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB for associated lithology. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination identifies the iron ores much better than previously published ASTER band ratios analysis. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce redundant information in highly correlated bands. PCA (3, 2, and 1 for iron ores and 5, 4, 2 for granulite rock) in RGB enabled the discrimination between the iron ores and garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite rock. Thus, this image processing technique is very much suitable for discriminating the different types of rocks of granulite region. As outcome of the present work, the geology map of Salem region is provided based on the interpretation of ASTER image results and field verification work. It is recommended that the proposed methods have great potential for mapping of iron ores and associated lithology of granulite region with similar rock units of granulite regions of Southern Peninsular India. This work also demonstrates the ability of ASTER's to provide information on iron ores, which is valuable

  15. Influencing factor of sinter body strength and its effects on iron ore sintering indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Sheng-li; Su, Bo; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang; Jiang, Yao

    2015-06-01

    Sinter body strength, which reflects the strength of sinter, plays an important role in the improvement of sinter. In this study, the sinter body strengths of iron ores were measured using a microsintering method. The relationship between the chemical composition and sinter body strength was discussed. Moreover, sinter-pot tests were performed. The effects of sinter body strength on the sintering indexes were then elucidated, and the bottom limit of sinter body strength of blending ores was confirmed. In the results, the compressive strengths (CSs) of iron ores are observed to decrease with the increasing of the contents of loss on ignition (LOI), SiO2, and Al2O3; however, LOI of less than 3wt% does not substantially influence the CSs of fine ores. In the case of similar mineral composition, the porosity, in particular, the ratio between the number of large pores and the total number of pores, strongly influences the sinter body strength. With an increase of the blending-ore CSs used in sinter-pot tests, the yield, productivity, and tumbler strength increase, and the solid fuel consumption decreases. The CSs of the blending ores only slightly affect the sintering time. The CS bottom limit of the blending ores is 310 N. When the CSs of the blending ores increase by 10%, the yield, productivity, and tumbler index increase by 1.9%, 2.8%, and 2.0%, respectively, and the solid fuel consumption decreases by 1.9%.

  16. Upgrading and dephosphorization of Western Australian iron ore using reduction roasting by adding sodium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, De-qing; Chun, Tie-jun; Pan, Jian; Lu, Li-ming; He, Zhen

    2013-06-01

    The technology of direct reduction by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and magnetic separation was developed to treat Western Australian high phosphorus iron ore. The iron ore and reduced product were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that phosphorus exists within limonite in the form of solid solution, which cannot be removed through traditional ways. During reduction roasting, Na2CO3 reacts with gangue minerals (SiO2 and Al2O3), forming aluminum silicate-containing phosphorus and damaging the ore structure, which promotes the separation between iron and phosphorus during magnetic separation. Meanwhile, Na2CO3 also improves the growth of iron grains, increasing the iron grade and iron recovery. The iron concentrate, assaying 94.12wt% Fe and 0.07wt% P at the iron recovery of 96.83% and the dephosphorization rate of 74.08%, is obtained under the optimum conditions. The final product (metal iron powder) after briquetting can be used as the burden for steelmaking by an electric arc furnace to replace scrap steel.

  17. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui; Huo, Xiaoli; Tang, Qingguo

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.

  18. Environmental Mineralogy of the Kursk Iron Ore Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posukhova, Tatiana V.; Riakhovskaya, Sofiya K.

    The development of new technologies is one of the most effective ways to solve environmental problems related to ore-dressing. Complex mineralogical investigations are able to help in improving this process. In collaboration with researchers from the IPKON institute, we have developed an electrochemical method to improve the properties of crushed ores prepared for the wet magnetic separation. This article studies the samples before and after application of the electrochemical method. Surfaces of mineral grains investigated by the scanning electron microscopy show differences in flocculation. Measured polarization curves showed unequal electrochemical processes on surfaces of magnetite, hematite, and martite particles. X-ray analysis and Mössbauer data also confirmed the changes in compositions of the ores before and after using the electrochemical method. Magnetic properties of the studied species to be compared before and after the application of method showed relevant increase in parameters such as magnetic viscosity (Svo), breaking saturation field (Hcr), magnetic susceptibility (χ), and specific magnetization (Is).

  19. Recovery of iron from high phosphorus oolitic iron ore using coal-based reduction followed by magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Gao, Peng; Wang, Ze-hong; Ren, Duo-zhen

    2013-05-01

    Oolitic iron ore is one of the most important iron resources. This paper reports the recovery of iron from high phosphorus oolitic iron ore using coal-based reduction and magnetic separation. The influences of reduction temperature, reduction time, C/O mole ratio, and CaO content on the metallization degree and iron recovery were investigated in detail. Experimental results show that reduced products with the metallization degree of 95.82% could be produced under the optimal conditions (i.e., reduction temperature, 1250°C; reduction time, 50 min; C/O mole ratio, 2.0; and CaO content, 10wt%). The magnetic concentrate containing 89.63wt% Fe with the iron recovery of 96.21% was obtained. According to the mineralogical and morphologic analysis, the iron minerals had been reduced and iron was mainly enriched into the metallic iron phase embedded in the slag matrix in the form of spherical particles. Apatite was also reduced to phosphorus, which partially migrated into the metallic iron phase.

  20. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  1. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  2. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  3. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion....

  4. Hyperion image analysis and linear spectral unmixing to evaluate the grades of iron ores in parts of Noamundi, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magendran, T.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a study to differentiate iron ores in terms of their grades, using the hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) image data, covering a mineralized belt in the Noamundi area, eastern India. The study involves hyperspectral data collection, pre-processing (reduction of atmospheric and solar flux effects), generation of spectral curves from the image for the iron ore deposits, extraction of key spectral parameters and linear spectral unmixing for mapping iron ore abundance. Spectral curves for iron ore deposits extracted from the Hyperion image pixels exhibit strong absorption at 850-900 nm and 2150-2250 nm wavelengths, which is typical of iron ores. The strength of the absorption features in the continuum removed spectra varies spatially in the image around the mining areas, indicating differences in composition/grade of the iron ores. Spectral parameters such as the depth, width, area and wavelength position of the absorption features, derived from image spectra in the 850-900 nm and 2150-2250 nm regions, correlate well with the concentration of iron-oxide and alumina (gangue) in the ore samples obtained from the mine face. Well defined correlations are evident between the concentration of iron oxide and (i) the depth of NIR absorption feature (R2 = 0.883); (ii) the width of NIR absorption feature (R2 = 0.912); and (iii) the area of the NIR absorption feature and (R2 = 0.882). Further, the linear spectral unmixing resulted in an iron ore abundance map which, in conjunction with the image- and laboratory-spectra, helped in assessing the grades of iron ores in the study area. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility of discriminating grades of iron ores based on spectral information derived from spaceborne hyperspectral imagery.

  5. Structural controls on the formation and transposition of the Malmberget apatite iron ore deposit, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Andersson, Joel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Malmberget mine is the World's second largest underground iron ore operation. It is composed of approximately 20 apatite iron ore bodies, whereas 13 ore bodies with 5-245 Mt each are presently mined. The massive magnetite ore is hosted within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Host rocks within the entire area were subject to intense hydrothermal alteration. The ore reserves at beginning of 2012 totalled 290 Mt at 44 percent iron. Together with Kiruna and Svappavaara these three deposits stands for more than 90 percent of the iron ore production in Europe. An on-going collaborative research project aims at unravelling the structural geometries, relationships and control on ore formation and ore body transposition at different scales in the Gällivare district in general and in the Malmberget mine in particular. Recent results show the three-dimensional crustal architecture of the Malmberget deposit which has undergone at least two separate deformation events. The first deformation event (D1) resulted in the formation of a strong and penetrative cleavage (S1) forming a varyingly intense banding within the volcanic rocks. The D1-event coincides with the amphibolite facies peak metamorphism in the area. Distinct, biotite-rich D1 shear zones are spatially related to the majority of the S1-parallel massive magnetite bodies. These D1 shear zones seem to be responsible for a strong strain partitioning during D1. A second compressional event (D2) resulted in open to close folding of the S1 fabric, the D1 shear zones and the related ore bodies. The result is an asymmetric F2-synform with moderately south-west-plunging fold axis. Furthermore, distinct D2 high strain zones are responsible for local transposition of S1 fabrics, tight to isoclinal folding and channeling or re-mobilization of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Both deformation events are accompanied by syn- and late-tectonic granitic intrusions forming both foliated and unfoliated and commonly boudinaged

  6. Water determination in iron oxyhydroxides and iron ores by Karl Fischer titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, Camila C. R. F.; da Costa, Geraldo M.

    2016-08-01

    Protohematite (Fe2-x/3(OH) x O3-x 1 ≤ x < 0.5) and hydrohematite (Fe2-x/3(OH) x O3-x 0.5 ≤ x < 0) are iron-defective phases containing hydroxyl groups in their structures. These species were described in prior studies mainly with the aid of X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy. The existence of these phases in soils might have influence in redox processes, and they were considered as a possible water reservoir in Martian soils. In this study, we have used for the first time the Karl Fischer titration method to determine the amount of water released after heating several synthetic samples of goethite, hematite and natural iron ores at 105, 400, 600 and 900 °C. It was found that heating at 105 °C did not remove all moisture from the samples, and higher temperatures were necessary to completely remove all the absorbed water. The water contents determined at 400, 600 and 900 °C were found to be the same within the experimental errors, suggesting the inexistence of both protohematite and hydrohematite in the investigated samples. Therefore, the above-mentioned effects of these phases in soils might have to be reevaluated.

  7. Investigation of Direct Reduction Mechanism of Attepe Iron Ore by Hydrogen in a Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dİlmaç, Nesibe; Yörük, Sedat; Gülaboğlu, Şahin M.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the kinetics of reduction of Attepe iron ore by H2 in a batch fluidized bed is analyzed at temperatures of 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C). It is determined that the reduction route includes two consecutive regions controlled by distinct steps. The first region which takes place at low reduction levels is determined to be controlled by nucleation of wustite, while the following is determined to be controlled by gas/solid reaction occurring at metallic iron/wustite interface. An " ad-hoc" model is used to represent the reduction of Attepe iron ore to metallic iron with good accuracy.

  8. Effect of Microwave Treatment Upon Processing Oolitic High Phosphorus Iron Ore for Phosphorus Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui-Qing; Liu, Wei-Di; Zhang, Huan-Yu; Guo, Zhan-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Influence of microwave treatment on the previously proposed phosphorus removal process of oolitic high phosphorus iron ore (gaseous reduction followed by melting separation) has been studied. Microwave treatment was carried out using a high-temperature microwave reactor (Model: MS-WH). Untreated ore fines and microwaved ore fines were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thereafter, experiments on the proposed phosphorus removal process were conducted to examine the effect of microwave treatment. Results show that microwave treatment could change the microstructure of the ore fines and has an intensification effect on its gaseous reduction by reducing gas internal resistance, increasing chemical reaction rate and postponing the occurrence of sintering. Results of gaseous reduction tests using tubular furnace indicate both microwave treatment and high reduction temperature high as 1273 K (1000 °C) are needed to totally break down the dense oolite and metallization rate of the ore fines treated using microwave power of 450 W could reach 90 pct under 1273 K (1000 °C) and for 2 hours. Results of melting separation tests of the reduced ore fines with a metallization rate of 90 pct show that, in addition to the melting conditions in our previous studies, introducing 3 pct Na2CO3 to the highly reduced ore fines is necessary, and metal recovery rate and phosphorus content of metal could reach 83 pct and 0.31 mass pct, respectively.

  9. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  10. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  11. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  12. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  13. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  14. Method for the production of mineral wool and iron from serpentine ore

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, Gilbert E.; Soltau, Glen F.

    2011-10-11

    Magnesium silicate mineral wools having a relatively high liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. and to methods for the production thereof are provided. The methods of the present invention comprise melting a magnesium silicate feedstock (e.g., comprising a serpentine or olivine ore) having a liquidus temperature of at least about 1400.degree. C. to form a molten magnesium silicate, and subsequently fiberizing the molten magnesium silicate to produce a magnesium silicate mineral wool. In one embodiment, the magnesium silicate feedstock contains iron oxide (e.g., up to about 12% by weight). Preferably, the melting is performed in the presence of a reducing agent to produce an iron alloy, which can be separated from the molten ore. Useful magnesium silicate feedstocks include, without limitation, serpentine and olivine ores. Optionally, silicon dioxide can be added to the feedstock to lower the liquidus temperature thereof.

  15. Red iron-ore beds of Silurian age in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse W.

    1962-01-01

    Geological studies have determined the lithology and approximate extent of the red iron ores of Silurian age in the Southeast. Detailed investigations have been made by private companies and government agencies. Most of this work has been in the Birmingham, Ala., district, and the remainder of the region has relatively little study in recent years. 

  16. XPS and FTIR spectroscopic study on microwave treated high phosphorus iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omran, Mamdouh; Fabritius, Timo; Elmahdy, Ahmed M.; Abdel-Khalek, Nagui A.; El-Aref, Mortada; Elmanawi, Abd El-Hamid

    2015-08-01

    A growing interest in microwave heating has emerged recently. Several potential microwave applications regarding minerals' processing have been investigated. This paper investigates the effect of microwave radiation on Egyptian high phosphorus iron ore. Three different iron ore samples have varying Fe2O3 and P2O5 contents and mineralogical textures were studied. A comparative study has been carried out between untreated and microwave treated iron ore. XRD and FTIR analyses showed that after microwave radiation the crystallinity of iron bearing minerals (hematite) increased, while the functional chemical groups of phosphorus bearing minerals (fluorapatite) and other gangues dissociated. High resolution XPS analyses of Fe 2p peaks showed that after microwave radiation a portion of Fe(+III) was reduced to Fe(+II). This means that after microwave radiation iron oxide (hematite, Fe3+) transformed into more magnetic phase. The results indicated that microwave radiation had a positive effect on the magnetic properties of iron oxide, through formation of ferromagnetic phases.

  17. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  18. Assessment of health risks due to arsenic from iron ore lumps in a beach setting.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, Frank A; Janssen, Paul J C M

    2016-09-01

    In 2011, an artificial hook-shaped peninsula of 128ha beach area was created along the Dutch coast, containing thousands of iron ore lumps, which include arsenic from natural origin. Elemental arsenic and inorganic arsenic induce a range of toxicological effects and has been classified as proven human carcinogens. The combination of easy access to the beach and the presence of arsenic raised concern about possible human health effects by the local authorities. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate human health risks from the presence of arsenic-containing iron ore lumps in a beach setting. The exposure scenarios underlying the human health-based risk limits for contaminated land in The Netherlands, based on soil material ingestion and a residential setting, are not appropriate. Two specific exposure scenarios related to the playing with iron ore lumps on the beach ('sandcastle building') are developed on the basis of expert judgement, relating to children in the age of 2 to 12years, i.e., a worst case exposure scenario and a precautionary scenario. Subsequently, exposure is calculated by the quantification of the following factors: hand loading, soil-mouth transfer effectivity, hand-mouth contact frequency, contact surface, body weight and the relative oral bioavailability factor. By lack of consensus on a universal reference dose for arsenic for use in the stage of risk characterization, three different types of assessments have been evaluated: on the basis of the current Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTWI), on the basis of the Benchmark Dose Lower limit (BMDL), and by a comparison of exposure from the iron ore lumps with background exposure. It is concluded, certainly from the perspective of the conservative exposure assessment, that unacceptable human health risks due to exposure to arsenic from the iron ore lumps are unlikely and there is no need for risk management actions. PMID:27145491

  19. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  20. Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.

    1981-03-01

    Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

  1. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  2. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws. PMID:18556190

  3. From Ore to Tool Iron Age Iron Smelting in the Largest and Oldest Meteorite Crater in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Tiedt, L. R.; Brink, M. C.; Bisschoff, A. A.

    2005-02-01

    The Vredefort Impact Structure in South Africa is the biggest and oldest remnant meteorite impact crater in the world where various ancient cultures thrived. In this paper some light will be shed on the Iron Age, iron smelting aspects of the people that inhabited the area and the results of a laboratory study of iron artefacts and a possible source of iron ore in the region is given. A sectional piece from a hoe manufactured in a small bloomery furnace was polished and etched and subsequently analyses with SEM and Mössbauer techniques were obtained. The hoe has a typical cast iron composition (2.9% C, 0.1% Mn, 0.4% Si, 0.4% P and 96.2% Fe, all wt.%) and contains many slag inclusions with wustite dendrites. The Mössbauer spectrum consisted of iron (86%), wustite (5%) and oxihydroxide (9%) and the thin (200 μm) corrosion layer consisted of hematite (55%) and oxihydroxides (45%). At a furnace site, various slag clumps (26.3% C, 24.8% SiO2, 11.3% Al2O3, 1.3% P2O5, 1.0% K2O, 0.4% CaO and 30.2 FeO, all wt.%, average of four samples) and iron nodules (7.6% C, 6.0% Mn, 4.3% Si, 1.4% Al, 80.7% Fe, all wt.%) were found. The Mössbauer spectrum of the slag consisted of iron (7%), magnetite (56%), fayalite (2%) and oxihydroxides (35%) and that of the iron nodules yielded iron (28%), wustite (12%), magnetite (20%) and oxihydroxides (40%). A possible ore source containing 84% FeO, 7% of Al2O3 and SiO2 (all in wt.%) and minor impurities is located a few kilometers from the furnace site, yielding a Mössbauer spectrum consisting of hematite (70%) and oxihydroxides (30%).

  4. Getting rid of the unwanted: highlights of developments and challenges of biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals-a review.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Rasheed A

    2014-12-01

    The quest for quality mineral resources has led to the development of many technologies that can be used to refine minerals. Biohydrometallurgy is becoming an increasingly acceptable technology worldwide because it is cheap and environmentally friendly. This technology has been successfully developed for some sulphidic minerals such as gold and copper. In spite of wide acceptability of this technology, there are limitations to its applications especially in the treatment of non-sulphidic minerals such as iron ore minerals. High levels of elements such as potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in iron ore minerals are known to reduce the quality and price of these minerals. Hydrometallurgical methods that are non-biological involving the use of chemicals are usually used to deal with this problem. However, recent advances in mining technologies favour green technologies, known as biohydrometallurgy, with minimal impact on the environment. This technology can be divided into two, namely bioleaching and biobeneficiation. This review focuses on Biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals. Biobeneficiation of iron ore is very challenging due to the low price and chemical constitution of the ore. There are substantial interests in the exploration of this technology for improving the quality of iron ore minerals. In this review, current developments in the biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals are considered, and potential solutions to challenges faced in the wider adoption of this technology are proposed. PMID:25293513

  5. Geochemical and mineralogical composition of bog iron ore as a resource for prehistoric iron production - A case study of the Widawa catchment area in Eastern Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelemann, Michael; Bebermeier, Wiebke; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Spreading from the Near East in the declining Bronze Age from the 2nd millennium BCE onwards, the technique of iron smelting reached Eastern Silesia, Poland, in approximately the 2nd century BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age). At this time the region of the Widawa catchment area was inhabited by the Przeworsk culture. While the older moraine landscape of the study area lacks ores from geological rock formations, bog iron ores were relatively widespread and, due to their comparatively easy accessibility, were commonly exploited for early iron production. In this poster the mineralogical and elemental composition of local bog iron ore deposits and iron slag finds, as a by-product of the smelting process, are investigated. The crystalline mineralogical composition of local bog iron ores is dominated by quartz (SiO2) and goethite (α FeO(OH)), in contrast to slag samples in which fayalite (Fe2SiO4), wüstite (FeO) and quartz, with traces of goethite, represent the main minerals. Ores and slags are both characterized by notable hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) contents. Analyzed bog iron ore samples show iron contents of up to 64.9 mass% Fe2O3 (45.4 mass% Fe), whereas the iron contents of bloomery slags vary between 48.7 and 72.0 mass% FeO (37.9 and 56.0 mass% Fe). A principal component analysis of the element contents, which were quantified by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-ED-XRF), indicates local variations in the elemental composition. Our results show that bog iron ores are relatively widely distributed with spatially varying iron contents along the Widawa floodplain but present-day formation conditions (e.g. different ground-water levels) are negatively affected by modern land-use practices, such as agriculture and melioration measures.

  6. Iron and manganese removal by using manganese ore constructed wetlands in the reclamation of steel wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Cheng; Chen, Gu; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Liu, Jia; Yang, Na; Gao, Sai-Nan

    2009-09-30

    To reclaim treated steel wastewater as cooling water, manganese ore constructed wetland was proposed in this study for the removal of iron and manganese. In lab-scale wetlands, the performance of manganese ore wetland was found to be more stable and excellent than that of conventional gravel constructed wetland. The iron and manganese concentration in the former was below 0.05 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 2-5 days when their influent concentrations were in the range of 0.16-2.24 mg/L and 0.11-2.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, its removals for COD, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were 55%, 90%, 67% and 93%, respectively, superior to the corresponding removals in the gravel wetland (31%, 86%, 58% and 78%, respectively). The good performance of manganese ore was ascribed to the enhanced biological manganese removal with the aid of manganese oxide surface and the smaller size of the medium. The presence of biological manganese oxidation was proven by the facts of good manganese removal in wetlands at chemical unfavorable conditions (such as ORP and pH) and the isolation of manganese oxidizing strains from the wetlands. Similar iron and manganese removal was later observed in a pilot-scale gravel-manganese-ore constructed wetland, even though the manganese ore portion in total volume was reduced from 100% (in the lab-scale) to only 4% (in the pilot-scale) for the sake of cost-saving. The quality of the polished wastewater not only satisfied the requirement for cooling water but also suitable as make-up water for other purposes. PMID:19443107

  7. Closed system Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy. [deuterium-carbon monoxide reaction catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nooner, D. W.; Gibert, J. M.; Gelpi, E.; Oro, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed in which meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy were used to catalyze (in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) the reaction of deuterium and carbon monoxide in a closed vessel. Normal alkanes and alkenes and their monomethyl substituted isomers and aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized. Iron oxide and oxidized-reduced Canyon Diablo used as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts were found to produce aromatic hydrocarbons in distributions having many of the features of those observed in carbonaceous chondrites, but only at temperatures and reaction times well above 300 C and 6-8 h.

  8. Processing and Analysis of Hyperspectral Fingerprints to Characterise Haematite of Singbhum Iron Ore Belt, Orissa, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magendran, T.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for iron ore has been increasing in the recent years, thereby requiring the adoption of fast and accurate approaches to iron ore exploration and its grade-assessment. It is in this context that hyperspectral sensing is deemed as a potential tool. This paper examines the potential of hyperspectral fingerprints in the visible, NIR and SWIR regions of the EMR to assess the grades of haematite of the western Singhbhum iron ore belt of Orissa, eastern India, in a rapid manner. Certain spectro-radiometric measurements and geochemical analysis were carried out and the results have been presented. From the spectral measurements, it is seen that the strength of reflectance and absorption at definite wavelength regions is controlled by the chemical composit ion of the iron ores. It is observed that the primary spectral characteristics of these haematites lie in the 650-750 nm, 850 to 900 nm and 2130-2230 nm regions. The laboratory based hyperspectral fingerprints and multiple regression analysis of spectral parameters and geochemical parameters (Fe% and Al2O3%) predicted the concentration of iron and alumina content in the haematite. A very strong correlation (R2 = 0.96) between the spectral parameters and Fe% in the haematite with a minimum error of 0.1%, maximum error of 7.4% and average error of 2.6% is observed. Similarly, a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.94) between the spectral parameters and Al2O3% in the iron ores with a minimum error of 0.04%, maximum error of 7.49% and average error of 2.5% is observed. This error is perhaps due to the presence of other components (SiO2, TiO2, P2O etc.) in the samples which can alter the degree of reflectance and hence the spectral parameters. Neural network based multi-layer perception (MLP) analysis of various spectral parameters and geochemical parameters helped to understand the relative importance of the spectral parameters for predictive models. The strong correlations (Iron: R2 = 0.96; Alumina: R2 = 0

  9. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K.

    2009-07-01

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  10. Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook

    2012-12-01

    The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

  11. Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

    2005-10-01

    The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

  12. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    PubMed

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment. PMID:26271913

  13. Caractérisation minéralogique et microtexturale du vieillissement anthropique du minerai de fer lorrainMineralogical and microtextural characterisation of the anthropic-origin ageing of iron ore in Lorraine (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagallier, Guy; Grgic, Dragan; Homand, Françoise

    The abandoned pillars in iron mines in Lorraine show that the oolitic ore underwent several chemical-mineralogical transformations. The first one is a rapid alteration of the diagenetic siderite and berthierine cement promoted by a bacterial flora. The oolites of goethite pack down and get loaded by deviatory-type stresses; they desquamate, get deformed and become powdery; the ore looses its cohesion. A second step, featuring recrystallisation-neoformation of berthierine in the previously formed micro-cavities, then the formation of a cavernous goethite-hematite crust, leads to a low cohesion to the crumbled ore; this anthropic-origin ageing may be one cause of mine collapsing. To cite this article: G. Dagallier et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 455-462.

  14. Experimental evaluation of sorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water using iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Beekam; Beyene, Abebe; Fufa, Fekadu; Megersa, Moa; Behm, Michael

    2016-03-01

    High concentrations of fluoride in drinking water is a public health concern globally and of critical importance in the Rift Valley region. As a low-cost water treatment option, the defluoridation capacity of locally available iron ore was investigated. Residence time, pH, agitation rate, particle size of the adsorbent, sorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and the effect of co-existing anions were assessed. The sorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-first-order rate and the experimental equilibrium sorption data fitted reasonably well to the Freundlich model. The sorption capacity of iron ore for fluoride was 1.72 mg/g and the equilibrium was attained after 120 min at the optimum pH of 6. The sorption study was also carried out at natural pH conditions using natural ground water samples and the fluoride level was reduced from 14.22 to 1.17 mg/L (below the WHO maximum permissible limit). Overall, we concluded that iron ore can be used in water treatment for fluoride removal in the Rift Valley region and beyond.

  15. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm. PMID:27451708

  16. Magmatic origin of giant ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores in Central Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R.; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P.; Skelton, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the ‘Kiruna-type’ apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic. We show that magnetites from the largest central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ deposit at Grängesberg have δ18O values between −0.4 and +3.7‰, while the 1.90−1.88 Ga meta-volcanic host rocks have δ18O values between +4.9 and +9‰. Over 90% of the magnetite data are consistent with direct precipitation from intermediate to felsic magmas or magmatic fluids at high-temperature (δ18Omgt > +0.9‰, i.e. ortho-magmatic). A smaller group of magnetites (δ18Omgt ≤ +0.9‰), in turn, equilibrated with high-δ18O, likely meteoric, hydrothermal fluids at low temperatures. The central Swedish ‘Kiruna-type’ ores thus formed dominantly through magmatic iron-oxide precipitation within a larger volcanic superstructure, while local hydrothermal activity resulted from low-temperature fluid circulation in the shallower parts of this system. PMID:23571605

  17. Phosphorus Migration During Direct Reduction of Coal Composite High-Phosphorus Iron Ore Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Xue, Qingguo; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jingsong

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the direct reduction process and phosphorus migration features of high-phosphorus iron ores using simulated experiments. Results show that iron oxide was successfully reduced, and a Fe-Si-Al slag formed in carbon-bearing pellets at 1473 K (1200 °C). Fluorapatite then began to decompose into Ca3(PO4)2 and CaF2. As the reaction continued, Ca3(PO4)2 and Fe-Si-Al slag reacted quickly with each other to generate CaAl2Si2O8 and P2, while CaF2 turned into SiF4 gas in the presence of high SiO2. A small amount remained in the slag phase and formed CaAl2Si2O8. Further analysis detailed the migration process of the phosphorus into iron phases, as well as the relationship between carburization and phosphorus absorption in the iron phases. As carbon content in the iron phase increased, the austenite grain boundary melted and formed a large quantity of liquid iron which quickly absorbed the phosphorus. Based on the results of simulation and analysis, this paper proposed a method which reduced the absorption of P by the metallic iron formed and reduced P content in metallic iron during direct reduction.

  18. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  19. Utilization of Coke Oven Gas and Converter Gas in the Direct Reduction of Lump Iron Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Elsayed Abdelhady; Babich, Alexander; Senk, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    The application of off-gases from the integrated steel plant for the direct reduction of lump iron ore could decrease not only the total production cost but also the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The current study investigates the efficiency of reformed coke oven gas (RCOG), original coke oven gas (OCOG), and coke oven gas/basic oxygen furnace gas mixtures (RCOG/BOFG and OCOG/BOFG) in the direct reduction of lump iron ore. The results were compared to that of reformed natural gas (RNG), which is already applied in the commercial direct reduction processes. The reduction of lump ore was carried out at temperatures in the range of 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C) to simulate the reduction zone in direct reduction processes. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the microstructure and the developed phases in the original and reduced lump iron ore. The rate-controlling mechanism of the reduced lump ore was predicted from the calculation of apparent activation energy and the examination of microstructure. At 1073 K to 1323 K (800 °C to 1050 °C), the reduction rate of lump ore was the highest in RCOG followed by OCOG. The reduction rate was found to decrease in the order RCOG > OCOG > RNG > OCOG-BOF > RCOG-BOFG at temperatures 1173 K to 1323 K (900 °C to 1050 °C). The developed fayalite (Fe2SiO4), which resulted from the reaction between wüstite and silica, had a significant effect on the reduction process. The reduction rate was increased as H2 content in the applied gas mixtures increased. The rate-determining step was mainly interfacial chemical reaction with limitation by gaseous diffusion at both initial (20 pct reduction) and moderate (60 pct reduction) stages of reduction. The solid-state diffusion mechanism affected the reduction rate only at moderate stages of reduction.

  20. Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  1. Geology and geochemistry of the Macheng Algoma-type banded iron-formation, North China Craton: Constraints on mineralization events and genesis of high-grade iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaying; Niu, Xianglong; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Luo, Huabao; Qin, Feng; Cui, Minli; Wang, Changle; Qi, Min

    2015-12-01

    The Macheng iron deposit is located in the eastern Hebei province of the North China Craton (NCC). It is hosted in Neoarchean metamorphic rocks of Baimiaozi formation in the Dantazi Group, consisting of biotite-leptynite, plagioclase-gneiss, plagioclase-amphibolite, migmatite, migmatitic granite and quartz schist. Geochemical analyses of the host biotite leptynite and plagioclase amphibolites show that their protoliths are both volcanics, inferred to be trachytic basalt and basaltic andesite, respectively. Based on the geochemical signature of the host rocks, together with geology of the iron deposit, it is inferred that the Macheng BIF is an Algoma-type iron exhalative formation, formed in an arc-related basin in the Neoarchean. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized rare earth elements (REEs) plus yttrium (Y) concentrations of different BIF ores with gneissic, striated and banded structure in the Macheng deposit, show similar patterns with depletions in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and middle rare earth elements (MREEs) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and with apparently positive La, Y and Eu anomalies. Y/Ho ratios of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores vary from 37 to 56. These geochemical features of the BIF ores reveal their affinity with the sea water and the presence of a high-temperature hydrothermal component, indicating that both the seawater and high temperature hydrothermal fluids derived from alteration of oceanic basalts and komatiites may contribute to formation of the Macheng BIF. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Macheng deposit recognized two kinds of high-grade iron ores. One is massive oxidized high-grade ore (Fe2O3T = 74.37-86.20 wt.%), mainly consisting of hematite with some magnetite, which shows geochemical characteristics of the gneissic, striated and banded BIF ores. The other type is magnetite high-grade ore, also massive and consisting of magnetite, with distinct characteristics

  2. Assessment of reduction behavior of hematite iron ore pellets in coal fines for application in sponge ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Patel, S.K.

    2009-07-01

    Studies on isothermal reduction kinetics (with F grade coal) in fired pellets of hematite iron ores, procured from four different mines of Orissa, were carried out in the temperature range of 850-1000C to provide information for the Indian sponge iron plants. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with a rise of temperature up to 950C, and thereafter it decreased at 1000C. The rate was more intense in the first 30 minutes. All iron ores exhibited almost complete reduction in their pellets at temperatures of 900 and 950C in 2 hours' heating time duration, and the final product morphologies consisted of prominent cracks. The kinetic model equation 1-(1-a){sup 1/3}=kt was found to fit best to the experimental data, and the values of apparent activation energy were evaluated. Reductions of D. R. Pattnaik and M. G. Mohanty iron ore pellets were characterized by higher activation energies (183 and 150 kJ mol{sup -1}), indicating carbon gasification reaction to be the rate-controlling step. The results established lower values of activation energy (83 and 84 kJ mol{sup -1}) for the reduction of G. M. OMC Ltd. and Sakaruddin iron ore pellets, proposing their overall rates to be controlled by indirect reduction reactions.

  3. Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for Nickel Pig Iron Production in China: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Mingjun; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Fan, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel. The existing commercial NPI production processes such as blast furnace smelting, rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting, and Krupp-Renn (Nipon Yakin Oheyama) processes are discussed. As low-temperature (below 1300°C) reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores followed by magnetic separation could provide an alternative avenue without smelting at high temperature (~1500°C) for producing ferronickel with low cost, the fundamentals and recent developments of the low-temperature reduction of nickeliferous laterite ores are reviewed.

  4. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  5. 76 FR 35068 - Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company; Abandonment Exemption-in St. Louis County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company; Abandonment Exemption--in St... mileposts 0.00 and 1.96, in Duluth, St. Louis County, Minn.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal... requests for public use conditions under 49 CFR 1152.28 must be filed by July 5, 2011, with the...

  6. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    PubMed

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  7. Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong; Song, Qilei; Lu, Zuoji

    2010-06-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates

  8. Study of nonisothermal reduction of iron ore-coal/char composite pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S. K.; Ghosh, A.

    1994-01-01

    Cold-bonded composite pellets, consisting of iron ore fines and fines of noncoking coal or char, were prepared by steam curing at high pressure in an autoclave employing inorganic binders. Dry compressive strength ranged from 200 to 1000 N for different pellets. The pellets were heated from room temperature to 1273 K under flowing argon at two heating rates. Rates of evolution of product gases were determined from gas Chromatographie analysis, and the temperature of the sample was monitored by thermocouple as a function of time during heating. Degree of reduction, volume change, and compressive strength of the pellets upon reduction were measured subsequently. Degree of reduction ranged from 46 to 99 pct. Nonisothermal devolatilization of coal by this procedure also was carried out for comparison. It has been shown that a significant quantity (10 to 20 pct of the pellet weight) of extraneous H2O and CO2 was retained by dried pellets. This accounted for the generation of additional quantities of H2 and CO during heating. Carbon was the major reductant, but reduction by H2 also was significant. Ore-coal and ore-char composites exhibited a comparable degree of reduction. However, the former showed superior postreduction strength due to a smaller amount of swelling upon reduction.

  9. Mechanism of sintering and fracture of superfluxed iron-ore sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malysheva, T. Ya.; Gibadulin, M. F.; Mansurova, N. R.; Lekin, V. P.

    2007-06-01

    Mineral formation in the binders of a commercial sinter with a basicity of 1.6 at the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Integrated Works has been found to be determined by the crystallization of two morphological forms of high-iron aluminosilicoferrite (namely, dendritic and lamellar forms) from the melt. In a sintering zone, an association of dendritic aluminosilicoferrite crystals and dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 forms in high-calcium melt regions separated from magnetite grains. This association leads to the fracture of the finished product as a result of the phase transformation of Ca2SiO4 from the β into the γ modification during sinter cooling. Lamellar aluminosilicoferrites forming in high-iron sinter volumes serve as a high-strength binder for ore grains.

  10. Grinding Wear Behaviour of Stepped Austempered Ductile Iron as Media Material During Comminution of Iron Ore in Ball Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavendra, H.; Bhat, K. L.; Udupa, K. Rajendra; Hegde, M. M. Rajath

    2011-01-17

    An attempt has been made to evaluate the suitability of austempered ductile iron (ADI) as media material for grinding iron ore in a ball mill. Spheroidal graphite (S.G) iron balls are austenitised at 900 deg. C for 60 minutes and given stepped austempering treatment at 280 deg. C for 30 minutes and 60 minutes followed by 380 deg. C for 60 minutes in each case. These materials are characterised by measuring hardness, analysing X-ray diffraction (X-RD), studying microstructure using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Grinding wear behaviour of these materials was assessed for wear loss in wet condition at different pH value of the mineral slurry and found that the wear rate of grinding media material decreases with increase in pH of the slurry. The wear resistance of ADI balls were compared with forged En31 steel balls and found that the stepped austempered ductile iron is superior to forged En31 steel balls.

  11. High-carbon fly-ash as a binder for iron ore pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Ripke, S.J.; Ramirez, G.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this project was to convert currently unusable fly-ashes into a material that can be used as a binder for iron ore. Such a binder would also be useful for other high-volume markets, including foundry sand mold binders. Previously, the investigators used fly-ash in combination with calcium hydroxide as an additive while calcium chloride was added as a hardening accelerator. However, the addition of chloride salts have a detrimental effect because chlorine causes corrosion in processing equipment. Therefore, other potential hardening accelerators were investigated during this project. During production, dried iron-ore pellets are required to have crushing strength of at least 22.2 newtons (5 pounds force) per 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) diameter pellet. The pellets are then sintered at temperatures up to 1300 C and must not exhibit a significant degree of spalling or cracking. Pellets will therefore be tested to determine whether acceptable dry crushing strengths can be achieved.

  12. Mineralogical and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Iron Ore Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, R. K.; Rao, D. S.; Reddy, P. S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out, to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation. Mineralogical studies, with the help of microscope as well as XRD, SEM-EDS revealed that the sample consists of magnetite, hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as quartz and kaolinite form the gangue minerals in the sample. Processes involving combination of classification, dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product. The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible. The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator. Dry beneficiation studies by Permaroll separator indicated that it is possible to get a product with 60.2 % Fe at 22 % weight recovery. It is possible to get an over all concentrate with 54 % Fe at 32.4 % weight recovery by combination of size reduction followed by LIMS and WHIMS.

  13. Palaeoproterozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary succession hosting the Dannemora iron ore deposits, Bergslagen region, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Dannemora inlier constitutes some of the best preserved primary structures and textures in the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in the Bergslagen region. The aim for this study was to define and interpret the primary textures and deposition environment to obtain a better understanding of the palaeoenvironment in which the Dannemora iron ore deposit formed. In addition, the region has been subjected to at least two fold episodes therefore the establishment of stratigraphy and younging directions were crucial for structural interpretations. The Bergslagen region, located in the south-central Sweden, represents a back-arc setting active c. 1.9 Ga and consisted of numerous large calderas, that accommodated pyroclastic deposits of great thicknesses. The Dannemora inlier is composed of the supracrustal the Dannemora Formation, which is dominated by of metavolcanic rocks and subordinated by marble. The succession is 700-800 m and is divided into a lower and an upper member. The latter hosts the second largest iron ore deposit in the Bergslagen region. The ore is hosted by manganiferous skarn and dolomitic carbonate (marble) and is situated within uppermost part of the upper member positioned in an isoclinal syncline. From reflection seismic imaging and 3-D processing, the ore has been interpreted to reach depths of c. 2000 m. The presence of an anticline west of the ore bearing syncline is suggested by the geochemical similarities of rock units. Undisturbed layers of ash-siltstone with normal grading and fluid-escape structures, units of pyroclastic density currents and ash-fall in the eastern part of the Dannemora inlier indicate subaqueous deposition below wave base of the upper member. Reworking of the volcaniclastic deposits is evident in e.g. channels and cross-bedding, on the other hand, implies deposition above wave base of the upper member in the central part of Dannemora inlier. The thickness of the marble in the eastern part is c. 80 m and in the

  14. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment,...

  15. Influence of gangue existing states in iron ores on the formation and flow of liquid phase during sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Sheng-li; Chen, Shao-guo; Su, Bo; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang

    2014-10-01

    Gangue existing states largely affect the high-temperature characteristics of iron ores. Using a micro-sintering method and scanning electron microscopy, the effects of gangue content, gangue type, and gangue size on the assimilation characteristics and fluidity of liquid phase of five different iron ores were analyzed in this study. Next, the mechanism based on the reaction between gangues and sintering materials was unraveled. The results show that, as the SiO2 levels increase in the iron ores, the lowest assimilation temperature (LAT) decreases, whereas the index of fluidity of liquid phase (IFL) increases. Below 1.5wt%, Al2O3 benefits the assimilation reaction, but higher concentrations proved detrimental. Larger quartz particles increase the SiO2 levels at the local reaction interface between the iron ore and CaO, thereby reducing the LAT. Quartz-gibbsite is more conductive to assimilation than kaolin. Quartz-gibbsite and kaolin gangues encourage the formation of liquid-phase low-Al2O3-SFCA with high IFL and high-Al2O3-SFCA with low IFL, respectively.

  16. Characterization of haul road dust in an Indian opencast iron ore mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Subrato; Banerjee, S. P.

    Vehicular traffic on unpaved haul roads of the opencast mines has been identified as the most prolific source of fugitive dust. An intensive study was carried out in Noamundi Iron ore mines of Tata Iron and Steel Co. in January-February 1994 to characterize the airborne aerosol mainly contributed from unpaved haul road, traffic exhaust and re-entrained dust from the other activities of the mine. Percentage of suspended particulate matter at the various size ranges and free silica content of each of the size ranges of haul road dust were determined. Concentrations of eight trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, lead, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium and iron were determined and found to be varying in the range 13.92-16.34, 0.06-0.09, 0.71-0.79, 0.14-0.15, 0.08-0.11, 0.15-0.17, 0.003-0.004 and 390-401.20 μg m -3, respectively. A study on enrichment factor and varimax rotated factor analysis indicates the four major sources namely soil/road dust, vehicle exhaust, metallic corrosion and, galvanized material, tire wear and zinc compound in rubber material which appear to contribute trace elements to airborne aerosol.

  17. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R P; Langer, A M; Wilson, R

    1999-03-30

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals-grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)-have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner's exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  18. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  19. Microbial Variants from Iron Ore Slimes: Mineral Specificity and pH Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Abhilash; Ghosh, A; Pandey, B D; Sarkar, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the isolation of the native bacterial strains from the iron ore mines slime pond and its extremophilic characteristics. The two microbial isolates designated as CNIOS-1 and CNIOS-2 were grown in selective silicate broth at pH 7.0 and the organisms were tested for their selective adhesion on silicate and alumina minerals. The silicate bacteria with their exopolymers are very potent to grow over aluminosilicates. It was established that CNIOS-1 grew preferentially in the presence of silicate mineral compared to CNIOS-2 which grew in the presence of alumina. The organisms were tested for growth at various pH and trials were carried to define their efficacy for eventual applications to remove gangue minerals of silica and alumina from the raw material. PMID:26543269

  20. Distribution behavior of phosphorus in the coal-based reduction of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Gao, Peng; Ren, Duo-zhen

    2014-04-01

    This study focuses on the reduction of phosphorus from high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore via coal-based reduction. The distribution behavior of phosphorus (i.e., the phosphorus content and the phosphorus distribution ratio in the metal, slag, and gas phases) during reduction was investigated in detail. Experimental results showed that the distribution behavior of phosphorus was strongly influenced by the reduction temperature, the reduction time, and the C/O molar ratio. A higher temperature and a longer reaction time were more favorable for phosphorus reduction and enrichment in the metal phase. An increase in the C/O ratio improved phosphorus reduction but also hindered the mass transfer of the reduced phosphorus when the C/O ratio exceeded 2.0. According to scanning electron microscopy analysis, the iron ore was transformed from an integral structure to metal and slag fractions during the reduction process. Apatite in the ore was reduced to P, and the reduced P was mainly enriched in the metal phase. These results suggest that the proposed method may enable utilization of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore resources.

  1. Effects of calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride addition to bentonite in iron ore pelletization.

    PubMed

    Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Pişkin, Mehmet

    2006-10-01

    Pyrite ash is created as waste from the roasting of pyrite ores during the production of sulphuric acid. These processes generate great amounts of pyrite ash waste that is generally land filled. This creates serious environmental pollution due to the release of acids and toxic substances. Pyrite ash waste can be utilized in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed to process this waste and prevent environmental pollution. The essential parameters affecting the pelletization process of pyrite ash were studied using bentonite as a binder. Experiments were then carried out using bentonite and a mixture of bentonite with calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in order to make the bentonite more effective. The metallurgical properties of pyrite ash, bentonite, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride, a mixture of these and sintered pellets were studied using X-ray analysis. The crushing strength tests were carried out to investigate the strength of pyrite ash waste pellets. The results of these analyses showed that pyrite ash can be agglomerated to pellets and used in the iron production industry as a blast furnace feed. The crushing strength of the pellets containing calcium hydroxide and calcium chloride in addition to bentonite was better than the strength of pellets prepared using only bentonite binder. PMID:17121116

  2. Study of Softening and Melting Behaviour of Iron Ore Sinter and Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatokha, Volodymyr; Velychko, Olexandr

    2012-06-01

    Softening and melting behaviour of the iron ore materials was studied towards understanding the mechanism of formation of liquid slag and metal phases in the pre-reduced sinter and pellets. Wide range of the sinter and pellets samples was investigated revealing the effect of gangue amount and composition on temperature indices corresponding to gas permeability loss in the bed (T1) and to the largest portion of liquid products dripping (T2). For both sinter and pellets, the growth of bacisity is followed by T1 increase which is explained by raised temperature of primary liquid phase appearance during the heating-reduction treatment. Relationship of T2 with the bacisity corresponds to the basicity effect on slag liquidus temperature. Both slag and metal phases were only partially evacuated from the crucible with essential portions of both phases captured in the coke bed. Growing divergence of the basicities of effluent slag and of slag captured in crucible was observed with the increase of sinter basicity. Increased share of the effluent metal with the sinter bacisity growth is explained by the decreased adhesion of slag to iron surface which assists carburization. Growth of melt-down temperature with the increase of gangue amount is explained by less active carburization owing to larger quantity of slag minimising direct contact of sponge with carbonaceous materials.

  3. Suppression of chlorinated aromatics by nitrogen and sulphur inhibitors in iron ore sintering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yadi; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Lina; Zhang, Yibo; Zeng, Xiaolan; Sun, Yifei

    2016-07-01

    Dioxins generated by iron and steel industry account for the majority of industrial dioxins emissions. This study compares the performance of different additives (including calcium sulphate dehydrate CaSO4·2H2O; calcium polysulphide CaSx; ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4; 4-methylthiosemicarbazide H3C-SC(NH)2NH2 and thiourea H2NCSNH2) as suppressant of chlorinated aromatics in iron ore sintering. The formation of chlorobenzenes (CBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), used as surrogates for dioxins, was suppressed significantly in the present of various inhibitors (1 wt%) except for CaSO4·2H2O. Moreover, a larger molar ratio of (S + N)/Cl leads to a higher suppression efficiency, so that the inhibition capacity of (NH4)2SO4 on both CBz and PCBs was weaker than H2NCSNH2. The generation of dioxin-like PCBs (Co- or dl-PCB) was also analysed. PMID:27131450

  4. Utilization of Lime Fines as an Effective Binder as well as Fluxing Agent for Making Fluxed Iron Ore Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arup Kumar; Sarkar, Alok; Sinha, Om Prakash

    2016-04-01

    A laboratory study was carried out to characterize the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of lime fluxed (varying basicity 0-2) hematite iron ore pellets. Lime was used as additive as well as fluxing agent for making iron ore pellets. The effect of additives on different properties of pellets was studied. The findings show that on increasing the addition of lime, more of calcium-alumino-silicate phases were produced as confirmed by SEM-EDAX analysis. These phases have low melting points, which enhances sticking behaviour of pellets, as well as imparts strength to the pellets (resulting increasing compressive strength, tumbler, abrasion and shatter index) but decreases the porosity. The low basicity pellets were found predominantly oxide-bonded, while the high basicity pellets were mostly slag-bonded. This means that the pellet should be fired at sufficiently high enough temperature to generate liquid phases to get the sufficient strength but not so high as to cause the pellets to stick to each other. The obtained properties of these fluxed pellets were compared with the properties of iron ore lump and pellets, which are being used conventionally in the blast furnace for production of iron and steel.

  5. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  6. Statistical and neural network analysis of hyperspectral radiometric data to characterise hematite of Singbhum iron ore belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magendran, T.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-11-01

    The demand for iron ore has increased in the recent years, thereby necessitating the adoption of rapid and accurate approaches to iron ore exploration and its grade-assessment. It is in this context that hyperspectral radiometry is seen as a potential tool. This paper examines the potential of hyperspectral radiometry in the visible, NIR and SWIR regions of the EMR to assess the grades of hematite of the western Singhbhum iron ore belt of eastern India, in a rapid manner. Certain spectro-radiometric measurements and geochemical analysis were carried out and the results have been presented. From the spectral measurements, it is seen that the strength of reflectance and absorption at definite wavelength regions is controlled by the chemical composition of the iron ores. It is observed that the primary spectral characteristics of these hematite lie in the 650-750nm, 850 to 900nm and 2130-2230nm regions. The laboratory based hyperspectral signatures and multiple regression analysis of spectral parameters and geochemical parameters (Fe2O3% and Al2O3%) predicted the concentration of iron and alumina content in the hematite. A very strong correlation (R2=0.96) between the spectral parameters and Fe% in the hematite with a minimum error of 0.1%, maximum error of 7.4% and average error of 2.6% is observed. Similarly, a very strong correlation (R2=0.94) between the spectral parameters and Al2O3% in the iron ores with a minimum error of 0.04%, maximum error of 7.49% and average error of 2.5% is observed. This error is perhaps due to the presence of other components (SiO2, TiO2, P2O etc.) in the samples which can alter the degree of reflectance and hence the spectral parameters. Neural network based multi-layer perception (MLP) analysis of various spectral parameters and geochemical parameters helped to understand the relative importance of the spectral parameters for predictive models. The strong correlations (Iron: R2=0.96; Alumina: R2=0.94) indicate that the laboratory

  7. Studies into the formation of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in the iron ore sintering process.

    PubMed

    Drage, D S; Aries, E; Harrad, S

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in stack emissions from UK sinter plants. The sum of 36 PBDE congeners was measured at a mean concentration of 295 ng/N m(3) with a standard deviation of 96 ng/N m(3). The mean PBDD/F concentrations were 0.14 ng WHO-TEQ/m(3) (range=0.03-0.39). PBDD/F emission concentrations were approximately ten times lower than their PCDD/F homologues. To understand the possible formation mechanisms of brominated organic species in iron ore sintering, both full-scale and laboratory experiments using an experimental sintering process were carried out. A complete PBDE mass balance was undertaken for a full scale sinter plant showing that PBDEs were already present in the raw materials such as iron ores and coke breeze and that a significant proportion of the PBDE inputs were actually destroyed during the process. A number of controlled experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale sintering apparatus (sinter pot). These were designed to investigate: (a) mass balance of PBDEs during sintering, (b) the relationship between the availability of bromide (as KBr) and PBDE emissions, and (c) the influence of the availability of both bromide and PBDEs on PBDD/F formation. As observed in the full scale plant, the PBDEs already present in the raw materials were mostly destroyed during the process (79-96%) for all sinter pot experiments. Increasing amounts of KBr in the raw sinter mix did not result in a significant increase in PBDE formation suggesting that there was no PBDE formation in sintering via de novo synthesis. No relationship was observed between PBDE inputs and PBDD/F emissions indicating that PBDEs did not act as precursors for PBDD/Fs formation. Finally, PBDD/F formation was enhanced substantially with increasing amounts of KBr suggesting that their formation mechanism was similar to that of PCDD/Fs via de novo synthesis. PMID:24742560

  8. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining. PMID:24554136

  9. Formation and mitigation of PCDD/Fs in iron ore sintering.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Tze Chean; Lu, Liming

    2011-10-01

    The sintering of iron ore is presently a significant industrial source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) worldwide owing to the fundamental requirement of the operation of a high temperature process to pre-treat fines and to recycle plant by-products arising from the integrated iron and steelworks. The process is a noteworthy contributor of PCDD/F indirectly due to decreasing PCDD/F releases from municipal solid waste incineration. Commonly PCDD/F formation from the process is associated with the addition of oily mill scales although raw material containing a combination of C, Cl and specific metal catalyst has been shown to drastically increase PCDD/F formation in the process. The degenerate graphitic structure of carbon present in coke fuel and soot formed and the chemistry of catalytic metals and Cl are important factors. A review on PCDD/F emission in this process has been carried out, including examination of its formation mechanism, congener distribution, contributing factors and mitigation strategies, with emphasis on the use of inhibiting compound to achieve suppression. A detailed analysis of the de novo and precursor theories of formation and the contributing factor is given since the subject of PCDD/F formation is still controversial. The de novo formation pathway identified in sinter plants and controlled studies performed in the laboratory as well as at pilot-scale are discussed; where appropriate, a comparison is drawn between sintering and other thermal processes emitting PCDD/Fs. Summary of the latest developments in PCDD/F downstream abatement strategies presently employed in full scale industrial plants is provided. Potential inhibiting compounds are discussed in terms of their mode of action and merits under sintering conditions. PMID:21880347

  10. Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M.

    2009-01-15

    This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

  11. Effect of reduction roasting by using bio-char derived from empty fruit bunch on the magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Nurul A.; Ani, Mohd H.; Salleh, Hamzah M.; Rashid, Rusila Z. A.; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Purwanto, Hadi; Othman, Nur E. F.

    2014-04-01

    Beneficiation of Malaysian iron ore is becoming necessary as iron resources are depleting. However, the upgrading process is challenging because of the weak magnetic properties of Malaysian iron ore. In this study, bio-char derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was utilized as an energy source for reduction roasting. Mixtures of Malaysian iron ore and the bio-char were pressed into briquettes and subjected to reduction roasting processes at 873-1173 K. The extent of reduction was estimated on the basis of mass loss, and the magnetization of samples was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). When reduced at 873 K, the original goethite-rich ore was converted into hematite. An increase in temperature to 1073 K caused a significant conversion of hematite into magnetite and enhanced the magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization of samples. The magnetic properties diminished at 1173 K as the iron ore was partially reduced to wustite. This reduction roasting by using the bio-char can assist in upgrading the iron ore by improving its magnetic properties.

  12. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  13. Reduction and immobilization of chromate in chromite ore processing residue with nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Lu, Jinsuo; Wu, Qiong; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-05-15

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) poses a great environmental and health risk with persistent Cr(VI) leaching. To reduce Cr(VI) and subsequently immobilize in the solid matrix, COPR was incubated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and the Cr(VI) speciation and leachability were studied. Multiple complementary analysis methods including leaching tests, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the immobilization mechanism. Geochemical PHREEQC model calculation agreed well with our acid neutralizing capacity experimental results and confirmed that when pH was lowered from 11.7 to 7.0, leachate Cr(VI) concentrations were in the range 358-445mgL(-1) which contributed over 90% of dissolved Cr from COPR. Results of alkaline digestion, XANES, and XPS demonstrated that incubation COPR with nZVI under water content higher than 27% could result in a nearly complete Cr(VI) reduction in solids and less than 0.1mgL(-1) Cr(VI) in the TCLP leachate. The results indicated that remediation approaches using nZVI to reduce Cr(VI) in COPR should be successful with sufficient water content to facilitate electron transfer from nZVI to COPR. PMID:22417394

  14. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation. PMID:22720407

  15. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  16. Iron isotope and REE+Y composition of the Cauê banded iron formation and related iron ores of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Mônica; Lobato, Lydia M.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Halverson, Galen P.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    The Minas Supergroup banded iron formations (BIFs) of the Brazilian Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF) mineral province experienced multiple deformational events synchronous with hypogene mineralization, which resulted in the metamorphism of BIFs to itabirites and their upgrade to high-grade iron ore. Here, we present rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) compositions together with iron isotope ratios of itabirites and their host iron orebodies from 10 iron deposits to constrain environmental conditions during BIF deposition and the effects of hypogene iron enrichment. The REE+Y characteristics of itabirites (positive Eu anomaly and LREE depletion) indicate hydrothermal iron contribution to the Minas basin. Iron isotope data and Ce anomalies suggest BIFs were precipitated by a combination of anoxic biological-mediated ferrous iron oxidation and abiotic oxidation in an environment with free oxygen (such as an oxygen oasis), perhaps related to increase in oxygen concentrations before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The similarity of the REE+Y composition of the itabirites from the different QF deformational domains, as well as to other Superior-type BIFs, indicates that the metamorphism and synchronous hydrothermal mineralization did not significantly affect the geochemical signature of the original BIFs. However, iron isotope compositions of iron ore vary systematically between deformational domains of the QF, likely reflecting the specific mineralization features in each domain.

  17. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:27209038

  18. Mechanism of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant formation in iron ore sintering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Lina; Fu, Xin; Zhu, Tianle; Buekens, Alfons; Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Effects of temperature, carbon content and copper additive on formation of chlorobenzenes (CBzs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in iron ore sintering were investigated. By heating simulated fly ash (SFA) at a temperature range of 250-500°C, the yield of both CBzs and PCBs presented two peaks of 637ng/g-fly ash at 350°C and 1.5×10(5)ng/g-fly ash at 450°C for CBzs, and 74ng/g-fly ash at 300°C and 53ng/g-fly ash at 500°C. Additionally, in the thermal treatment of real fly ash (RFA), yield of PCBs displayed two peak values at 350°C and 500°C, however, yield of CBzs showed only one peak at 400°C. In the thermal treatment of SFA with a carbon content range of 0-20wt% at 300°C, both CBzs and PCBs obtained the maximum productions of 883ng/g-fly ash for CBzs and 127ng/g-fly ash for PCBs at a 5wt% carbon content. Copper additives also affected chlorinated aromatic formation. The catalytic activity of different copper additives followed the orders: CuCl2∙2H2O>Cu2O>Cu>CuSO4>CuO for CBzs, and CuCl2∙2H2O>Cu2O>CuO>Cu>CuSO4 for PCBs. PMID:26686523

  19. The origin of terrestrial pisoliths and pisolitic iron ore deposits: Raindrops and sheetwash in a semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascelles, Desmond F.

    2016-07-01

    Ooliths evidently form by chemical precipitation in limnic, paralic, fluvial and marine environments, pisoliths, however, appear to be restricted to terrestrial environments. Typically composed of iron, aluminium and manganese sesquioxides with minor admixtures of quartz and kaolinite, they are widely distributed in tropical to subtropical regions overlying deeply weathered soil profiles. Although iron-, aluminium- and manganese-rich end members are important sources of these metals, their genesis is still enigmatic; their formation has never been observed or produced experimentally and current models for their origin are little more than guesses. A new model is presented based on a unique personal observation in which pisoliths are formed by the action of charged raindrops during thunderstorms impacting on dry deeply weathered powdery soils. The pisoliths are transported across pediments by sheetwash, accumulating as thick deposits in the valley floors. Pisolites are characteristically unfossiliferous and typically clearly pedogenic. The absence of fine depositional layering, fossil seeds, leaves and pollen in pisolites is explained by bioturbation and the action of soil organisms during extended pedogenesis while the major coarse bedding features derive from erosional and depositional events in the evolution of the pediment. Pisolitic iron ores (aka channel iron deposits, CID) are a special case of transported pisolitic ferricrust that form an important resource of medium grade iron ore (57-60 wt% Fe) in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Apart from minor deposits in the northern Yilgarn Province of Western Australia, they have not been found elsewhere. They differ from normal transported ferricrust and terrestrial pisolites not only in the exceptionally high iron and low alumina and silica content but also in containing abundant fossilised wood particles.

  20. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers. PMID:19321190

  1. In situ observation of reduction kinetics and 2D mapping of chemical state for heterogeneous reduction in iron-ore sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Murao, R.; Ohta, N.; Noami, K.; Uemura, Y.; Niwa, Y.; Kimijima, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Nitani, H.

    2016-05-01

    Iron-ore sinters constitute the major component of the iron-bearing burden in blast furnaces, and the mechanism of their reduction is one of the key processes in iron making. The heterogeneous reduction of sintered oxides was investigated by the combination of X-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure, X-ray diffraction, and computed tomography. Two - dimensional mapping of the chemical states (CSs) was performed. The iron CSs FeIII, FeII, and Fe0 exhibited a heterogeneous distribution in a reduced sinter. The reduction started near micro pores, at iron-oxide grains rather than calcium-ferrite ones. The heterogeneous reduction among grains in a sinter may cause the formation of micro cracks. These results provide fundamental insights into heterogeneous reduction schemes for iron-ore sinters.

  2. Effect of particle fineness on the finely disseminated iron ore for beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T. S.; Zhang, W. X.; Fang, X. H.; Gao, G. K.

    2013-06-01

    This paper focused on Oolitic hematite ore which consists of extremely unequal disseminated particles that are fine-grained and easy to become muddy, It presents the effect of particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time and other variables on the beneficiation of this ore. The effect of particle fineness on the concentrate quality was also studied after magnetic roasting, the so-called process of "magnetic roasting-stage grinding-low intensity magnetic separation-cationic reverse flotation" was adopted to treat the raw ore under various experimental conditions including particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time, etc. it is found the concentrate grade of TFe of raw ore can be increased from 48.32%(original) to 61.30% at a recovery rate of 80.73%. Results show that the effect of particle fineness on mineral processing indexes is significant.

  3. Structural-chemical features and morphology of glauconites in sedimentary iron ore of Bakchar prospect (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmin, M.; Reva, I.; Gunko, A.; Mazurov, A.; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The research embraces the investigation results of glauconites in Bakchar iron ore occurrences to evaluate the potential diversified commercial application of this mineral. The following lab methods were used to analyze the morphology, chemical composition and structure of glauconites: granulometric analysis, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, atomic arc-emission analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Glauconite was classified according to morphology and grain color and chemical composition and some specific characteristics were also determined (relative content of absorbed water, random distribution of smectite flakes within the grain structures). The research results showed that pistacho-green glauconite grains are less subjected to alteration than greenish-yellow grains due to the content of potassium, iron, absorbed water and organic impurities.

  4. Key parameters for low-grade fine-grained iron ore valorization: lower environmental impact through reduced waste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christiane; Orberger, Beate; Tudryn, Alina; Baptiste, Benoît; Wirth, Richard; Morgan, Rachel; Miska, Serge

    2016-04-01

    In low-grade banded iron formations (BIFs), a large part of the iron is related to micro- and nano- metric iron-bearing inclusions within quartz and/or carbonates, mainly dolomite (~ 20 to 50 μm). Low-grade fine grained iron ore present two types of environmental risks: a) they are often stocked as tailings. For example, the recent disaster (5th of November 2015) in the Minas Gerais district, Brazil, was caused by the collapse of the Fundão tailings dam at an open cast mine; b) during beneficiation significant amounts of dust are generated also leading to metal loss. A laminated BIF studied from a drill core at Àguas Claras Mine, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil, contains 26.71 wt. % total iron, 0.2 wt. % SiO2, 0.32 wt.% MnO, 15.46 wt. % MgO, 22.32 wt.% CaO, 0.09 wt. % P2O5, < 0.05 wt. % Al2O3, 0.15 wt. % H2O and 34.08 wt. % CO2. Environmental hazardous elements are present as traces (As: 3-20 ppm, Cd: 0-0.7 ppm; Cr: 0.05-60 ppm, Pb: up to 55 ppm; U: up to 8 ppm). Dolomite and quartz bands alternate with hematite bands. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and FIB-TEM analyses reveal that the micro- and nano- metric inclusions in dolomite are hematite and minor goethite, partly occurring as clusters in voids. Curie Balance analyses were carried out at different heating steps and temperatures on whole rock samples and a synthetic mix of decarbonated sample and pure dolomite. X-ray diffraction on the products of the heating experiments shows that that hematite is stable and new phases: magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), lime (CaO), periclase (MgO), portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and srebrodoskite (Ca2Fe2O5) were formed between 680 °C and 920 °C. These findings promote the economic use of low grade ores rather than their stockpiling as tailings. The presence of OH-bearing goethite reduces the sintering temperature. After having separated coarse hematite from barren dolomite and quartz, a low temperature sintering of the inclusion-bearing dolomite/quartz leads to transformations

  5. Separation of P Phase and Fe Phase in High Phosphorus Oolitic Iron Ore by Ultrafine Grinding and Gaseous Reduction in a Rotary Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jintao; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-10-01

    Due to the oolitic structure of the high phosphorus iron ore and the closely wrapping of apatite and hematite phases, an approach using jet mill was utilized to grind the ore to ultrafine 0.01 to 0.001 mm, which realizes the dissociation of apatite phase and hematite phase. Then in a laboratory scale rotary furnace, high phosphorus ores of different sizes were reduced by reducing gas at sub-melting point temperatures (973 to 1173 K [700 to 900 °C]). In the rotating inclined reactor, the ore particles reacted with the reducing gas coming from the opposite direction in a rolling and discrete state, which greatly improved the kinetic conditions. In this study, the reaction rate increases significantly with the decrease of particle size. For the ultrafine high phosphorus iron ores, the metallization ratio can reach 83.91 to 97.32 pct, but only 33.24 to 40.22 pct for powders with the size of 0.13 to 0.15 mm. The reduced particles maintained their original sizes, without the presence of sintering phenomenon or iron whisker. Hence, two kinds of products were easily obtained by magnetic separation: the iron product with 91.42 wt pct of Fe and 0.19 wt pct of P, and the gangue product with 13.77 wt pct of Fe and 2.32 wt pct of P.

  6. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  7. High-grade iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range, Minnesota-product of a continental-scale proterozoic ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mesabi Range along the north edge of the Paleoproterozoic Penokean orogen in northern Minnesota has produced 3.6 billion metric tons of ore since its discovery in 1890. Of that amount, 2.3 billion metric tons were extracted from hematite- or geothite-rich deposits generally referred to as 'high-grade' ores. The high-grade ores formed as the Biwabik Iron-Formation was oxidized, hydrated, and leached by solutions flowing along open faults and fractures. The source of the ore-forming solutions has been debated since it was first proposed that the ores were weathering products formed by descending meteoritic ground-water flowing in late Mesozoic time. Subsequently others believed that the ores were better explained by ascending solutions, possbily hydrothermal solutions of pre-Phanerzoic age. Neither Wolff nor Gruner could reconcile their observations with a reasonable source for the solutions. In this paper, I build on modern mapping of the Mesabi Range and mine-specific geologic observations summarized in the literature to propose a conceptual model in which the high-grade ores formed from ascending solutions that were part of continent-scale topographic or gravity-driven ground-water system. I propose that the ground-water system was active during the later stages of the development of a coupled fold and thrust belt and foreland basin that formed during the Penokean orogen.

  8. Efficient degradation of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solution by iron ore tailing Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Gao, Zhanqi; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    An effective method based on iron ore tailing Fenton-like process was studied for removing an azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution. Five tailings were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XFS), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurement, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result of XFS showed that Fe, Si and Ca were the most abundant elements and some toxic heavy metals were also present in the studied tailings. The result of BET analysis indicated that the studied tailings had very low surface areas (0.64-5.68 m(2) g(-1)). The degradation efficiencies of AO7 were positively correlated with the content of iron oxide and cupric oxide, and not related with the BET surface area of the tailings. The co-existing metal elements, particularly Cu, might accelerate the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. The effects of other parameters on heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of AO7 by a converter slag iron tailing (tailing E) which contains highest iron oxide were also investigated. The tailing could be reused 10 times without significant decrease of the catalytic capacity. Very low amount of iron species and almost undetectable toxic elements were leached in the catalytic degradation of AO7 by the tailing E. The reaction products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a possible pathway of AO7 degradation was proposed. This study not only provides an effective method for removing azo dyes in polluted water by employing waste tailings as Fenton-like catalysts, but also uses waste tailings as the secondary resource. PMID:26891355

  9. Giant iron-ore deposits of the Hamersley province related to the breakup of Paleoproterozoic Australia: New insights from in situ SHRIMP dating of baddeleyite from mafic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Stefan G.; Krapež, Bryan; Barley, Mark E.; Fletcher, Ian R.

    2005-07-01

    Banded iron formations of the ca. 2770 2405 Ma Hamersley province of Western Australia were locally upgraded to high-grade hematite ores during the Early Paleoproterozoic by a combination of hypogene and supergene processes after the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen. Ore genesis was associated with the stratigraphic break between the Lower and Upper Wyloo Groups of the Ashburton province, and has been variously linked to the Ophthalmian orogeny, late-orogenic extensional collapse, and anorogenic continental extension. Small-spot in situ Pb/Pb dating of baddeleyite by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) has resolved the ages of two key suites of mafic intrusions, constraining for the first time the tectonic evolution of the Ashburton province and the age and setting of iron-ore formation. Mafic sills dated as ca. 2208 Ma were folded during the Ophthalmian orogeny and then cut by the unconformity at the base of the Lower Wyloo Group. A mafic dike swarm that intrudes the Lower Wyloo Group and has a close genetic relationship to iron ore is ca. 2008 Ma, slightly younger than a new syneruptive 2031 ± 6 Ma zircon age for the Lower Wyloo Group. These new ages constrain the Ophthalmian orogeny to the period between ca. 2208 and 2031 Ma, before Lower Wyloo Group extension, sedimentation, and flood-basalt volcanism. The ca. 2008 Ma dikes pre s ent a new maximum age for iron-ore genesis and deposition of the Upper Wyloo Group, thereby linking ore genesis to a ca. 2050 2000 Ma period of continental extension similarly recorded by Paleoproterozoic terrains worldwide well after the initial oxidation of the atmosphere by ca. 2320 Ma.

  10. Roasting-induced phase change and its influence on phosphorus removal through acid leaching for high-phosphorus iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhu, Qing-shan; Fan, Chuan-lin; Xie, Zhao-hui; Li, Hong-zhong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, roasting-induced phase change and its influence on phosphorus removal via leaching has been investigated for high-phosphorus iron ore. The findings indicate that phosphorus in the ore is associated with goethite and exists mainly in amorphous Fe3PO7 phase. The phosphorus remains in the amorphous phase after being roasted below 300°C. Grattarolaite (Fe3PO7) is found in samples roasted at 600-700°C, revealing that phosphorus phase is transformed from the amorphous form to crystalline grattarolaite during roasting. Leaching tests on synthesized pure grattarolaite reveal a low rate of phosphorus removal by sulfuric acid leaching. When the roasting temperature is higher than 800°C, grattarolaite is found to react with alumina to form aluminum phosphate, and the reactivity of grattarolaite with alumina increases with increasing roasting temperature. Consequently, the rate of phosphorus removal also increases with increasing roasting temperature due to the formation of acid-soluble aluminum phosphate.

  11. Stratification Studies with Sub Grade Iron Ore from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, Chhattisgarh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Markandeya, Ravvala; Sharma, Satish Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Experiments were carried out with two different sizes of (-30 + 6 and -6 + 1 mm) sub grade iron ore sample from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, India to study the stratification behaviour at optimised parameters in a under bed air pulsed jig at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes residence time. This paper deals with the rate at which stratification takes place and determines the optimum stratification time (residence time) for above two size fractions. Average apparent density along with Jig Stratification Index (JSI) of both the size fractions was calculated. It was observed that the stratification rate is high for fines (-6 + 1 mm) and stratification index was higher for lump (-30 + 6 mm) when compared with the other size fraction. The maximum JSI observed was 0.35 for lump (-30 + 6 mm) and 0.30 for fines (-6 + 1 mm).

  12. A Mathematical Model of Gas Flow Distribution in the Grate-Kiln Iron Ore Pellets Induration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Junxiao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yiyang; Xie, Zhiyin; Zhang, Cai

    2010-03-01

    Although models for general gas (e.g. natural gas) pipeline networks have been well established, research on another kind of gas networks we named gas passage networks (i.e. GPN; set that gas pass through spaces) in industry is rare. The features of the GPN are hard-determination leakage (i.e. 24.4%), quite-different thermophysical-properties, more cycles and not engaging cycle energy equations directly. And the gas network of grate-kiln-cooler (GKC) plant used for iron ore pellets induration is belong to this type. This paper develops a mathematical model to evaluate the flow distribution in this kind. Further, a field test was systematically carried out on a GKC plant in China. At last, the result shows that good agreement was observed, indicating the validity of the model.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Nano-Structured Magnesium Oxide Coated Iron Ore: Its Application to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Lead.

    PubMed

    Nagarajah, Ranjini; Jang, Min; Pichiah, Saravanan; Cho, Jongman; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically separable nano-structured magnesium oxide coated iron ore (IO(MgO)) was prepared using environmentally benign chemicals, such as iron ore (IO), magnesium(II) nitrate hexahydrate [Mg(NO3)2 x 6H2O] and urea; via an easy and fast preparation method. The lO(MgO) was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM) analyses. The isotherm and kinetic studies indicated that lO(MgO) has a comparably higher Langmuir constant (K(L), 1.69 L mg(-1)) and maximum sorption capacity (33.9 mg g(-1)) for lead (Pb) than other inorganic media. Based on MgO amount, the removal capacity of Pb by IO(MgO) was 2,724 mg Pb (g MgO)(-1), which was higher than that (1,980 mg g(-1)) for flowerlike magnesium oxide nanostructures reported by Cao et al. The kinetics, FE-SEM, elemental mapping and XRD results revealed that the substitution followed by precipitation was identified as the mechanism of Pb removal and plumbophyllite (Pb2Si4O10 x H2O) was the precipitated phase of Pb. A leaching test revealed that IOMgO) had negligible concentrations of leached Fe at pH 4-9. Since the base material, IO, is cheap and easily available, lO(MgO) could be produced in massive amounts and used for remediation of wastewater containing heavy metals, applying simple and fast magnetic separation. PMID:26682385

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Ettore; Lutri, Antonina; Mabilia, Rosanna; Scianò, Maria Concetta Tomasi; Rotatori, Mauro

    2008-11-01

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 microg/N x m3, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 microg/N x m3, and in ESP dust is 0.53 microg/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. PMID:19044155

  16. Separation of Iron Phase and P-Bearing Slag Phase from Gaseous-Reduced, High-Phosphorous Oolitic Iron Ore at 1473 K (1200 °C) by Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jintao; Zhong, Yiwei; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-04-01

    In situ observation on the morphology evolution and phosphorous migration of gaseous-reduced, high-phosphorous oolitic iron ore during the melting process was carried out with a high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope. The results showed that 1473 K (1200 °C) was a critical temperature at which the gangue minerals started to form into the slag phase while the iron grains remained in a solid state; in addition, the phosphorus remained in the slag phase. Since the separation of iron grains and P-bearing slag was not achieved at the low temperature under the conventional conditions, separate experiments of the iron phase and the P-bearing slag phase from gaseous-reduced, high-phosphorous oolitic iron ore at 1473 K (1200 °C) by super gravity were carried out in this study. Based on the iron-slag separation by super gravity, phosphorus was removed effectively from the iron phase at the temperature below the melting point of iron. Iron grains moved along the super-gravity direction, joined, and concentrated as the iron phase on the filter, whereas the slag phase containing apatite crystals broke through the barriers of the iron grains and went through the filter. Consequently, increasing the gravity coefficient was definitely beneficial for the separation of the P-bearing slag phase from the iron phase. With the gravity coefficient of G = 1200, the mass fractions of separated slag and iron phases were close to their respective theoretical values, and the mass fraction of MFe in the separated iron phase was up to 98.09 wt pct and that of P was decreased to 0.083 wt pct. The recovery of MFe in the iron phase and that of P in the slag phase were up to 99.19 and 95.83 pct, respectively.

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of runoff water and vegetation from abandoned mining of Pb Zn ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. F.; Queralt, I.; Carvalho, M. L.; Bordalo, M.

    2003-12-01

    The present work reports on the heavy metal content: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in running waters and vegetation around abandoned mining areas. Two species of mosses ( Dicranum sp. and Pleurocarpus sp.) and three different species of wild grass ( Bromus sp., Rumex sp. and Pseudoavena sp.) growing on the surrounding areas of old lead-zinc mines (Aran Valley, Pyrenees, NE Spain) have been analyzed. Both water and vegetation were collected in two different sampling places: (a) near the mine gallery water outlets and (b) on the landfill close to the abandoned mineral concentration factories. For the heavy metal content determination, two different techniques were used: total reflection X-ray fluorescence for water analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence for vegetation study. Surface waters around mine outlets exhibit anomalous content of Co, Ni, Zn, Cd. Stream waters running on mining landfills exhibit higher Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than those of the waters at the mine gallery outlets. The results allow us to assess the extent of the environmental impact of the mining activities on the water quality. The intake of these elements by vegetation was related with the sampling place, reflecting the metal water content and the substrate chemistry. Accumulation of metals in mosses is higher than those exhibited in wild grasses. Furthermore, different levels of accumulation were found in different wild grass. Rumex sp. presented the lowest metal concentrations, while Pseudoavena sp. reported the highest metal content.

  18. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to nickel laterite ores of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for biohydrometallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaerun, Siti Khodijah; Hung, Sutina; Mubarok, Mohammad Zaki; Sanwani, Edy

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to isolate and phylogenetically identify the indigenous iron-sulfur-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria capable of bioleaching nickel from laterite mineral ores. The bacteria were isolated from a nickel laterite mine area in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated from laterite mineral ores (strains SKC/S-1 to SKC/S-7) and they were capable of bioleaching of nickel from saprolite and limonite ores. Using EzTaxon-e database, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the seven bacterial strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, resulting in a complete hierarchical classification system, and they were identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis BCRC 17751 (98.59% similarity), Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 (99.14% and 99.32% similarities), Paenibacillus pasadenensis SAFN-007 (98.95% and 99.33% similarities), Bacillus methylotrophicus CBMB 205 (99.37% similarity), and Bacillus altitudinis 41KF2b (99.37% similarity). It is noteworthy that members of the phylum Firmicutes (in particular the genus Bacillus) predominated in this study, therefore making them to have the high potential to be candidates for the bioleaching of nickel from laterite mineral ores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the predominance of the phylum Firmicutes in the Sulawesi laterite mineral ores.

  19. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism and opaque mineralogy of iron ore deposits from southern Mexico and their implications for quantitative modelling of magnetometric data

    SciTech Connect

    Alva-Valdivia, L.M.; Fucugauchi, Urrutia, J.; Bohnel, H.; Moran Zenteno, D.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Paleomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Opaque Mineralogy of Iron Ore Deposits from Southern Mexico and Their Implications for Quantitative Modelling of Magnetometric Data. The tectonic history of the Pacific continental margin is critical for understanding their mineral deposits. The margin presents intrusive and volcanic activity characteristic of magmatic arcs of subduction zones, which are genetically related with deposits of Cu, Fe, Mo, Au, and Ag. Although the tectonic history has been complex, involving oblique plate subduction, lateral movements, accretion of magmatic arcs and oceanic plateaux, and lateral displacements of major blocks, the mineral deposits are spatially distributed along elongated belts that roughly follow the margin. The authors have conducted paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and petrological studies of the iron ore deposits to investigate genesis, magnetic mineralogy, stratigraphic relationships, metamorphism, and applications on quantitative modelling of magnetometric data. The remanent magnetization and susceptibility data are necessary for interpretation of magnetic anomalies. The results permit a comparison of the mineral deposits along the continental margin.

  20. Rare earth elements, S and Sr isotopes and origin of barite from Bahariya Oasis, Egypt: Implication for the origin of host iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan M.

    2015-06-01

    Based on their occurrences and relation to the host iron ores, barites are classified into: (1) fragmented barite occurs as pebble to sand-size white to yellowish white barite along the unconformity between the Bahariya Formation and iron ores, (2) interstitial barite is present as pockets and lenses of large and pure crystals inside the iron ores interstitial barite inside the iron ores, and (3) disseminated barite occurs at the top of the iron ores of relatively large crystals of barite embedded in hematite and goethite matrix. In the current study, these barites have been analyzed for their rare earth elements (REE) as well as strontium and sulfur isotopes to assess their source and origin as well as the origin of host iron ores. Barite samples from the three types are characterized by low ΣREE contents ranging between 12 and 21 ppm. Disseminated barite shows relatively lower ΣREE contents (12 ppm) compared to the fragmented (19 ppm) and interstitial (21 ppm) barites. This is probably due to the relatively higher Fe2O3 in the disseminated barite that might dilute its ΣREE content. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the three barite mineralizations exhibit enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE) as shown by the high (La/Yb)N ratios that range between 14 and 45 as well as pronounced negative Ce anomalies varying between 0.03 and 0.18. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the analyzed samples vary between 0.707422 and 0.712237. These 87Sr/86Sr values are higher than the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the seawater at the time of barite formation (Middle Eocene with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70773 to 0.70778) suggesting a contribution of hydrothermal fluid of high Sr isotope ratios. The δ34S values in the analyzed barites range between 14.39‰ and 18.92‰. The lower δ34S ratios in the studied barites compared with those of the seawater at the time of barite formation (Middle Eocene with δ34S ratios of 20-22‰) is attributed to a

  1. Preparation and characterization of novel glass-ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-03-01

    A novel glass-ceramic tile consisting of one glass-ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73-99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass-ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn2+0.17Fe3+0.83)[Fe3+1.17Fe2+0.06Ni2+0.77]O4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass-ceramic layer at frequency of 2-18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of -17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass-ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption.

  2. Removal of phosphorus-rich phase from high-phosphorous iron ore by melt separation at 1573 K in a super-gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jin-tao; Guo, Lei; Zhong, Yi-wei; Ren, Hong-ru; Guo, Zhan-cheng

    2016-07-01

    A new approach of removing the phosphorus-rich phase from high-phosphorous iron ore by melt separation at 1573 K in a super- gravity field was investigated. The iron-slag separation by super-gravity resulted in phosphorus being effectively removed from the iron-rich phase and concentrated as a phosphorus-rich phase at a temperature below the melting point of iron. The samples obtained by super-gravity exhibited obvious layered structures. All the iron grains concentrated at the bottom of the sample along the super-gravity direction, whereas the molten slag concentrated in the upper part of the sample along the opposite direction. Meanwhile, fine apatite crystals collided and grew into larger crystals and concentrated at the slag-iron interface. Consequently, in the case of centrifugation with a gravity coefficient of G = 900, the mass fractions of the slag phase and iron-rich phase were similar to their respective theoretical values. The mass fraction of MFe in the iron-rich phase was as high as 97.77wt% and that of P was decreased to 0.092wt%.

  3. Effect of Addition of Mill Scale on Sintering of Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng; Monaghan, Brian J.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Webster, Nathan A. S.; Rogers, Harold; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-06-01

    Iron-rich (65 to 70 pct total Fe) mill scale generated during processing by steel mills can be recycled by using it as a ferrous raw material in the sintering process. The effect of mill scale addition on the phase formation of sintered specimens from an industrial sinter blend containing 0 to 15 wt pct mill scale was examined, and the mineral phases formed during sintering under various conditions (T = 1523 K to 1598 K [1250 °C to 1325 °C] and gas compositions of pO2 = 0.5, 5 and 21 kPa) were quantitatively measured. For samples sintered in air (pO2 = 21 kPa), there was negligible effect of mill scale addition on the phases formed. The oxidation of the mill scale was complete, and phases such as Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA), SFCA-I, and hematite dominated. Under lower oxygen partial pressures (pO2 = 0.5 or 5 kPa), and throughout the temperature range examined, the mill scale was converted to magnetite, with the extent of reaction controlled by the hematite-magnetite conversion kinetics. When sintered in the gas mixture with pO2 = 5 kPa, an increase in the mill scale content from 0 to 15 wt pct resulted in a decrease of hematite and total SFCA phases and a corresponding increase in the amount of magnetite which formed. The oxidation of wustite in mill scale to magnetite decreased the local partial pressure of O2 and increased sintering temperature, which promoted the decomposition of hematite.

  4. Effective adsorption of phosphate from wastewaters by big composite pellets made of reduced steel slag and iron ore concentrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjuan; Shen, Shaobo; Liu, Longhui; Ji, Yilong; Wang, Fuming

    2015-01-01

    In order to remove phosphate from wastewater, a large plastic adsorption column filled with big phosphate-adsorbing pellets with diameters of 10 mm, heated by electromagnetic induction coils, was conceived. It was found that the prepared big pellets, which were made of reduced steel slag and iron ore concentrate, contain magnetic Fe and Fe3O4. The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of phosphate from synthetic wastewaters on the pellets were studied in this work. The phosphate adsorption on the pellets followed three models of Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevick. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity Qmax of the pellets were 2.46, 2.74 and 2.77 mg/g for the three temperatures of 20°C, 30°C and 40°C, respectively, based on the Langmuir model. The apparent adsorption energies were -12.9 kJ/mol for the three temperatures. It implied that ion exchange was the main mechanism involved in the adsorption processes. The adsorbed phosphate existed on the pellet surface mainly in the form of Fe3(PO4)2. A reduction pre-treatment of the pellet precursor with H2 greatly enhanced pellet adsorption for phosphate. The adsorption kinetics is better represented by a pseudo-first-order model. The adsorbed phosphate amounts were similar for both real and synthetic wastewaters under similar adsorption conditions. The percentage of adsorbed phosphate for a real wastewater increased with increasing pellet concentration and reached 99.2% at a pellet concentration of 64 (g/L). Some specific phosphate adsorption mechanisms for the pellets were revealed and the pellets showed the potential to efficiently adsorb phosphate from a huge amount of real wastewaters in an industrial scale. PMID:26038973

  5. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. PMID:27043380

  6. Application of the genetic algorithm to estimate the parameters related to the kinetics of the reduction of the iron ore, coal mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Roy, G.G.

    2005-12-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to calculate the kinetic parameters associated with reduction of ore-coal composite mixtures and to describe the time course of reduction of hematite to iron. The empirical parameters, namely, the three sets of activation energies and frequency factors, have been estimated by employing an evolutionary optimization tool, the genetic algorithm (GA). The model prediction matches well with the experimental literature data. The estimated activation energies are higher than the corresponding intrinsic values, indicating the role of heat transfer in the process.

  7. Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Organic Amendments to Enhance Growth of Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Müll. Arg. in Iron Ore Mine Wastelands.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cassie R; Rodrigues, Bernard F

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga peltata (Roxb.) Mull. Arg. is a disturbance tolerant plant species with potential in mine wasteland reclamation. Our study aims at studying the phyto-extraction potential of M. peltata and determining plant-soil interaction factors effecting plant growth in iron ore mine spoils. Plants were grown in pure mine spoil and spoil amended with Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) along with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Rhizophagus irregularis. Pure and amended mine spoils were evaluated for nutrient status. Plant growth parameters and foliar nutrient contents were determined at the end of one year. FYM amendment in spoil significantly increased plant biomass compared to pure mine spoil and VC amended spoil. Foliar Fe accumulation was recorded highest (594.67 μg/g) in pure spoil with no mortality but considerably affecting plant growth, thus proving to exhibit phyto-extraction potential. FYM and VC amendments reduced AM colonization (30.4% and 37% resp.) and plants showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency (-30.35 and -39.83 resp.). Soil pH and P levels and, foliar Fe accumulation are major factors determining plant growth in spoil. FYM amendment was found to be superior to VC as a spoil amendment for hastening plant growth and establishment in iron ore mine spoil. PMID:25495939

  8. Regional prospecting for iron ores in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area, Egypt, using LANDSAT-1 satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New discoveries of iron deposits were registered as a result of the LANDSAT imagery, and the conditions of the already known iron deposits and occurrences were regionally connected and verified.

  9. Silico-ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) Iron Ore Sinter Bonding Phases: New Insights into Their Formation During Heating and Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter phases during heating and cooling of synthetic iron ore sinter mixtures in the range 298 K to 1623 K (25 °C to 1350 °C) and at oxygen partial pressure of 5 × 10-3 atm has been characterized using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. SFCA and SFCA-I are the key bonding phases in iron ore sinter, and an improved understanding of their formation mechanisms may lead to improved efficiency of industrial sintering processes. During heating, SFCA-I formation at 1327 K to 1392 K (1054 °C to 1119 °C) (depending on composition) was associated with the reaction of Fe2O3, 2CaO·Fe2O3, and SiO2. SFCA formation (1380 K to 1437 K [1107 °C to 1164 °C]) was associated with the reaction of CaO·Fe2O3, SiO2, and a phase with average composition 49.60, 9.09, 0.14, 7.93, and 32.15 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. Increasing Al2O3 concentration in the starting sinter mixture increased the temperature range over which SFCA-I was stable before the formation of SFCA, and it stabilized SFCA to a higher temperature before it melted to form a Fe3O4 + melt phase assemblage (1486 K to 1581 K [1213 °C to 1308 °C]). During cooling, the first phase to crystallize from the melt (1452 K to 1561 K [1179 °C to 1288 °C]) was an Fe-rich phase, similar in composition to SFCA-I, and it had an average composition 58.88, 6.89, 0.82, 3.00, and 31.68 wt pct Fe, Ca, Si, Al, and O, respectively. At lower temperatures (1418 K to 1543 K [1145 °C to 1270 °C]), this phase reacted with melt to form SFCA. Increasing Al2O3 increased the temperature at which crystallization of the Fe-rich phase occurred, increased the temperature at which crystallization of SFCA occurred, and suppressed the formation of Fe2O3 (1358 K to 1418 K [1085 °C to 1145 °C]) to lower temperatures.

  10. Desilicification and iron activation-reprecipitation in the high-grade magnetite ores in BIFs of the Anshan-Benxi area, China: Evidence from geology, geochemistry and stable isotopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Li, Li-Xing; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Yao, Tong; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The high-grade magnetite ores related to banded iron formations (BIFs) in the Anshan-Benxi area, Liaoning Province in China, have been widely interpreted as the product of replacement of protore by epigenetic hydrothermal fluids. The high-grade iron ore reserves in the mining area II (164 million tons) in the Gongchangling (G2) and Qidashan-Wangjiabuzi (QW) iron deposits (11.45 million tons) are the largest deposits in the Anshan-Benxi area. We present a detailed comparison of the geology, geochemical and stable isotopic compositions of the iron ores in the G2 with those in the QW to constrain the role of desilicification and iron activation-reprecipitation in converting the BIFs to high-grade magnetite ores. These two deposits show marked difference in wall-rock alteration, geochemical features, and oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions. Wall-rock alteration in the G2 is characterized by garnetization, actinolitization, and chloritization, whereas the QW shows chloritization, biotitization and sericitization. The geochemistry of altered rocks in the G2 is characterized by slight REE fractionation, positive Eu and no significant Ce anomalies, whereas the QW is characterized by high ΣREE contents, strong REE fractionation, and the absence of significant Eu and Ce anomalies. High-grade iron ores in the G2 show similar δ18OV-SMOW values for magnetite, lower δ18OV-SMOW values for quartz and higher δ34SV-CDT values for pyrite when compared to the BIFs, whereas the QW shows lower δ18OV-SMOW values for magnetite, similar δ18OV-SMOW values for quartz and similar δ34SV-CDT values for pyrite. These features indicate that desilicification process by hypogene alkaline-rich hydrothermal fluids were possibly responsible for the formation of high-grade iron ores in the G2 whereas iron activation-reprecipitation process by migmatitic-hydrothermal fluids generated the high-grade iron orebodies in QW.

  11. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  12. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel from ore samples by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) as complexing reagent.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muhammed Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of dioxouranium(VI), iron(III), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), cobalt(III), palladium(II), and thorium(IV) by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) (H(2)SA(2)en) as a complexing reagent with total runtime <4.5 min. SDS was used as micellar medium at pH 8 with sodium tetraborate buffer (0.1 M). An uncoated fused-silica capillary with an effective length of 50 cm x 75 microm id was used with an applied voltage of 30 kV with photodiode array detection at 231 nm. Linear calibrations were obtained within 0.111-1000 microg/mL of each element with LODs within 37-325 ng/mL. The developed method was tested for analysis of uranium ore samples indicating its presence within 103-1789 microg/g with RSD within 0.79-1.87%. Likewise copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were also simultaneously determined with RSD 0.4-1.6% (n = 6). PMID:18186535

  13. Reductive dechlorination of organochlorine pesticides in soils from an abandoned manufacturing facility by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nandong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Keji; Li, Fasheng

    2010-07-15

    Several experiments and a model were constructed using conventional granular zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles as the reducing agent to study the reductive dechlorination characteristics of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in soils from a former pesticide-manufacturing site. The results showed that ZVI had good ability for the reductive dechlorination for both HCHs and DDTs. The reductive dechlorination of HCHs and DDTs proceeded at different rates. The pseudo first-order constants of HCHs were greater than those of DDTs. The reductive dechlorination rates in a descending order were gamma-HCH>delta-HCH>beta-HCH>alpha-HCH>o,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDE. To discuss the major influential factors over the reductive dechlorination rates of HCHs and DDTs by ZVI, 22 quantum chemical descriptors were computed with the density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G() level, which characterizes different molecular structures and physicochemical properties of HCHs and DDTs. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (LFER) model was established, which correlates the reductive dechlorination properties of pollutants with their structural descriptors. Using the partial least squares (PLS) analysis, an optimal two-parameter LFER model was established. q(+) and q(Cl)(-) were more important factors in determining the dechlorination rate of OCPs in the chemical reductive reaction. This optimal model was stable and had good predictability. The model study also showed that the coefficient value of q(+) was 0.511, which positively correlated with the reductive dechlorination rate constant, whereas q(Cl)(-) was negatively correlated with it. The reductive dechlorination rate of pollutants appears to be limited mainly by the rate of dissolution in the aqueous phase. This model can be used to explain the degradation potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and the trend of residues changing during the soil remediation. Therefore, the study is of

  14. Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  15. Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

  16. Petrogenesis of Permian A-type granitoids in the Cihai iron ore district, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Constraints on the timing of iron mineralization and implications for a non-plume tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Chai, Fengmei; Yang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    The geochronology and geochemistry of granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China provide important constraints on the timing of iron mineralization, as well as in understanding evolution history of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here we present results from a detailed study on granitoid rocks from the Cihai iron ore district in the Beishan region, southern part of the Eastern Tianshan. The granitoid rocks are composed of granodiorite, quartz monzonite, granite, and monzonite. Zircon U-Pb analyses yielded the ages of 294.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 286.5 ± 0.7 Ma, 284.3 ± 3.3 Ma, and 265.6 ± 3.0 Ma, respectively, suggesting they were formed in Early-Middle Permian. Among these granitoid rocks, the ages of quartz monzonite and granite are close to the timing of iron mineralization (~ 282 Ma), indicating they may provide a source of iron in the Cihai ore district. Geochemically, the granodiorite, granite, and quartz monzonite samples are characterized by high FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) and Ga/Al ratios (0.84-0.94 and 2.28-3.27, respectively), as well as high zircon saturation temperatures (781-908 °C), similar to those of typical A-type granitoids. Isotopically, they display consistently depleted Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = + 1.18 to + 15.37). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Cihai A-type granitoids were derived from melting of juvenile lower crust. Some Early Permian A-type granitoids were recently identified in the Tarim and Eastern Tianshan with the ages between 294 and 269 Ma. The A-type granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan formed earlier between 294-284 Ma and exhibit characteristics of A2 type granitoids, whereas the A-type granitoids in the Tarim formed later between 277-269 Ma and show A1 granitoids affinity. We suggest that the Permian Tarim mantle plume does not account for the formation of the A-type granitoids in the Eastern Tianshan area, and the Eastern Tianshan was in a non-plume tectonic setting during Early Permian

  17. [Solidification/Stabilization of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) Using Zero-Valent Iron and Lime-Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-lin; Li, Jin-chunzi; Wang, Bin-yuan; Fan, Lei-tao; Shen, Ji-min

    2015-08-01

    The solidification/stabilization (S/S) of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) was performed using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and lime-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the leaching procedure, mineral composition analysis and morphology analysis. Semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The results showed that after reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg x L(-1)), the compressive strength of all the S/S samples could meet the compressive strength standard (15 MPa) for producing clay bricks, and Cr existed as the specie that bound to Fe/Mn oxides in the S/S samples. At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:26592036

  18. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio <2.33) in the pellet, while bottom layer exceeded top layer reduction at higher carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio >2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen Gas Reduction of Iron Ore in a Packed Bed by an Euler-Lagrange Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Shungo; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, various methods to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from iron and steel making industries have been developed. The latest blast furnace operation design is intended to induce the low reducing agent operation, highly reactive material is considered a promising way to improve reaction efficiency. Another method utilizes hydrogen in the blast furnace process for highly efficient reduction. Mathematical modeling may help to predict complex in-furnace phenomena, including momentum, heat, and mass transport. However, the current macroscopic continuum model gives no information on the individual particles. In this work, a new approach based on the discrete element method was introduced to consider the interaction between particles under fluid flow in accordance with the arrangement and properties of individual particles. We used an Euler-Lagrange method to precisely understand the influence of the reaction conditions on the behavior of coke and ore particles in three dimensions. The heterogeneity of the reaction rate and temperature distribution was observed to be influenced by the particle arrangement. The endothermic and exothermic reactions influenced each other in the packed bed. Temperature distributions nearly correlated with the gas velocity distribution because convection processes greatly affected the reaction rate. Although convection heat transfer was not a dominant issue in the packed bed, promotion of the reaction by a gas flow was effective.

  20. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5 mg L(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg L(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of Mesoarchaean komatiites from the eastern Iron Ore belt, Singhbhum craton, India, and its similarity with 'Barberton type komatiite'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Trisrota; Mazumder, Rajat; Arima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoarchaean supracrustals of the Gorumahishani-Badampahar belt, eastern India record sedimentation-volcanism like most other contemporary greenstone belts over the world. The current study reports unambiguous komatiitic rocks from Tua-Dungri hill, Gorumahishani-Badampahar belt, Jharkhand and presents a petrological and geochemical inventory of these very interesting rocks. The Tua-Dungri komatiites are characterised by a well distinguishable cumulate, platy and random spinifex zone. These Tua-Dungri komatiites are rich in SiO2 (47-50 wt%) like Barberton type komatiite or modern day boninite. Their Al depleted nature (Al2O3 = 1.36-2.95 wt%) with very low Al2O3/TiO2 (3.4-6.5) and high CaO/Al2O3 (2-3), high LREE/HREE ratios show further resemblance with the Barberton komatiite. The Tua Dungri komatiite data along with published geochemical, sedimentological and stratigraphic data from the Iron Ore Group of rocks suggest mantle plume activity during the Mesoarchaean on the Singhbhum craton.

  2. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio <2.33) in the pellet, while bottom layer exceeded top layer reduction at higher carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio >2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  3. Voidage and pressure profile characteristics of sand-iron ore-coal-FCC single-particle systems in the riser of a pilot plant circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Meikap, B.C.; Saha, R.K.

    2008-06-15

    Hydrodynamic behaviors of single system of particles were investigated in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit. Particles belonging to Geldart groups A and B like sand of various sizes (90, 300, 417, 522, 599, and 622 mu m), FCC catalyst (120 mu m), iron ore (166 and 140 {mu} m), and coal (335 and 168 {mu} m) were used to study the hydrodynamic characteristics. Superficial air velocity used in the present study ranged between 2.01 and 4.681 m/s and corresponding mass fluxes were 12.5-50 kg/(m{sup 2} s). A CFB needs the creation of some special hydrodynamic conditions, namely a certain combination of superficial gas velocity, solids circulation rate, particle diameter, density of particle, etc. which can give rise to a state wherein the solid particles are subjected to an upward velocity greater than the terminal or free fall velocity of the majority of the individual particles. The hydrodynamics of the bed was investigated in depth and theoretical analysis is presented to support the findings. Based on gas-solid momentum balance in the riser, a distinction between apparent and real voidage has been made. The effects of acceleration and friction on the real voidage have been estimated. Results indicated a 0.995 voidage for higher superficial gas velocity of 4.681. m/s.

  4. Human Land Use and Land Abandonment Greatly Impacted Sedimentation Rates and Fluvial Styles Since the Iron Age in the Valdaine (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notebaert, B.; Berger, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present the Holocene time differentiated sediment budget for the Valdaine region (334 km²) and its main streams (Roubion and Jabron, totaling 610 km²). Sediment budget studies have been used previously in western and central Europe to quantify the changing sediment dynamics under climatic variations and changes in human land use. This study is one of the first attempts to quantify such Holocene sediment dynamics in southern Europe. We achieved a more detailed chronology than comparable European sediment budgets, by combining traditional geomorphology with geo-archaeological research. The results demonstrate that total colluvial deposition is high in comparison with catchments in temperate Europe, while alluvial deposition falls within the range of those other studies. High colluvial deposition values are explained by the long intensive land use in this region, combined with a Mediterranean climate. The temporal evolution of sediment deposition shows a pattern of three main deposition phases alternating with three phases of hillslope stability and valley incision. Intensive human land use in the lower fertile parts of the region is responsible for the deposition phases, while land abandonment caused hillslope stability and valley incision. The first major peaks in soil erosion occurred during the Iron Age and Roman Period, with rates about half as high as for the last 800 years. In addition to these variations in sedimentation rates, there occurred also major variations in sediment texture and fluvial style. During most of the Holocene rivers had a meandering pattern and deposited silty and clayey sediments. But major sedimentation peaks during the Roman Period and especially since the 12th century coincided with the establishment of a braided river and deposition of gravel and sand. These changes in river style demonstrate how the montane headwaters become an important sediment source. It remains an open question whether this is only related to

  5. Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of carbothermic reduction of iron oxides in ore-coal composite pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, K.; Lu, W.K.

    2009-02-15

    The kinetics of the carbothermic reduction of iron oxides in a composite pellet made of taconite concentrate and high-volatility coal has been studied by means of mathematical modeling that simultaneously takes into account the transfer rates of both the mass and the heat, and the rates of chemical reactions. The computational results, which have been validated with experimental data in the literature, confirm that the overall rate of the carbothermic reduction, which is strongly endothermic, is limited by heat-transfer steps. From a kinetics viewpoint, the optimum composition of the composite pellet is approximately in accordance with the stoichiometry, when CO is assumed to be the sole oxide of carbon in the gas. To raise the temperature of the pellet from its ambient value to furnace temperature, the heat required is greater than that needed for sustaining all chemical reactions, including the Boudouard reaction. The gaseous product consists mainly of CO and H{sub 2}, except in the very initial stage. The overall observable reaction rate, in terms of the volumetric rate of the generation of gases, peaks at approximately 30 seconds of reaction time.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of the Kinetics of Carbothermic Reduction of Iron Oxides in Ore-Coal Composite Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kang; Lu, W.-K.

    2009-02-01

    The kinetics of the carbothermic reduction of iron oxides in a composite pellet made of taconite concentrate and high-volatility coal has been studied by means of mathematical modeling that simultaneously takes into account the transfer rates of both the mass and the heat, and the rates of chemical reactions. The computational results, which have been validated with experimental data in the literature, confirm that the overall rate of the carbothermic reduction, which is strongly endothermic, is limited by heat-transfer steps. From a kinetics viewpoint, the optimum composition of the composite pellet is approximately in accordance with the stoichiometry, when CO is assumed to be the sole oxide of carbon in the gas. To raise the temperature of the pellet from its ambient value to furnace temperature, the heat required is greater than that needed for sustaining all chemical reactions, including the Boudouard reaction. The gaseous product consists mainly of CO and H2, except in the very initial stage. The overall observable reaction rate, in terms of the volumetric rate of the generation of gases, peaks at approximately 30 seconds of reaction time.

  7. Ore and coal beneficiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Abadi, K.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for the separation of iron pyrite from a pulverized mineral ore comprising iron pyrites as a first constituent and a second constituent selected from the group consisting of coal and non-ferrous metal ores by air froth flotation of an aqueous pulp of the pulverized mineral ore. The improvement comprises incorporating in the pulp from about 0.02 to about 1 pound per ton of mineral of a composition comprising hydroxyacetic acid, xanthan gum, sodium silicate, and water wherein the acid content of the composition is from about 0.1 to about 69 percent by weight of the composition, the xanthan gum is from about 0.01 to about 10 percent by weight of the composition; and the ratio by weight of sodium silicate to hydroxyacetic acid is in the range of from about 0 to about 0.5.

  8. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  9. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. Methods The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s2)], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. Results More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = −0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = –1.135, SE = 0.235). Conclusion Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system. PMID:26929838

  10. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the Cr K edge, showed that the % Cr(VI) in the COPR dropped from 26% to a minimum of 4–7% by the addition of 5% w/w BnM or 2% w/w nZVI, with higher additions unable to reduce the remaining Cr(VI). The treated materials exhibited minimal re-mobilization of soluble Cr(VI) by re-equilibration with atmospheric oxygen, with the bulk of the Cr remaining in the solid fraction. Both nanoparticles exhibited a considerable

  11. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    pillowed basalts, sulfidized interpillow sediments could not be oxidized completely. The texture of the goethitic iron ore (as an interpillow sediment) is network-like and dentritic, which is very similar to the iron-oxidic and microbial textured sediments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The dendritic iron-oxide-hydroxide particles which were involved in this study are not hollow and exceed the size-domain characteristic for bacterial products. However, in some cases hollow- and tube-like particles having a diameter of 1.2-1.5 μm can refer to the activity of the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix iron-oxidizer bacterial group.

  12. On-line iron-ore slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrette, Louis; Turmel, Simon

    2001-06-01

    Chemical composition of iron-ore pellets has a significant impact on their quality and commercial value. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been extensively tested on line, at industrial pelletizing plants. It proved successful at measuring Si, Ca, Mg, Al and graphitic C contents of different iron-ore slurries prior to filtration and pelletizing. For this specific application, the sensitivity of the technique compares with the one obtained from dedicated chemical laboratories. But the real advantage of LIBS technique is that the results are delivered continuously and in real time compared to periodic sampling and standard analytical delays of more than 1 h. Consequently, LIBS gives a more representative reading of the state of the process — particularly when rapid perturbations occur — and allows process optimization and quality improvement. In this work, special attention was given to the fact that the detection system, with specific settings, gives direct measurement for either graphitic carbon (coke breeze) or total carbon (coke breeze, flux and natural carbonate). Graphitic carbon content is a key parameter for both the pellet production cost and its final commercial value. LIBS is a sensitive technique that can detect small variations. But matrix effects affect the spectral lines and it is sometimes difficult to establish universal calibration curve. This problem is partially overcome by the use of a multivariable calibration that corrects for matrix effects and evaluates a confidence level based on expertise for each measurement. Current research is aimed at the development of commercial equipment for continuous industrial use.

  13. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  14. IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

  15. Geochemistry of the furnace magnetite bed, Franklin, New Jersey, and the relationship between stratiform iron oxide ores and stratiform zinc oxide-silicate ores in the New Jersey highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Skinner, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Highlands terrace, which is an exposure of the Middle Proterozoic Grenville orogenic belt located in northeastern United States, contains stratiform zinc oxide-silicate deposits at Franklin and Sterling Hill and numerous massive magnetite deposits. The origins of the zinc and magnetite deposits have rarely been considered together, but a genetic link is suggested by the occurrence of the Furnace magnetite bed and small magnetite lenses immediately beneath the Franklin zinc deposit. The Furnace bed was metamorphosed and deformed along with its enclosing rocks during the Grenvillian orogeny, obscuring the original mineralogy and obliterating the original rock fabrics. The present mineralogy is manganiferous magnetite plus calcite. Trace hydrous silicates, some coexisting with fluorite, have fluorine contents that are among the highest ever observed in natural assemblages. Furnace bed calcite has ??13C values of -5 ?? 1 per mil relative to Peedee belemnite (PDB) and ??18O values of 11 to 20 per mil relative to Vienna-standard mean ocean water (VSMOW). The isotopic compositions do not vary as expected for an original siderite layer that decarbonated during metamorphism, but they are consistent with nearly isochemical metamorphism of an iron oxide + calcite protolith that is chemically and minerlogically similar to iron-rich sediments found near the Red Sea brine pools and isotopically similar to Superior-type banded iron formations. Other magniferous magnite + calcite bodies occur at approximately the same stratigraphic position as far 50 km from the zinc deposits. A model is presented in which the iron and zinc deposits formed along the western edge of a Middle Proterozoic marine basin. Zinc was transported by sulfate-stable brines and was precipitated under sulfate-stable conditions as zincian carbonates and Fe-Mn-Zn oxides and silicates. Whether the zincian assemblages settled from the water column or formed by replacement reactions in shallowly

  16. Quantification and analysis of geomorphic processes on a recultivated iron ore mine on the Italian island Elba using long-time ground-based LIDAR and photogrammetric data by an UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, F.; Hilger, L.; Neugirg, F.; Umstädter, K.; Breitung, C.; Fischer, P.; Hilger, P.; Heckmann, T.; Dusik, J.; Kaiser, A.; Schmidt, J.; Della Seta, M.; Rosenkranz, R.; Becht, M.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims on the quantification and analysis of geomorphic processes on the barely vegetated slopes of a recultivated iron ore mine on the Italian island Elba using Terrestrial Lasercanning (TLS) and digital photogrammetry by UAV photographs over a period of 5 1/2 years. Beside this the study tried to work out the potential and the limitations of both methods to detect surface changes by geomorphic process dynamic within a natural environment. Both, UAV and TLS show the pattern of the erosion and accumulation processes on the investigated slope quite well, but the calculated amounts differ clearly between the methods. The reasons for these differences could be found in the different accuracies (variable level of detections) of the methods and the different viewing geometries. Both effects have an impact on the detectable process dynamic over different time scales on the slope and their calculated amounts, which in both cases can lead to an underestimation of erosion and accumulation by fluvial processes.

  17. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  18. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  19. Hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope systematics of the Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil): Implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, Ignacio; Xavier, Roberto Perez; Bortholoto, Diego F. A.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.

    2012-03-01

    The Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit (170 Mt at 1.0 wt.% Cu, 0.3 g/t Au) lies in the southern sector of the Itacaúnas Shear Belt, Carajás Mineral Province, along a WNW-ESE-striking, 60-km-long shear zone, close to the contact of the ~2.76-Ga metavolcano-sedimentary Itacaiúnas Supergroup and the basement (~3.0 Ga Xingu Complex). The Alvo 118 deposit is hosted by mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks and crosscutting granitoid and gabbro intrusions that have been subjected to the following hydrothermal alteration sequence towards the ore zones: (1) poorly developed sodic alteration (albite and scapolite); (2) potassic alteration (biotite or K-feldspar) accompanied by magnetite formation and silicification; (3) widespread, pervasive chlorite alteration spatially associated with quartz-carbonate-sulphide infill ore breccia and vein stockworks; and (4) local post-ore quartz-sericite alteration. The ore assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite (~60%), bornite (~10%), hematite (~20%), magnetite (10%) and subordinate chalcocite, native gold, Au-Ag tellurides, galena, cassiterite, F-rich apatite, xenotime, monazite, britholite-(Y) and a gadolinite-group mineral. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz point to a fluid regime composed of two distinct fluid types that may have probably coexisted within the timeframe of the Cu-Au mineralizing episode: a hot (>200°C) saline (32.8‰ to 40.6 wt.% NaCl eq.) solution, represented by salt-bearing aqueous inclusions, and a lower temperature (<200°C), low to intermediate salinity (<15 wt.% NaCl eq.) aqueous fluid defined by two-phase (LH2O + VH2O) fluid inclusions. This trend is very similar to those defined for other IOCG systems of the Carajás Mineral Province. δ 18OH2O values in equilibrium with calcite (-1.0‰ to 7.5‰ at 277°C to 344°C) overlap the lower range for primary magmatic waters, but the more 18O-depleted values also point to the involvement of externally derived fluids, possibly of meteoric origin

  20. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  1. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... organ failure, coma, convulsions, and death. Child-proof packaging and warning labels on iron supplements have greatly ... levodopa that the body absorbs, making it less effective. Levodopa, found in Sinemet® and Stalevo®, is used ...

  2. Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

  3. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  4. A communication and monitoring system for an underground coal mine, iron ore mine, and deep underground silver mine. Open file report Jun 73-Mar 78

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, A.A.; Collins, R.L.; Michels, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Advanced communication and monitoring systems were developed and demonstrated in three underground mines representing different mining techniques, geographical areas, and material mined. The first was a large coal mine in western Pennsylvania using room-and-pillar techniques and continuous mining methods. The system developed provided private telephone channels, environmental monitoring, and control of underground equipment, all on a single coaxial cable, with all system operations under the direction of a minicomputer. The second was a magnetite ore mine in eastern Pennsylvania that used block caving mining techniques. A radio system was developed that provided two-way communications between trackless vehicles and roving personnel. A unique system of uhf-vhf repeaters combined with a 'leaky-feeder' transmission line offered operational and emergency features not previously found in mine communication systems. The third was a deep silver mine in the Cour d'Alene district of Idaho. This system utilizes a single wire pair to provide up to 14 voice channels. A combination of PBX, telephone carrier systems, and intercoms offered private conversations, selective signaling, and emergency backup communications.

  5. Quantification and analysis of geomorphic processes on a recultivated iron ore mine on the Italian island of Elba using long-term ground-based lidar and photogrammetric SfM data by a UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Florian; Hilger, Ludwig; Neugirg, Fabian; Umstädter, Kathrin; Breitung, Christian; Fischer, Peter; Hilger, Paula; Heckmann, Tobias; Dusik, Jana; Kaiser, Andreas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Della Seta, Marta; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Becht, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the quantification and analysis of geomorphic processes on the barely vegetated slopes of a recultivated iron ore mine on the Italian island of Elba using photographs from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and digital photogrammetry by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a period of 5 1/2 years. Beside this, the study tried to work out the potential and the limitations of both methods to detect surface changes by geomorphic process dynamics within a natural environment. Both UAV and TLS show the pattern of the erosion and accumulation processes on the investigated slope quite well, but the calculated amounts differ clearly between the methods. The reasons for these differences could be found in the different accuracies (variable level of detections) of the methods and the different viewing geometries. Both effects have an impact on the detectable process dynamics over different timescales on the slope and their calculated amounts, which in both cases can lead to an underestimation of erosion and accumulation by fluvial processes.

  6. Carbothermal Reductive Upgrading of a Bauxite Ore Using Microwave Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Pickles, C. A.; Kelebek, S.

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of microwave radiation as the energy source for the carbothermal reductive upgrading of a bauxite ore was investigated. The bauxite ore was mechanically mixed with carbon and reacted in a quartz crucible in a multimode cavity. The iron oxide in the bauxite ore was reduced to magnetite and/or iron and the magnetic fraction was separated using a Davis Tube Tester. Three experimental arrangements were utilized: (i) microwaving of the mixture, (ii) microwaving of the mixture plus charcoal layers under ambient conditions and (iii) microwaving of the mixture plus charcoal layers in argon. The utilization of the charcoal layers resulted in more uniform heating of the sample. The effects of irradiation time, sample mass and incident power on the mass of the magnetic fraction were determined. Both the iron and the aluminum contents of the magnetic fraction were measured and using these values, the iron removal from the bauxite ore and the alumina recovery in the non-magnetic fraction were calculated. It was shown that under mildly reducing conditions, almost half of the iron could be removed as magnetite. However, the formation of hercynite limited the iron separation as magnetite and higher iron removals could only be achieved through the formation of metallic iron under more highly reducing conditions.

  7. [Periodic bioleaching of refractory gold-bearing pyrite ore].

    PubMed

    Vardanian, N S; Nagdalian, S Z

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristics of a periodic bioleaching of the refractory gold-bearing pyrite ore from the Tandzut deposit (Armenia) with the help of moderate thermophilic bacterium Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxi-dans subsp. asporogenes and original thermotolerant strains Leptospirillum spp. were studied. The optimal pH for oxidizing the ore by S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes was 1.8; the pulp density providing maximal iron leaching rate was 10%. The intensity of oxidation processes decreased at higher ore concentrations. When using S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes, the largest amount of iron passed into the solution at the initial oxidant (Fe3+) concentration of 1.3 g/l. Cocultivation of S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes and Leptospirillum spp. increased the degree of pyrite ore leaching to 98.4% vs. 34.1% in the case of the former bacterium alone. PMID:19764614

  8. 25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.11 New leases where prior leases... zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases... to the highest bidder. If the lead and zinc mining lease on said land be offered for sale at...

  9. 25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.11 New leases where prior leases... zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases... to the highest bidder. If the lead and zinc mining lease on said land be offered for sale at...

  10. 25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.11 New leases where prior leases... zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases... to the highest bidder. If the lead and zinc mining lease on said land be offered for sale at...

  11. 25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.11 New leases where prior leases... zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases... to the highest bidder. If the lead and zinc mining lease on said land be offered for sale at...

  12. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS ABANDONED MINE LAND REMEDIATION WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  13. LAND REBORN: TOOLS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY/NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ABANDONED MINE LAND PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining activities in the US (not counting coal) produce 1-2 billion tons of mine waste annually. Since many of the ore mines involve sulfide minerals, the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common problem from these abandoned mine sites. The combination of acidity, heavy...

  14. 25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.11 New leases where prior leases... zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases... to the highest bidder. If the lead and zinc mining lease on said land be offered for sale at...

  15. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of

  16. The F'derik-Zouerate iron district: Mesoarchean and Paleoproterozoic iron formation of the Tiris Complex, Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Finn, Carol A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Joud, Mohamed; Taleb Mohamed, Ahmed; Horton, John D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade hematitic iron ores (of HIF, containing 60-65 wt%Fe) have been mined in Mauritania since 1952 from Superior-type iron deposits of the F'derik-Zouerate district.  Depletion of the high-grade ores in recent years has resulted in new exploration projects focused on lower-grade magnetite ores occurring in Algoma-type banded iron formation (of BIF, containing ca. 35 wt% Fe).  Mauritania is the seventeenth largest iron producer in the world and currently has about 1.1 Gt of crude iron ore reserves. 

  17. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In the Early Cretaceous, the continental rift basin of the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary), was situated on the southern edge of the European plate. The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean created a dilatational regime that expanded to the southern edge of the European plate, where several extensional basins and submarine volcanoes were formed during the Early Cretaceous epoch. Permanent seaquake activity caused high swell events during which a large amount of terrestrial wood fragments entered into submarine canyons from rivers or suspended woods which had sunk into the deep seafloor. These fragments created extended wood-fall deposits which contributed large-scale flourishing of numerous burrowing thalassinid crustaceans. Twelve different thalassinid coprolite ichnospecies can be found in the Berriasian-Hauterivian volcano-sedimentary formations. According to the seladonitic crustacean burrows which associated with framboidal pyrite containing Zoophycos and Chondrites ichnofossils (i.e. a "fodinichnia" trace fossil association), the bottom water was aerobic and the pore water was anaerobic; in the latter sulfate reduction occurred. The preservation of wood fragments around thalassinid burrows can be explained by rapid sedimentation related to turbidity currents. Due to the low temperature hydrothermal circulations of seawater, large amounts of iron were released from intrusive, pillowed basaltic sills; these sills intruded into soft, water-saturated sediments containing large amounts of thalassinid excrement. In the coprolites can be found idiomorphic mineral particles originating from the basalts, and coprolites can often be found in peperitic interpillow sediments. This indicates that the life-activity of the decapoda crustaceans in many Lower Cretaceous occurrences initially preceded the first magmatic eruptions. The paroxysm of the rift volcanism took place during the Valanginian age, when some submarine volcanoes emerged above sea level, reaching a maximum height of

  18. Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassandrov, E. G.; Mazurov, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    The first data on the mineral composition and formation conditions of manganese ore at the Chapsordag and Malosyrsky deposits in the Askiz ore district of Khakassia are integrated and systematized. The detailed mineralogical mapping of the deposits has been carried out. The identification of minerals and examination of the ore microstructure were performed with optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light and using SEM/EDS, EMPA, XRD, IRS, and other methods. It was established that the ore mineralization is spatially and genetically related to the Early Devonian magmatism and accompanying hydrothermal activity and metasomatism. Syngenetic braunite was detected for the first time in elevated amounts reaching an economic level in the devitrified groundmass of volcanic rocks, in cement of lava breccia, and in fragments in pyroclastic rocks. By analogy with iron deposits, this magmatogenic type of manganese mineralization is regarded as ore lavas and tuffs combined with metasomatic and hydrothermal mineral assemblages into a strata-bound orebearing complex and as a source of hydrothermal metasomatic ore. The elevated Mn content in magmatic melts of the Early Devonian trachybasalt-trachyandesite-trachydacite association is caused by assimilation of Riphean and Lower Cambrian high-Mn carbonate sequences in crustal magma chambers. In contours of economic orebodies, the hydrothermal economic ore is recognized as sites of massive, patchy and impregnated, brecciated, stringer-disseminated, and disseminated varieties. High-grade massive ore occurs as stratiform and branching bodies up to 1.5 m thick and a few tens of meters long and as smaller pocketlike bodies. Braunite and pyrolusite (polianite) are major ore minerals varying in size, degree of crystallinity, and character of intergrowths with associating minerals. Gangue minerals include carbonates, sulfates, albite, quartz, chlorite, actinolite, piemontite, and okhotskite, a Mn-pumpellyite identified in Russia

  19. Assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Mihyang; Choi, Yosoon

    2013-04-01

    Currently, about 84% of mining sites in Korea are abandoned after mine closure. Therefore, there is deep public concern about usage of the abandoned mining sites. This study presents a new idea to use the abandoned mines as wind power plants. An assessment of wind energy potential at abandoned mining sites in Korea was performed. The Gangwon province was selected as a study area because it has abundant wind resource as well as many abandoned mines. For the abandoned mines, both electric power production and economic effects were analyzed using RETScreen software. As a result, we revealed that the Sewon iron mine can produce 1.76 MWh per year. Other 46 mining sites that have high wind energy potential were determined and proposed in this study.

  20. The Abandonment of Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Bryant

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether the social studies should be abandoned. Discusses Kieran Egan's analysis of the importance of storytelling and Egan's proposal to abandon the social studies curriculum in favor of a pedagogy more consistent with the way children think. Critiques Egan's view and examines implications for educators. (SG)

  1. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  2. 38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE GEORGE M. CARL.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE 'GEORGE M. CAR.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-38, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40.) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. Extraction of copper from an oxidized (lateritic) ore using bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution.

    PubMed

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined. PMID:24687752

  5. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    1992-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  6. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF... SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall be abandoned on the sites. Property abandoned in violation of the regulations in this part may be...

  7. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  8. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  9. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  10. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  11. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facilities to be abandoned. (5) For any abandonment resulting in earth disturbance, a USGS 71/2-minute-series... abandoned; (3) The accounting treatment of the facilities abandoned; and (4) The date earth disturbance, if... the agreements obtained pursuant to § 157.206(b)(3), if earth disturbance was involved....

  12. Ore-fluid evolution at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cline, J.S.; Hofstra, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    deposited gold-enriched pyrite and jasperoid quartz. Gold and pyrite precipitated together as H2S in the ore fluids reacted with iron in the host rocks. As ore fluids mixed with local aquifer fluids, ore fluids became cooler and more dilute. Cooling caused precipitation of ore-stage fluorite and orpiment, and late ore-stage realgar. Phase separation and/or neutralization of the ore fluid during the waning stages of the hydrothermal ore system led to deposition of late ore-stage calcite.

  13. The genesis of ores

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport-by magma, water and even air and wind-responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history. From their formation to their modification at the surface of the earth, ore deposits are geologically transitory and reflect dynamic processes within the earth as well as atmospheric and climatic influences on hydrologic systems. As highly reactive supracrustal systems, they then serve as geochemical sensors providing a powerful record and set of tracer elements for deducing the history, transport paths and forces operative in the crust.

  14. Hauling urban ore

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, P.A. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that during the last few years, many railroads have viewed this country's growing MSW disposal problem as mountains of urban ore, referring to the potential revenues in its transportation. Much to the chagrin of the railroads, however, few endeavors to mine this new market have panned out. The MSW disposal problem is most acute in the Northeast, where numerous urban landfills were due to close early this year. Unfortunately, large-scale mass movement of MSW by railroads in the Northeast have failed to materialize. At least one railroad in the West is actively transporting MSW via rail. On April 1, 1991, the Union Pacific (UP) began transporting MSW in double stack containers from Seattle, Wash., to a landfill in Arlington, Ore. Working with Washington Waste Systems, the UP upgraded part of its trackage and dedicated space and equipment to serve that city's disposal needs.

  15. Biomineralization of metal-containing ores and concentrates.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Dew, David; du Plessis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Biomining is the use of microorganisms to extract metals from sulfide and/or iron-containing ores and mineral concentrates. The iron and sulfide is microbially oxidized to produce ferric iron and sulfuric acid, and these chemicals convert the insoluble sulfides of metals such as copper, nickel and zinc to soluble metal sulfates that can be readily recovered from solution. Although gold is inert to microbial action, microbes can be used to recover gold from certain types of minerals because as they oxidize the ore, they open its structure, thereby allowing gold-solubilizing chemicals such as cyanide to penetrate the mineral. Here, we review a strongly growing microbially-based metal extraction industry, which uses either rapid stirred-tank or slower irrigation technology to recover metals from an increasing range of minerals using a diversity of microbes that grow at a variety of temperatures. PMID:12480349

  16. The biological leaching of an auriferous pyrite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Heimala, Seppo; Sivelä, Carita A.; Viguera, Felipe; Varjola, Irma; Niemelä, Seppo I.; Tuovinen, Olli H.

    1993-12-01

    The oxidation of an auriferous pyrite ore sample was evaluated in biological leaching experiments for subsequent gold recovery via cyanidation. In batch cultures, organisms derived from the mine site oxidized pyrite and ferrous iron at pH values as low as pH 0.6. The recovery of gold was variable in shake flask experiments. In stirred tank bioreactor leaching, gold recovery was proportional to the extent of iron dissolution by bioleaching. The leaching of arsenic from the sample was also directly proportional to iron dissolution.

  17. ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE MINES ABOVE AT THE RIDGELINE AND TO THE RIGHT WAS CONVEYED TO THIS AREA AND DUMPED INTO THE SHAFT AT CENTER. THIS SHAFT OPENS INTO THE ADIT AT BOTTOM CENTER. THERE IS ANOTHER SHAFT OPENING INTO THE ADIT JUST ABOVE THE ADIT BEHIND THE STONE WALL. THE ORE WAS LOADED INTO TRAM CARS INSIDE THE ADIT AND CONVEYED ON TRACKS TO THE TRESTLE LEADING TO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL. TRACKS CAN BE SEEN LEADING FROM THE ADIT AND TO THE LEFT. THE ORE WAS THEN DUMPED INTO A CHUTE AT THE END OF THE TRESTLE CARRYING IT INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL(SEE CHUTE ON CA-291-30). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Magnetic and flotation studies of banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) ore for the production of pellet grade concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B.; Mishra, B. K.; Prakash, S.; Das, S. K.; Reddy, P. S. R.; Angadi, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    To identify and establish beneficiation techniques for banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) iron ore, a comprehensive research on BHQ ore treatment was carried out. The BHQ ore was assayed as 38.9wt% Fe, 42.5wt% SiO2, and 1.0wt% Al2O3. In this ore, hematite and quartz are present as the major mineral phases where goethite, martite, and magnetite are present in small amounts. The liberation of hematite particles can be enhanced to about 82% by reducing the particle size to below 63 μm. The rejection of silica particles can be obtained by magnetic and flotation separation techniques. Overall, the BHQ ore can be enriched to 65.3wt% Fe at 61.9% iron recovery. A flowsheet has been suggested for the commercial exploitation of the BHQ ore.

  19. Remediation of abandoned mine discharges in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, C.L.; Fish, D.H.

    1999-07-01

    Abandoned deep mine discharges were responsible for high iron loadings into several streams in the Loyalhanna Creek watershed. A total of seven discharges with flow rates from 20 to 1240 gal/min were flowing into Four Mile Run near Latrobe, PA. The iron concentrations in these discharges averaged near 80 ppm. The pH, however, was near neutral due to contact with underground limestone deposits. The high iron concentrations had severely degraded the habitat of the streams including 22 miles of Loyalhanna Creek. Benthic macroinvertebrates are especially vulnerable to the deposition of iron in these streams. In 1993, the Loyalhanna Mine Drainage Coalition was formed to oversee the remediation of the AMD discharges affecting Loyalhanna Creek. During this time monthly monitoring of the discharges began. Then using the chemistry and flow data, passive wetland treatment systems were designed to remediate the mine drainage. The remediation process precipitates and collects the iron oxide in the wetlands, thus eliminating the iron precipitation from the stream. In 1997 and 1998 three wetland treatment systems were constructed. The three wetlands capture the flow from the seven discharges and during low flow periods remove 95--100% of the iron from these discharges. The affected streams have shown a significant decrease in the iron concentrations and a subsequent improvement in the habitat quality of the streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates have been found in the most polluted stream which was void of life before the treatment systems were in operation.

  20. Ferric iron reduction by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, T D; Gustafson, J

    1976-01-01

    Acidophilic bacteria of the genera Thiobacillus and Sulfolobus are able to reduce ferric iron when growing on elemental sulfur as an energy source. It has been previously thought that ferric iron serves as a nonbiological oxidant in the formation of acid mine drainage and in the leaching of ores, but these results suggest that bacterial catalysis may play a significant role in the reactivity of ferric iron. PMID:825043

  1. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  2. Can I Trust ORE Reports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feedback, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of FEEDBACK, a newsletter produced by the the Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE), illustrates the accuracy, validity, and fairness of ORE reports. The independence of the reports is explained. Internal and external quality controls are used to ensure reliability and accuracy of the reports.…

  3. Bearing the risk of abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasio, Donna M.

    2010-05-15

    In Order Nos. 679 and 679-A, FERC adopted a policy of authorizing rate incentives for new transmission early in the development process to encourage transmission investment. The abandoned-plant cost recovery incentive creates a tension between ratepayer and investor interests, which is increasingly reflected in FERC's orders. (author)

  4. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  5. 32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway, parking lot, or any other... impoundment procedures. (d) Civilian vehicles left abandoned on the reservation will be towed to...

  6. Determination of beryllium in ores and rocks by a dilution-fluorometric method with morin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, R.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1961-01-01

    Beryllium in concentrations as little as a few parts per million is determined fluorometrically with morin in low grade ores by a dilution method without separations. A high sensitivity is obtained by the adoption of instrumental and reaction conditions that give a satisfactory ratio of beryllium to blank fluorescence and at the same time minimize iron interference. Data on the behavior of 47 ions are given. The method is applied to ores containing bertrandite and beryl as the beryllium minerals.

  7. Contamination of wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer by abandoned zinc and lead mines, Ottawa County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in Ottawa County Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. Water in the Roubidoux aquifer in eastern Ottawa County has relatively low dissolved-solids concentrations (less than 200 mg/L) with calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as the major ions. The Boone Formation is stratigraphically above the Roubidoux aquifer and is the host rock for zinc and lead sulfide ores, with the richest deposits located in the vicinity of the City of Picher. Mining in what became known as the Picher mining district began in the early 1900's and continued until about 1970. The water in the abandoned zinc and lead mines contains high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulfate, fluoride, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Water from the abandoned mines is a potential source of contamination to the Roubidoux aquifer and to wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer. Water samples were collected from wells completed in the Roubidoux aquifer in the Picher mining district and from wells outside the mining district to determine if 10 public supply wells in the mining district are contaminated. The chemical analyses indicate that at least 7 of the 10 public supply wells in the Picher mining district are contaminated by mine water. Application of the Mann-Whitney test indicated that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination are different in water samples from wells in the mining area as compared to wells outside the mining area. Application of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the concentrations of some chemical constituents that are indicators of mine-water contamination were higher in current (1992-93) data than in historic (1981-83) data, except for pH, which was lower in current than in historic data. pH and sulfate, alkalinity, bicarbonate, magnesium, iron, and tritium concentrations consistently

  8. Reinforcement core facilitates O-ring installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reinforcement core holds O-ring in place within a structure while adjacent parts are being assembled. The core in the O-ring adds circumferential rigidity to the O-ring material. This inner core does not appreciably affect the sectional elasticity or gland-sealing characteristics of the O-ring.

  9. Iron deposits in relation to magmatism in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Li, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    China has a rich reserve of iron ores, and hosts most of the major types of iron deposits recognized over the world. However, most of these deposits are low-grade ores (<50% Fe), and the high-grade iron ores only account for ˜1% of the total iron ore resources (Zhang et al., 2014a). During 50s to 70s of the last century, two major research and exploration programmes were implemented on national level in China, focusing on the high-grade iron ores of banded iron formation (BIF) deposits. However, apart from several small deposits, no large high-grade iron deposits under the BIF category were discovered. Thus, the exploration and scientific studies on iron deposits came to a dead-end during 1980's to 2005. In the recent years, however, there has been an increasing demand for iron resources due to China's rapid industrialization and economic development. Thus, a new surge of studies and prospecting of high-grade iron deposits started, which resulted in many advances in our understanding of the formation and exploration of iron deposits.

  10. A genetic reinterpretation of the Falun and Åmmeberg ore types, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, K.

    1994-06-01

    The stratiform sulphide and oxide ores of Bergslagen, south-central Sweden, constitute the largest concentration of base metal and iron ores in northern Europe. They are hosted by Early Proterozoic metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions, which (together with later granitoids) belong to the Svecofennian Domain. An earlier genetic model suggested that two principal types of sulphide ores existed in Bergslagen (Falun and Åmmeberg), which had been formed through two contrasting granitoid-related processes, whereas the iron oxide ores were considered exhalative-volcanogenic. The prevailing view for the Bergslagen ores is that all stratiform sulphide (and oxide) ores were formed by exhalative-volcanogenic processes from one homogenous metal source. In this paper are presented new high-precision determinations of the ore lead isotopic composition of twentytwo stratiform sulphide and oxide ores in Bergslagen (among them Falun, Zinkgruvan-Åmmeberg and Dannemora), in order to provide an improved base for their genesis. The results show that significant variations in metal sources existed in Bergslagen for the volcanogenic ores. Most ores (including the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb deposit) were formed from a major isotopic reservoir that occurs in the interior parts of Bergslagen. This source is defined as the Falun reservoir and is dominated by calcalkaline felsic volcanic rocks. A variable input from a more evolved source component (recycled pre-Svecofennian crustal components) is locally important in sedimentdominated areas, particularly the Stockholm archipelago. A third source, representing relatively primitive metabasalts, influenced the lead isotopic pattern of ores in westernmost Bergslagen. The composition of the Zinkgruvan (Åmmeberg) ore lead is distinctly different from that of the Falun reservoir, but forms, together with other sulphide deposits along the southern margin of Bergslagen, a pronounced linear trend in standard isotope diagrams. The linear trend is