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1

Noise Abatement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

1983-01-01

2

STORMWATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication presents information regarding best management practices (BMP's) and pollution abatement technologies that can provide treatment of urban stormwater runoff. ncluded in the text are a general approach which considers small storm hydrology, and watershed practices ...

3

Stormwater Pollution Abatement Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents information regarding best management practices (BMP's) and pollution abatement technologies that can provide treatment of urban stormwater runoff. Included in the text are a general approach which considers small storm hydrology...

R. Field M. P. Brown W. V. Vilkelis

1994-01-01

4

Clean artisanal gold mining: a utopian approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) provides an important source of livelihood for rural communities throughout the world. These activities are frequently accompanied by extensive environmental degradation and deplorable socio-economic conditions, both during operations and well after mining activities have ceased. As gold is easily sold and not influenced by the instability of local governments, it is the main mineral extracted

Jennifer J. Hinton; Marcello M. Veiga; A. Tadeu C Veiga

2003-01-01

5

Artisan Training and Employment Outcomes in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the main findings of a tracer survey of graduates from two artisan training centres in Tanzania, which was undertaken in early 2002. The two institutions are the Chang'ombe Regional Vocational Training and Service Centre (RVTSC) in Dar es Salaam and the Iringa RVTSC, which are owned and managed by the Vocational Education and…

Bennell, Paul; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Kasogela, Maurice; Mutashubirwa, Francis; Klim, Mikkel

2006-01-01

6

Phakic intraocular lenses outcomes and complications: Artisan vs Visian ICL  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of two phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs) for correction of high myopia: Artisan and Visian ICL (ICL). Patients and methods In this retrospective study, a phakic IOL was implanted in 68 highly myopic eyes of 34 patients; 42 eyes received an Artisan IOL, and 26 eyes received ICL IOL. Results All patients completed a 1-year follow-up. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SEQ) was ?12.89±3.78, and ?12.44±4.15 diopters (D) for Artisan and ICL (P=0.078), respectively. The mean postoperative (1-year) uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.39±0.13 and 0.41±0.15 logMAR for Artisan and ICL, respectively (P=0.268). The mean postoperative (1-year) corrected distance visual acuity was 0.36±0.12 and 0.31±0.12 logMAR for Artisan and ICL, respectively (P=0.128). The mean postoperative SEQ was ?0.86±0.5 and ?0.63±0.38?D for Artisan and ICL, respectively (P=0.67). Intraocular pressure change at 1 year was 0.64±2.7 and 1.88±0.6?mm?Hg for Artisan and ICL, respectively (P=0.77). Conclusion Artisan and ICL showed equal and comparable safety, predictability, and efficacy.

Hassaballa, M A; Macky, T A

2011-01-01

7

Noise Abatement Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

1986-01-01

8

Marginal Abatement Cost Analysis Tool  

EPA Science Inventory

The Non-CO2 Marginal Abatement Cost Analysis Tool is an extensive bottom-up engineering-economic spreadsheet model capturing the relevant cost and performance data on sectors emitting non-CO2 GHGs. The tool has 24 regions and 7 sectors and produces marginal abatement cost curves...

9

Visual outcomes following Artisan aphakia iris claw lens implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the visual outcome of eyes undergoing Artisan lens implantation for aphakia, to identify reasons for poor outcomes, and to report incidences of post-operative uveitis, glaucoma, or hyphaema.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 32 eyes rendered aphakic through various causes, which subsequently underwent Artisan lens implantation.ResultsA total of 32 eyes from 31 patients were reviewed. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 42

K S Lett; P R Chaudhuri

2011-01-01

10

Artisan Phakic Intraocular Lens for Correcting High Myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the safety indexes and efficacy of Artisan phakic intraocular lens (IOL) for the correction of high myopia. Methods: Retrospective interventional case series reports. Thirty-one eyes (22 patients) with myopia from ?5.25 to ?19.00 diopters underwent implantation of an Artisan phakic IOL. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. The following parameters were recorded: manifest

Tova Lifshitz; Jaime Levy; Isaac Aizenman; Itamar Klemperer; Shmuel Levinger

2004-01-01

11

Phakic intraocular lenses outcomes and complications: Artisan vs Visian ICL  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of two phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs) for correction of high myopia: Artisan and Visian ICL (ICL).Patients and methodsIn this retrospective study, a phakic IOL was implanted in 68 highly myopic eyes of 34 patients; 42 eyes received an Artisan IOL, and 26 eyes received ICL IOL.ResultsAll patients completed a 1-year follow-up. The mean

M A Hassaballa; T A Macky

2011-01-01

12

Acid rain abatement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

Stiles, A.B.

1991-06-11

13

Pain abatement catheter system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A pain abatement catheter system particularly suited for treatment within the epidural space of a patient which includes an epidural introducer assembly, an epidural catheter and a steerable epidural guidewire assembly. The introducer assembly provides a one-piece introduction into the epidural space and includes an elongated introducer needle, an inner stylet, and a flexible outer sheath with a hub. The improved epidural catheter may be safely introduced into the epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance and can be effectively steered through tortuous anatomy, adhesions, or scar tissue for the purpose of delivering medications or contrast dyes to highly selective areas of the epidural space including nerve-root-sleeve injections. The epidural catheter/hub assembly is advanced over a soft atraumatic tip guidewire which significantly decreases the risk of device breakage, nerve root damage, or spinal cord injury. The improved catheter also increases efficacy, maneuverability, and safety in the diagnosis and intervening treatment of acute and chronic back and limb pain. The steerable epidural guidewire assembly allows for safely introducing a guidewire into the epidural space through a flexible sheath cannula and effectively maneuvering the catheter into highly specific areas while reducing the risk of epidural, nerve root, or spinal cord injury.

2006-04-04

14

Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Sit...

B. S. Mewes

1993-01-01

15

Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers  

SciTech Connect

These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

NONE

1993-12-31

16

29 CFR 1903.19 - Abatement verification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Abatement verification. Purpose. OSHA's inspections are intended to result...This section sets forth the procedures OSHA will use to ensure abatement. These...eliminate a recognized hazard identified by OSHA during an inspection. (2)...

2013-07-01

17

Toxicology of Abate in Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In laboratory animals Abate produces signs, symptoms, and type of death typical of those associated with other organic phosphorus compounds. In large enough doses Abate will inhibit cholinesterase, and it does this more promptly and to a greater extent fo...

T. B. Gaines R. Kimbrough E. R. Laws

1966-01-01

18

Lead abatement training for workers  

SciTech Connect

This training program is designed to be a 16 hour training course. The course is designed to meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 745 Lead. Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied Facilities, a federal regulation under section 402 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). Topics covered in the course include: where and what is lead; health effects; regulations and laws; identifying and evaluating hazards; controlling lead hazards; abatement methods; cleanup, disposal and clearance; and soil and exterior dust abatement.

Not Available

1999-01-01

19

El Paso Property Tax Abatement Ineffectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar to many communities throughout the United States, the City of El Paso, Texas utilizes property tax abatements as a means for inducing companies to invest in the local economy. Abatements in El Paso were first introduced in 1988. Although many studies have examined the effectiveness of municipal abatement policies, most of those efforts rely on survey questionnaires or cross-sctional

Thomas M. Fullerton; Victor A. Aragonés-Zamudio

2006-01-01

20

Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

Makruski, Edward D.

1984-01-01

21

Changing ideologies of artisanal “productivisation”: ORT in late imperial Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Society for the Promotion of Artisanal and Agricultural Work among the Jews in Russia (ORT) was established in St Petersburg in 1880. In its post?1921 form, as the World ORT Union, the organisation, with its headquarters in London, still operates in scores of countries throughout the world. This article analyses the ideological changes in ORT's craftsmen?related programmes during the

Gennady Estraikh

2009-01-01

22

Daily bioeconomic analysis in a multispecific artisanal fisheryin Yucatan, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe daily allocation patterns of fishing effort (hookah diving) of the artisanal fleet in San Felipe, Yucatan (Mexico), using catch, fishing effort, catch per unit of effort, variable costs, quasi rent and distance from port to four fishing grounds as performance variables. Two vessel categories were defined by the presence\\/absence of a LOng RAnge Navigation (LORAN) system. Hookah divers

Jose Luis Cabrera; Omar Defeo

2001-01-01

23

Antioxidant Activity of Artisanal Honey From Tabasco, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential claims for honey, floral variety and their health properties are relevant for small farmers and artisan producers. The antioxidant activity of honey samples from cacao farms, mangrove, citrus, and coconut groves from Mexico was established by applying a multiple-method approach, which included determination of the level of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids. Total phenolics and total flavonoids ranged

Yolanda Ruiz-Navajas; Manuel Viuda-Martos; Juana Fernández-López; Juan Manuel Zaldivar-Cruz; Victor Kuri; José Ángel Pérez-Álvarez

2011-01-01

24

A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

2014-01-01

25

Mercury and methylmercury contamination related to artisanal gold mining, Suriname  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elemental Hg-Au amalgamation mining practices are used widely in many developing countries resulting in significant Hg contamination of surrounding ecosystems. We have measured total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in sediment and water collected from artisanal Au mines and these are the first Hg speciation data from such mines in Suriname. Total Hg and methyl-Hg contents in mine-waste sediment and water are elevated over local uncontaminated baselines. Total Hg (10-930 ng/L) and methyl-Hg (0.02-3.8 ng/L) are highly elevated in mine waters. Increasing total Hg contents in discharged mine waters correlate with increasing water turbidity indicating that most Hg transport is on suspended particulates. Our Hg results are similar to those found in artisanal Au mines in the Amazon basin, where Hg contamination has led to adverse effects on tropical ecosystems.

Gray, J. E.; Labson, V. F.; Weaver, J. N.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2002-01-01

26

Mercury and methylmercury contamination related to artisanal gold mining, Suriname  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental Hg-Au amalgamation mining practices are used widely in many developing countries resulting in significant Hg contamination of surrounding ecosystems. We have measured total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in sediment and water collected from artisanal Au mines and these are the first Hg speciation data from such mines in Suriname. Total Hg and methyl-Hg contents in mine-waste sediment and water are elevated over local uncontaminated baselines. Total Hg (10-930 ng/L) and methyl-Hg (0.02-3.8 ng/L) are highly elevated in mine waters. Increasing total Hg contents in discharged mine waters correlate with increasing water turbidity indicating that most Hg transport is on suspended particulates. Our Hg results are similar to those found in artisanal Au mines in the Amazon basin, where Hg contamination has led to adverse effects on tropical ecosystems.

Gray, John E.; Labson, Victor F.; Weaver, Jean N.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

2002-12-01

27

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878...Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This...877, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

28

26 CFR 301.6404-2 - Abatement of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may (in the Commissioner's discretion) abate the assessment of all or any part of interest...in the Commissioner's discretion) abate interest attributable to any unreasonable...in the Commissioner's discretion) abate interest attributable to any...

2009-04-01

29

26 CFR 301.6404-2 - Abatement of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may (in the Commissioner's discretion) abate the assessment of all or any part of interest...in the Commissioner's discretion) abate interest attributable to any unreasonable...in the Commissioner's discretion) abate interest attributable to any...

2010-04-01

30

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673...Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...chapter, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

31

47 CFR 90.673 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 90.673...Interference § 90.673 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...chapter, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

32

47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878...Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. This...877, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

33

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971...Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...970, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2009-10-01

34

47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971...Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...970, shall be strictly accountable to abate the interference, with full...

2010-10-01

35

MEASURING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS FOLLOWING AN ABATEMENT ACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most critical points in an asbestos abatement project is knowing when the work has been completed, the contractor can be released, and the building can be reoccupied. This decision should be based on two factors: (1) satisfactory performance of the abatement work, and ...

36

Educational Research in Latin America: From the Artisan to the Industrial Phase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes Latin American educational research phases--the artisan and industrial. During the artisan phase (1950s-early 1970s), university scholars conducted isolated projects with limited access to information. Research centers, government supports, and information networks characterize the industrial period (post-mid 1970s). Argues information…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

1990-01-01

37

Mercury contamination associated with artisanal gold mining on the island of Mindanao, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agusan River basin of eastern Mindanao, the Philippines, hosts several centres of artisanal gold mining, the most important of which, Diwalwal, is a significant gold producer in global terms. An investigation of the environmental impacts of artisanal mining in the Agusan system, with particular reference to mercury contamination, was initiated in 1995 following reports of several incidents of human

J. D. Appleton; T. M. Williams; N. Breward; A. Apostol; J. Miguel; C. Miranda

1999-01-01

38

The artisanal elasmobranch fishery of the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artisanal fisheries account for up to 80% of elasmobranch fishing activity in Mexican waters, yet details associated with fishing effort and species composition are generally unavailable. This paper describes a survey of the artisanal elasmobranch fishery of the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico from 2006 to 2008. The objectives were to determine the geographic extent, size, and targets of

Daniel Cartamil; Omar Santana-Morales; Miguel Escobedo-Olvera; Dovi Kacev; Leonardo Castillo-Geniz; Jeffrey B. Graham; Robert D. Rubin; Oscar Sosa-Nishizaki

2011-01-01

39

Combined Kerarings and Artisan/Artiflex IOLs in Keratectasia.  

PubMed

PURPOSE:To evaluate the results of combined intracorneal ring (Keraring, Mediphacos Ltd) and anterior chamber, iris-fixated, phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) (Artisan and Artiflex, Ophtec BV) implantation in patients with ectatic corneal conditions and secondary high myopic and astigmatic refractive error. METHODS:Ten eyes of eight consecutive patients with different ectatic corneal diseases underwent sequential intracorneal Keraring and iris-fixated pIOL implantation. Two eyes with keratoconus, one eye with pellucid marginal degeneration, and one eye with iatrogenic corneal ectasia were implanted with the Artisan pIOL; six eyes with keratoconus were implanted with the Artiflex pIOL. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), topographic findings, and complications were recorded. RESULTS:Mean UDVA improved from 0.02+/-0.10 pre-operatively to 0.11+/-0.06 after Keraring implantation and to 0.54+/-0.18 after pIOL implantation (P<.001 for all). Mean CDVA improved from 0.18+/-0.12 preoperatively to 0.39+/-0.13 after Keraring implantation and to 0.66+/-0.18 after pIOL implantation (P<.001 for all). Mean MRSE reduced from -12.50+/-6.31 D preoperatively to +/-12.08+/-5.17 D after Keraring implantation (P=.10) and to -0.10+/-0.84 D after pIOL implantation (P<.001). No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Sequential intracorneal Keraring segments and Artisan/Artiflex pIOL implantation resulted in visual and refractive improvements in patients with different corneal ectatic conditions with high myopic refractive errors. PMID:20438024

Cakir, Hanefi; Utine, Canan Asli

2010-04-28

40

Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

2013-01-01

41

"A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.  

PubMed

This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. PMID:24681405

Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

2014-07-01

42

Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

Smith, G. L.

1973-01-01

43

Collaborative engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A need exists for United States military forces to perform collaborative engagement operations between unmanned systems. This capability has the potential to contribute significant tactical synergy to the Joint Force operating in the battlespace of the future. Collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. Collaborative engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. This paper will address a multiphase U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC) Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL) program to assess information requirements, Joint Architecure for Unmanned Systems (JAUS), on-going Science and Technology initiatives, and conduct simulation based experiments to identify and resolve technical risks required to conduct collaborative engagements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The schedule outlines an initial effort to expand, update and exercise JAUS, provide early feedback to support user development of Concept of Operations (CONOPs) and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and develop a Multiple Unified Simulation Environment (MUSE) system with JAUS interfaces necessary to support an unmanned system of systems collaboartive engagement.

Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

2004-09-01

44

FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

45

76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations AGENCY: Fish...solicited comments and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities....

2011-11-02

46

Project Engage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Engage is an after-school, weekend, and summer educational program geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase the number of these students seeking postsecondary education from the Erie, Pennsylvania area. It is funded mainly through Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is strongly committed to…

Meredith, Larry D.

47

30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral...ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of...of this part and the permittee fails to abate the violation within the time...

2010-07-01

48

30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral...ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of...of this part and the permittee fails to abate the violation within the time...

2009-07-01

49

CF4 abatement by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with CF4 abatement by electrodeless atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch. The plasma abatement device is attached to the vacuum pump, which discharges the nitrogen gas with contaminants. The abatement was carried out using oxygen and air as an additive gases. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of more than 98% was achieved for tetrafluoromethane(CF4). The detailed characterization

Y. C. Hong; H. S. Uhm

2003-01-01

50

Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement Program, Rochester, NY-Volume 1:Abatement Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pollution abatement analyses conducted in conjunction with system network modeling studies and supported by combined sewer overflow (CSO) monitoring and sampling were initiated with the ultimate goal of formulating a cohesive and workable Master Plan for ...

F. J. Drehwing C. B. Murphy D. J. Carleo T. A. Jordan

1981-01-01

51

Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

Mewes, B.S.

1993-09-01

52

Engaging Faculty in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers endorse the integration of community engagement (CE) into higher education as a way to improve the relevance of education, address community needs, and forge university-community partnerships (Zlotkowski, 1996). CE can help create stronger ties between universities and their communities and provide students with experiential learning…

Fitzgerald, Glynis A.

2012-01-01

53

Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs' heterochromic iridocyclitis  

PubMed Central

Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL) is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs’ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Nikdel, Mojgan; Ghadimi, Hadi

2014-01-01

54

Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones.  

PubMed

The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories-batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743-818°C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox(®) was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610-1930PAFm(3)/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14-0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093-0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E-04 to 3.64E-04PAFm(3)/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E-09 to 2.28E-08 and 8.96E-10 and 2.52E-09 cases/kg of ash, respectively. The results reveal hazards of burning discarded cellphones to recover precious metals, and pinpoints opportunities for manufacturers to reduce toxic materials used in specific electronic components marketed globally. PMID:24937657

Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

2014-08-15

55

Abatement of Greenhouse Gases: Does Location Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's climate policy is based on the assumption that the location of emissions reductions has no impact on the overall climate\\u000a effect. However, this may not be the case since reductions of greenhouse gases generally will lead to changes in emissions\\u000a of short-lived gases and aerosols. Abatement measures may be primarily targeted at reducing CO2, but may also simultaneously reduce

Terje Berntsen; Jan Fuglestvedt; Gunnar Myhre; Frode Stordal; Tore F. Berglen

2006-01-01

56

Monitoring techniques for odour abatement assessment.  

PubMed

Odorous emissions from sewers and wastewater treatment plants are a complex mixture of volatile chemicals that can cause annoyance to local populations, resulting in complaints to wastewater operators. Due to the variability in hedonic tone and chemical character of odorous emissions, no analytical technique can be applied universally for the assessment of odour abatement performance. Recent developments in analytical methodologies, specifically gas chromatography, odour assessment approaches (odour wheels, the odour profile method and dynamic olfactometry), and more recently combined gas chromatography-sensory analysis, have contributed to improvements in our ability to assesses odorous emissions in terms of odorant concentration and composition. This review collates existing knowledge with the aim of providing new insight into the effectiveness of sensorial and characterisation approaches to improve our understanding of the fate of odorous emissions during odour abatement. While research in non-specific sensor array (e-nose) technology has resulted in progress in the field of continuous odour monitoring, more successful long term case-studies are still needed to overcome the early overoptimistic performance expectations. Knowledge gaps still remain with regards to the decomposition of thermally unstable volatile compounds (especially sulfur compounds), the inability to predict synergistic, antagonistic, or additive interactions among odorants in combined chemical/sensorial analysis techniques, and the long term stability of chemical sensors due to sensor drift, aging, temperature/relative humidity effects, and temporal variations. Future odour abatement monitoring will require the identification of key odorants to facilitate improved process selection, design and management. PMID:20696458

Muñoz, Raul; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Lebrero, R; Wang, Xinguang; Suffet, I H Mel; Stuetz, Richard M

2010-10-01

57

Occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Artisanal Palmero Cheese Smoked with Two Types of Vegetable Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycy- clic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determi- nation of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed

M. D. Guillén; G. Palencia; P. Sopelana; M. L. Ibargoitia

2007-01-01

58

Emissions and environmental implications of mercury from artisanal gold mining in north Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In artisanal gold mining practiced in North Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, gold is separated from ore by the use of mercury, which forms an amalgam with gold. All related processes are undertaken with a low level of technical knowledge and skills, no regulation, and with disregard for the safety of human and environment health. The situation is generating serious potential health

Daniel Limbong; Jeims Kumampung; Joice Rimper; Takaomi Arai; Nobuyuki Miyazaki

2003-01-01

59

26 CFR 301.6404-2 - Abatement of interest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Abatement of interest. (a) In general. (1...returns. This is a general administrative...Consequently, interest attributable to...limitations is a general administrative...Consequently, interest attributable...

2013-04-01

60

Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.  

PubMed

Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease burdens, therapeutics, and diagnostic needs. We report the creation of ten Type 2 micro-grants for citizen science and artisan labs to be administered by the nonprofit Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance International (DELSA Global, Seattle). Our hope is that these micro-grants will spur novel forms of disruptive innovation and genomics translation by artisan scientists and citizen scholars alike. We conclude with a neglected voice from the global health frontlines, the American University of Iraq in Sulaimani, and suggest that many similar global regions are now poised for micro-grant enabled collective innovation to harness the 21(st) century digital commons. PMID:23574338

Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

2013-04-01

61

Visual inspection and ahera clearance at asbestos abatement sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary containment barriers to be removed. The process consists of a thorough visual inspection of surfaces for

J. R. Kominsky; R. W. Freyberg; J. A. Brownlee; D. R. Gerber; T. J. Powers

1991-01-01

62

Can abatement overcome the conflict between environment and economic growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reexamines the link between pollution, abatement policies and economic growth. We develop a Lucas variety of endogenous growth model to formalize the effects of pollution and abatement on growth. Pollution is linked to the scale of production; it has a negative impact on productivity both in directly productive activities and in the learning process. This effect may

Casper Van Ewijk; Sweder Van Wijnbergen

1995-01-01

63

VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

64

VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. he AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary co...

65

ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. hese 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Departm...

66

ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

67

Implications of Metal Load Randomness for Mine Water Pollution Abatement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variability of pollution transport from point and diffuse mine water sources (e.g. mine wastes, abandoned mine voids, contaminated groundwater) in catchments imply uncertainty in mine water pollution loads at important compliance boundaries (CB) and in cost-efficient abatement solutions for handling these loads. We use a stochastic description of total pollution loading from different possible mine water sources and quantify the effect of random load variance on minimum abatement costs for various targeted zinc load reductions to the Dal River, Sweden. Consideration of randomness in mine water pollution loads implies that, under certain conditions, compliance costs may be lower for higher than for lower load reduction targets, for the same load coefficient of variation and required probability to reach targeted load reductions. In addition, we illustrate that total costs in the cost-efficient abatement solutions converge with increasing zinc load reduction targets. Cost-efficient abatement solutions and costs are therefore more sensitive to uncertainty in pollution loading at lower than at higher compliance targets. For the example case of the Dal River Basin, we also show that the generally increasing abatement costs with increasing load variance and desired probability to reach targeted load reductions is only step-wise continuous, because cost-efficient abatement requires both continuous (e.g. constructed wetlands) and discrete (e.g. soil covers) abatement measures.

Baresel, C.; Destouni, G.

2004-12-01

68

Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (<0.05 mg\\/kg) occurred in most cultivated soils although higher Hg (0.05–9.2 mg\\/kg) was recorded in urban

H. Taylor; J. d. Appletonsupasu; R. Lister; B. Smith; D. Chitamweba; O. Mkumbo; J. F. Machiwa; A. L. Tesha; C. Beinhoff

2005-01-01

69

Harvesting and economic patterns in the artisanal Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda) fishery in a northern Chile cove  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze intra- and inter-annual harvesting and economic patterns of the cephalopod Octopus mimus (pulpo) artisanal fishery at Caleta Coloso cove, Antofagasta, northern Chile, between 1991 and 1996. Information was collected daily, from 25 hookah divers that manually harvest pulpo in the subtidal along 29km of coastline. Inter-annual fluctuations in catch, fishing effort, unit price and economic revenues increased from

Omar Defeo; Juan Carlos Castilla

1998-01-01

70

Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Strain CRL 1879, Isolated from a Northwestern Argentinian Artisanal Cheese  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain CRL 1879, isolated from a northwestern Argentinian artisanal cheese. The draft genome sequence is composed of 73 contigs for 2,886,747 bp, with 3,140 protein-coding genes. Six biosynthetic clusters for bacteriocin class II production were found. Typical virulence determinants, which have relevance in food safety, were not present.

Suarez, Nadia E.; Saavedra, Lucila; Slozilova, Ivana; Bonacina, Julieta; Demnerova, Katerina

2013-01-01

71

Monitoring the bacterial population dynamics during fermentation of artisanal Argentinean sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the microbial community responsible for the artisanal fermentation of dry sausage produced in Argentina was investigated by using classical and molecular approaches. The combined use of RAPD analysis with primers M13, XD9, RAPD1 and RAPD2 and 16S rDNA sequencing were applied to the identification and intraspecific differentiation of 100 strains of lactobacilli and Micrococcaceae. DGGE analysis was

Cecilia Fontana; Pier Sandro Cocconcelli; Graciela Vignolo

2005-01-01

72

Identifying mutual engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together and enter a state of group flow. We present a characterisation of mutually engaging interaction, discuss design features which contribute to mutually engaging interactions, and identify a set of measures for identifying mutual engagement in collaboration. A collaborative music editor's interface features are systematically manipulated in an empirical study of their effect

Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton

2009-01-01

73

Monitoring the bacterial population dynamics during fermentation of artisanal Argentinean sausages.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the microbial community responsible for the artisanal fermentation of dry sausage produced in Argentina was investigated by using classical and molecular approaches. The combined use of RAPD analysis with primers M13, XD9, RAPD1 and RAPD2 and 16S rDNA sequencing were applied to the identification and intraspecific differentiation of 100 strains of lactobacilli and Micrococcaceae. DGGE analysis was used to monitor the dynamic changes in population after total microbial DNA was directly extracted from sausages and subjected to PCR using V3f (GC), Bact-0124f-GC and Univ-0515r primers. The sequence analysis of 16S rDNA of the dominant species was also carried out. Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant lactic acid organisms during the fermentation while Staphylococcus saprophyticus represented the dominant species of Micrococcaceae. It was demonstrated that the ripening process of Argentinean artisanal fermented sausage is driven by a limited number of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains selected from environmental microbiota by the ability to best compete under the prevailing conditions of the ecological niche. The identification of dominant communities present in this artisanal fermented sausage can help in the selection of starter cultures consisting in well adapted strains to the particular production technology. PMID:16083816

Fontana, Cecilia; Sandro Cocconcelli, Pier; Vignolo, Graciela

2005-08-25

74

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.  

PubMed

Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese. PMID:17517711

Guillén, M D; Palencia, G; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L

2007-06-01

75

AIRBORNE ASBESTOS LEVELS MEASURED BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before, during, and after removal of asbestos containing fireproofing at three university buildings. hese three abatement studies were not subject to the AHERA regulations and the procedures followed were not necessarily in complianc...

76

Handbook for the Measurement, Analysis and Abatement of Railroad Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook gathers together in one place the necessary background material, the required measurement and analysis procedures, and the currently available abatement techniques to respond to and meet current railroad noise regulations. The first chapter ...

E. Stusnick K. J. Plotkin M. L. Montroll V. K. Kohli

1982-01-01

77

26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.507-9 Abatement of taxes...respect thereof, if: (1) The private foundation distributes all of its net assets...has been issued with respect to a foundation, to advise the Commissioner...

2013-04-01

78

23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determination. (ii) Cost effectiveness of the highway traffic noise abatement...environment exceeds two times the highway agency's cost reasonableness criteria...averaged do not exceed the highway agency's cost reasonableness...

2013-04-01

79

Evaluation of Pollution Abatement Procedures, Moraine State Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various mine drainage pollution abatement techniques completed during the construction phase of the Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The remedial methods employed included strip mine reclamation, underground mine sealing, grouting, surface ...

J. W. Foreman D. C. McLean

1973-01-01

80

Influence of Artisan Bakery- or Laboratory-Propagated Sourdoughs on the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas  

PubMed Central

Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.

Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2012-01-01

81

Influence of artisan bakery- or laboratory-propagated sourdoughs on the diversity of lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas.  

PubMed

Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas. PMID:22635989

Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

2012-08-01

82

NO{sub x} Emission Abatement Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will convert Hanford Site high-level liquid defense waste to a solid vitrified (glass) form suitable for final disposal in a geological repository. Future process flow sheet developments may establish a need for a NO, scrubber in the melter off-gas system. Consequently, a technology review has been conducted to identify and compare applicable off-gas processing alternatives should NO, emission abatement be required. Denitrification processes can be separated into two distinct categories, wet or dry, depending upon whether or not NO{sub x} is absorbed into an aqueous solution. The dry methods of removal are generally more efficient (>90%) than wet scrubbing approaches (>60%); however, most dry approaches are applicable only to NO,. Of the dry removal methods, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using NH3 reductant and a hydrogen zeolite catalyst appears to be the most suitable technology for reducing HWVP NO{sub x} emissions should emission abatement be required. SCR is a relatively simple, well established technology that produces no secondary waste stream and is applicable to a wide range of NO{sub x} concentrations (500 to 30,000 ppm). This technology has been successfully applied to uranium dissolver exhaust streams and has, more recently, been tested and evaluated as the best available control technology for reducing NO, emissions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste calciner facility, and at DOE's West Valley Demonstration Project. Unlike dry NO, scrubbing methods, the wet techniques are not specific to NO{sub x}, so they may support the process in more than one way. This is the only major advantage associated with wet technologies. Their disadvantages are that they are not highly efficient at low NO{sub x} concentrations, they produce a secondary waste stream, and they may require complex chemical support to reduce equipment size. Wet scrubbing of HWVP process NO{sub x} emissions is an option that is justifiable only if the technology is needed to eliminate other process emissions and scrubbing compatibility can be established.

Goles, R

1991-10-01

83

The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program  

SciTech Connect

The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

Schepers, G.W. (Institute of Industrial and Forensic Medicine, McLean, VA (United States))

1991-12-31

84

Engaging Scholarship with Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pedagogy of engagement links faculty and students to the needs of local communities while promoting academic success through higher retention and graduation rates in higher education. This work describes engaged scholarship and shares guidelines for documenting student engagement and critical reflection across the higher education curriculum.…

Núñez, Guillermina Gina

2014-01-01

85

Improving Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement to discover curricular and pedagogical ideas educators might successfully use to better engage student learning. Student engagement has historically focused upon increasing achievement, positive behaviors, and a sense of belonging to help students remain in school. The…

Parsons, Jim; Taylor, Leah

2011-01-01

86

Engagement and Institutional Advancement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

87

A Dialogue for Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student engagement is perhaps the key element for almost any learning context. When engaged, learners are enthusiastic and excited about the subject. Their work is informed by the enjoyment of discovery. Engaged learners work willingly, instead of by coercion, and approach their assignments as something that matters to them personally. The spirit…

Brown, Malcolm

2010-01-01

88

Chemical and microbiological characterization of artisan inoculants used for the fermentation of traditional dairy products in Epirus area (Greece).  

PubMed

The artisan production of a variety of dairy products is a historical tradition since antiquity, which is still practiced nowadays, in the area of Epirus, (northwestern Greece). The common denominator of these products, regardless of the final form of the end product, is the fermentation of raw milk by the use of dried artisan inoculants made of the dehydrated rumen of small ruminants, mainly lambs. The aim of this research project is to study the microbiological parameters as well as certain technological parameters (chymosin activity and lipolytic activity) of these inoculants. The results revealed a wide biodiversity of microorganisms such as Lactobacilli, Lactococci, Leuconostoc, Pediococci, Streptococci, Bifidobacteria, Enterococci, Clostridia and coliforms. Chymosin activity and lipolytic activity were found to be higher in artisan inoculants than in the commercial ones. PMID:21839182

Voidarou, C; Tzora, A; Malamou, O; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G; Vassos, D; Rozos, G; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Stavropoulou, E; Skoufou, M; Bezirtzoglou, E; Riganakos, G

2011-12-01

89

Comparison of Artisan iris-claw intraocular lens implantation and posterior chamber intraocular lens sulcus fixation for aphakic eyes  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare the efficacy and complications of Artisan iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and posterior chamber IOL sulcus fixation for the treatment of aphakic eyes without capsular support after vitrectomy. METHODS A prospective study of 45 cases was conducted. Forty-five eyes without sufficient lens capsule support following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined lens extraction were divided into two groups. Group A: 25 eyes received Artisan iris-claw IOL implantation. Group B: 20 eyes received posterior chamber IOL sulcus fixation. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal endothelial cell loss rate, surgical time and complications were compared between the two groups. Pigment changes of trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber depths were measured at each time point in Artisan group. RESULTS The mean surgical time of Artisan group was significantly shorter (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference in endothelial cell loss rate was noted between two groups at any time point (P>0.05). CDVA of Artian group was better than that of the sulcus fixation group 1d after surgery (P<0.05) and there was no statistically significant difference 1 and 3mo after surgery (P>0.05). Mean IOP showed no significant differences between groups before and after surgery. The postoperative complications of Artisan group were anterior uveitis, iris depigmentation, pupillary distortion and spontaneous lens dislocation. The complications of sulcus fixation group include choroidal detachment, intraocular haemorrhage, tilt of IOL optic part and retinal detachment. CONCLUSION Secondary Artisan IOL implantation can be performed less invasively and in a shorter surgical time period with earlier visual recovery after surgery compared to transscleral suturing fixation of an IOL. This technique is an effective and safe procedure. It is a promising option for the treatment of aphakic eyes without capsular support after vitrectomy.

Teng, He; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

90

Cost of abating sulfur, nitrogen, and ozone air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Economists argue over conflicting cost estimates of air pollution abatement because they base their analyses on different assumptions. The author argues that pollution laws, such as those requiring emission control on cars, focused on new equipment without ensuring that the equipment continues to perform. The acid rain problem is the result of neglecting old sources under the Clear Air Act. By focusing on economic efficiency, economists have rejected policies which meet the criteria of public acceptance and administrative simplicity. The costs of accelerating sulfur and nitrogen oxide abatement increase rapidly with the level of control from $2.6 billion to $5.5 billion per year by 1995 without considering the costs of dislocation to workers and communities. There are no current estimates for the costs of ozone abatement, which requires that control equipment continue to function over the lifetime of a car. 18 references.

Lave, L.B.

1986-05-01

91

Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina.  

PubMed

An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

Estrada, Cecilia S M Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E; Satorres, Sara E; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia Del C

2013-12-01

92

Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina  

PubMed Central

An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers’ intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products.

Estrada, Cecilia S.M. Lucero; Alcaraz, Lucia E.; Satorres, Sara E.; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velazquez, Lidia del C.

2013-01-01

93

Mercury contamination associated with artisanal gold mining on the island of Mindanao, the Philippines.  

PubMed

The Agusan River basin of eastern Mindanao, the Philippines, hosts several centres of artisanal gold mining, the most important of which, Diwalwal, is a significant gold producer in global terms. An investigation of the environmental impacts of artisanal mining in the Agusan system, with particular reference to mercury contamination, was initiated in 1995 following reports of several incidents of human Hg poisoning in the province of Davao del Norte. Results show drainage downstream of Diwalwal is characterised by extremely high levels of Hg both in solution (maximum 2906 micrograms/l) and in bottom sediments (> 20 mg/kg). Filtered surface water Hg levels exceed the WHO Drinking Water guideline and the US-EPA Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life for a downstream distance of more than 14 km, including channel sections utilised for fishing and potable water supply. The Environment Canada sediment quality Hg Toxic Effect Threshold for the Protection of Aquatic Life is exceeded for a downstream distance of 20 km. Hair Hg data indicate that ballmill and CIP plant operators processing Hg contaminated tailings at eastern Mindanao's principal gold beneficiation centre, Apokon, may be subject to enhanced occupational Hg exposure. It appears that the wider population of this area has not been affected. PMID:10371050

Appleton, J D; Williams, T M; Breward, N; Apostol, A; Miguel, J; Miranda, C

1999-04-01

94

Occurrence and Genetic Diversity of Arcobacter butzleri in an Artisanal Dairy Plant in Italy  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the presence, distribution, and persistence of Arcobacter spp. in an artisanal dairy plant and to test the isolates to determine their different genotypes in the processing plant and in foods. Samples were collected in an artisanal cheese factory on four occasions between October and December 2012. Food samples (raw milk, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese, and conditioning liquid), water samples, and environmental samples were analyzed by the culture method; isolates were identified by multiplex PCR and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Arcobacter butzleri was isolated from 29 out of 59 samples (46.6%), 22 of which were from environmental samples and 7 of which were from food samples. Cluster analysis divided the strains into 47 PFGE patterns: 14 PFGE clusters and 33 unique types. Our findings indicate that the plant harbored numerous A. butzleri pulsotypes and that the manual cleaning and sanitation in the studied dairy plant do not effectively remove Arcobacter. The recurrent isolation of A. butzleri suggests that the environmental conditions in the dairy plant constitute a good ecological niche for the colonization of this microorganism. In some cases, the presence of indistinguishable strains isolated from the same facilities on different sampling days showed that these strains were persistent in the processing environment.

Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

2013-01-01

95

41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80... Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal agencies have the...

2013-07-01

96

41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80... Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal agencies have the...

2010-07-01

97

41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80... Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies...responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal agencies have the...

2009-07-01

98

Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

Kushner, L.

1987-01-01

99

Lead abatement training for supervisors and contractors. Instructors guide  

SciTech Connect

This training program is designed to be a 32 hour training course, and is intended for individuals supervising residential lead abatement projects. The course is designed to meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 745-Lead. Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied Facilities, a federal regulation under section 402 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). Topics covered in the course include; the history of lead; health effects; legal and insurance consideration; regulations overview; inspection and risk assessment; report interpretation; development and implementation of occupant protection plans; paint hazard recognition and materials identification; XRF testing/sampling and abatement methods.

Not Available

1999-01-01

100

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, ewe and goat dairy artisanal farmhouses  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria collected from artisanal farmhouses were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic methods including biochemical assays, ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were performed. This approach provides accuracy for identification, and helps to avoid the loss of natural biodiversity including potentially valuable strains.

Reginensi, Stella M.; Gonzalez, Marcela J.; Bermudez, Jorge

2013-01-01

101

The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however, women participate in the extraction process itself. Women were found to participate in the extraction of ore only when a deposit had a thin overburden layer, thus rendering the mineralized ore more accessible. When deposits required a significant degree of manual labour to access the ore due to thick overburden layers, women were typically relegated to other roles. The identification of this link encourages the establishment of an alternative research avenue in which the physical and social sciences merge to better inform policymakers, so that the most appropriate artisanal mining assistance programs can be developed and implemented.

Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

2013-01-01

102

The artisanal fishery of Cynoscion guatucupa in Argentina: Exploring the possible causes of the collapse in Bahía Blanca estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cynoscion guatucupa Cuvier 1829 is a migratory pelagic fish species, which has a wide geographical distribution. It is the most important fishing resource for local communities in Bahía Blanca estuary and has been captured by artisanal fishermen since the 1900s. The industrial fleet has been fishing this species in the coastal area of Buenos Aires province since the 1950s, and, since 1970, landings have increased sharply. Between 2000 and 2004, the artisanal fishery in the estuarine waters of Bahía Blanca collapsed. Variations in total landings of the artisanal fleet might have arisen from the environmental variables within the estuary, fishing activity in the surrounding sea region, local pressure within the estuary and/or several other variables. Our results suggest that neither oceanographic parameters nor local pressure seem to have influenced the artisanal fishery of C. guatucupa in the estuarine region. Instead, this fishery seems to have been partially influenced by the increasing fishing pressure exerted by the industrial fishing fleet operating in open waters around the estuary. This study emphasizes the need to take into account fisheries data from both the estuarine environment and the surrounding sea region, particularly when designing management plans for the sustainable use of migrating fish resources.

Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Molina, Juan Manuel; Ruarte, Claudio

2014-04-01

103

The present status of artisanal fisheries of extreme Southern Brazil: an effort towards community-based management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf of the extreme southern Brazil is one of the most productive fishing areas in Brazil. Great part of the commercial species is related to the estuary of Patos Lagoon. The estuary serves as spawning, nursery and feeding grounds for several species. The artisanal fishery in the estuarine area exists since the end of the last century but

Enir G Reis; Fernando D'Incao

2000-01-01

104

Changes in the Accommodation-convergence Relationship after the Artisan Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation for Myopic Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the change of accommodation-convergence parameters after implantation of Artisan phakic intraocular lens (PIOL). Methods Prospective study for the patients with the Artisan PIOL implantation was performed. A total of 37 patients (3 males and 34 females) enrolled the study. Preoperatively, convergence amplitude, the stimulus accommodative convergence per unit of accommodation (AC/A) ratio and the near point of convergence (NPC) were evaluated. After the Artisan PIOL implantation, the identical evaluations were repeated at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after the surgery. Results Mean age was 24.3 ± 4.8 years old, and preoperative refractive error was -8.92 ± 4.13 diopters (D). After the implantation, mean refractive errors significantly decreased to within ±1.00 D, and noticeable complications were not found. The convergence amplitude and the stimulus AC/A ratio increased 1 month after the surgery, but progressively stabilized afterward to near preoperative values. NPC didn't show any significant change over follow-up period up to 6 months. Conclusions These results regarding implantation of the Artisan PIOL revealed the increase of accommodation-convergence relationship within first 1 month after the surgery, but progressive stabilization was noted during follow-up periods.

Ryu, Ik Hee; Han, Jinu; Lee, Hyung Keun; Kim, Jin Kook

2014-01-01

105

Long-term follow-up after bilateral Artisan aphakia intraocular lens implantation in two children with Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

We present two patients with Marfan syndrome and bilateral crystalline lens dislocation who underwent bilateral lens extraction and Artisan aphakia intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. With a follow-up of more than 12 years, we found a good visual outcome, no serious IOL-related complications, and endothelial cell densities within the expected range for eyes without cataract surgery. PMID:22370675

Sminia, Marije L; Odenthal, Monica T P; Prick, Liesbeth J J M; Cobben, Jan M; Mourits, Maarten P; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J

2012-02-01

106

Civic Learning and Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, the US education system has failed to adequately combat a decline of civic engagement and awareness, resulting in what many are now calling a "civics recession." The good news is that there is growing awareness, at all levels, that we need new and concerted efforts to make civic learning and engagement a core component of every…

Kanter, Martha; Schneider, Carol Geary

2013-01-01

107

Engagement: Transcending Outreach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the present economic and political climate, how can dance programs in colleges and universities continue to thrive? Recently there has been a national movement to return to the roots of the original altruistic mission of the public university and the land grant legacy. In other words, a movement toward, engagement. Engagement involves a…

Prioleau, Darwin

2004-01-01

108

Engaging with Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a multi-site global, ethnographic, and mixed methods study on student engagement. Our research has closely examined how engagement and disengagement operate subtly, simultaneously and relationally in the places and spaces where drama is made. Through years of qualitative time in high school classrooms and two different…

Gallagher, Kathleen

2013-01-01

109

Engagement Means Everyone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

Patton, Carol

2012-01-01

110

How Reading Engages Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the NCREL's (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory's) "Learning Point" focuses on how reading engages children. The cover story article is an interview (Marianne Kroeger and Stephanie Blaser) with Mary Foertsch, from NCREL, on what types of innovative strategies teachers employ to help students become engaged readers. A…

NCREL's Learning Point, 1999

1999-01-01

111

Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability

Robert L. Wade; Joseph M. Reames

2005-01-01

112

Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

1990-01-01

113

Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement: The East River Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology used by New York City to abate pollution from Combined Sewer Overflows in the receiving harbor waters is presented in a case study for the East River facility planning. The approach integrates water quality studies, facility planning, environmental assessment and public participation. The project suggests construction of three underground storage tanks. Results from the recent water quality survey

Angelos L. Protopapas

1999-01-01

114

CONTRIBUTION OF ALTERNATIVE ROAD SURFACES TO NOISE ABATEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of noise due to traffic particularly in urban areas has led road administrations to look for low noise surfaces in order to reduce noise impact and to improve environmental quality. This paper aims at assessing the effect of alternative road surfaces on noise abatement. It presents the main results obtained with two distinct experiments, originally intended for other

Elisabete Freitas; Paulo Pereira

115

Multi-gas abatement analysis of the Marrakesh Accords  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of the Kyoto Protocol after the Marrakesh Accords on the basis of a multi-gas abatement analysis. The analysis is structured according to the major steps in the international negotiation process. The results are compared with earlier research, which covered only CO2. Compared to the analysis for CO2 only, including all Kyoto

PAUL L. Lucas; Michel G. J. den Elzen; Detlef P. van Vuuren

116

Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

1980-01-01

117

Environmental Policy and Uncertain Arrival of Future Abatement Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study long-term incentives for regulated polluting firms to invest in advanced abatement technologies when some new technology is available but even better technology is expected for the future. Firms can invest only once. We find that, depending on the cost of adoption, all possible investment patterns can occur in social optimum. Further, a regulator who anticipates the arrival of

Andreas von DÃllen; Till Requate

2008-01-01

118

Microwave Plasma Torch Abatement of NF3 and SF6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Fluorinated compounds (FCs) are essential to the semiconductor manufacturing process for plasma chamber cleaning and plasma etching. Because FCs have extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and are strong infrared absorbers, efforts have been undertaken to identify methods to reduce atmospheric emissions. Many methods for FC abatement have been suggested, such as wet and burning scrubber, and low-pressure

Y. C. Hong; H. S. Uhm; B. J. Chun; S. K. Lee; S. K. Hwang

2005-01-01

119

A Framework for Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Abatement Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis has been central to the development of greenhouse abatement policy in Australia. Current Australian policy is to remain outside the Kyoto Protocol, while still attempting to meet the emission targets established under the Protocol. Australia's failure to ratify the Protocol has incurred international criticism; it is therefore appropriate to examine the validity of the economic analysis used to

Christopher Riedy

2003-01-01

120

Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

Lang, J.

1980-01-01

121

Determining Effectiveness of Past Mine Fire Surface Seal Abatement Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface seals have been used as the primary method for underground coal fire abatement in the western United States. The effectiveness of a surface seal can take years to determine. By the time there is evidence that a surface seal has failed, the integri...

L. C. Hanson J. E. Hodges K. M. Redmond

1990-01-01

122

Marginal abatement cost curves: a call for caution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal commitments to reduce CO2 emissions require policy makers to find cost-efficient means to meet these obligations. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, which illustrate the economics associated with climate change mitigation, have recently attracted a great amount of attention. A number of limitations with MAC curves are explained by the implication they should be just one tool in a broader

Fabian Kesicki; Paul Ekins

2011-01-01

123

Marginal abatement cost curves: a call for caution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal commitments to reduce CO2 emissions require policy makers to find cost-efficient means to meet these obligations. Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, which illustrate the economics associated with climate change mitigation, have recently attracted a great amount of attention. A number of limitations with MAC curves are explained by the implication they should be just one tool in a broader

Fabian Kesicki; Paul Ekins

2012-01-01

124

HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities. Subsequently, household food security is seriously affected because fish provides a significant proportion of food to CIP households where approximately 55% of households get their food from fish products. During food shortages, CIP households resorted to a hierarchy of strategies which included cutting down on meals or reducing meal portions, looking for paid work, gathering wild fruit, asking for food from relatives, selling livestock, and getting social assistance. In conclusion, artisanal fishing is a natural safety net which constitutes an important buffer for households affected by HIV/AIDS-related stressors in the Okavango Delta. Access to fish helps these households mitigate potentially adverse impacts such as deterioration into chronic poverty.

Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

125

Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.  

PubMed

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors. PMID:22180922

Hirons, Mark

2011-01-01

126

Assessment of Hg-contamination in soils and stream sediments in the mineral district of Nambija, Ecuadorian Amazon (example of an impacted area affected by artisanal gold mining)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nambija Mineral District (NMD) is located in the southeastern part of Ecuador, east of Zamora (Zamora Chinch??pe's country), Ecuadorian Amazon. In this district, Au occurrences have been know since colonial and pre-colonial times, but only after the early 1980s has intensive artisanal Au mining activity been developed. Currently, the different NMD Au occurrences continue to be exploited by artisanal

M. E. Ram??rez Requelme; J. F. F. Ramos; R. S. Angélica; E. S. Brabo

2003-01-01

127

Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination.  

PubMed

There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahualá, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as "possibly carcinogenic" and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well as financial incentives to separate the acetaldehyde-rich fractions during distillation. PMID:19729189

Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

2009-11-01

128

Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

2013-01-01

129

Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.  

PubMed

Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338?gm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres. PMID:23541941

Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

2013-08-01

130

Mercury residues in free-grazing cattle and domestic fowl form the artisanal gold mining area of Geita district, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination with mercury from artisanal gold mines in Tanzania has been widely reported. People living around mining villages keep domestic animals which are allowed to feed freely in mercury-contaminated areas. This study investigated Hg accumulation in the liver and muscle tissue of cattle and domestic fowl reared in mining villages. Total mercury levels up to 436 and 820 microg/kg wet weight were found in liver samples taken from cattle and domestic fowl, respectively. Significantly higher mercury concentrations were found in liver samples collected at mining villages (p<0.05) than those taken from the reference area. While mercury concentrations in liver samples exceeded the acceptable maximum concentrations for humans set in the Netherlands and Poland, the Hg concentrations in muscle were below the limits of most countries. It is recommended that the keeping of freely grazing cattle and domestic fowl in or around artisanal gold mines should be avoided. PMID:19798780

Chibunda, R T; Janssen, C R

2009-11-01

131

Population structure and safety aspects of Enterococcus strains isolated from artisanal dry fermented sausages produced in Argentina.  

PubMed

Enterococci population from Argentinean artisanal dry fermented sausage was identified and their safety aspects were evaluated. Species-specific PCR was used to distinguish between Enterococcus faecium (56%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17%). Other isolates (27%) were identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus mundtii by using 16S RNA gene sequence. RAPD analyses showed different biotypes for Ent. faecium and Ent. faecalis species. Low incidence of antibiotic resistance and high virulence traits in Ent. casseliflavus and Ent. faecalis were found; the majority of the Ent. faecium strains were shown to be free of virulence factors. The absence of virulence/resistance traits and the anti-Listeria activity of Ent. faecium isolates may be exploited to enhance natural preservation thereby guaranteeing organoleptic/safety characteristics of artisanal fermented sausages. PMID:19627479

Fontana, C; Gazzola, S; Cocconcelli, P S; Vignolo, G

2009-09-01

132

Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

1990-01-01

133

The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.

Shortle, James S.

1990-05-01

134

Whales, Walruses, and Elephants: Artisans in Ivory, Baleen, and Other Skeletal Materials in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard animal tissues obtained from whales, walruses, and elephants are baleen, whale bone, walrus ivory, walrus baculum, and\\u000a elephant ivory. Objects of these materials were manufactured by artisans in Amsterdam in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.\\u000a New archaeological and historical evidence show the import and importance if these materials. The importance of baleen is\\u000a evident from historical sources. Whale bone

Marloes Rijkelijkhuizen

2009-01-01

135

Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550ppmv CO2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e.

Michel den Elzen; Paul Lucas; Detlef van Vuuren

2005-01-01

136

Correction of extreme hyperopia: artisan iris-fixated intraocular lens implantation for pseudophakia after clear lens extraction  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old patient suffering from both-side extreme hyperopia with amblyopia was corrected with an Artisan iris-fixated intraocular lens (IOL) implantation followed to clear lens extraction (CLE) with posterior chamber (PC)-IOL implantation. The preoperative refraction values were +17.75DS -1.50DC × 168° for the right eye and +17.25DS -0.75DC × 8° for the left eye. The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/200 bilaterally and the spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 20/50 bilaterally. One year after Artisan iris-fixated IOL implantation, bilateral BSCVA was 20/50 with a refraction of +1.25DS -0.75DC × 13° for the right eye and +1.50DS -1.00DC × 55° for the left eye. The outcomes of an Artisan iris-fixated IOL implantation followed to CLE with PC-IOL implantation were encouraging for the correction of extreme hyperopia. Long term follow-up examinations were necessary for further determination of the efficacy and safety of this combinational procedure.

Xu, Wen; Ye, Pan-Pan; Yao, Ke; Li, Zhao-Chun; He, Feng-Ying; Shi, Jun-Ting; Liu, Jun

2011-01-01

137

Mars Public Engagement Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

Johnson, Christine

2009-01-01

138

Music Researchers' Musical Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

139

Engagement in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet and World Wide Web are transforming delivery of education and making it possible for more individuals than ever to have access to knowledge any time and place across the globe. The extent of learner engagement is key to online learning environments. Constructivist learning theory, an emerging theory of connectivity, and Merrill's…

Suttle, Catherine M.

2010-01-01

140

Competencies and Employer Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the UK experience as a template, this paper explores the concept of competencies as a viable bridge to employer engagement. In this context, the definition of competency coalesces into three primary interpretations (input, output and "behaviour"), leading to three applications: work related skill sets, standards and professionalism. These in…

Irwin, Pam

2008-01-01

141

Turning on Engaged Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of how to increase the engagement level of English language learners is daunting, but viable solutions can be achieved if a discussion is started. In schools across California, and all of America, school stakeholders are struggling to articulate ways to ensure that all of the ELLs in their schools are successful. In this article, the…

Perez-Martinez, Irella

2011-01-01

142

Engaging with Islamic Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

Sugarman, Ian

2012-01-01

143

Collaborative engagement experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research

Katherine Mullens; Bradley Troyer; Robert Wade; Brian Skibba; Michael Dunn

2006-01-01

144

Involvement or Engagement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To create the kinds of school-family partnerships that raise student achievement, improve local communities, and increase public support, schools need to understand the difference between family involvement and family engagement. Schools that emphasize the latter tend toward doing with families, rather than doing to families. These schools do more…

Ferlazzo, Larry

2011-01-01

145

Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:20229357

Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando

2010-08-01

146

Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats’ milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.

Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Wrage, Nicole; Perez-Gil R., Fernando

2010-01-01

147

Microbiological characterization of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese: analysis of its indigenous lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the bacterial populations involved in the production of artisanal Raschera PDO cheese (Italian Maritime Alps, northwest Italy) in order to collect preliminary knowledge on indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of 21 samples of Raschera PDO cheese, collected from six dairy farms located in the production area, were submitted to microbiological analysis. LAB were randomly isolated from M17 agar, MRS agar and KAA plates and identified by combining PCR 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer analysis, species-specific primers and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolates was investigated by RAPD-PCR. LAB microflora showed the highest count values among all microbial groups targeted. They reached counts of 10(9) colony forming unit (cfu)/g in cheese samples after 3 days of salting and 15 days of ripening. Yeast population also showed considerable count values, while enterococci and coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) did not overcome 10(7)cfu/g. L. lactis subsp. lactis was the species most frequently isolated from Raschera PDO samples at all different production stages while in aged cheeses Lactobacillus paracasei was frequently isolated. RAPD-PCR highlighted that isolates of L. lactis subsp. lactis isolated from Raschera PDO were highly homogeneous. PMID:18206782

Dolci, Paola; Alessandria, Valentina; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca

2008-04-01

148

Effects of the Jessica oil spill on artisanal fisheries in the Galápagos.  

PubMed

In contrast to local perceptions, the impact on the local Galápagos artisanal fishery of the 16 January 2001 grounding of the Jessica and subsequent oil spill was relatively minor. No significant changes in fishing effort, total fishing catches or catch-per-unit effort were detected after the spill based on analyses of fisheries monitoring data. Nevertheless, large boats tended to move away from sites near the path of the spill following the grounding in 2001, with no fishing recorded from the oil-affected regions of Floreana and southern Isabela in February 2001. The total fishing effort of small boats operating from the Jessica-grounding island of San Cristóbal also declined immediately after the spill, probably in part because such boats were used in clean up operations. During 2001, prices paid to fishers remained stable at levels higher than in 2000, with the notable anomaly that prices fell precipitously to 30% of previous levels during a 1-2 week period in early February 2001. Fish exports remained at similar levels for the years 2000 and 2001; however, as in the previous year, little fish product was exported from Galápagos in the month following the spill, with most fish product dried and stored for up to two months prior to transport to the continent. PMID:12810096

Born, Abraham F; Espinoza, Eduardo; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Nicolaides, Francis; Edgar, Graham J

2003-01-01

149

Environmental electrochemistry: Fundamentals and applications in pollution abatement  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemistry is used both to detect and quantitatively analyze pollutants and to undertake the remediation of polluted environments. In these areas electrochemistry offers the advantages of detectability, selectivity, portability, and cost effectiveness. This book is a comprehensive review that covers a vast amount of territory, from basic electrochemical science to the use of commercially available remediation procedures. The first three chapters are introductory in nature. The subjects covered in chapters 4--7 include: electroanalytical techniques, electrochemical approaches to pollution abatement, photoelectrochemical methods for treating polluted air and water, and the disinfection of water.

Rajeshwar, K.; Ibanez, J.

1996-12-31

150

Science Education & Civic Engagement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Science Education & Civic Engagement Journal is "to explore constructive connections between science education and civic engagement that will enhance both experiences for our students." The journal is edited by an international team, including professors from the University of Johannesburg and Santa Clara University. The journal has been published twice a year since 2007 and visitors can access all of the issues on this site. On the homepage, visitors can look over recently published articles, such as "Designing Healthy Meals to Counter Nutrition-Related Diseases: A Learning Activity." Also, visitors can read over submission guidelines, learn about the editorial board, and also look through back issues for articles of interest.

151

Engaging baccalaureate clinical faculty.  

PubMed

Role theory was utilized in this descriptive study to investigate clinical faculty in baccalaureate nursing programs. The Clinical Faculty Role Questionnaire was developed and employed to study 134 full-time and part-time clinical faculty members. Theory derivation was used and the concept of role engagement was empirically supported. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships among the variables. T-test results identified differences between full-time and part-time faculty members on role variables of status, role conception, and role engagement. The relationships between study concepts and areas of educational content related to the teaching role were explored and identified as supportive of the clinical educator role. Ancillary qualitative investigation resulted in the identification of several themes: the need for clinical competence; for part-time faculty, a desire to be included in program planning. PMID:16646941

Kelly, Ruth E

2006-01-01

152

Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL\\MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC/SIL efforts. Other papers will outline in detail the Air Force and Navy portions of this effort.

Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

2005-05-01

153

Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

1992-03-01

154

29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions...WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.9 Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions...statement certifying that notice of the adoption of the amendment and of the...

2013-07-01

155

Beyond the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Diffusion of Sulfur-Emissions-Abating Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been extensively criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. In this article, the EKC is reformulated as the best practice technology frontier—countries’ distances from the frontier reflect the degree to which they have adopted the best practice technology in emissions abatement. The Kalman filter is used to model the state of sulfur emissions abatement technology

David I. Stern

2005-01-01

156

Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

2009-01-01

157

Abatement of CF4 by atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric microwave plasma torch is presented for post-pump destruction of perfluorocompound gases (PFCs), which are used widely in the semiconductor industry and are emitted with nitrogen gas for vacuum pump purges. Discharges of the microwave plasma torch are well suited for abatement of PFC contaminants discharged at a typical flow rate. The abatement was carried out using oxygen or

Yong C. Hong; Han S. Uhm

2003-01-01

158

ASSESSMENT OF ASSAY METHODS FOR EVALUATING ASBESTOS ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY AT THE CORVALLIS ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Air sampling was conducted at an EPA office building which had undergone an asbestos abatement program. The aggressive sampling technique revealed that air-entrainable asbestos remained in work areas after completion of abatement actions. The ratio of aggressive to nonagressive P...

159

Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol\\/L (greater than 29 micrograms\\/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half

M. R. Farfel; J. J. Jr. Chisolm

1990-01-01

160

Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

Wood, Jo Nell

2010-01-01

161

Teaching for Literacy Engagement. Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our theoretical framework, reading engagement entails multiple perspectives on reading that consist of motivational dispositions, cognitive strategies, conceptual understanding, and social discourse. Possessing these attributes, engaged readers are typically higher achievers than less engaged readers, who show fewer of these qualities or less…

Guthrie, John T.

2004-01-01

162

School Engagement: A "Danse Macabre"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent review of research on "School Engagement" calls for clarification of the concept of engagement due to its potential for addressing problems of student apathy and low achievement. This paper responds to the request for clarification, points out some "distinctions" and "connexions" between engagement and some polarizing issues in the…

Sheppard, Shelby L.

2011-01-01

163

Personal sample measurements of airborne lead during abatement procedures  

SciTech Connect

Lead has been shown to be an environmental and occupational toxicant with multiple target organs and is regulated by various occupational and environmental agencies at all governmental levels. Current awareness of hazards associated with lead has resulted in an explosion of regulations and is creating a new environmental industry. When conducting lead abatement or related activities associated with lead-containing substances (LCS) the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that personal samples be obtained to establish anticipated exposure levels associated with the type of work being performed. Several publications have reported exposure levels for lead; although the number of reports currently available is limited. OSHA regulations provide that for some activities a designated exposure concentration is established and require specific types of personal protective equipment (PPE) to be employed until the anticipated exposure level is determined. Upon establishment of the exposure level an appropriate modification, including reduction, in PPE is permitted. The OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) and action level for airborne lead are 50 ug/m3 and 30 ug/m3, respectively. This study provides data on personal sampling that were collected during a lead abatement project. These data provide an estimation of anticipated exposure, effectiveness of engineering controls and applicability of work practices for similar projects in the future. 17 refs., 1 tab.

Lange, J.H. [Envirosafe Training and Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Envirosafe Training and Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sites, S.L.M. [Northeastern Environmental Associates, Inc., Scranton, PA (United States)] [Northeastern Environmental Associates, Inc., Scranton, PA (United States); Thomulka, K.W. [Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1997-04-01

164

Artisan iris-fixated toric phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Summary We report the refractive correction of high astigmatism in one eye of a 23-year-old woman following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using an Artisan iris-fixated, toric, phakic intraocular lens (IOL). One year after implantation, uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were both 20/25, refraction was ?1.00 D cylinder, and the endothelial cell count was 1827 cells/mm2. Iris-fixated phakic IOLs are not recommended for every postkeratoplasty patient with high refractive error; however, this procedure can offer good outcomes in carefully selected cases of previous DALK.

Al-Dreihi, Madonna G.; Louka, Bachar I.; Anbari, Anas A.

2013-01-01

165

Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan) - long-term results  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications. Results Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months). The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10) and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and macular edema were not observed. Conclusion The presented long-term results demonstrate that retropupillary iris-claw lens implantation is a safe and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients without capsule support. This surgical procedure has the advantages of a posterior chamber implantation with a low intraoperative and postoperative risk profile.

Schallenberg, Maurice; Dekowski, Dirk; Hahn, Angela; Laube, Thomas; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Meller, Daniel

2014-01-01

166

Engaging with Policy Makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

2011-10-01

167

Constructing productive engagement: pre-engagement tools for emerging technologies.  

PubMed

Engagement with stakeholders and civil society is increasingly important for new scientific and technological developments. Preparation of such engagements sets the stage for engagement activities and thus contributes to their outcomes. Preparation is a demanding task, particularly if the facilitating agent aims for timely engagement related to emerging technologies. Requirements for such preparation include understanding of the emerging science & technology and its dynamics. Multi-level analysis and socio-technical scenarios are two complementary tools for constructing productive engagement. Examination of the emergence of nanotechnologies in the food packaging sector demonstrates how these tools work. In light of recent policy demands for responsible innovation, but also more generally, the role of organizers of engagement activities is one that deserves reflection insofar as it can extend beyond that of preparation and facilitation. PMID:21898147

te Kulve, Haico; Rip, Arie

2011-12-01

168

Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.  

PubMed

Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation. PMID:19459891

Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

2009-10-01

169

'By Merit Raised to That Bad Eminence': Christopher Merrett, Artisanal Knowledge, and Professional Reform in Restoration London  

PubMed Central

This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge – particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes.

Mauck, Aaron

2012-01-01

170

SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at copper cliff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions from the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu+Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead toa substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation afhigh-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

Landolt, C. A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J. D.; McDonald, R. N.

1992-09-01

171

Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

1984-01-01

172

Artisan iris-fixated toric phakic and aphakic intraocular lens implantation for the correction of astigmatic refractive error after radial keratotomy.  

PubMed

We report 2 patients who had radial keratotomy (RK) to correct myopia. The first patient developed a postoperative hyperopic shift and cataract. Nine years post RK, she had intracapsular cataract extraction and implantation of an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens (IOL). Twenty years post RK, hyperopia and astigmatism progressed to +7.0 -5.75 x 100 with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20. Due to contact lens intolerance, the Artisan aphakic IOL was exchanged for an Artisan toric aphakic IOL. Three months later, the BCVA was 20/20 with +1.0 -0.50 x 130. The second patient demonstrated residual myopic astigmatism 6 years after bilateral RK and had become contact-lens intolerant. An Artisan toric phakic IOL was implanted in both eyes. Four months later, the BCVA was 20/25 with a refraction of +0.25 -1.0 x 135 and 20/20 with a refraction of -1.0 x 40. Both patients were satisfied with the visual outcomes. PMID:17321407

Tahzib, Nayyirih G; Eggink, Fred A G J; Odenthal, Monica T P; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

2007-03-01

173

Engagement before alliance.  

PubMed

An approach to the psychotherapy of ego-depleted states or with morbid disease involves the commitment of the therapist far beyond a distant psychoanalytic stance. Engagement must occur before a therapeutic alliance and exploration of underlying issues can begin. The patient in a helpless state needs the therapist's concern (both by frequent visits and telephone), active participation with family, and occasionally medication. The 'all out' effort allows the patient to borrow some of the therapist's strength. Within this approach, one may expand or contract goals; many patients went on to further explorative work. This mode stands outside of many of the usual values and canons of psychoanalytic therapy, and many therapists need encouragement when they risk closeness with patients' desperation and/or disease. PMID:7375630

Nadelson, T

1980-01-01

174

Engaging communities in tuberculosis research.  

PubMed

According to a growing consensus among biomedical researchers, community engagement can improve the ethics and outcomes of clinical trials. Although successful efforts to develop community engagement practices in HIV/AIDS research have been reported, little attention has been given to engagement with the community in tuberculosis research. This article aims to draw attention to some existing community engagement initiatives in tuberculosis research and to resources that might help tuberculosis researchers to establish and implement community engagement programmes for their trials. One of these resources-the good participatory practice guidelines for tuberculosis drug trials-offers a conceptual framework and practical guidance for community engagement in tuberculosis research. To build momentum and to improve community engagement, lessons need to be shared, and formal assessment strategies for community engagement initiatives need to be developed. To build successfully on the promising activities described in this personal view, research funders and sponsors should show leadership in allocation of resources for the implementation and assessment of community engagement programmes in tuberculosis trials. PMID:23531390

Boulanger, Renaud F; Seidel, Stephanie; Lessem, Erica; Pyne-Mercier, Lee; Williams, Sharon D; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Scott, Cherise; Chou, Alicia Y; Lavery, James V

2013-06-01

175

Hearing voices, creating spaces: the craft of the ‘artisan teacher’ in a mass higher education system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore the concepts of voice and space as critical to the issues of widening participation, inclusive learning and teaching and academic engagement. Drawing on research conducted between 2006 and 2008 within two universities in England, and developmental work carried out with some of the teacher participants subsequently, I explore the ways in which teachers can create

Christine Hockings

2011-01-01

176

Adult Music Engagement: Perspectives from Three Musically Engaged Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of adult music engagement from the perspectives of musically engaged adults not currently participating in activities that are direct extensions of the typical K-12 music curriculum. Three participants were purposefully chosen and include an avid listener, a church praise team member, and a…

Thornton, Darrin H.

2010-01-01

177

Engagement for What? Beyond Popular Discourses of Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade educational research about school improvement and effective schools increasingly identifies the significance of student engagement especially in relation to the academic success of students. There are several issues and concerns, relating both to the meaning and justification or aims of student engagement, that arise from this…

McMahon, Brenda; Portelli, John P.

2004-01-01

178

SLIDE PRESENTATION ON EMSP PROJECT 65328: ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADIOACTIVE AEROSOL ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

These are the Powerpoint slides from a presentation on electrically driven technologies for radioactive aerosol abatement. The overall objectives of this project were:(1) to generate a scientific basis for developing innovative electrically based filtration systems that are appl...

179

Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures du...

I. M. Gren

1992-01-01

180

Economic assessment of emissions abatement for small-scale waste combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a preliminary economic assessment of various pollution abatement systems which could be applied to waste combustion projects. For the purpose of this work a rigorous analysis of the technical performance has not been carried out. Cost...

1993-01-01

181

Underground Coal Mining Methods to Abate Water Pollution: A State of the Art Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formatio...

L. W. Wilson N. J. Matthews J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

182

Combined Sewer Overflow Abatement Program, Rochester, NY. Volume II. Pilot Plant Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pilot plant treatability studies were designed to interact with combined sewer overflow (CSO) monitoring and system modeling efforts for the Rochester Pure Water District with the ultimate objective of evaluating CSO abatement alternatives. The studie...

C. B. Murphy D. Bhargava D. F. Geisser F. J. Drehwing S. R. Garver

1979-01-01

183

A Study of the Magnitude of Transportation Noise Generation and Potential Abatement. Volume Ii. Measurement Criterion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluations of the effectiveness of transportation noise abatement require the use of a measure which relates individual and community reactions to transportation noise. Previous studies were examined to determine how well various measures predicted respo...

1970-01-01

184

COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW ABATEMENT PROGRAM, ROCHESTER, NY. VOLUME II. PILOT PLANT EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The pilot plant treatability studies were designed to interact with combined sewer overflow (CSO) monitoring and system modeling efforts for the Rochester Pure Water District with the ultimate objective of evaluating CSO abatement alternatives. The studies covered treatment by th...

185

Engaging Learners Through Intuitive Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter acquaints the reader with key concepts associated with learner engagement by examining the user interface from cognitive, semiotic, psychological, artistic and pedagogical perspectives. Technology affords educators with a new way to present course content that is no longer text only, paper constrained, linearly organized and visually flat. Engaged learning can borrow from the interactive and community-based activities prevalent

John G. Hedberg; Susan Metros

186

Students Individual Engagement in GIS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course in planning and management. The analysis shows that…

Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik; Rump, Camilla

2014-01-01

187

Student Engagement and Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the authors assessed student engagement during a short-term study-abroad program using the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Data were collected from a group of Canadian undergraduates spending six weeks in Mexico. Their program included a 10-day bus tour, three half-credit courses, and accommodations with local families.…

Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

2012-01-01

188

Engaged Time in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foremost in an effective curriculum for students with emotional and behavioral disorder (E/BD) is a high level of engaged time--time spent doing meaningful learning activities. Engaged time (time-on-task) is the portion of instructional time that students spend directly involved in learning activities. Walker and Severson (1992) defined the…

Johns E., Beverly H.; Crowley, Paula; Guetzloe, Eleanor

2008-01-01

189

Student Engagement and Quality Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we set out research being undertaken to develop measures of learner engagement. Engagement is defined by variables of involvement, wellbeing and thinking. The measures are designed to be sensitive to the effect of alternative pedagogy on students from pre-school to final years of secondary and to be usable across a wide range of learning environments from formal

Chris Goldspink; Pam Winter; Margot Foster

2006-01-01

190

Long-term improvements in water quality due to sewage abatement in the lower Hudson River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-trend trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of almost\\u000a 60 yr of sewage abatement and treatment in the lower Hudson River near New York City. Although some water pollution control\\u000a plants have been in operation in the region since the 1930s, the most significant abatement of untreated sewage in the

Thomas M. Brosnan; Marie L. O’Shea

1996-01-01

191

Abatement of SF6 and CF4 using an enhanced kerosene microwave plasma burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kerosene microwave plasma burner was presented as a tool for abatement of SF6 and CF4 gases, which cause global warming. The plasma burner operates by injecting kerosene as a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into a microwave plasma torch and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen (O2) gas. The abatement of SF6 and CF4,

Dong Hun Shin; Yong Cheol Hong; Soon Cheon Cho; Han Sup Uhm

2006-01-01

192

Using performance indicators to evaluate an environmental education program in artisanal gold mining communities in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

The Tapajos River Basin in the Brazilian Amazon is the location of one of the largest concentrations of artisanal and small-scale miners in the world. Today, 40,000 miners produce 8 t of gold annum(-1) and at least double this amount of mercury is released into the environment. This region was selected under the Global Mercury Project, a United Nations program that aims to reduce the environmental and health impacts caused by mercury through the application of cleaner technologies and increased awareness. A group of educators provided support to miners, training 4200 people in 141 mining locations. The effectiveness of this training was evaluated based on 20 performance indicators. After 120 days of training, an absolute improvement of approximately 29% had been achieved. As a result of this training, it is estimated that annual mercury emissions in Tapajos have been reduced by 1762 kg or around 10% of the total mercury released in the region. PMID:19260346

Sousa, Rodolfo N; Veiga, Marcello M

2009-02-01

193

Mercury Exposure and Health Impacts among Individuals in the Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Community: A Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Mercury (Hg) is used in gold mining to extract gold from ore by forming “amalgam”—a mixture composed of approximately equal parts mercury and gold. Approximately 15 million people, including approximately 3 million women and children, participate in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in developing countries. Thirty-seven percent of global air emissions of Hg are produced by ASGM. The recently adopted Minamata Convention calls for nations to gather health data, train health-care workers, and raise awareness in regard to ASGM activity. Objective: The purpose of our review was to evaluate the current literature regarding the health effects of Hg among those working and/or living in or near ASGM communities. Methods: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies relating to health effects and biomarkers of Hg exposure in ASGM communities. Articles published from 1990 through December 2012 were evaluated for relevance. Discussion: Studies reporting health assessments, kidney dysfunction, neurological disorders and symptoms, and immunotoxicity/autoimmune dysfunction in individuals living in or near an ASGM community were identified. More than 60 studies that measured biomarkers of Hg exposure in individuals living in or near ASGM communities were also identified. These studies, conducted in 19 different countries in South America, Asia, and Africa, demonstrated that hair and urine concentrations are well above World Health Organization health guidance values in ASGM communities. Conclusions: ASGM workers and their families are exposed to Hg vapor, and workers, workers’ families, and residents of nearby and downstream communities are consuming fish heavily contaminated with methylmercury. Citation: Gibb H, O’Leary KG. 2014. Mercury exposure and health impacts among individuals in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining community: a comprehensive review. Environ Health Perspect 122:667–672;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307864

O'Leary, Keri Grace

2014-01-01

194

Mercury Exposure and Health Impacts among Individuals in the Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Community: A Comprehensive Review.  

PubMed

Background: Mercury (Hg) is used in gold mining to extract gold from ore by forming "amalgam"-a mixture composed of approximately equal parts mercury and gold. Approximately 15 million people, including approximately 3 million women and children, participate in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in developing countries. Thirty-seven percent of global air emissions of Hg are produced by ASGM. The recently adopted Minamata Convention calls for nations to gather health data, train health-care workers, and raise awareness in regard to ASGM activity.Objective: The purpose of our review was to evaluate the current literature regarding the health effects of Hg among those working and/or living in or near ASGM communities.Methods: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies relating to health effects and biomarkers of Hg exposure in ASGM communities. Articles published from 1990 through December 2012 were evaluated for relevance.Discussion: Studies reporting health assessments, kidney dysfunction, neurological disorders and symptoms, and immunotoxicity/autoimmune dysfunction in individuals living in or near an ASGM community were identified. More than 60 studies that measured biomarkers of Hg exposure in individuals living in or near ASGM communities were also identified. These studies, conducted in 19 different countries in South America, Asia, and Africa, demonstrated that hair and urine concentrations are well above World Health Organization health guidance values in ASGM communities.Conclusions: ASGM workers and their families are exposed to Hg vapor, and workers, workers' families, and residents of nearby and downstream communities are consuming fish heavily contaminated with methylmercury.Citation: Gibb H, O'Leary KG. 2014. Mercury exposure and health impacts among individuals in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining community: a comprehensive review. Environ Health Perspect 122:667-672;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307864. PMID:24682486

Gibb, Herman; O'Leary, Keri Grace

2014-07-01

195

Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.  

PubMed

The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs. PMID:11057602

Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

2000-08-01

196

The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

Ross, M.

1995-10-01

197

Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement.  

PubMed

A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes. PMID:23716505

Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W

2013-06-26

198

Re-engaging\\/Engaging Part-time Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to maintain high quality service and strengthen retention of part-time librarians, this article addresses ways of engaging new part-time librarians and re-engaging long-time part-time librarians. Part-time librarians are hired primarily to work hours outside the traditional work week or as temporary replacements for unanticipated vacancies, yet they end up providing a third of the service, solely, during evenings

Wilma L. Jones

2011-01-01

199

Optimal CO{sub 2} abatement in the presence of induced technological change  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the significance of policy-induced technological change for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The authors derive analytical expressions characterizing optimal CO{sub 2} abatement and carbon tax profiles under different specifications for the channels through which technological progress occurs. They consider both R and D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, and they examine each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. The authors show analytically in a cost-effectiveness setting that the presence of induced technological change (ITC) always implies a lower time profile of optimal carbon taxes. The same is true in a benefit-cost setting as long as damages are convex in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. The impact of ITC on the optimal abatement path varies. When knowledge is gained through R and D investments, the presence of ITC justifies shifting some abatement from the present to the future. However, when knowledge is accumulated via learning-by-doing the impact on the timing of abatement is analytically ambiguous. Illustrative numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC upon overall costs and optimal carbon taxes can be quite large in a cost-effectiveness setting but typically is much smaller under a benefit-cost policy criterion. The impact of ITC on the timing of abatement is very slight, but the effect (applicable in the benefit-cost case) on cumulative abatement over time can be large, especially when knowledge is generated through learning-by doing.

Goulder, L.H.; Mathai, K.

2000-01-01

200

Engaging patients through your website.  

PubMed

Legislation requires the healthcare industry to directly engage patients through technology. This paper proposes a model that can be used to review hospital websites for features that engage patients in their healthcare. The model describes four levels of patient engagement in website design. The sample consisted of 130 hospital websites from hospitals listed on 2010 and 2011 Most Wired Hospitals. Hospital websites were analyzed for features that encouraged patient interaction with their healthcare according to the levels in the model. Of the four levels identified in the model, websites ranged from "informing" to "collaborative" in website design. There was great variation of features offered on hospital websites with few being engaging and interactive. PMID:22913874

Snyder, Kimberlee; Ornes, Lynne L; Paulson, Pat

2014-01-01

201

Medical Engagement: Beyond the MEDCAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper answers the question: Is the way the US military provides Health Services Support via medical engagements with foreign populations the proper and most efficient way US military medical resources can be employed in the current environment. To fu...

J. E. Bryan

2008-01-01

202

National Center for Media Engagement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the Center for Public Broadcasting, the National Center for Media Engagement is dedicated to supporting "public media organizations nationwide in engaging their communities." They provide resources for stations and producers to engage citizens in a range of platforms, and their website is a great place to learn about their work. On the homepage, visitors will find seven sections, including "Think & Strategize", "Plan & Design", "Execute", "Renew & Upgrade" and "Communicate Impact". Public media organizations will be able to use these sections to use social media to communicate their mission to the public. Further down on the homepage, visitors can also learn about "Public Media Stories of Impact". These stories are taken from a range of public media organizations, such as pieces from Austin on the arts community and Columbus, Ohio's work on community engagement. It's also worth taking a look at their blog, which contains direct links to other resources created by public radio and television stations from around the United States.

203

Citizen Engagement through Public Deliberation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and consumer sciences professionals can encourage citizen participation in local, state, and national government. The public deliberation model developed by the Kettering Foundation's National Issues Forum is designed to engage citizens in the deliberation process. (JOW)

Williams, Sue E.

2001-01-01

204

The ROI of engaged patients.  

PubMed

Summa Health System, based in Akron, Ohio, implemented pre-visit multimedia engagement and post-visit centralized follow-up as a means to promote the more active engagement of its patients in managing their care. The initiative led to significant improvements in the patient experience, as measured by HCAHPS ratings. The initiative, among others, also helped ensure that Summa received 100 percent of its 2012 pay-for-performance incentive from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. PMID:23957191

Natale, Carmen V; Gross, Devin

2013-08-01

205

Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates whether and how a recent entrepreneurial exit relates to subsequent engagement. We discriminate between\\u000a six levels of engagement including none, potential, intentional, nascent, young and established entrepreneurship. We use individual-level\\u000a data for 24 countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor during 2004, 2005 and 2006 (some 350,000 observations).\\u000a Our findings indeed show that a recent exit

Jolanda Hessels; Isabel Grilo; Roy Thurik; D Peter van der Zwan

2009-01-01

206

Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of reprocessing mercury-contaminated tailings in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector: insights from Tapajos River Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, the environmental impacts of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) are extensive. Annual losses from mercury, which is used to amalgamate gold, are in the range of 1000 tonnes, and at advanced sites, there is the additional threat of cyanide contamination.Recent developments in The Brazilian Amazon, an area populated by 200,000 small-scale gold miners, have the potential to reduce these

Rodolfo N. Sousa; Marcello M. Veiga; Bern Klein; Kevin Telmer; Aaron J. Gunson; Ludovic Bernaudat

2010-01-01

207

Abatement of perfluorinated compounds using microwave plasmas at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave plasmas sustained at atmospheric pressure, for instance by electromagnetic surface waves, can be efficiently used to abate greenhouse-effect gases such as perfluorinated compounds. As a working example, we study the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF6 at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 2.4% of the total gas flow where N2, utilized as a purge gas, is the carrier gas. O2 is added to the mixture at a fixed ratio of 1.2-1.5 times the concentration of SF6 to ensure full oxidation of the SF6 fragments, providing thereby scrubbable by-products. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been utilized for identification of the by-products and quantification of the residual concentration of SF6. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the gas temperature of the nitrogen plasma. In terms of operating parameters, the DRE is found to increase with increasing microwave power and decrease with increasing gas flow rate and discharge tube radius. Increasing the microwave power, in the case of a surface-wave discharge, or decreasing the gas flow rate increases the residence time of the molecules to be processed, hence, the observed DRE increase. In contrast, increasing the tube radius or the gas-flow rate increases the degree of radial contraction of the discharge and, therefore, the plasma-free space close to the tube wall: this comparatively colder region favors the reformation of the fragmented SF6 molecules, and enlarging it lowers the destruction rate. DRE values higher than 95% have been achieved at a microwave power of 6 kW with 2.4% SF6 in N2 flow rates up to 30 standard l/min.

Kabouzi, Y.; Moisan, M.; Rostaing, J. C.; Trassy, C.; Guérin, D.; Kéroack, D.; Zakrzewski, Z.

2003-06-01

208

Is H2S a suitable process indicator for odour abatement performance of sewer odours?  

PubMed

Odour abatement units are typically designed and maintained on H(2)S concentrations, but operational failures are reported in terms of overall odour removal, suggesting a wide range of malodorous compounds emitted from sewers that may not be efficiently removed by existing odour abatement processes. Towards providing greater insight into this issue, several activated carbon filters and biofilters treating odorous emissions from sewer systems in Sydney (Australia) were monitored by collecting and analysing gas samples before and after treatment. The monitoring studies were conducted by both olfactometric measurements and gas-chromatography-based chemical analysis. Single H(2)S assessment often failed to indicate the odour abatement performance for treatment systems in the abatement units studied, particularly when the incoming H(2)S concentrations were in the sub-ppm range (i.e. below H(2)S odour threshold). Chemical analysis indicated that some non-H(2)S odorous compounds were not removed efficiently during odour treatment. Additionally, when odour eliminations were correlated with the removal of individual compounds (Pearson's correlations) it was observed that the correlation (with a coefficient of 0.79) was best when the overall removal of all the measured odorous compounds that exceeded their odour threshold values was used for the analysis. These findings may help to further advance the design and operation of odour abatement processes to address the treatment of sewer odour emissions. PMID:24434973

Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Wang, X; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

2014-01-01

209

Personal and static sample measurements of asbestos fibres during two abatement projects.  

PubMed

Exposure assessment was performed during the abatement of amosite containing material (ACM) and chrysotile containing material (CCM). Mean fibre concentrations (MFC) in breathing zone (BZ) were 20.6+/-7.9 f/cc and 6.3+/-2.2 f/cc during abatements of ACM and CCM, respectively. At the fixed station, MFC were 5.4+/-3.5 f/cc for ACM and 2.9 f/cc+/-1.6 for CCM. For observer's BZ, MFC were 3.1+/-1.3 f/cc (ACM) and 1.8 f/cc (CCM) during the abatement. Though elevated, area and observer-type samples clearly underestimate exposure. Exposure remained unacceptable in the worksite with the class of respiratory protection used. PMID:19183819

Dufresne, A; Dion, C; Frielaender, A; Audet, E; Perrault, G

2009-04-01

210

Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia.  

PubMed

Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl mercury. Exposure parameters for the adult population (especially rates of fish consumption) were obtained from nation-wide surveys and concentrations of Hg in air and of methyl-mercury in fish were gathered from previous scientific studies. Fish consumption varied between departments and ranged from 0 to 0.3kgd(-1). Average concentrations of total mercury in fish (70 data) ranged from 0.026 to 3.3?gg(-1). A total of 550 individual measurements of Hg in workshop air (ranging from

artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia. PMID:24534152

De Miguel, Eduardo; Clavijo, Diana; Ortega, Marcelo F; Gómez, Amaia

2014-08-01

211

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CIRCLE has recently published three detailed fact sheets that update, refine, and in some respects complicate, our knowledge of the links between college education and civic engagement (see "College Attendance and Civic Engagement Among 18 to 25 Year Olds," "Civic Engagement among Recent College Graduates," and "Civic Engagement among 2-year and…

Levine, Peter

2006-01-01

212

Staff engagement: it starts with the leader.  

PubMed

Engagement can happen if you can take care of yourself first and respect the need for recovery times. It's very hard to find an engaged staff when the leader/manager is disengaged. Engagement is contagious. As leaders model engagement and connection, the staff will follow. Unfortunately, disengagement is also contagious and can create disastrous results. PMID:17402681

Kerfoot, Karlene

2007-01-01

213

Learning to Engage: Experiences with Civic Engagement in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores questions about roles for citizens and governments in a good society by examining six Canadian experiences with civic engagement. Each case study involves different sectors of society, key players, goals, processes, and outcomes; touches on long-standing policy issues in Canada; and details how players have come together or…

Wyman, Miriam; Shulman, David; Ham, Laurie

214

Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs  

PubMed Central

Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative.

Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

2011-01-01

215

The perils and promises of microbial abundance: novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas.  

PubMed

Microbial life has been much in the news. From outbreaks of Escherichia coli to discussions of the benefits of raw and fermented foods to recent reports of life forms capable of living in extreme environments, the modest microbe has become a figure for thinking through the presents and possible futures of nature, writ large as well as small. Noting that dominant representations of microbial life have shifted from an idiom of peril to one of promise, we argue that microbes--especially when thriving as microbial communities--are being upheld as model ecosystems in a prescriptive sense, as tokens of how organisms and human ecological relations with them could, should, or might be. We do so in reference to two case studies: the regulatory politics of artisanal cheese and the speculative research of astrobiology. To think of and with microbial communities as model ecosystems offers a corrective to the scientific determinisms we detect in some recent calls to attend to the materiality of scientific objects. PMID:24941610

Paxson, Heather; Helmreich, Stefan

2014-04-01

216

Student Engagement and Marketing Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…

Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.

2011-01-01

217

Lively Discussions! Fostering Engaged Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offering practical, classroom-based strategies teachers can use to promote literacy development, this book presents many examples of children engaging in discussion activities about narrative and informational text that emphasize collaborating, constructing meaning, and using these different types of texts to arrive at new understandings. Chapters…

Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Almasi, Janice F., Ed.

218

Civic Engagement and Environmental Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the intersection of civic engagement and environmental literacy is particularly timely because 2012 marked a critical juncture in history: the United Nations Literacy Decade ended, and a 20-year appraisal of the United Nation's Earth Summit commenced. The Literacy Decade, launched in 2003 under the slogan "Literacy as Freedom," situated…

Hill, Robert J.

2012-01-01

219

Refreshing Engagement: NSSE at 13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen years ago, 276 bachelor's-granting colleges and universities inaugurated a new approach to assessing college quality by participating in the first national administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This report summarizes what was learned over the NSSE's first 13 years, why the survey is being updated, and new…

McCormick, Alexander C.; Gonyea, Robert M.; Kinzie, Jillian

2013-01-01

220

Understanding Visitor Engagement and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine a model of visitor engagement that has been in development over the past 3 years at the Smithsonian Institution. A total of 390 visitors comprised the sample with a subsample ("n" = 102) of visitors who were tracked through an exhibit in the National Museum of Natural History. A 5-factor visitor preference model was…

Schreiber, James B.; Pekarik, Andrew J.; Hanemann, Nadine; Doering, Zahava; Lee, Ah-Jin

2013-01-01

221

Reversible Nut With Engagement Indication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Document describes nut allowing fastener inserted or removed from either side by simply sliding fastener in or out. Detents on each face of nut, when pushed in, ensure positive engagement of threads. Followed by conventional clockwise turning to lock and counterclockwise turning to unlock nut. Detents, when viewed, show whether nut in positive lock.

Wright, Jay M.

1995-01-01

222

Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

Amerongen, Helen

2011-01-01

223

Engaging Teachers in Ed Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher engagement is crucial to the success of education reforms. Not only can teachers serve as policymakers' eyes and ears on the ground, sharing firsthand knowledge of challenges in the classroom, but their advocacy can be instrumental to passing smart, sensible policies, and their buy-in can make or break reform implementation. Ongoing…

Steans, Robin

2012-01-01

224

The PACES digital engagement model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Passive and Active Countermeasures Evaluation Simulation (PACES). PACES is best characterized as an engineering level digital engagement model used to study the effectiveness of electronic countermeasures and aircraft maneuvers against threat radar and missile systems. A typical scenario consists of one or two maneuvering aircraft deploying electronic countermeasures (ECM) against a single threat system. PACES includes

E. L. Gau

1997-01-01

225

Constructive Engagement with the Corporation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the gravest concerns that critics of corporate culture have about the consequences of academic-corporate relationships are built on little more than ill-informed speculation, fueled by a lack of direct engagement with corporations. The solution to knowledge gap--and the key to liberation from fears of "creeping corporatization"--may…

Siegel, David J.

2007-01-01

226

Strategic engagement: Some modest proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States must remain strategically engaged in the world. It “has an indispensable role to play in reintegrating a former adversary into the international system, maintaining a global balance of power more generally, and preserving a favorable climate for economic growth and the development of liberal constitutionalism.” To achieve these ends, the United States must apply its global military

Carnes Lord; Gary J. Schmitt

1994-01-01

227

Motivation, Engagement, and Student Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figuring out what motivates and engages individual students is essential. Indeed, it is the prerequisite for implementing student-centered approaches to learning. However, today's teachers--confronting large class sizes, fast-paced academic calendars, and standardized assessments--face particular pressures to lump all students together and "teach…

Toshalis, Eric; Nakkula, Michael J.

2012-01-01

228

Student Engagement in Campus Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty, staff, and administrators are all burdened by the lack of time, budgetary constraints, and ever-changing priorities, and facilities staff are no different. With all these constraints, how can real change happen? Student engagement can make facilities work easier and more fulfilling. Involving students from the ground up on projects not…

Cairo, Allessandra

2011-01-01

229

Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

230

Environmental policyincentives to adopt advanced abatement technology: Will the true ranking please stand up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate incentives through environmental policyinstruments to adopt advanced abate- ment technology. First, we study the case where the regulator makes long-term commitments to policylevels and does not anticipate arrival of new technology . We show that taxes pro- vide stronger incentives than permits, auctioned and free permits o4er identical incentives, and standards maygive stronger incentives than permits. Second, we

Till Requate; Wolfram Unold

231

An Operational Evaluation of the Two-Segment Approach for Noise Abatement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an operational evaluation of the two-segment instrument landing approach for noise abatement purposes. The evaluation was performed using a FAA DC-9 modified with a Selective Glide Slope (SEGS) computer which provided th...

R. A. Chubboy

1971-01-01

232

Advanced oxidation processes coupled with electrocoagulation for the exhaustive abatement of Cr-EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Cr-EDTA as a model system, a two-step method has been investigated for the abatement of persistent chromium complexes in water. The treatment consists of an oxidative decomposition of the organic ligands by means of ozonization or electrochemical oxidation at a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, followed by removal of the metal via electrochemical coagulation. In the designed synthetic waste,

Christian Durante; Marco Cuscov; Abdirisak Ahmed Isse; Giancarlo Sandonà; Armando Gennaro

2011-01-01

233

The Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Willingness to Pay for Abatement of Forest Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) responses obtained through contingent valuation (CV) in the context of the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predict behavioral intention. Considering WTP as a behavioral intention, the article explains willingness to pay for abatement of forest regeneration using data from a

2001-01-01

234

Capturing climate's effect on pollution abatement with an improved solution to the omitted variables problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate greatly affects the SO2 concentration abatement efforts of Mae Moh power plant which burns high sulfur content lignite in Northern Thailand. In summer months, hot air rising draws Mae Moh’s SO2 emissions out of the Mae Moh valley. In contrast, temperature inversions in winter months prevent hot air in the valley from rising, resulting in the trapping and concentrating

Jonathan E. Leightner; Tomoo Inoue

2008-01-01

235

In-Place Performance Evaluation of HEPA-Filtration Systems at Asbestos Abatement Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey to determine each system's particle-removal efficiency. An air-generated dioctyl phtalate aer...

J. R. Kominsky R. W. Freyberg J. M. Boiano J. A. Browniee D. R. Gerber

1990-01-01

236

Alternative methods of marginal abatement cost estimation: Non- parametric distance functions  

SciTech Connect

This project implements a economic methodology to measure the marginal abatement costs of pollution by measuring the lost revenue implied by an incremental reduction in pollution. It utilizes observed performance, or `best practice`, of facilities to infer the marginal abatement cost. The initial stage of the project is to use data from an earlier published study on productivity trends and pollution in electric utilities to test this approach and to provide insights on its implementation to issues of cost-benefit analysis studies needed by the Department of Energy. The basis for this marginal abatement cost estimation is a relationship between the outputs and the inputs of a firm or plant. Given a fixed set of input resources, including quasi-fixed inputs like plant and equipment and variable inputs like labor and fuel, a firm is able to produce a mix of outputs. This paper uses this theoretical view of the joint production process to implement a methodology and obtain empirical estimates of marginal abatement costs. These estimates are compared to engineering estimates.

Boyd, G.; Molburg, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Prince, R. [USDOE Office of Environmental Analysis, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

237

30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Where underground mining operations in active workings create or raise excessive amounts of dust, water or water with a wetting agent added to it, or other no less effective methods approved by the Secretary or his authorized representative, shall be used to abate such...

2013-07-01

238

Recovery of fluorocarbons in Japan as a measure for abating global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential for recovering fluorocarbons as measures for the abatement of global warming. In this study, we focused on the three different kinds of fluorocarbons: CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs, and targeted refrigerant use because of the availability of relevant data. We first estimated future fluorocarbon emissions from the targeted appliances; we next

Tatsuya Hanaoka; Hisashi Ishitani; Ryuji Matsuhashi; Yoshikuni Yoshida

2002-01-01

239

Analytical Techniques for Evaluation of Oxidation Catalysts for the Abatement of Paint Bake Oven Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abatement of paint bake oven emissions using oxidation catalysts operated at low temperature (500°-600°F) offers significant energy savings relative to traditional incineration. Pilot testing in the field offers the advantage that the actual vapor stream is utilized to evaluate the catalyst. To this end, four low temperature catalysts based on three different substrates have been evaluated onsite for hydrocarbon

S. P. Levine; D. Schuetzle; R. T. Stordeur; J. S. Hammond; C. M. Stordeur

1981-01-01

240

Gasdynamic Abatement of NOx Emission from Industrial Natural Gas Jet Diffusion Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to examine the possibilities of NOx, emission abatement from high temperature industrial furnaces by controlling the gasdynamic parameters of natural gas flames. The following parameters were investigated: air and gas velocity at burner exit, air swirl angle, position of the burner nozzles and air staging. It has been shown that moderate swirling of the

JERZY TOMECZEK; JAN GÓRAL; BOGUSULAW GRADON

1995-01-01

241

ACHIEVING A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY CLEARANCE CRITERION AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Representatives of the New Jersey Department of Health's Asbestos Control Service conducted final clearance evaluations at 79 schools where asbestos removal took place during the Summer of 1987. The evaluations entailed a thorough visual inspection of each abatement area by an ex...

242

OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in

S. M. ADAMS; C. C. BRANDT; S. W. CHRISTENSEN; M. S. JR. Greeley; M. J. Peterson; M. S. HUSTON; L. A. KSZOS; G. R. Southworth; M. G. RYON; J. G. SMITH; A. J. STEWART

1998-01-01

243

Pollution by nitrogen oxides: an approach to NO x abatement by using sorbing catalytic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises the abatement of NOx pollution by using sorbing catalytic materials with especial relevance to the challenge presented in fixed installations sources. A general vision of the origins of the different pollutants, with emphasis on nitrogen oxides formation, is presented as introduction. The impact of NOx pollution comprises additionally a quick view of its toxicity and environmental effects.

M. A. Gómez-García; V. Pitchon; A. Kiennemann

2005-01-01

244

WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

245

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and ...

246

Contrasting responses of oligochaete communities to the abatement of eutrophication in Lake Geneva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubificid and lumbriculid worms were used to monitor, at depths of 150 m, the recovery of Lake Geneva (Switzerland) from eutrophication. As predicted from the decrease of phosphorus concentrations, relative abundance of oligotrophic species was higher from 1988 to 1993 than in 1983, i.e. before the abatement of eutrophication. However, this trend towards oligotrophication can be reversed, as indicated by

Claude Lang; Olivier Reymond

1995-01-01

247

CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.  

PubMed

Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in decision-making. PMID:23201601

Rehl, T; Müller, J

2013-01-15

248

Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

1983-01-01

249

Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area  

PubMed Central

The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

2011-01-01

250

Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

Chaiko, Lev I.

1994-01-01

251

Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir, Brazil.  

PubMed

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which is exotic to South America, is the most common species caught in artisanal fisheries at the Barra Bonita Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil. This species is of great socioeconomic importance for the region and keeps active a population of about 500 fishers. In the present study we assess reproduction, food dynamics and level of exploitation of O. niloticus, caught by artisanal fisheries in the Barra Bonita Reservoir. Specimens were collected monthly, from July 2004-June 2005, and a total of 1 715 specimens were analyzed. Each specimen was examined to obtain biological and biometric data: standard length (cm), total weight (g), reproductive data (sex and stage of maturation), and stomach contents (empty, partly full, and full). We also estimated the sex ratio (by macroscopic observation of gonads), reproductive period (by ovarian development and seasonal average of gonadosomatic index in females), and feeding habits (by stomach contents). The possible relationship between abiotic factors and the reproductive period was statistically verified using Spearman's Rank Correlation. The FiSAT (ELEFAN I) package was used to assess growth parameters, mortality rates and to infer exploitation rate from standard length frequencies. The O. niloticus population had a sex ratio of 1.3:1 (M:F). Results indicated that ripe females were captured throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the winter-2004 (with a frequency of 59%, at a mean temperature of 20.5 degreeC), and in spring-2004 (with a frequency of 60.5% at a mean temperature of 21.18 degreeC). The GSI mean values obtained by season were: winter-2004: 1.71; spring-2004: 1.72; summer-2005: 0.80, and autumn-2005: 1.19. The Spearman correlation indicated positive values with respect to pH, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, transparency and chlorophyll a, and negative values with respect to temperature, accumulated rainfall and altimetric benchmark. The main food items were phytoplankton and periphytic algae, observed in 99.6% of the analyzed stomachs. The estimated growth and mortality parameters were: Linfinity=33.60cm, k=0.63/year, longevity= 4.76years, Z=2.81/ year, M=1.20/year and F=1.61/year. The weight-length relationship was Ln Wt=-2.8532+2.8835 Ln Lp. The estimated yield per recruit values were as follows: E=0.570, Emax=0.776, E0.1=0.604 and E0.5=0.349. These results indicate that a well established population of O. niloticus is present at Barra Bonita Reservoir; with an active reproduction throughout the year, more intense during winter and spring, and that O. niloticus is a phyto-planktophagus species. There were no indications that this species is being overfished, we therefore recommend that, due to its exotic condition, no restrictions need to be taken on its fishing activities. PMID:23894941

Novaes, José Luís Costa; Carvalho, Edmir Daniel

2012-06-01

252

Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991-2011  

PubMed Central

This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

2014-01-01

253

Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

2003-04-01

254

Community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous artisan-type meat fermentations differ between smoking and moulding treatments.  

PubMed

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that are naturally present in the raw meat batter of fermented sausages or that originate from the addition of a starter culture play a role in flavour development. A wide species diversity of CNS can be present in fermented meats, but it is not fully clear yet how specific process parameters select for specific CNS by affecting their community dynamics. Therefore, the influence of smoking and moulding treatments on the CNS community dynamics in spontaneously fermented, artisan-type sausages was investigated. During the fermentation stage, the meat batter was in all cases dominated by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, in addition to Lactobacillus sakei as governing lactic acid bacterium. Following fermentation, the bacterial communities were not perturbed by the smoking treatment, since both L. sakei and S. saprophyticus remained dominant throughout the ripening stage and prevailed in the end-products. Yet, when fermentation was followed by a moulding step with Penicillium nalgiovense, a shift of the CNS communities towards dominance by Staphyloccocus equorum was seen, despite a similar evolution of L. sakei. This effect was possibly due to a pH rise caused by the mould, a hypothesis which was reinforced by the finding that the isolated strain S. equorum DBX-S-17 was more sensitive to low pH than the isolated strain S. saprophyticus DFL-S-12 during growth experiments in brain heart infusion (BHI). Differences in CNS communities may affect sausage flavour, due to intraspecies variations in metabolic conversions of, for instance, amino acids. The fact that 3-methyl-butanal was only found in the moulded sausage, which was dominated by S. equorum, may be related to the finding that the isolated strain of this species was able to produce this compound in BHI medium, whereas the isolated strain of S. saprophyticus was not. PMID:23880244

Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

2013-08-16

255

Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991-2011.  

PubMed

This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID:24740258

Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

2014-01-01

256

Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

van der Velden, Gwen

2012-01-01

257

Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

2012-01-01

258

Civic Engagement and the "Research College"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Liberal arts colleges infrequently appear as prominent models of civic engagement. Yet their low profile and limited role in the higher education engagement discourse masks great potential. This article challenges these institutions to connect liberal education and civic engagement and argues that this is practicable within current priorities and…

Bloomgarden, Alan H.

2007-01-01

259

Framing student engagement in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student engagement is widely recognised as an important influence on achievement and learning in higher education and as such is being widely theorised and researched. This article firstly reviews and critiques the four dominant research perspectives on student engagement: the behavioural perspective, which foregrounds student behaviour and institutional practice; the psychological perspective, which clearly defines engagement as an individual psycho-social

Ella R. Kahu

2011-01-01

260

Students' Engagement in First-Year University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on seven calibrated scales of student engagement emerging from a large-scale study of first year undergraduate students in Australian universities. The analysis presents insights into contemporary undergraduate student engagement, including online, self-managed, peer and student-staff engagement. The results point to the…

Krause, Kerri-Lee; Coates, Hamish

2008-01-01

261

Engagement States and Learning from Educational Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's and adolescents' cognitive, affective, and behavioral states of engagement enhance or impede enjoyment of, and performance with, educational games. We propose a comprehensive model of engagement states and apply it to research on educational game development and research on the role of various aspects of engagement on game play and…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael E.

2013-01-01

262

Becoming an Engaged Campus: A Practical Guide for Institutionalizing Public Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Becoming an Engaged Campus" offers campus leaders a systematic and detailed approach to creating an environment where public engagement can grow and flourish. The book explains not only what to do to expand community engagement and how to do it, but it also explores how to document, evaluate, and communicate university engagement efforts. An…

Beere, Carole A.; Votruba, James C.; Wells, Gail W.

2011-01-01

263

Student and Staff Engagement: Developing an Engagement Framework in a Faculty of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student engagement is emerging as a key focus in higher education, as engagement is increasingly understood as a prerequisite for effective learning. This paper reports on the development of an Engagement Framework that provides a practical understanding of student (and staff) engagement which can be applied to any discipline, year level or…

Pittaway, Sharon M.

2012-01-01

264

Lead-Based Paint Hazard Abatement System Utilizing a Carrier-Based Fusible Thermoplastic Resinous Coating. Product Development Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product development manual describes the materials specifications, cost estimate, and preparation of thermoplastic composition for YRL 100, a lead - based paint hazard abatement system, developed by Yarsley Research Laboratories (YRL) Limited. The co...

W. Flavell A. P. Verrall

1979-01-01

265

NIOSH Comments to EPA on EPA Proposed Rule: Asbestos Abatement Projects by J. D. Millar, August 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The testimony contains comments by NIOSH on the proposed rule of the Environmental Protection Agency concerning asbestos (1332214) abatement programs. NIOSH proposes a slight change in the wording of the definition of asbestos to make it more mineralogica...

1985-01-01

266

Regional abatement action and costs under allocation schemes for emission allowances for achieving low CO 2 -equivalent concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses regional abatement action and costs for two scenarios in which atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations\\u000a stabilise at 450 and 550 ppm CO2-equivalent. It evaluates two allocation schemes: Multi-Stage and Contraction & Convergence. It was found that abatement costs\\u000a as percentages of GDP vary significantly by region, with high costs for the Middle East and the former Soviet Union, medium

Michel G. J. den Elzen; Paul L. Lucas; Detlef P. van Vuuren

2008-01-01

267

Heavy metal concentrations in shallow marine sediments affected by submarine tailings disposal and artisanal gold mining, Buyat-Ratototok district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element concentrations in shallow marine sediments of the Buyat-Ratototok district of North Sulawesi, Indonesia, are affected by submarine disposal of industrial gold mine tailings and unregulated dumping of tailings and wastewater from small-scale gold mining using mercury amalgamation. Industrial mine tailings contained 590 690 ppm arsenic, 490 580 ppm antimony, and 0.8 5.8 ppm mercury. Tailings-affected sediment As and Sb concentrations were 20 30 times higher than in muddy sediments not contaminated with tailings, and 50 60 times higher than pre-mining average. Highest mercury concentrations were observed in sediments affected by small-scale mining using mercury amalgamation (5 29 ppm). Concentrations of most other trace elements were comparable in sediments affected by both types of mining and were slightly higher than regional averages for sediments collected before the onset of industrial mining. Elevated concentrations of both As and Sb in approximately equal proportions suggest tailings dispersal of at least 3.5 km. Mercury released from artisanal gold mining dispersed up to 4 km from river mouths. Slight increases in concentrations of non-mercury trace elements in areas affected by artisanal mining over pre-industrial mining concentrations were probably caused by increased rates of erosion.

Edinger, Evan N.; Siregar, P. Raja; Blackwood, George M.

2007-04-01

268

Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

Not Available

1980-11-07

269

4-Aminobutyrate Aminotransferase (ABAT): Genetic and Pharmacological Evidence for an Involvement in Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease  

PubMed Central

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is partly caused by genetic factors. The underlying susceptibility genes are currently unknown, with the exception of COL3A1. We used three independent GERD patient cohorts to identify GERD susceptibility genes. Thirty-six families, demonstrating dominant transmission of GERD were subjected to whole genome microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. Five linked regions were identified. Two families shared a linked region (LOD 3.9 and 2.0) on chromosome 16. We used two additional independent GERD patient cohorts, one consisting of 219 trios (affected child with parents) and the other an adult GERD case control cohort consisting of 256 cases and 485 controls, to validate individual genes in the linked region through association analysis. Sixty six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed over the nine genes present in the linked region were genotyped in the independent GERD trio cohort. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis followed by multiple testing adjustments revealed a significant genetic association for one SNP located in an intron of the gene 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) (Padj?=?0.027). This association did not replicate in the adult case-control cohort, possibly due to the differences in ethnicity between the cohorts. Finally, using the selective ABAT inhibitor vigabatrin (?-vinyl GABA) in a dog study, we were able to show a reduction of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by 57.3±11.4 % (p?=?0.007) and the reflux events from 3.1±0.4 to 0.8±0.4 (p?=?0.007). Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of ABAT in pathways affecting lower esophageal sphincter (LES) control and identifies ABAT as a genetic risk factor for GERD.

Hammond, Paul; Davidson, Geoffrey; Knutsson, Mikael; Walentinsson, Anna; Jensen, Jorgen M.; Lehmann, Anders; Agreus, Lars; Lagerstrom-Fermer, Maria

2011-01-01

270

Sulfur dioxide abatement costs and compliance with health-based standards: the case of copper smelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the cost of the abatement of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for three copper smelters operating in Chile. It analyses compliance with emission goals and with the atmospheric health-based SO2 and breathable particle standards. The smelters are Chuquicamata, belonging to the State-owned company, Codelco; and Hernán Videla Lira and Ventanas belonging to ENAMI, the national mining company, also owned

Gustavo Lagos; José Miguel Lehuedé; Marcelo And??a

2001-01-01

271

Suspended solids abatement by pH increase—upgrading of an oxidation pond effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of solids abatement by pH increase was investigated using the jar test procedure with a bentonite tap water suspension and an urban wastewater and an oxidation pond effluent. The results indicated that, depending on the suspended particles and on the dissolved ions, pH values between 9.5 and 12 induced extensive solids elimination without adding any other chemical than

S. Elmaleh; H. Yahi; J. Coma

1996-01-01

272

Language Universals Engage Broca's Area  

PubMed Central

It is well known that natural languages share certain aspects of their design. For example, across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to lbif. But whether language universals are myths or mentally active constraints—linguistic or otherwise—remains controversial. To address this question, we used fMRI to investigate brain response to four syllable types, arrayed on their linguistic well-formedness (e.g., blif?bnif?bdif?lbif, where ? indicates preference). Results showed that syllable structure monotonically modulated hemodynamic response in Broca's area, and its pattern mirrored participants' behavioral preferences. In contrast, ill-formed syllables did not systematically tax sensorimotor regions—while such syllables engaged primary auditory cortex, they tended to deactivate (rather than engage) articulatory motor regions. The convergence between the cross-linguistic preferences and English participants' hemodynamic and behavioral responses is remarkable given that most of these syllables are unattested in their language. We conclude that human brains encode broad restrictions on syllable structure.

Berent, Iris; Pan, Hong; Zhao, Xu; Epstein, Jane; Bennett, Monica L.; Deshpande, Vibhas; Seethamraju, Ravi Teja; Stern, Emily

2014-01-01

273

Inland subsurface water system role for coastal nitrogen load dynamics and abatement responses.  

PubMed

We simulate and analyze long-term dynamics of coastal nitrogen (N) loading and the inland source changes and processes that may have determined its development over the past 60-year period and may govern its possible future responses to various N source management scenarios. With regard to processes, the results show that average basin-scale N delivery fractions to the coast may not be representative of the coastal impacts of either diffuse or point inland sources. The effects of inland source changes may be greatly redistributed in space-time and delayed by slow N transport and mass transfer processes in the subsurface water system of coastal catchments. Extrapolation of current N transport-attenuation conditions for quantification of future abatement effects may therefore be misleading if the extrapolation models do not realistically represent delayed long-term influences of slow subsurface processes. With regard to policy, the results show that and why national Swedish and international Baltic Sea region policies for coastal N load abatement may be difficult or impossible to achieve by inland source abatement only. Large mitigation of both point and diffuse sources may be necessary to achieve targeted coastal N load reductions fast and maintain them also in the long term. PMID:17438757

Lindgren, Georg A; Destouni, Georgia; Darracq, Amélie

2007-04-01

274

Health and housing collaboration at LAST: the Philadelphia Lead Abatement Strike Team.  

PubMed Central

The Lead Abatement Strike Team (LAST) was developed in 2002 by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) in response to community concern about management of children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs). Fourteen hundred backlog properties (housing at least one child with EBLLs) were identified through inspection as having housing-based lead hazards for which no satisfactory environmental remediation (control of lead hazards) had been achieved. In the first two years of LAST, 834 new housing cases also were identified. The heightened awareness of this problem, sparked in part by community advocacy efforts, led to the appropriation of 1.5 million dollars for environmental remediation. A collaborative group of health, housing, and other officials was convened. Enforcement for remediation of properties with lead hazards was strengthened with the development of the Lead Court, a special judicial court devoted exclusively to hearing cases where owners had violated local lead poisoning prevention laws. Identifying a group of Pennsylvania-certified lead abatement contractors, expanding the health department's abatement team, creating temporary relocation capacity, and providing funding for basic housing system repair work were crucial to obtaining rapid remediation of homes. In the first two years of the LAST program, 1,037 properties (both backlog and new properties) that housed 1,476 children were remediated, representing a significant increase in remediation capacity.

Campbell, Carla; Himmelsbach, Robert; Palermo, Peter; Tobin, Richard

2005-01-01

275

Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

Peter A. Pryfogle

2005-09-01

276

Learners' Engagement in Adult Literacy Education. NCSALL Reports #28  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is about engagement in adult literacy education. Engagement is mental effort focused on learning. It is important to understand how and why adult learners engage in literacy instruction because engagement is a precondition to learning progress. Researchers who study engagement conceive of it in different ways. Some focus on engagement

Beder, Hal; Tomkins, Jessica; Medina, Patsy; Riccioni, Regina; Deng, Weiling

2006-01-01

277

A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that a) high system carbon abatement potentials are possible in the case study scenario, but only in systems that control air pollutant emissions and recover energy; b) biochar has more value as a soil amendment than a fuel when produced at high temperatures and applied to soils of low pH and low buffering capacity; and c) the carbon abatement value of agronomic impacts in temperate systems is relatively minor compared to other parts of the lifecycle. Additional results will be presented for which an optimal system design is identified and the analysis scaled-up to reflect the total beetle-kill feedstock availability in the state of Colorado in order to estimate the total regional carbon-mitigation potential of the technology.

Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

2012-12-01

278

Defining engagement in adolescent substance abuse treatment.  

PubMed

Youth engagement in substance use treatment is an important construct for research and practice, but it has been thinly and inconsistently defined in the literature. Most research has measured engagement by initiation, attendance, and retention in treatment. Because youth generally enter substance use treatment as a result of compliance with external requirements, defining engagement in this way might be insufficient. This qualitative participatory research study describes five focus groups with 31 adults working with youth in substance use treatment. Focus groups were designed and conducted by youth researchers in collaboration with university-based partners. We categorized participants' descriptions of engagement into five domains, identified as "CARES": Conduct, Attitudes, Relationships, Empowerment, and Social Context. These domains represent a comprehensive and ecologically-based definition of engagement that situates engagement in the context and trajectory of youth development, has clear implications for assertive clinical practice, and provides a foundation for developing an operationalized measure. PMID:24046184

Pullmann, Michael D; Ague, Starcia; Johnson, Tamara; Lane, Stephanie; Beaver, Kevon; Jetton, Elizabeth; Rund, Evangejalynn

2013-12-01

279

Employee Engagement and Organizational Behavior Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement is a “buzz” word that has gained popularity in Industrial\\/Organizational Psychology. Based on a “Positive Psychology” approach, engagement is perceived as a valuable state for employees, because surveys on the construct have found it correlates with some organizational tactics (e.g., human resource policies, procedural justice) and positive outcomes (e.g., growth, lower costs, lower absenteeism). Reviews of the engagement literature

Timothy D. Ludwig; Christopher B. Frazier

2012-01-01

280

The Two Cultures of Undergraduate Academic Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data on upper-division students in the University of California system, we show that two distinct cultures of engagement\\u000a exist on campus. The culture of engagement in the arts, humanities and social sciences focuses on interaction, participation,\\u000a and interest in ideas. The culture of engagement in the natural sciences and engineering focuses on improvement of quantitative\\u000a skills through collaborative study

Steven Brint; Allison M. Cantwell; Robert A. Hannerman

2008-01-01

281

Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management  

EPA Science Inventory

Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

282

Student Engagement in Two Countries: A Comparative Study Using National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare college and university student engagement in two countries with different responses to global forces, Canada and the United States (US), a series of hierarchical linear regression (HLM) models were developed to analyse data from the 2006 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Overall, students in the U.S. are more engaged, particularly in areas of active

C. B. KANDIKO

283

Analysis of the United States Air Force nonpoint-source water-pollution-abatement program. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This theses examined the Air Force nonpoint source pollution abatement program by evaluating Major Command, Air Force Regional Civil Engineer and installations compliance to the official Air Force policy. Seventy-two installations in 37 states and ten Major Commands were represented in the data. The evaluation classified nonpoint source pollutants into five categories: urban, agricultural, construction, silvacultural and other. The research showed that most of the Major Command abatement programs were adequately meeting the needs of the Air Force. Two Air Force Regional Civil Engineers were evaluated. It was determined that one of these organizations had taken the necessary steps to implement nonpoint source abatement at the installations within their jurisdiction. The other organization was found to have a lack of current state regulatory information. Installation compliance was inconclusive due to the ambiguous, unstructured nature of the data. The major conclusion of this study was the need for the Air Force installations to implement more comprehensive nonpoint source pollution abatement programs. Elements of these programs range from educating the installations' populaces to implementing nonstructural best management practices such as including nonpoint source pollution abatement in Natural Resources Plans.

Seaman, T.G.

1990-09-01

284

Learning at a Distance: Engaged or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Pu-Shih Chen, Robert Gonyea, and George Kuh compare the engagement of distance learners in educationally effective activities with that of their campus-based counterparts and compare the engagement of older distance learners relative to younger online students. Although distance learning is the fastest growing segment of…

Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel; Gonyea, Robert; Kuh, George

2008-01-01

285

Employee Engagement and Organizational Behavior Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engagement is a "buzz" word that has gained popularity in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Based on a "Positive Psychology" approach, engagement is perceived as a valuable state for employees, because surveys on the construct have found it correlates with some organizational tactics (e.g., human resource policies, procedural justice) and…

Ludwig, Timothy D.; Frazier, Christopher B.

2012-01-01

286

Engagement and Perception's Influence on Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can increasing student perception and engagement though alternative teaching methods, such as introducing math in an everyday context improve student test scores? Literature on this subject suggests improving student engagement and introduction of math in everyday applications can improve student comprehension. This study looks at a second grade…

Abendroth, Dorinda

2012-01-01

287

Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and

Alan M. Saks

2006-01-01

288

Social Identity Theories and Educational Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of research in studies of schooling, particularly ethnographic case studies, which posits that collective action among students undermines engagement in school and contributes to educational inequality. In this paper I review studies of engagement from a social identity theory perspective. To what extent can collective action…

Kelly, Sean

2009-01-01

289

Engaging Community Residents to Prevent Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Community Peace has conducted two demonstration projects to determine whether communities can be engaged to prevent violence as it is identified and defined locally and link primary prevention across multiple forms of violence. The projects present evidence that community engagement can effect primary violence prevention; the…

Bowen, Linda K.; Gwiasda, Victoria; Brown, M. Mitchell

2004-01-01

290

Engagement in a Community College Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an abundance of research concerning the definition measurement, and promotion of engagement across various work-related organizations. However, little is known about how we might begin to understand and facilitate engagement among community college faculty. Community college faculty face a unique set of challenges that render them at…

Troy, David

2013-01-01

291

Engaging Students: Promoting Mutual Support and Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenskey (2005) asserted that a major problem within education is not that the information being taught lacks "relevance" to students lives, but that there is a lack of engagement with educational tasks. When attempting to engage classes, tutors are aiming to draw students into learning activities--to involve them--and thus promote active learning…

Williamson, Stella; Haigney, Di

2009-01-01

292

Sociocultural Affordances of Online Peer Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University learning increasingly includes online learning experiences embedded within teaching with the dual policy intentions of increasing flexibility and learner engagement. In this research project, three university lecturers from different teaching contexts selected technologies for online learning to enhance learner engagement by encouraging…

Willis, Jill; Davis, Kate; Chaplin, Sally

2013-01-01

293

Employee Engagement: Motivating and Retaining Tomorrow's Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tomorrow's workforce is seeking more than a paycheck; they want their work to meet their needs for affiliation, meaning, and self-development. Companies willing to meet these demands will capture the enormous profit potential of a workforce of fully engaged workers. This piece explores what engagement is, why it matters, and how human resource…

Shuck, Michael Bradley; Wollard, Karen Kelly

2008-01-01

294

Community Engagement: Participation on Whose Terms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community engagement and citizen participation have long been important themes in liberal democratic theory, although managerial versions of liberal democracy have typically been dominant. In the past two decades, however, many countries have seen a shift away from a managerial or top-down approach, towards a revitalised emphasis on building institutional bridges between governmental leaders and citizenry, often termed ‘community engagement’.

Brian W. Head

2007-01-01

295

Air-to-Air Engagement Tables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple computer program was written for use in calculating air-to-air gunnery parameters, such as time of flight, lead angle, gravity drop, and prediction bias for various air-to-air engagement conditions. The engagement conditions are specified as rang...

G. Solomon B. H. Bazerque M. J. Caluda

1974-01-01

296

Factors Influencing Child Engagement in Mainstream Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of two environmental variables, activity type and age groupings, and two child variables, age and handicapping condition, were examined with respect to the engagement of toddlers and preschoolers in a mainstreaming day care center. The construct of engagement is predicated on the assumption that the more time an individual spends attending…

McWilliam, R. A.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

297

Engagement of Children with Autism in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early engagement with the world around us provides opportunities for learning and practising new skills and acquiring knowledge critical to cognitive and social development. Children with autism typically display low levels of engagement, particularly in their social world, which limits the opportunities for learning that occur for their typically…

Keen, Deb

2009-01-01

298

Fostering Student Engagement Campuswide. Annual Results 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) documents dimensions of quality in undergraduate education and provides information and assistance to colleges, universities, and other organizations to improve student learning. Its primary activity is annually surveying college students to assess the extent to which they engage in educational…

National Survey of Student Engagement, 2011

2011-01-01

299

The University in Engagement with Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three educators discuss the role of the university in engaging with society, focusing on these issues: student service and service learning; the university as an agent of public service; building capacities for service within the community; faculty engagement in the community; and responding to community needs with the same vigor as responding to…

Gamson, Zelda; Hollander, Elizabeth; Kiang, Peter N.

1998-01-01

300

Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the

ELIZABETH S. ATHENS; TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER; Claire C St. Peter Pipkin

2007-01-01

301

Civic Engagement Patterns of Undocumented Mexican Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the civic engagement of undocumented Mexican students. Civic engagement was defined as providing a social service, activism, tutoring, and functionary work. Survey data results (n = 126) suggest that despite high feelings of rejection because of their undocumented status, part-time employment, and household responsibilities,…

Perez, William; Espinoza, Roberta; Ramos, Karina; Coronado, Heidi; Cortes, Richard

2010-01-01

302

Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

2007-01-01

303

In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic…

O'Brien, Frances

2009-01-01

304

The University and Student Political Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has identified a substantial positive relationship between college attendance and civic engagement. This article examines student experiences with university academics and ancillary programs to determine which of these, if any, motivate increased student engagement. Various student characteristics were evaluated to determine their…

Simmons, James R.; Lilly, Bryan

2010-01-01

305

Science Inquiry, Academic Language, and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While some students have the opportunity to engage in the kinds of structured inquiry and real-world problem solving called for in the science education reform literature, many other students receive only a daily grind of note taking, end-of-chapter questions and sample test items from state assessments. The result is an engagement gap whereby…

Buxton, Cory A.

2009-01-01

306

Primary School English Teachers' Research Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research engagement is an important means for teachers to develop their professional competence. This paper reports on an enquiry into the research engagement of a group of primary school English language teachers in Guangdong province on the Chinese mainland. Drawing on questionnaire data and teachers' interview narratives, the paper examines how…

Gao, Xuesong; Chow, Alice Wai Kwan

2012-01-01

307

Community Engagement for Student Learning in Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role and purpose of community engagement as a learning and teaching strategy within higher education geography. It explores different interpretations of the concept of community engagement and illustrates different examples of this kind of learning through six case studies drawn from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and…

Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Chalkley, Brian; Fletcher, Stephen; Hay, Iain; Le Heron, Erena; Mohan, Audrey; Trafford, Julie

2008-01-01

308

Civic Engagement in the Field of Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of, and recommendations for how best to promote, civic engagement among undergraduate psychology majors. In this article, we will describe how the goals of civic engagement are consistent with the specific curricular goals of undergraduate psychology programs. We also will (a) review the…

Chenneville, Tiffany; Toler, Susan; Gaskin-Butler, Vicki T.

2012-01-01

309

Design for Engaging Experience and Social Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the goals of game designers is to design for an engaging experience and for social interaction. The question is how. We know that games can be engaging and allow for social interaction, but how do we achieve this or even improve on it? This article provides an overview of several scientific approaches that deal with this question. It…

Harteveld, Casper; ten Thij, Eleonore; Copier, Marinka

2011-01-01

310

Engagement in Two Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines two US interdisciplinary graduate programs which involve faculty and students from different disciplines. Haworth and Conrad's engagement theory of quality graduate education was applied. It was found that when interdisciplinary programs facilitate engagement by supporting diversity, participation, connections, and…

Newswander, Lynita K.; Borrego, Maura

2009-01-01

311

Twenty years of Australia's engagement with Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two decades, ‘engagement with Asia’ has been a central theme in Australian public policy and public debate about Australia's place in the world. The commitment to Asian engagement has been shared by both sides of federal politics throughout this period; however, when in government the Labor Party (1983–96) and the Coalition (1996–2007) pursued radically different approaches to

Ann Capling

2008-01-01

312

How to Engage Students in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are most intellectually engaged when they help define lesson content, have time to pursue an interesting direction, are allowed different forms of expression, create original and public products, and accomplish a socially relevant task. Teachers can help engage and empower students by developing overarching goals, gaining insights through…

Perrone, Vito

1994-01-01

313

Legitimizing Community Engagement with K-12 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the issue of internal legitimization and its importance in securing high-quality community engagement in K-12 schools. Drawing on the literature from the fields of community engagement, school reform, school-university partnerships, and school-community partnerships, this article describes some of the prevailing challenges…

Furco, Andrew

2013-01-01

314

Radiological survey and assessment of associated activity concentration of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the Migori artisanal gold mining belt of southern Nyanza, Kenya.  

PubMed

A radiological survey and assessment was carried out at selected sites (Osiri, Mikei, Masara and Macalder) in the Migori gold mines of southern Nyanza, Kenya to determine the levels of exposure of the artisanal miners to the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and dust. The activity concentrations of (40)K and the decay products of (232)Th and (226)Ra were obtained using an innovative method in single channel NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry. The counts for both the sample and the reference material in a specific window for a particular radionuclide were compared to arrive at the activity concentration of the radionuclide in the sample. Measurement of dust loading at various crushing sites was carried out by trapping the dust particles on a 0.45 ?m cellulose acetate filter paper (47 mm diameter) using a vacuum pump. The activity concentration levels range widely 80-413, 12-145 and 21-258 Bq/kg for (40)K, (232)Th and (226)Ra, respectively. The calculated absorbed dose in air range from 16 to 178 nGy/h (with a mean of 42 nGy/h). Dust loading was found to range from 1.3 to 3.7 mg/m(3). Although the activity concentration of the radionuclides and the calculated annual absorbed dose is below the world's average, the dust level at the mines was relatively high. The results obtained show that the artisanal miners are exposed to various levels of radionuclides and dust and necessary precautions need to be taken. PMID:21393006

Odumo, O B; Mustapha, A O; Patel, J P; Angeyo, H K

2011-06-01

315

PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

2000-09-15

316

Faculty intent to engage in interprofessional education  

PubMed Central

Background This descriptive correlational and comparative study explored health-care faculty (HCF) attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional health-care teams, HCF perceptions of subjective norms, the influence of subjective norms on HCF intent to engage in IPE, and HCF intent to engage in IPE. In addition, differences among seven disciplines of HCF were explored. Methods Nursing, medicine, pharmacy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician assistants, and social work faculty were identified. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure that the population surveyed was representative of the target population. The total sample for this study included 439 HCF from the seven identified health-care professions in the US. Data collection included measures of attitudes toward IPE and attitudes toward interprofessional health-care teams. Subjective norms were measured using two 7-point rating scales. Intent to engage in IPE was measured using a 10-point rating scale. Results There were no significant differences among HCF groups regarding attitudes toward IPE or interprofessional health-care teams. Administrative faculty reported greater intent to engage in IPE than teaching faculty. HCF who were currently in or had previously engaged in IPE reported greater intent to engage in or continue to engage, and had higher attitude and subjective norm scores than faculty without IPE experience. The combination of perceived pressure from school administrators and attitudes toward IPE was the best predictor of intent to engage in IPE. Conclusion IPE has the potential to influence patient quality of care and lead to better working relationships between health-care providers. HCF are more likely to engage in IPE when they believe their school’s administrators think they should engage in IPE and when they have positive attitudes toward IPE.

Olenick, Maria; Allen, Lois Ryan

2013-01-01

317

Eligibility of noise-abatement proposals for grants-in-aid under the airport improvement program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the provisions of existing Federal laws, regulations, administrative policies, and grant-program procedures that relate to funding of noise-abatement projects. The report also presents historical data on Federally assisted noise compatibility projects and funding levels in fiscal years 1982 - 1987. A literature search was conducted and parties involved with airport-noise compatibility planning and project implementation were consulted to identify proposals currently not eligible for grant assistance and the reasons for their ineligibility. The report concludes with recommendations to make eligibility criteria more flexible and to provide clearer guidance to parties involved with noise compatibility project formulation, evaluation and implementation.

Ohnstad, E.

1989-01-01

318

Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

319

Bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in different locations throughout the process line of beef slaughtering Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência e a população de bactérias do género Aeromonas em diferentes pontos do fluxo- grama de abate bovino, em estabelecimento de alto nível higiéni- co-sanitário, foram investigados produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate, desde a chegada dos animais até a carne desossada e pronta para comercialização. Das 30 amostras colhidas em cada

CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS; O. D. Rossi Júnior; L. A. Amaral; A. Nader Filho; R. P. Schocken-Iturrino

320

Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

Sparling, D.W.

2000-01-01

321

Scaffolding student engagement via online peer learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe one aspect of a UK inter-institutional project wherein an online tool was used to support student generation of multiple choice questions. Across three universities and in five modules in physics, chemistry and biology, we introduced the PeerWise online system as a summative assessment tool in our classes, the desire being to increase student engagement, academic attainment and level of cognitive challenge. Engagement with the system was high with many students exceeding the minimum requirements set out in the assessment criteria. We explore the nature of student engagement and describe a working model to enable high-impact student-learning and academic gain with minimal instructor intervention.

Casey, M. M.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, K. W.; Galloway, R. K.; Hardy, J. A.; Kay, A. E.; Kirsop, P.; McQueen, H. A.

2014-07-01

322

CFD modeling of a UV-LED photocatalytic odor abatement process in a continuous reactor.  

PubMed

This paper presents a model study of a UV light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) based photocatalytic odor abatement process. It integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the gas flow in the reactor with LED-array radiation field calculation and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. It was applied to simulate the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a UV-LED reactor based on experimentally determined chemical kinetic parameters. A non-linear power law relating reaction rate to irradiation intensity was adopted. The model could predict the steady state DMS concentration profiles by calculating the advection, diffusion and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. By affecting the radiation intensity and uniformity, the position of the LED array relative to the catalyst appeared to be a critical parameter determining DMS removal efficiency. Too small distances might yield low quantum efficiency and consequently poor abatement performance. This study provided an example of LED-based photocatalytic process modeling and gave insights into the optimization of light source design for photocatalytic applications. PMID:22417398

Wang, Zimeng; Liu, Jing; Dai, Yuancan; Dong, Weiyang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

2012-05-15

323

Abatement of xenon and iodine emissions from medical isotope production facilities.  

PubMed

The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes. PMID:24418952

Doll, Charles G; Sorensen, Christina M; Bowyer, Theodore W; Friese, Judah I; Hayes, James C; Hoffmann, Emmy; Kephart, Rosara

2014-04-01

324

Abatement of a failure in piping soil above an abandoned mine, East St. Louis, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

From before the turn of the century until as recently as the 1950s, relatively shallow coal reserves near the margins of the Illinois Basin were extracted by room and pillar methods. Subsequent development has, in many cases, extended onto ground with high subsidence potential. Pit subsidence in Illinois is particularly common in the towns of Streator, Carterville, and Herrin, although there are others. Pit subsidence is characterized by by distinct circular or oval depressions and normally is associated with shallow mining and thick soil relative to the thickness of rock. In 1983, the Elam residence near East St. Louis experienced an abrupt and severe ground failure that has been interpreted as pit subsidence. To help understand how these pits form and how the problem may be best abated, a particularly thorough investigation of the Elam occurences was conducted by Engineers International, Inc. (EI) on behalf of the U.S. Office of Surface Mining (OSM). The investigation of the occurences, the abatement procedure proposed, and the outcome of this unusual and interesting subsidence problems are examined.

Cummings, R.A.; Mukherjee, A.

1985-01-01

325

Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

Tünay, Olcay; Sim?eker, Merve; Kabda?li, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

2014-08-01

326

Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.  

PubMed

Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general. PMID:12851012

Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

2003-08-01

327

Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the flood abatement effect at dams with gated spillways under a wide range of extreme floods is analysed (100 < return period <10,000 years). A group of integrated models (rainfall generator, hydrological model and dam operation model) interacting within a Monte Carlo simulation framework is used for producing numerous hydrologic events at 21 sites across mainland Spain, and the hydrologic response applied to 81 configurations of dams and reservoirs. Common behavioural patterns are identified and dimensionless coefficients classified, based on the hydrologic variables and the dam and reservoir characteristics. The relationships between these coefficients are analysed, with a significant degree of correlation both among the cases and the varying magnitude of floods being obtained. Finally, models that enable evaluation of the abatement capacity of a dam with a gated spillway in the event of a flood with Tr between 500 and 10,000 years are offered. In addition, they allow the frequency curve of such a maximum flow to be obtained, something which could serve of use not only during the design phase but also in the evaluation of the hydrologic safety of dams.

Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

2013-08-01

328

Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.  

PubMed

The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ?98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

2014-07-15

329

29 CFR 780.910 - Engagement in transportation and preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Engagement in transportation and preparation...Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.910 Engagement in transportation and preparation...engages in both is performing exempt work. In referring to âthe...

2009-07-01

330

29 CFR 780.910 - Engagement in transportation and preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engagement in transportation and preparation...Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.910 Engagement in transportation and preparation...engages in both is performing exempt work. In referring to âthe...

2010-07-01

331

Theater Engagement Planning: An Interagency Opportunity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1997 National Security Strategy's 'imperative of engagement' explicitly cites a range of interagency activities from diplomacy to military exercises necessary to successfully shaping the international environment to deter conflict and promote peace. A...

M. L. Scala

1998-01-01

332

New Chapter in Trans-American Engagement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General Fraser and the conference dialogue stressed the critical need to develop a serious hemispheric partnership for opening 'A new Chapter in Trans-American Engagement.' In that connection, over 20 major issues and recommendations were put forward (som...

E. S. Baker M. G. Manwaring

2010-01-01

333

Engaging in Education: By Invitation Only  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues for the use of dialogue journals as a means to engage students individually in their educational communities. Practical considerations, such as choice of form and methodology, are included.

Lenoir, W. David

2011-01-01

334

Wearing an engagement ring compromises hand hygiene.  

PubMed

It was unfortunate that your front cover photograph alongside the headline, Record keeping - How to maintain high standards (May 7), pictured a nurse in uniform holding a tablet device and wearing an engagement ring and wedding band. PMID:24844515

Hider, Sandra

2014-05-21

335

Necessary Evil: Engaging Iran to Foster Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the release of the November 2007 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), there has been mounting pressure for the United States to engage Iran. However, the conclusion that Iran has suspended certain nuclear activities and now deserves a reward by dia...

A. J. Stegall

2008-01-01

336

Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

337

Determining target engagement in living systems  

PubMed Central

Chemical probes are critical tools for elucidating the biological functions of proteins and can lead to new medicines for treating disease. The pharmacological validation of protein function requires verification that chemical probes engage their intended targets in vivo. Here we discuss technologies, both established and emergent, for measuring target engagement in living systems and propose that determining this parameter should become standard practice for chemical probe and drug discovery programs.

Simon, Gabriel M.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

2014-01-01

338

Orientation: the key to successful, engaged staff.  

PubMed

Orientation programs are an important component of employee retention and engagement, yet the importance of orientation is often overlooked by many organizations. A lack of an adequate orientation program can result in new employees finding it difficult to adapt to the organization's culture,and may lead to high turnover rates. This article relates the story of Banner Baywood Medical Center's quest to cultivate an effective orientation program and increase retention of quality, engaged employees. PMID:21595338

Blackhurst, Kristi; Dowd, Terry

2009-01-01

339

Facilitating neurorehabilitation through principles of engagement.  

PubMed

A primary goal of neurorehabilitation is to guide recovery of functional skills after injury through evidence-based interventions that operate to manipulate the sensorimotor environment of the client. While choice of intervention is an important decision for clinicians, we contend it is only one part of producing optimal activity-dependent neuroplastic changes. A key variable in the rehabilitation equation is engagement. Applying principles of engagement may yield greater neuroplastic changes and functional outcomes for clients. We review the principles of neuroplasticity and engagement and their potential linkage through concepts of attention and motivation and strategies such as mental practice and enriched environments. Clinical applications and challenges for enhancing engagement during rehabilitation are presented. Engagement strategies, such as building trust and rapport, motivational interviewing, enhancing the client education process, and interventions that empower clients, are reviewed. Well-controlled research is needed to test our theoretical framework and suggested outcomes. Clinicians may enhance engagement by investing time and energy in the growth and development of the therapeutic relationship with clients, as this is paramount to maintaining clients' investment in continuing therapy and also may act as a driver of neuroplastic changes. PMID:22544406

Danzl, Megan M; Etter, Nicole M; Andreatta, Richard D; Kitzman, Patrick H

2012-01-01

340

Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity

S. Cowlin; J. Cochran; S. Cox; C. Davison; Y. van der Gaast

2012-01-01

341

A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

342

COD and AOX abatement in catalytic wet oxidation of halogenated liquid wastes using CeO 2-based catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of halogenated containing compounds is one of the more promising applications of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reaction. The aim of this work is to compare the abatement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) parameters in three halogenated liquid wastes: a landfill leachate, a pulp and paper bleaching liquor and a heavily organic halogen polluted

Daniele Goi; Carla de Leitenburg; Giuliano Dolcetti; Alessandro Trovarelli

2006-01-01

343

Indoor air quality in cold climates: hazards and abatement measures. Summary of an APCA international specialty conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first APCA Specialty Conference on indoor air quality, held on April 29, 30 and May 1, 1985 in Ottawa, Canada, featured 67 presentations covering many aspects of the problems, with the focus on cold climate hazards and abatement measures. The attendance of almost 400 persons from a variety of building, health and environmental disciplines and interests, indicated the great

Walkinshaw

1986-01-01

344

Underground coal mining methods to abate water pollution: a state of the art literature review. Water pollution control research series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report reviews published information concerning the abatement of harmful drainage from underground coal mines. Although much has been written on mine water management, very little literature is available on the specific area of preventing the formation of acid water. The references used in this report include mining engineering and hydrology studies and spans the period of time when water

L. W. Wilson; N. J. Matthews; J. L. Stump

1970-01-01

345

Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China`s electricity sector  

SciTech Connect

This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China`s power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO{sub 2} context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has been developed. Fifteen types of power plants are represented explicitly in the model in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental characteristics. These plants have first been compared in terms of both the levelized cost of generation and the marginal cost of CO{sub 2} reduction. Driven by the baseline electricity demands that are estimated by a newly developed time-recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy, the power planning model has then been used to develop the baseline scenario for China`s electricity supply and to analyze the impacts of compliance with CO{sub 2} limits in the power industry.

Zhang, Z.X. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Economics and Public Finance

1998-05-01

346

Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea catchment.  

PubMed

The Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) requires tools to simulate effects and costs of various nutrient abatement strategies. Hierarchically connected databases and models of the entire catchment have been created to allow decision makers to view scenarios via the decision support system NEST. Increased intensity in agriculture in transient countries would result in increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea, particularly from Poland, the Baltic States, and Russia. Nutrient retentions are high, which means that the nutrient reduction goals of 135 000 tons N and 15 000 tons P, as formulated in the BSAP from 2007, correspond to a reduction in nutrient loadings to watersheds by 675 000 tons N and 158 000 tons P. A cost-minimization model was used to allocate nutrient reductions to measures and countries where the costs for reducing loads are low. The minimum annual cost to meet BSAP basin targets is estimated to 4.7 billion Euro. PMID:24414801

Wulff, Fredrik; Humborg, Christoph; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Czajkowski, Miko?aj; Elofsson, Katarina; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders; Hasler, Berit; Hong, Bongghi; Jansons, Viesturs; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Smart, James C R; Smedberg, Erik; Stålnacke, Per; Swaney, Dennis P; Thodsen, Hans; Was, Adam; Zylicz, Tomasz

2014-02-01

347

Abatement of waste-water biorefractory organics via electro-oxidative treatment.  

PubMed

The electrochemical oxidation of coumaric acid, a biorefractory compound present in several industrial waste waters, has been investigated by use of Pt-Ti anodes and at electrolyte concentration (0.02 N NaCl or Na2SO4) low enough to allow direct dischargeability of the waste water into superficial water basins according to the Italian law (DL 152/11-5-99). Particularly, the role of the electrolyte over the conversion rate has been assessed. The obtained results show that the oxidation process should take place both at the electrode surface and in the bulk of the solution, via electrochemically-generated oxidising species (H2O2, persulfates, Cl2, NaClO). The faster coumaric acid abatement rates were found with chloride based electrolytes, which, however, lead to the formation of non-biodegradable small-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons. PMID:11381547

Saracco, G; Aigotti, R; Solarino, L; Specchia, V; Maja, M

2001-01-01

348

Chance-constrained/stochastic linear programming model for acid rain abatement—II. Limited colinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I of this work, a deterministic model for development of acid rain abatement strategies was extended to a stochastic form through the incorporation of uncertainty in the transfer coefficients which describe long-range pollutant transport and transformation. The two extreme cases of: (i) complete dependence between transfer coefficients (i.e. colinearity); (ii) complete independence (noncolinearity) were developed. In this work, a more realistic 'middle ground' between these two extremes is investigated. This approach and its associated transfer coefficient covariance structure involve limited colinearity. A simplified linear version of the limited colinearity optimization model is employed. An application is presented which shows that a central three-state, one-receptor sub-system ('sub-airshed') in eastern North America plays a dominant role with respect to determining overall system performance characteristics. Nonlinear, nonlinearnonseparable and multiobjective extensions of the stochastic model are discussed.

Ellis, J. H.; McBean, E. A.; Farquhar, G. J.

349

Acidity control of the gliding arc treatments of aqueous solutions: application to pollutant abatement and biodecontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tight control of acidity is needed for performing oxidation reduction reactions of organic compounds dissolved in liquid media, since the relevant reactions often involve the occurrence of protons; the matching kinetics are therefore acidity dependent. This feature holds for plasma treatments of aqueous wastes which are intended to abate the concentration in organic pollutants. Exposure of aqueous solutions to a gliding arc plasma in humid air induces acid and oxidising reactions in the condensed phase. Acid effect results from the occurrence of NO species formed in the plasma and leads to the formation in water of nitrous and nitric acids, which are responsible for a steep pH fall. Using selected buffers allows accurate controlling of the acidity, which is necessary for most of the plasma-chemical or plasma-biochemical reactions.

Moussa, D.; Abdelmalek, F.; Benstaali, B.; Addou, A.; Hnatiuc, E.; Brisset, J.-L.

2005-02-01

350

Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

2007-01-01

351

Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.  

PubMed

A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction. PMID:15691200

Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

2004-12-01

352

An ecological model evaluation of two nutrient abatement strategies for the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of nutrient loads is the overriding strategy in order to abate eutrophication and to improve the ecological state of the Baltic Sea. A 3D-ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea was used to analyze the effects of two different 50% nitrogen and phosphorus load reduction scenarios. The first scenario assumed a proportional 50% load reduction in all riparian countries. The second was based on a cost-effective approach by Gren [I.-M. Gren, 2000. Managing a sea. Cost-Effective Nutrient Reduction To The Baltic Sea. Earthscan Publ., London. Ch. 43-56.] with significant regional differences in load reduction. The simulations suggest that a 50% reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus loads affect predominantly the coastal waters and favours cyanobacteria blooms in the central Baltic Sea. In the cost-effective approach, blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacteria become even more pronounced in the northern part of the Baltic Proper. The comparison between the two 50% reduction scenarios reveals differences mainly in coastal waters. Near large rivers in the southern Baltic, like the Oder and the Vistula, the cost-effective scenario shows a greater decrease of nutrients and chlorophyll- a concentrations. Altogether the water quality in southern Baltic Sea, especially in Germany, Poland and the Baltic states benefits from a cost-effective approach. However, differences in nutrient and chlorophyll- a concentrations between the scenarios are small. Referring to our simulation results, in a medium-term perspective the measures to abate eutrophication in the Baltic Sea will be not very efficient concerning the central Baltic Sea and might generate undesirable summer blooms of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. These are a result of nutrient imbalances in the system and may persist for several decades. A more pronounced and early reduction of the phosphorus loads might shorten the period of bloom persistence.

Neumann, Thomas; Schernewski, Gerald

2005-05-01

353

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks.

Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

2010-01-01

354

Youth Engagement, High School Reform, and Improved Learning Outcomes: Building Systemic Approaches for Youth Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what it takes to develop systemic strategies and structures that engage youth as coconstructors of their learning environment and experience. It looks at efforts nationwide to engage young people in educational change endeavors, draws on lessons learned from a national high school reform initiative, and addresses some…

Joselowsky, Francine

2007-01-01

355

Engagement in learning after errors at work: enabling conditions and types of engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses two research questions concerning nurses’ engagement in social learning activities after errors at work. Firstly, we investigated how this engagement relates to nurses’ interpretations of the error situation and perceptions of a safe team climate. The results indicate that the individual estimation of an error as relevant to learning and the tendency to cover up an error

Johannes Bauer; Regina H. Mulder

2011-01-01

356

Embedding Engagement in an Australian "Sandstone" University: From Community Service to University Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much recent interest and debate in Australia around the topics of university engagement, knowledge transfer, and engaged scholarship. Diverse responses relating to teaching and learning, research, and community service are evident in many institutions. However, there is a paucity of empirical research describing institutional…

Cuthill, Michael

2011-01-01

357

Measuring Students’ Engagement on College Campuses: Is the NSSE an Appropriate Measure of Adult Students’ Engagement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As institutions seek to promote student engagement, the National Survey of Student Engagement has become a measure commonly used to document how institutions are meeting educational goals, but there is some question as to its applicability for certain undergraduate populations. 2010 survey results were analyzed for 125 adult and 69 traditional-age seniors attending a small, private, four-year institution in the

Karen Price; Sandra Nicks Baker

2012-01-01

358

Designing for Learner Engagement in Middle School Science: Technology, Inquiry, and the Hierarchies of Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging middle-school students in scientific inquiry is typically recognized as important, but difficult. Designed to foster learner engagement, this method used an online, problem-based, science inquiry that investigated the West Nile virus during four weeks of collaborative classroom sessions. The inquiry prototype was authored in WISE, the…

Harmer, Andrea J.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

2007-01-01

359

Measuring Students' Engagement on College Campuses: Is the NSSE an Appropriate Measure of Adult Students' Engagement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As institutions seek to promote student engagement, the National Survey of Student Engagement has become a measure commonly used to document how institutions are meeting educational goals, but there is some question as to its applicability for certain undergraduate populations. 2010 survey results were analyzed for 125 adult and 69 traditional-age…

Price, Karen; Baker, Sandra Nicks

2012-01-01

360

Engaging Conversationally: A Method for Engaging Students in Their Learning and Examining Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the principles of the scholarship of teaching and learning and action research this study sought to examine how an instructor created and facilitated engagement in his students. The research was primarily undertaken to further define the middle range theory of mutual engagement. Theoretical sampling was used to analyze approximately 100…

Kiener, Michael

2008-01-01

361

Current Practice and Infrastructures for Campus Centers of Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of current practice and essential infrastructure of campus community engagement centers in their efforts to establish and advance community engagement as part of the college experience. The authors identified key characteristics and the prevalence of activities of community engagement centers at engaged campuses…

Welch, Marshall; Saltmarsh, John

2013-01-01

362

Engaging Music and Media: Technology as a Universal Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ambiguity in the first half of the paper's title--"Engaging music and media"--is intentional. Music is engaging in the sense that it implicates our hearts and minds. Music can also be engaged by and with media. And, of course, engagement is core to effective learning. The role of music education is always in flux. Aesthetic aims sometimes take…

Carruthers, Glen

2009-01-01

363

Laughter and communicative engagement in interaction.  

PubMed

We examined if and how laughter functioned communicatively as an indicator of engagement in group interactions involving adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Engagement refers to the intensity and manner of interpersonal involvement displayed by participants in social situations, and it reflects the extent to which they are mutually engrossed in, and alive to, the unfolding interaction. Analysis revealed that laughter functioned communicatively to support the "face," or public self-image, of those with TBI and to foster rapport and social closeness. The distribution of laughables, or verbal and nonverbal behaviors that occasion laughter, between participants was also examined and compared with data collected by Simmons-Mackie and Schultz in their analysis of humor during traditional aphasia therapy. Results revealed that laughter and laughables are sensitive to how individuals engage one another in interaction. Implications are considered with respect to more recent models of intervention that seek to promote more discourse equality between participants. PMID:19145548

Kovarsky, Dana; Curran, Maura; Nichols, Nicole Zobel

2009-02-01

364

Components detected by means of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the headspace of artisan fresh goat cheese smoked by traditional methods.  

PubMed

The study of the headspace components of fresh smoked goat cheese, was carried out by means of solid-phase microextraction using a polyacrylate fiber followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The samples studied were six artisan Palmero cheeses manufactured following traditional methods and smoked using pine needles. The cheese regions studied were exterior, interior, and a cross section. In total, more than 320 components were detected, the exterior region being the richest in components, among which were acids, alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, furan and pyran derivatives, terpenes and sesquiterpenes, nitrogen derivatives, phenol, guaiacol and syringol derivatives, ethers, and others. In addition to typical cheese components, typical smoke components were also detected; these latter were present especially in the headspace of the exterior region and only those in significant concentrations in the exterior region were also detected in the interior. The main components were acids and phenolic derivatives. These latter compounds play an important role in the flavor of this cheese, and their relative proportions together with the presence of specific smoke components derived from pine leaves may be considered of interest in order to distinguish this cheese from others smoked with different vegetable matter. PMID:14762071

Guillén, M D; Ibargoitia, M L; Sopelana, P; Palencia, G; Fresno, M

2004-02-01

365

Encouraging engagement at work to improve retention.  

PubMed

Similar professional standards link nurses together but healthcare professionals practise across a variety of areas and have different experiences of the workplace. It cannot be assumed that a positive experience in one setting will be replicated in another, even if it is in the same organisation. This article explores the factors that affect workplace culture and outlines the rudiments underpinning nurse engagement from a work perspective. It also analyses staff engagement in the health service sector by examining the status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness (Scarf) model, and demonstrates the relevance of this framework. PMID:23577562

Tillott, Sarah; Walsh, Ken; Moxham, Lorna

2013-03-01

366

Psychometric Properties of Three New National Survey of Student Engagement Based Engagement Scales: An Item Response Theory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We sought to develop and psychometrically describe three new student engagement scales to measure college students' engagement with their faculty (student-faculty engagement: SFE), community-based activities (CBA), and transformational learning opportunities (TLO) using items selected from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely…

Carle, Adam C.; Jaffee, David; Vaughan, Neil W.; Eder, Douglas

2009-01-01

367

The structure of a bottlenose dolphin society is coupled to a unique foraging cooperation with artisanal fishermen  

PubMed Central

Diverse and localized foraging behaviours have been reported in isolated populations of many animal species around the world. In Laguna, southern Brazil, a subset of resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) uses a foraging tactic involving cooperative interactions with local, beach-casting fishermen. We used individual photo-identification data to assess whether cooperative and non-cooperative dolphins were socially segregated. The social structure of the population was found to be a fission–fusion system with few non-random associations, typical for this species. However, association values were greater among cooperative dolphins than among non-cooperative dolphins or between dolphins from different foraging classes. Furthermore, the dolphin social network was divided into three modules, clustering individuals that shared or lacked the cooperative foraging tactic. Space-use patterns were not sufficient to explain this partitioning, indicating a behavioural factor. The segregation of dolphins using different foraging tactics could result from foraging behaviour driving social structure, while the closer association between dolphins engaged in the cooperation could facilitate the transmission and learning of this behavioural trait from conspecifics. This unique case of a dolphin–human interaction represents a valuable opportunity to explore hypotheses on the role of social learning in wild cetaceans.

Daura-Jorge, F. G.; Cantor, M.; Ingram, S. N.; Lusseau, D.; Simoes-Lopes, P. C.

2012-01-01

368

Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input should be equal to the product generated by using it and to the activities that are required by new regulations. The comparative technological and scale efficiency factors of coal-based electricity producing plants are calculated using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework, and used as proxies to test this condition. In the empirical analysis, econometric models of the response of firms to emissions control are analyzed around the following aspects: (1) characterization of the behavior of firms and their efficiency, (2) relevant variables that trigger the adoption of technology, that is, the acquisition of scrubbers , and (3) the influence of exogenous variables, such as the existence of contracts, distance from mine to plant, and local conditions of the region where plants are located.

Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

369

Psychometric Properties of Three New National Survey of Student Engagement Based Engagement Scales: An Item Response Theory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to develop and psychometrically describe three new student engagement scales to measure college students’ engagement\\u000a with their faculty (student-faculty engagement: SFE), community-based activities (CBA), and transformational learning opportunities\\u000a (TLO) using items selected from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), a widely used, standardized student engagement\\u000a survey. We used confirmatory factor analysis for ordered-categorical measures, item response theory

Adam C. Carle; David Jaffee; Neil W. Vaughan; Douglas Eder

2009-01-01

370

Engaging Emergent Writers with Anchor Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project focused on the creation of curriculum that would support writing development for emergent writers aged 5 to 7 years old. The research-base of the project explored how beginning writers can be scaffolded in their attempts to learn how to write. Past research was also examined to discover how emergent writers can be engaged in…

Meyer, Jamie; Weih, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

371

Engaging Millennial Students in Leadership Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership, regardless of definition, cannot be taught by a textbook alone, and if educators are to embrace the idea of highly engaged, holistic classrooms for Millennials, they must teach students to participate in real changes as both leaders and followers through practice and experiences. As new generations of young people mature and enter…

Arensdorf, Jill R.; Andenoro, Anthony C.

2009-01-01

372

Engaging Students in Nuclear Physics Science Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Getting students interested in the sciences is a difficult task that all teachers face. Hope College Summer Science Camps aim to do just this by providing interesting topics to engage students of all ages with the hope that they become excited about science and school in general. In order to enthuse high school students about Physics as a possible career

Sarah Prill

2012-01-01

373

Using astronomy's history to engage new audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much astronomy communication focuses on the results and practices of contemporary astronomers, the history of astronomy can provide a useful tool to engage new audiences with the subject. The historical approach provides an opportunity to encourage science citizenship by exploring how the practices and impacts of astronomy have changed over time and across different cultures. This paper will explore

Alison Boyle

2008-01-01

374

Geography, Community Engagement and Citizenship: Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is strong evidence that all students can gain significant learning benefit when their courses include opportunities for engagement with real-world problems, beyond the walls of their higher education institution (HEI). Internationally, cross-disciplinary discussions are increasing around the value of student learning that involves community…

McEwen, Lindsey

2013-01-01

375

Early Predictors of Job Burnout and Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study predicted changes in burnout or engagement a year later by identifying 2 types of early indicators at the initial assessment. Organizational employees (N = 466) completed measures of burnout and 6 areas of worklife at 2 times with a 1-year interval. Those people who showed an inconsistent pattern at Time 1 were more likely to change over

Christina Maslach; Michael P. Leiter

2008-01-01

376

Improving Student Engagement: Ten Proposals for Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s an extensive research literature has investigated how to improve student success in higher education focusing on student outcomes such as retention, completion and employability. A parallel research programme has focused on how students engage with their studies and what they, institutions and educators can do to enhance their…

Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda

2010-01-01

377

Student Engagement: Contested Concepts in Two Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge of student engagement has been recognised as a serious issue in both Australian and Canadian education. This empirical and qualitative study seeks to understand the experiences of two groups of students; the first beginning their high school years and the second reflecting back on successful university and less than successful high…

McMahon, Brenda J.; Zyngier, David

2009-01-01

378

Engage and Excite Students with Educational Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using educational games to learn or reinforce lessons engages students and turns a potentially boring subject into something exciting and desirable to know! Games offer teachers and parents a new way to grab students' attention so that they will retain information. Games have become a teaching tool, an invaluable resource for reaching students in…

Petsche, Jennifer

2011-01-01

379

Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

2010-01-01

380

Promoting Student Engagement in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Much progress has been made toward a greater understanding of student engagement and its role in promoting a host of desirable outcomes, including academic outcomes such as higher achievement and reduced dropout, as well as various well-being and life outcomes. Nonetheless, disengagement in our schools is widespread. This may…

Bundick, Matthew J.; Quaglia, Russell J.; Corso, Michael J.; Haywood, Dawn E.

2014-01-01

381

Finding the Public in Public Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At century's end, educators confront numerous "wicked" problems (like juvenile violence) that resist their best programs and cleverest organizational schemes. Such problems require the entire community to take responsibility for working through conflicting motives and perceptions. Hosting public-engagement forums builds capacity for tackling…

Mathews, David; Nielsen, Randall

1999-01-01

382

Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

Hall, Hazel

2010-01-01

383

Effective Strategies for Engaging Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative methods in teaching should be used in every college classroom to enhance student engagement, support any teaching environment and encourage inquiry among learners. Adults learn best by participation in relevant experiences and utilization of practical information. When adult students are active in their learning they are able to develop…

Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Phillips, Kathleen M.; Jessee, Tammy; McCabe, Marjorie

2011-01-01

384

Using Technology to Engage and Educate Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that information age technologies are as natural to the Net generation as breathing, it is time to provide learning experiences that maximize their use in schools. The authors argue that integrating technology into learning is central to creating the meaningful learning opportunities needed to engage and motivate youth today. To achieve this…

Martinez, Monica; Schilling, Susan

2010-01-01

385

Social Work in the Engaged University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies the importance of educating social work students and enlisting social work faculty to embrace the university-community engagement arena as a critical subfield of community practice. Through the lens of social work knowledge, values, and skills, the authors present three case studies of social workers who are working in the…

Martin, Elisa M.; Pyles, Loretta

2013-01-01

386

Do You Want to Get Engaged?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students and teachers in middle school media center programs is often challenging. By the time students enter middle school, they often feel that they are "too old" for media center activities. The challenge for media specialists is to find meaningful ways to make lifelong readers out of kids who would rather do anything but read. A good…

Cameron, Gerry

2004-01-01

387

Engaging and Informing Students through Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this action research was to explore the benefits of group work as a tool for engaging students with introductory material. It was the researcher's expectation that group work, would provide a means of reducing cognitive load (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, 2006) and encouraging on task behaviour (Wentzel & Watkins, 2002). This would result…

Williams, Stella

2011-01-01

388

Engaging Prekindergarten Dual Language Learners in Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a preschool class where the teachers speak only English and the majority of the children speak only Spanish, it is challenging to choose a topic that is interesting enough to engage all children in project work that supports language development. Luckily for the children, pizza is a delicious, familiar, and easily accessible topic to explore.…

Jones, Meredith K.; Shue, Pamela L.

2013-01-01

389

Kindergarten students' cognitive engagement in science learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study is based on a secondary analysis of data from the 3rd year of the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP), a federally funded research project that examines how kindergarten students learn science in inquiry settings (Mantzicopoulos, Patrick, & Samarapungavan, 2005). Videotapes of classroom lessons implemented as part of the Year 3 intervention were analyzed to identify kindergarten students' patterns of cognitive engagement during inquiry-based science learning, as well as to identify patterns of teacher discourse that promoted students' cognitive engagement. The data for the current study were drawn from videotapes and transcriptions of classroom discourse in 3 intervention classrooms that participated in the SLP. Three teachers and 55 kindergarten students participated in the study. Twelve categories of kindergarten students' cognitive engagement and eleven categories of teacher discourse were identified. The initial 12 student and 11 teacher discourse categories were further grouped into two superordinate categories (Higher Order and Basic) respectively. Chi Square analyses indicated that there was a statistically significant association between student and teacher superordinate discourse (alpha = .05). MANOVA analyses indicated that there was no significant difference on overall rates of kindergarten students' cognitive engagement by class (alpha = .05).

Tsai, Meng-Fang

390

Morbus de Anquin or spinous engagement syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a rare disease called to Anquin's disease or spinous engagement or impingement syndrome. Low-back pain in this specific syndrome probably combined with sciatica is caused by a hypertrophic spinous process along with a spina bifida occulta of the underlying vertebra. Mostly, the enlarged spinous process is seen at L5 and the spina bifida occulta at S I.

J. Bruns; U. Rehder; G. P. Dahmen; P. Behrens; L. Meiss

1994-01-01

391

Student Engagement in South African Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between student engagement and student outcome achievement is well documented in the higher education literature for US students and has recently gained traction for students in other countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, and England. Yet, few studies have examined this relationship in countries with evolving or…

Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Heck, Ashleigh M.; Remley, Christopher T.

2012-01-01

392

A Framework for Engaging Parents in Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…

Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa

2009-01-01

393

Practical Engagements and Co-Created Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay we foreground the value of engaging meaningfully with practitioners in our work. We review research by scholars whose work cuts across topics and contexts to gain insight into the power and practice of human communication as it shapes the world in which we live-highlighting work that is at its best because of its co-creation with…

Simpson, Jennifer Lyn; Seibold, David R.

2008-01-01

394

A Reactive, Radical Approach to Engaged Scholarship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While exploring the current challenges facing academic institutions and the needs of their scholars to make their work relevant in the lives of university constituents, the author advocates for a reactive and radical approach to engaged scholarship by outlining an 8-step process that considers the importance of transformation, immediacy, and…

Smith, Malcolm

2011-01-01

395

Identity and Civic Engagement in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the links between identity (statuses and processes) and adolescent civic engagement (volunteer and political participation). Participants were 392 Italian high school students (42% males) aged 14-20 years (M[subscript age] = 16.23 years; SD[subscript age] = 1.53) who completed a self-report questionnaire.…

Crocetti, Elisabetta; Jahromi, Parissa; Meeus, Wim

2012-01-01

396

Dramatic Ways to Engage Every Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of all teaching should be to help students make neural connections--the basis for all learning. To do that, however, the student has to have engagement and cognition around the material to be learned. At its core, dramatic activities, even when they have nothing to do with performance, have a tremendous ability to foster these…

Dixon, Edmond J.

2012-01-01

397

Burnout and Work Engagement among Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Job Demands-Resources Model was used as the basis of the proposal that there are two parallel processes involved in work-related well-being among teachers, namely an energetical process (i.e., job demands --> burnout --> ill health) and a motivational process (i.e., job resources --> engagement --> organizational commitment). In…

Hakanen, Jari J.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

2006-01-01

398

Engaging Gifted Boys in New Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the serious challenge of engaging boys in reading and writing which has become more complex and even influences the lives of gifted adolescent males. This article attempts to address this concern. In order to do so, the authors examine the scholarly literature on boys' reading preferences and report findings from that…

Hebert, Thomas P.; Pagnani, Alexander R.

2010-01-01

399

Intellectual Engagement: A Search for Practical Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three authors, writing from different perspectives in different time periods, share the view that students' sense of personal agency is fundamental to their intellectual engagement and deep understanding. The learner's imagination leads to powerful questions that grow when exposed to processes of productive inquiry and social interaction and when…

Milton, Penny; Kennedy, Robert

2011-01-01

400

Student Voice and Engagement: Connecting through Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on research conducted across an English higher education partnership to investigate the ways in which student voice was engaged in further education colleges offering university awards through partnership arrangements. Such collaborations are characterised by the marginal presence of higher education students in an environment…

Gray, Claire; Swain, Julie; Rodway-Dyer, Sue

2014-01-01

401

"Red Eyes": Engaging Emotions in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging emotions in multicultural education is an important but a relatively neglected issue in teacher education. This essay calls for pedagogical attention to the role of emotions and attempts to analyze how teaching autobiographies and films sheds light on the emotional dynamics of multicultural education. Two films, "The Color of Fear", and…

Wang, Hongyu

2008-01-01

402

Improving Student Engagement in Learning Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students seriously in their own academic learning is a persistent difficulty for teachers. The goal of this action research project was to actively involve elementary school students in their learning. The program was implemented at three elementary schools in northern Illinois serving multicultural populations; special education…

Adams, Nancy; And Others

403

Care WorkInvisible Civic Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars who debate the cause of and solutions for the decline in civic engagement have suggested that Americans have increasingly withdrawn from community organizations, reducing their political activity such as voting and interest in the political world, and generally failing to place the common good over individual self-interest. Their analyses are steeped in a tradition that is largely gender blind

PAMELA HERD; MADONNA HARRINGTON MEYER

2002-01-01

404

Engaging All Students with "Impossible Geometry"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geometry is an area in which Australian students performed particularly poorly on the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). One innovative area of recreational geometry that has rich potential to engage and challenge a wide variety of students is "impossible geometry." An impossible geometric object is a…

Wiest, Lynda R.; Ayebo, Abraham; Dornoo, Michael D.

2010-01-01

405

Moving from Content Knowledge to Engagement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Combining service learning with environmental and science issues allows students to move beyond awareness toward engagement. The action team service project requires students to build in-depth knowledge, apply skills directly related to taking action, and reflect on their learning. The research conducted increases the science literacy of students.

Mcdonald, James; Dominguez, Lynn

2005-11-01

406

Reflections on Engagement in Online Learning Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement with course content, facilitators and peers is necessary for students fully to achieve their learning potential. This paper demonstrates how peer-to-peer online interaction enables deeper learning through discourse and helps with retention issues by increasing motivation and reducing feelings of isolation. The authors were motivated to write this paper following their personal experiences in an online postgraduate course as

Anita Ryle; Kaye Cumming

2007-01-01

407

Mapping Stone Walls and Text Engagement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will understand that local rocks are different and are used in various ways. Following a directed reading and discussion, the students engage in an activity in which they 'dig up' rocks from a sand-filled bucket and state what type of rock they think it is and why.

408

Affect and Engagement during Small Group Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies (Study 1: n = 137; Study 2: n = 192) were conducted to investigate how upper-elementary students' affect during small group instruction related to their social-behavioral engagement during group work. A circumplex model of affect consisting of valence (positive, negative) and activation (high, low) was used to examine the relation of…

Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Rogat, Toni Kempler; Koskey, Kristin L. K.

2011-01-01

409

What Do We Know about Civic Engagement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A decade ago, research on the civic engagement and learning of young people was still in a "bear market" (Cook 1985). The body of literature was strikingly small, considering that the future of democracy depends on the preparation of young citizens. Today, the situation is dramatically different. There is a torrent of research on youth civic…

Levine, Peter

2011-01-01

410

Later Life Social Engagement and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of later life social engagement is of growing importance worldwide given the confluence of large demographic, economic, and sociocultural trends. However, empirical research in this area faces some serious theoretical and methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to address these limitations by: (1) examining the later life mental and physical health effects of five social roles,

Manacy Pai

2008-01-01

411

Engaging Educators: Common Core State Standards Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, 44 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Achieve has prepared this planning document to help all states in the American Diploma Project Network (ADP) and the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) consortium engage educators in the essential work of…

Achieve, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

412

Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

2007-01-01

413

Five Ways to Increase Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes five ways to contribute to the development of civically engaged citizens based on activities that have been widely used and described in detail over the last ten years: (1) Service-Learning Projects; (2) Extracurricular Activities; (3) Class Discussions and Debates; (4) Role Plays and Simulations; and (5) Home-School…

Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

2009-01-01

414

Engaging a University: The CCHERS Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiences of the Center for Community Health Education Research and Service, Inc. (CCHERS), in Boston, Massachusetts as a catalyst for engaging universities in collaboration for the social and economic development of an urban community. The partnership involved two private universities, an academic medical center, the city public…

Freeman, Elmer

2000-01-01

415

Advisory Boards: Gateway to Business Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest has been growing in how to build or manage an effective business advisory board. Developing an advisory board is crucial to keeping CTE programs relevant and viable by engaging the support of business and industry. This article delves into how to build and manage a board, and how to re-energize boards that already exist but may be lacking.

Meeder, Hans; Pawlowski, Brett

2012-01-01

416

Engagement as Co-Generative Theorizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet current and ever shifting problems people continually need new and better ways to attend to, talk about, and respond in the world. All communities can have an impoverished language for talking about human interaction and making decisions in times of fundamental and rapid change. Three current impoverishments are discussed. Engaged

Deetz, Stanley

2008-01-01

417

Value From Hedonic Experience and Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing that value involves experiencing pleasure or pain is critical to understanding the psychology of value. But hedonic experience is not enough. I propose that it is also necessary to recognize that strength of engagement can contribute to experienced value through its contribution to the experience of motivational force—an experience of the intensity of the force of attraction to or

E. Tory Higgins

2006-01-01

418

Perceptions of Control Facilitate Reading Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how global locus of control influences children's reading engagement or reading involvement and interest in stories. It is based on locus of control, interest, and dual information processing theories. One hundred and seventy students from schools in the northeastern United States, ages 9 to 12, participated. They completed a…

Vieira, Edward T., Jr.; Grantham, Susan

2011-01-01

419

Civic Engagement From a Communication Infrastructure Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to articulate the concepts and assumptions of communica- tion infrastructure theory (CIT) in its present stage of development and validation. As an ecological approach to communication and community, CIT claims that access to storytelling community resources is a critical factor in civic engagement. When embed- ded in a neighborhood environment where key community storytellers

Yong-Chan Kim; Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach

2006-01-01

420

Engaging Secondary School Students in Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "lifelong learning" orientation to education is seen as vital if young people are to thrive in the knowledge rich, constantly-changing world of today and the immediate future. This study identifies ways that the foundations for lifelong learning can be built in secondary schools. "Lifelong Learning" is interpreted as engaging people with…

Bryce, Jennifer; Withers, Graeme

2003-01-01

421

Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage

Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

2012-01-01

422

Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

2012-01-01

423

Social Learning Spaces and Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notable gains have been made in understanding the factors that influence the student experience in higher education, particularly in the area of student engagement. While tremendous effort has been focused on identifying educationally beneficial activities for students, we must also consider where these activities are occurring. In recent years…

Matthews, Kelly E.; Andrews, Victoria; Adams, Peter

2011-01-01

424

Engaging Low Performing High School French Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquiring a second language in the United States is not something that many American citizens accomplish. Research has attributed an array of factors to student motivation, engagement, and success with learning a foreign language. However, low performing and struggling students that take foreign language and the strategies used to motivate them…

Leopold, Amy

2011-01-01

425

Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2008-01-01

426

Pedagogies of Engagement: Classroom-Based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educators, researchers, and policy makers have advocated student involvement for some time as an essential aspect of meaningful learning. In the past twenty years engineering educators have implemented several means of better engaging their undergraduate students, including active and cooperative learning, learning communities, service learning, cooperative education, inquiry and problem-based learning, and team projects. This paper focuses on classroom-based pedagogies

KARL A. SMITH; SHERI D. SHEPPARD; DAVID W. JOHNSON

2005-01-01

427

NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-08-30

428

Effects of additives on the selectivity of byproducts and dry removal of fluorine for abating tetrafluoromethane in a discharge reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal efficiency of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) was significantly enhanced by adding additives (H2, O2, H2+O2, H2O) in an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma reactor. However, large amounts of fluorine (F2) were produced in this study. Moreover, the selectivity of F2 was apparently greater than that of HF (in H2-based condition) or COF2 (in O2-based abatement). Notably, in an O2-rich environment, more F2

Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Zhao-Zhi Kuo

2009-01-01

429

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River  

SciTech Connect

On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

1991-09-01

430

Biotechnologies for greenhouse gases (CH?, N?O, and CO?) abatement: state of the art and challenges.  

PubMed

Today, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent approximately 98 % of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory worldwide, and their share is expected to increase significantly in this twenty-first century. CO2 represents the most important GHG with approximately 77 % of the total GHG emissions (considering its global warming potential) worldwide, while CH4 and N2O are emitted to a lesser extent (14 and 8 %, respectively) but exhibit global warming potentials 23 and 298 times higher than that of CO2, respectively. Most members of the United Nations, based on the urgent need to maintain the global average temperature 2 °C above preindustrial levels, have committed themselves to significantly reduce their GHG emissions. In this context, an active abatement of these emissions will help to achieve these target emission cuts without compromising industrial growth. Nowadays, there are sufficient empirical evidence to support that biological technologies can become, if properly tailored, a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to physical/chemical methods for the abatement of GHGs. This study constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the microbiology (biochemistry, kinetics, and waste-to-value processes) and bioreactor technology of CH4, N2O, and CO2 abatement. The potential and limitations of biological GHG degradation processes are critically discussed, and the current knowledge gaps and technology niches in the field are identified. PMID:23389341

López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Souza, Theo S O; Estrada, José M; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

2013-03-01

431

Design Science Research Engagement: Proposal for an Engagement Approach for Company Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Design science research is experiencing a comeback within IS research, as there are movements towards more fashion setting\\u000a and practitioner relevant research. An engagement approach for design science research is proposed to engage in practical\\u000a collaboration with companies. The approach allows for researchers to actively participate in artifact development and implementation\\u000a in case companies, which generates firsthand knowledge for following

Anita Friis Sommer; Charles Møller

2010-01-01

432

Engaging online learners: The impact of Web-based learning technology on college student engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of the Web and other Internet technologies in postsecondary education has exploded in the last 15years. Using a set of items developed by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), the researchers utilized the hierarchical linear model (HLM) and multiple regressions to investigate the impact of Web-based learning technology on student engagement and self-reported learning outcomes in face-to-face

Pu-Shih Daniel Chen; Amber D. Lambert; Kevin R. Guidry

2010-01-01

433

The influence of growth conditions on enterocin-like production by Enterococcus faecium CWBI-B1430 and Enterococcus mundtii CWBI-B1431 isolates from artisanal Peruvian cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Enterococcus faecium CWBI-B1430 and Enterococcus mundtii CWBI-B1431, isolated from artisanal-produced Peruvian cheeses, offer a broad potential application as food biopreservatives\\u000a for heat-processing treatments. The aim of this work was to optimize the production conditions and medium composition for\\u000a the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLIS). The kinetics of the BLIS production for both strains is a growth-associated\\u000a process, and

Ana Aguilar-Galvez; Sandra Guillermo; Robin Dubois-Dauphin; David Campos; Philippe Thonart

434

Melanin and melanogenesis in adipose tissue: possible mechanisms for abating oxidative stress and inflammation?  

PubMed

Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic and can lead to multiple chronic diseases. Adipose tissue is increasingly thought to play an active role in obesity-related pathologies such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity has been strongly associated with systemic inflammation and, to a lesser degree, with oxidative stress, although the causal relationships among these factors are unclear. A recent study demonstrating an expression of the components of the melanogenic pathway and the presence of melanin in visceral adipose has raised questions regarding the possible role of melanogenesis in adipose tissue. As this study also found larger amounts of melanin in the adipose tissue of obese patients relative to lean ones, we hypothesize that melanin, a pigment known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may scavenge reactive oxygen species and abate oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose tissue. This review considers the evidence to support such a hypothesis, and speculates on the role of melanin within adipocytes. Furthermore, we consider whether the ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or its synthetic analogues could be used to stimulate melanin production in adipocytes, should the hypothesis be supported in future experiments. PMID:20576005

Page, S; Chandhoke, V; Baranova, A

2011-05-01

435

SO[sub 2] abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO[sub 2] emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O[sub 2]/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO[sub 2] off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

Landolt, C.A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J.D.; McDonald, R.N. (Inco, Copper Cliff (Canada))

1992-09-01

436

Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

2011-06-01

437

Assessing the real-world performance of modern pollutant abatement systems on motorcycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present statutory pollutant emission limits Euro-3 for motorcycles imply the use of modern emission abatement systems such as three-way catalytic converters. Determining the quality of implementation of these new systems in different driving situations such as real-world driving is important, since motorcycles are commonly used for personal transportation in urban areas. For this reason, a test bench series was carried out with a sample of 10 motorcycles of state-of-the-art certification category Euro-3. Emission factors of regulated pollutants and CO 2 are presented on the basis of the statutory driving cycle, the latest version of the real-world Worldwide Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and the real-world Common Artemis Driving Cycle (CADC). The results of the statutory driving cycle show that 7 out of 10 motorcycles fail to comply with the present emission limits. The results of both real-world driving cycles confirm notable emissions of HC in urban and NO x in motorway driving conditions. CO emissions of motorcycles with small displacement increase significantly in the urban and extra-urban sections of the CADC, which has a more dynamic velocity profile than the equivalent WMTC. Although pollutant emissions of motorcycles show a marked improvement compared with earlier certification classes, they clearly exceed the emission levels of modern light gasoline passenger cars, especially for CO and HC.

Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

438

Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

1995-01-01

439

Toxicity of Abate? 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diets mixed to contain 0,0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6..0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate ? 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41?C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18?C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

1985-01-01

440

Comparison of selected physicochemical characteristics of commercial phytases relevant to their application in phosphate pollution abatement.  

PubMed

The enzyme phytase catalyses the dephosphorylation of phytic acid and it's salts, phytates. Supplementation of monogastric animal feed with microbial-derived phytase increases the bioavailability of phytic acid bound phosphate. This facilitates a reduction in the addition of inorganic phosphate to the feed and reduces phosphorus excretion. To achieve maximum efficacy in terms of phosphate pollution abatement, supplemental phytases added to animal feed must survive thermal processing of the feed, resist inactivation by the proteolytic enzymes encountered in the animal's digestive tract and display high activity at physiological temperature and pH. A series of in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the relative suitability of four major commercial phytase products for use in animal feed. The enzymes assessed lost between 14% and 72% of their original activities after heating to 80 degrees C for 5 minutes. After exposure to simulated upper digestive tract conditions, the phytases assessed retained between 0 and 28% of their original activities. The commercial phytases displayed between 98% and 67% of their maximum activities at 39 degrees C and all phytases assessed had an optimum pH between pH 4 and pH 5. None of the phytases assessed satisfied all of the criteria of an ideal phytase for use in animal feed. PMID:16702059

Boyce, A; Walsh, G

2006-01-01

441

Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL

2011-01-01

442

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Pollution Abatement Services, Oswego, NY, December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This Record of Decision (ROD) documents the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) selection of a remedial action to augment the previously implemented remedial action (PB85-213734) and to address contamination detected outside the containment system at the Pollution Abatement Services (PAS) site. The selected remedial action represents the third operable unit of site remediation. The first operable unit was for removal actions taken from 1973 to 1982 by EPA and NYSDEC. The remedy for the second operable unit which addressed the on-site contaminated groundwater was specified in a ROD issued in June 1984. The selected remedy for this operable unit will incorporate all of the existing components of the second operable unit of site remediation. These components include: the existing containment system (including a cover, slurry wall and leachate and groundwater collection system); treatment and disposal of the collected leachate and groundwater; site security and access control by a perimeter fence; site maintenance; and long-term monitoring.

Not Available

1994-07-01

443

Engaging and Supporting Culturally Diverse Audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This two hour special workshop was held during the 2012 ASP conference in Tucson. There are a variety of reasons that science education needs to reach out to culturally diverse audiences. Each culture, and each individual community, has its own challenges; each brings special insight to science. What does the research say about engaging these different audiences? How can science educators attract and sustain programs with various cultures? How do the needs of our audiences vary with culture and within communities? Moderators Shupla, Sanlyn, and Peticolas invited a variety of presenters with expertise to share their experiences: Salvador Acevado, David Begay, Michelle Higgins, Bryan Mendez, and Dara Norman. During the first hour, presenters shared a variety of best practices for engaging and supporting culturally diverse audiences; in the second hour, participants and presenters discussed specific programmatic challenges and possible directions.

Shupla, C.; Buxner, S.; Peticolas, L. M.; Mendez, B.; Acevedo, S.; Begay, D.; Higgins, M. L.; Norman, D.

2013-04-01

444

Overcoming Breakdowns and Engaging the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With strong climate science evidence readily available, why do major segments of the public remain disengaged? Decades of social science research and practical communications experience indicate that prioritizing and structuring information, choosing appropriate messengers, and adapting to audience interests and learning styles are vital, yet often ignored criteria. This session will explore key differences between communications models within the science community and effective outreach to non-scientist audiences. Here, prioritizing goals, understanding preconceptions and identifying intervention opportunities require careful examination. "Public engagement" is defined as encouraging and enabling people to make informed choices on their own behalf. Crucial barriers identified in economics, political psychology and audience segmentation research will be addressed, and recommendations for more effective engagement will emerge including: defining realistic goals, simplifying science content accurately, avoiding values conflicts that prevent learning, enlisting trusted messengers, and matching a call to action to the scale of the challenge in ways people can embrace.

Bowman, T. E.

2012-12-01

445

Analysis of Net Engagement with a Towcable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division conducted a test in the deep water David Taylor Model Basin (DTMB) in September of 2006. The objective of the test was to evaluate the interaction of a towcable with drift nets and with longlines. Entanglement is a major problem in military and commercial applications, both with ship towed systems and with helicopter towed systems. A tenth scale model of nets and target towcable were designed and fabricated to allow proper froude scaling. Simulation was done to predict net behavior at various end drag conditions, thus simulating different typical net lengths. Other variables evaluated were cable scope, tow speed, net angle with respect to towcable at point of engagement, and centered versus off center point of contact. After engagement studies, a sample net cutter was towed to examine probability of success. Visual and quantitative data were compared for all cases to evaluate the net simulations.

Mangum, Katherine; Knutson, Richard; Ebner, Stephen

2006-11-01

446

Medical sociology and technology: critical engagements.  

PubMed

In this selective review of the literature on medical sociology's engagement with technology, we outline the concurrent developments of the American Sociological Association section on medicine and advances in medical treatment. We then describe theoretical and epistemological issues with scholars' treatment of technology in medicine. Using symbolic interactionist concepts, as well as work from the interdisciplinary field of science and technology studies, we review and synthesize critical connections in and across sociology's intellectual relationship with medical technology. Next, we discuss key findings in these literatures, noting a shift from a focus on the effects of technology on practice to a reconfiguration of human bodies. We also look toward the future, focusing on connections between technoscientific identities and embodied health movements. Finally, we call for greater engagement by medical sociologists in studying medical technology and the process of policy-making--two areas central to debates in health economics and public policy. PMID:20943577

Casper, Monica J; Morrison, Daniel R

2010-01-01

447

Reading minds: mentalization, irony and literary engagement.  

PubMed

The concept of 'mentalization' has recently provided a fertile resource for thinking about various issues in psychoanalysis, including attachment, children's play, personality disorders and the work of interpretation within the analytic setting. Mentalization also provides fruitful ways of thinking about how we read. This paper will suggest that book reading is akin to mind reading: engaging with certain literary texts is akin to understanding the minds of others from the subjective perspective required by mentalization. This way of thinking about literature provides a useful way of understanding its value. The paper will focus specifically on the uses of irony and free indirect speech in Jane Austen's novel Persuasion. Austen's use of literary techniques provides a way of understanding the inner lives of her characters via the ironic voice of the implied author, and requires the reader to engage in the kinds of understanding and insight required for mentalization. PMID:20840646

Galgut, Elisa

2010-08-01

448

Force generation upon T cell receptor engagement.  

PubMed

T cells are major players of adaptive immune response in mammals. Recognition of an antigenic peptide in association with the major histocompatibility complex at the surface of an antigen presenting cell (APC) is a specific and sensitive process whose mechanism is not fully understood. The potential contribution of mechanical forces in the T cell activation process is increasingly debated, although these forces are scarcely defined and hold only limited experimental evidence. In this work, we have implemented a biomembrane force probe (BFP) setup and a model APC to explore the nature and the characteristics of the mechanical forces potentially generated upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) and/or lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). We show that upon contact with a model APC coated with antibodies towards TCR-CD3, after a short latency, the T cell developed a timed sequence of pushing and pulling forces against its target. These processes were defined by their initial constant growth velocity and loading rate (force increase per unit of time). LFA-1 engagement together with TCR-CD3 reduced the growing speed during the pushing phase without triggering the same mechanical behavior when engaged alone. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was monitored simultaneously to verify the cell commitment in the activation process. [Ca(2+)](i) increased a few tens of seconds after the beginning of the pushing phase although no strong correlation appeared between the two events. The pushing phase was driven by actin polymerization. Tuning the BFP mechanical properties, we could show that the loading rate during the pulling phase increased with the target stiffness. This indicated that a mechanosensing mechanism is implemented in the early steps of the activation process. We provide here the first quantified description of force generation sequence upon local bidimensional engagement of TCR-CD3 and discuss its potential role in a T cell mechanically-regulated activation process. PMID:21572959

Husson, Julien; Chemin, Karine; Bohineust, Armelle; Hivroz, Claire; Henry, Nelly

2011-01-01

449

Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life

K. K. Meymaris; S. Henderson; P. Alaback; K. Havens; J. Schwarz Ballard

2009-01-01

450

Force Generation upon T Cell Receptor Engagement  

PubMed Central

T cells are major players of adaptive immune response in mammals. Recognition of an antigenic peptide in association with the major histocompatibility complex at the surface of an antigen presenting cell (APC) is a specific and sensitive process whose mechanism is not fully understood. The potential contribution of mechanical forces in the T cell activation process is increasingly debated, although these forces are scarcely defined and hold only limited experimental evidence. In this work, we have implemented a biomembrane force probe (BFP) setup and a model APC to explore the nature and the characteristics of the mechanical forces potentially generated upon engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) and/or lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). We show that upon contact with a model APC coated with antibodies towards TCR-CD3, after a short latency, the T cell developed a timed sequence of pushing and pulling forces against its target. These processes were defined by their initial constant growth velocity and loading rate (force increase per unit of time). LFA-1 engagement together with TCR-CD3 reduced the growing speed during the pushing phase without triggering the same mechanical behavior when engaged alone. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was monitored simultaneously to verify the cell commitment in the activation process. [Ca2+]i increased a few tens of seconds after the beginning of the pushing phase although no strong correlation appeared between the two events. The pushing phase was driven by actin polymerization. Tuning the BFP mechanical properties, we could show that the loading rate during the pulling phase increased with the target stiffness. This indicated that a mechanosensing mechanism is implemented in the early steps of the activation process. We provide here the first quantified description of force generation sequence upon local bidimensional engagement of TCR-CD3 and discuss its potential role in a T cell mechanically-regulated activation process.

Husson, Julien; Chemin, Karine; Bohineust, Armelle; Hivroz, Claire; Henry, Nelly

2011-01-01

451

Bispecific T Cell Engager for Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Treatment with monoclonal antibodies of the human IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes have become a mainstay in cancer therapy, particularly,\\u000a in hematological malignancies (Ball and Broome 2010). Engagement of Fc? receptor-bearing immune effector cells, complement\\u000a fixation, induction of apoptosis, and neutralization of growth factors are major modes of action of conventional monoclonal\\u000a antibodies. A limited efficacy of such antibodies in oncology

Patrick A. Baeuerle; Gerhard Zugmaier; Dominik Rüttinger

452

Engagement and control of synchroniser mechanisms in dual clutch transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of synchroniser engagements in dual clutch transmissions is undertaken in this paper, identifying limitations to the repeatability of actuation, demonstrating one popular solution for positive synchroniser control and offering an alternate engagement tool. Principally, high wet clutch drag and the synchroniser design have lead to detrimental alignments conditions, where indexing chamfers on sleeve and target gear delay engagement of the mechanism and lead to potential sleeve block out. This paper focuses on the investigation of different control methods for overcoming these detrimental alignment conditions. The application of a closed loop control method to overcome block out related engagements is studied, and, for comparison, a novel engagement tool for overriding all chamfer alignment conditions is introduced and evaluated. Results have demonstrated that both techniques have some limitations, with the novel tool being capable of providing direct control of all chamfer engagements with limited extension of the duration of synchroniser engagements; however, some tuning of mechanism parameters is required for different engagement conditions.

Walker, Paul D.; Zhang, Nong

2012-01-01

453

Attentional engagement deficits in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to an impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2). In the present study, O1 was always centrally displayed, whereas the location of O2 (central or lateral) and the O1-O2 interval were manipulated. Dyslexic children showed a larger AM at the shortest O1-O2 interval and a sluggish AM recovery at the longest O1-O2 interval, as well as an abnormal lateral AM. More importantly, these spatio-temporal deficits of attentional engagement were selectively present in dyslexics with poor phonological decoding skills. Our results suggest that an inefficient spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement - probably linked to a parietal lobule dysfunction - might selectively impair the letter string parsing mechanism during phonological decoding. PMID:20833191

Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

2010-11-01

454

Engaging Resistant Adolescents in Drug Abuse Treatment  

PubMed Central

In the first phase of a two-part treatment development study, families with a treatment-resistant, drug-abusing adolescent (n=42) were offered 12 sessions of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). This parent-focused intervention was designed to help parents facilitate their adolescents' entry in treatment and support adolescents' subsequent behavior change and to improve parent and family functioning. In the second phase, successfully engaged adolescents (n=30) were offered 12 sessions of a multicomponent individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting substance use and related problem behaviors. Measures were collected at pre- and post-treatment for parents and adolescents, with an additional follow-up assessment for parents at 3-months post-treatment. Parents in the CRAFT intervention experienced a significant reduction in negative symptoms and 71% of parents were successful in engaging their resistant youth in treatment. The CBT intervention for the engaged youth was associated with a statistically significant, but not clinically significant, reduction in marijuana use.

Waldron, Holly Barrett; Kern-Jones, Sheryl; Turner, Charles W.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ozechowski, Timothy J.

2007-01-01

455

Rhythmic engagement with music in infancy  

PubMed Central

Humans have a unique ability to coordinate their motor movements to an external auditory stimulus, as in music-induced foot tapping or dancing. This behavior currently engages the attention of scholars across a number of disciplines. However, very little is known about its earliest manifestations. The aim of the current research was to examine whether preverbal infants engage in rhythmic behavior to music. To this end, we carried out two experiments in which we tested 120 infants (aged 5–24 months). Infants were exposed to various excerpts of musical and rhythmic stimuli, including isochronous drumbeats. Control stimuli consisted of adult- and infant-directed speech. Infants’ rhythmic movements were assessed by multiple methods involving manual coding from video excerpts and innovative 3D motion-capture technology. The results show that (i) infants engage in significantly more rhythmic movement to music and other rhythmically regular sounds than to speech; (ii) infants exhibit tempo flexibility to some extent (e.g., faster auditory tempo is associated with faster movement tempo); and (iii) the degree of rhythmic coordination with music is positively related to displays of positive affect. The findings are suggestive of a predisposition for rhythmic movement in response to music and other metrically regular sounds.

Zentner, Marcel; Eerola, Tuomas

2010-01-01

456

Factors Relating to Faculty Engagement in Cooperative Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that may relate to engineering faculty engagement in Cooperative Education (Co-op). My intent was to identify specific personal attributes and environmental conditions that relate to faculty engagement in cooperative education. I compared the engagement level of engineering faculty from programs…

Friedrich, Bernadette J.

2011-01-01

457

Student Achievement beyond the Classroom: Engaging Families and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite positive outcomes associated with family engagement, many schools and districts still struggle to cultivate meaningful relationships with community members. This document identifies issues surrounding family engagement and poses questions for policymakers to consider. The authors describe the following engagement issues and offer questions…

Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

2012-01-01

458

The Devil Is in the Details: Defining Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For "civic engagement" work to have meaningful and long-term impact upon students, partners, and postsecondary institutions, each institution must undertake the difficult work of defining civic engagement for itself such that the definition aligns with the institution's educational mission and local context. We argue that civic engagement is…

Brabant, Margaret; Braid, Donald

2009-01-01

459

29 CFR 793.20 - Exclusive engagement in exempt work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Exclusive engagement in exempt work. 793.20 Section 793.20 Labor Regulations...Application of Exemption § 793.20 Exclusive engagement in exempt work. An employee who engages exclusively in...

2009-07-01

460

29 CFR 793.20 - Exclusive engagement in exempt work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive engagement in exempt work. 793.20 Section 793.20 Labor Regulations...Application of Exemption § 793.20 Exclusive engagement in exempt work. An employee who engages exclusively in...

2010-07-01

461

Civic Engagement as a Retirement Role for Aging Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Public attention directed toward the civic engagement of retired Americans has increased considerably. The purpose of this research was to define civic engagement as a retirement role and differentiate individuals who met this role definition from other retirees. Design and Methods: Retirees who met our definition of civic engagement were…

Kaskie, Brian; Imhof, Sara; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Culp, Kennith

2008-01-01

462

The Effects of the Pause Procedure on Classroom Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine an instructional strategy intended to enhance engagement in the college classroom. The effects of the pause procedure on classroom engagement and cognitive load were studied. The relationships between levels of classroom engagement and near-term learning outcomes, as well as…

Korvick, Lynn Marie

2010-01-01

463

Fostering Civic Engagement in the Communication Research Methods Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic engagement has become an essential learning goal for institutions throughout higher education. Communication scholars employ various pedagogical tools to foster civic engagement. For instance, service learning has been shown to increase political and community engagement in courses such as family communication and public relations. Teachers…

Liu, Min

2011-01-01

464

Immigrants' Cultural Identities as Sources of Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrant parents (first generation) and adolescents (second generation) from El Salvador and India (N = 80) took part in interviews on civic engagement. The immigrants were almost unanimous in regarding civic engagement as important. They also were engaged themselves, more so at the community than the political level. One third of immigrants were…

Jensen, Lene Arnett

2008-01-01

465

Towards an Africanisation of Community Engagement and Service Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the South African research community could benefit by engaging in more collaborative partnerships within the African continent in relation to community engagement. This argument relates to literature in South Africa concerning an Africanised notion of service learning (SL) and community engagement (CE), university…

Preece, Julia

2013-01-01

466

Sustaining Civic Engagement: Faculty Development, Roles, and Rewards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic engagement of students, faculty, and staff is identified as central to the IUPUI's mission. Although nearly all of the Campus Compact Indicators of Engagement could be cited as mechanisms through which IUPUI's civic engagement mission is supported (see Bringle & Hatcher, 2004), this article will focus on faculty roles and rewards. Following…

Bringle, Robert G.; Hatcher, Julie A.; Jones, Steven; Plater, William M.

2006-01-01

467

Engaging Students in an Online Situated Language Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have emphasized the relationship between students' engagement and learning performance, and yet the context in which students and the teacher interact to engage each other has been ignored. In order to engage college students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of a big class, this study developed a…

Yang, Yu-Fen

2011-01-01

468

The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

Flaherty, Anne Guerin

2011-01-01

469

Enhancing Students' Engagement by Increasing Teachers' Autonomy Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement refers to the behavioral intensity and emotional quality of a person's active involvement during a task. Recognizing the benefits highly engaged people experience, we tested whether classroom teachers could incorporate the relatively foreign concept of autonomy support into their motivating styles as a way to promote their students' engagement during instruction. Teachers in an experimental group and teachers in

Johnmarshall Reeve; Hyungshim Jang; Dan Carrell; Soohyun Jeon; Jon Barch

2004-01-01

470

Literacy Education, Reading Engagement, and Library Use in Multilingual Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007-2011). The design was a research and development project in…

Tonne, Ingebjorg; Pihl, Joron

2012-01-01

471

Virtual worlds, conceptual understanding, and me: designing for consequential engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to advance the idea of consequential engagement, positioning it as a necessary complement to the more common practices of supporting procedural or conceptual engagement. More than a theoretical argument, this notion is grounded in examples from the authors' work in enlisting game-based methodologies and technologies for supporting such engagement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Through the presentation of

Melissa Gresalfi; Sasha Barab; Sinem Siyahhan; Tyler Christensen

2009-01-01

472

Student Engagement and the College Experience in Hospitality Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student perceptions of competency in Hospitality Management, (HM) and the level of engagement in the college experience were compared between two programs to verify engagement as a construct consisting of three domains; classroom, campus, and off-campus. Administrator and student descriptions of engagement in the college experience described the…

Wray, Michael L.

2010-01-01

473

The Future of Family Engagement in Residential Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residential programs for children and youth are increasingly implementing engagement strategies to promote family-centered and family-driven models of care (Leichtman, 2008). The practice of engagement is a fairly new area of research, especially in residential care. Driven by their goal to increase the use of state-of-the-art family engagement

Affronti, Melissa L.; Levison-Johnson, Jody

2009-01-01

474

Principals' Engagement of Low Ability Students in Singapore Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a grounded theory constructed from a study of Singapore neighbourhood secondary school principals' engagement of their lowest stream, the Normal Technical students, in their schools. This substantive theory is labelled the "theory of selective engagement". It implies that how principals engage their lowest streamed students…

Ong, Chye Hin; Dimmock, Clive

2013-01-01

475

Leading, Learning, and Unleashing Potential: Youth Leadership and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development is a Washington, D.C.-based organization engaged in programming, research, and policy development related to youth civic engagement. Its mission is to unleash the potential of youth, adults, organizations, and communities to engage together in creating a just and equitable society. Strong…

Wheeler, Wendy; Edlebeck, Carolyn

2006-01-01

476

Decree No. 12-88 of 4 December 1988, setting forth the functions of the Minister Responsible for the status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism and the organization of the central administration of his department.  

PubMed

This Mauritania Decree provides that the Minister Responsible for the Status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism has as a general objective the formulation and implementation of a policy promoting women and developing the artisan and tourism sectors. With respect to the status of women, the Minister is responsible for studying and devising programs promoting women, supporting the productive participation of women in development, and ensuring women social and primary education that will permit them to assume an active role in society. Among the directorates of the Ministry is a Directorate on the Status of Women, which has the following responsibilities: 1) to study all measures tending to strengthen the position and role of women, taking into consideration a healthy view of the country's traditional values and the requirements of contemporary society; 2) to work with the media in popularizing the rights and obligations of women; 3) to organize specific interventionist activities for the benefit of rural women; 4) to work with interested departments in developing educational and training programs for women; 5) to work with interested parties in studying employment conditions for women and in supervising the effective insertion of women into the dynamics of development; and 6) to work with educational institutions in promoting women's organizations on the national and international level. Further provisions of the Decree set forth the responsibilities of other departments of the Ministry. PMID:12344093

1989-01-01

477

Maternal affection moderates friend influence on schoolwork engagement.  

PubMed

This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that maternal affection moderated the influence that the higher burnout friend exerted over the subsequent schoolwork engagement of the lower burnout friend. The schoolwork engagement of the friend reporting higher levels of school burnout predicted a decline in the schoolwork engagement of the friend reporting lower school burnout, but only if the latter perceived below-average maternal affection. PMID:24015690

Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

2014-03-01

478

Crusting of stored dairy slurry to abate ammonia emissions: pilot-scale studies.  

PubMed

Storage of cattle slurry is a significant source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emissions can be reduced by covering slurry stores, but this can incur significant costs, as well as practical and technical difficulties. In this pilot-scale study, slurry was stored in small tanks (500 L) and the effectiveness of natural crust development for reducing NH3 emissions was assessed in a series of experiments. Also, factors important in crust development were investigated. Measurements were made of crust thickness and specially adapted tank lids were used to measure NH3 emissions. Slurry dry matter (DM) content was the most important factor influencing crust formation, with no crust formation on slurries with a DM content of <1%. Generally, crusts began to form within the first 10 to 20 d of storage, at which time NH3 emission rates would decrease. The formation of a natural crust reduced NH3 emissions by approximately 50%. The type of bedding used in the free stall barn did not influence crust formation, nor did ambient temperature or air-flow rate across the slurry surface. There was a large difference in crust formation between slurries from cattle fed a corn (Zea mays L.) silage-based diet and those fed a grass silage-based diet, although dietary differences were confounded with bedding differences. The inclusion of a corn starch and glucose additive promoted crust formation and reduced NH3 emission. The maintenance of a manageable crust on cattle slurry stores is recommended as a cost-effective means of abating NH3 emissions from this phase of slurry management. PMID:15758092

Misselbrook, Tom H; Brookman, Siobhan K E; Smith, Ken A; Cumby, Trevor; Williams, Adrian G; McCrory, Dan F

2005-01-01

479

Monitoring fish contaminant responses to abatement actions: factors that affect recovery.  

PubMed

Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility. PMID:21380788

Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

2011-06-01

480

Use of multi-transition-metal-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement  

SciTech Connect

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. It has a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times greater than carbon dioxide. Reducing methane emissions would lead to substantial economic and environmental benefits. This study investigated the performance of multi-transition-metal-(Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement. The catalytic activity in methane combustion using multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was studied with different parameters including the molar percentage of metal loading, the space velocity, and the inlet methane concentration under atmospheric pressure and at a relatively low reaction temperature of 500 C. The performance of the catalysts was determined in terms of the apparent activation energy, the number of active sites of the catalyst, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. This study showed that multi-ion-exchanged catalysts outperformed single-ion-exchanged and acidified 13X catalysts and that lengthening the residence time led to a higher methane conversion percentage. The enhanced catalytic activity in the multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was attributed to the presence of exchanged transition ions instead of acid sites in the catalyst. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was influenced by the metal loading amount, which played an important role in affecting the apparent activation energy for methane combustion, the active sites, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. Increasing the amount of metal loading in the catalyst decreased the apparent activation energy for methane combustion and also the BET surface area of the catalyst. An optimized metal loading amount at which the highest catalytic activity was observed due to the combined effects of the various factors was determined. (author)

Hui, K.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.; Kwong, C.W.; Wan, M.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2008-04-15

481

Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

2000-09-01

482

NO{sub x}-abatement potential of lean-premixed GT combustors  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the structure of perfectly premixed flames on NO{sub x} formation is investigated theoretically. Since a network of reaction kinetics modules and model flames is used for this purpose, the results obtained are independent of specific burner geometries. Calculations are presented for a mixture temperature of 630 K, an adiabatic flame temperature of 1840 K, and 1 and 15 bars combustor pressure. In particular, the following effects are studied separately from each other: molecular diffusion of temperature and species, flame strain, local quench in highly strained flames and subsequent reignition, turbulent diffusion (no preferential diffusion), and small scale mixing (stirring) in the flame front. Either no relevant influence or an increase in NO{sub x} burners is to avoid excessive turbulent stirring in the flame front. Turbulent flames that exhibit locally and instantaneously near laminar structures (flamelets) appear to be optimal. Using the same methodology, the scope of the investigation is extended to lean-lean staging, since a higher NO{sub x}-abatement potential can be expected in principle. As long as the chemical reactions of the second stage take place in the boundary between the fresh mixture of the second stage and the combustion products from upstream, no advantage can be expected from lean-lean staging. Only if the preliminary burner exhibits much poorer mixing than the second stage can lean-lean staging be beneficial. In contrast, if full mixing between the two stages prior to afterburning can be achieved (lean-mix-lean technique), the combustor outlet temperature can in principle be increased somewhat without NO penalty.

Sattelmayer, T. [Technical Univ. Munich, Garching (Germany); Polifke, W.; Winkler, D.; Doebbeling, K. [ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

1998-01-01

483

Dissimilatory Iron Reduction and Odor Indicator Abatement by Biofilm Communities in Swine Manure Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Animal waste odors arising from products of anaerobic microbial metabolism create community relations problems for livestock producers. We investigated a novel approach to swine waste odor reduction: the addition of FeCl3, a commonly used coagulant in municipal wastewater treatment, to stimulate degradation of odorous compounds by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) FeCl3 is an effective source of redox-active ferric iron (Fe3+) for dissimilatory reduction by bacteria indigenous to swine manure, and (ii) dissimilatory iron reduction results in significant degradation of odorous compounds within 7 days. Our results demonstrated that Fe3+ from FeCl3 was reduced biologically as well as chemically in laboratory microcosms prepared with prefiltered swine manure slurry and limestone gravel, which provided pH buffering and a substrate for microbial biofilm development. Addition of a 1-g liter?1 equivalent concentration of Fe3+ from FeCl3, but not from presynthesized ferrihydrite, caused initial, rapid solids flocculation, chemical Fe3+ reduction, and Eh increase, followed by a 2-day lag period. Between 2 and 6 days of incubation, increases in Fe2+ concentrations were accompanied by significant reductions in concentrations of volatile fatty acids used as odor indicators. Increases in Fe2+ concentrations between 2 and 6 days did not occur in FeCl3-treated microcosms that were sterilized by gamma irradiation or amended with NaN3, a respiratory inhibitor. DNA sequences obtained from rRNA gene amplicons of bacterial communities in FeCl3-treated microcosms were closely related to Desulfitobacterium spp., which are known representatives of DIRB. Use of iron respiration to abate wastewater odors warrants further investigation.

Castillo-Gonzalez, Hugo A.; Bruns, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

484

Construct dimensionality of engagement and its relation with satisfaction.  

PubMed

Engagement--a persistent and positive affective-motivational state of fulfillment characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (W. B. Schaufeli, M. Salanova, V. González-Roma, & A. B. Bakker, 2002)--has become a popular subject among academic and industry researchers. Following suggestions in the recent literature calling for further examination of the underlying factors comprising the construct of engagement, the authors investigated the factor structure of W. B. Schaufeli et al.'s measure of engagement and academic engagement's relation to academic satisfaction. Previous researchers found a 3-factor structure of engagement that comprises vigor, dedication, and absorption. The authors administered to a sample of university students a questionnaire on their level of engagement in academic work and various other measures. The results did not confirm the 3-factor structure. The present authors found engagement and satisfaction to be highly related constructs. PMID:19157075

Wefald, Andrew J; Downey, Ronald G

2009-01-01

485

Attracting, Retaining, and Engaging Early Career Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young Scientists Event, IUGG XXIV General Assembly; Perugia, Italy, 10 July 2007 This young scientists event was organized to engage younger scientists with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and to provide a specific forum to express their views at the General Assembly. It comprised a panel discussion chaired by Kate Heal and with three young geosciences panelists (Masaki Hayashi, University of Calgary, Canada; Kalachand Sain, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India; and Simona Stefanescu, National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest). The group, which had identified several topics relevant to young geoscientists, presented their views in open discussion session. Thirty IUGG conference attendees were present.

Jones, Alan; Heal, Kate; Pringle, Daniel

2007-12-01

486

Plasma Source Development for Effective Dissociation and Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds for the Reduction of Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfluorinated gas compounds (PFCs) are widely used in the semiconductor industry for etching process and for cleaning of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) systems. However, most of these compounds have very high infrared adsorbance strengths and long life times (i.e. several times greater than carbon dioxide). Thus their emissions can strongly contribute to global warming if left unabated. To reduce PFC emissions, the industry has adopted high power density, sub-atmospheric plasma sources to completely dissociate F-bearing compounds at the point of use or to completely convert PFC emissions within the post process exhaust stream. Many electrodeless plasma sources have been applied including microwave, conventional inductive, and ferrite-based inductive plasma devices. As a general scaling rule, most all of these devices provide effective electric field strengths on the order 1-10 V/cm and power densities of 0.1-10 W/cm3 into electronegative discharges at pressures ranging from 0.1-100 Torr. To explore one contemporary example, we examine the properties a ferrite-based, inductively-coupled plasma source as applied to typical processes used in CVD chamber clean and PFC-based etching processes. Along with the operational properties of this device, we examine mass spectroscopy measurements of residual gases from the source when used to (1) fully dissociate high flows of pure NF3 and mixtures of C3F8/O2 and (2) abate moderate flows of CF4, C2F6 and SF6 in combination with O2 or H2O vapor. Also, we review select plasma engineering topics related to these PFC abatement approaches whose study would greatly advance the performance and cost effectiveness of plasma abatement technology within the industry.

Mahoney, Leonard J.

2001-10-01

487

Burnt-Out but Engaged: The Co-Existence of Psychological Burnout and Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research sought to identify groups of school employees who were more similar in their responses to burnout and engagement measures, for the purpose of exploring what was similar in their school experiences. The profiles created in the present research enable a clearer appreciation of what is common to groups of school employees who…

Timms, Carolyn; Brough, Paula; Graham, Deborah

2012-01-01

488

Engaging with Parents: The Relationship between School Engagement Efforts, Social Class, and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the U.S. Department of Education's (2000) "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99" (ECLS-K), this study investigates the relationship between school efforts to engage parents, average socioeconomic status (SES) of families within a school, and kindergarteners' end-of-year reading and…

González, Raquel L.; Jackson, Cara L.

2013-01-01

489

Service Learning as a Response to Community/School Engagement: Towards a Pedagogy of Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The promulgation of the White Paper on Higher Education (1997) necessitated Higher Education Institutions (HEis) in South Africa to avail their expertise in their human resources and physical infrastructure for service learning and community engagement initiatives, in the interest of demonstrating social responsibility, collaborative partnerships…

Alexander, Gregg; Khabanyane, Mokhethi

2013-01-01

490

Minnesota Campus Civic Engagement Study: Defining Engagement in a New Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to: determine outcomes from projects supported by grants made to campuses and community based organizations through the state funded Postsecondary Service Learning Grant program from 1989-2001; develop indicators to help campuses and evaluators define campus civic engagement; and document the current status of civic…

Minnesota Higher Education Services Office, St. Paul.

491

Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Why Teachers Engage or Do Not Engage Students in Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored reasons K-6 teachers did or did not engage students regularly in writing. Interviews with 14 teachers, classified as high, transitional, and low implementers of writing instruction, revealed three themes: hindrances and helps, beliefs concerning practice, and preparation and professional development. Both high and…

Harward, Stan; Peterson, Nancy; Korth, Byran; Wimmer, Jennifer; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Black, Sharon; Simmerman, Sue; Pierce, Linda

2014-01-01

492

Successful Engagement: Guidance for Colleges and Providers on Effective Employer Engagement in Post-16 Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful employer engagement requires that colleges in the United Kingdom secure employers' involvement in the design, development, management, and delivery of post-16 learning so that the skill needs of employers and the workforce will be met and the increased productivity, competitiveness, and efficiency of individual organizations and the…

Hughes, Maria

493

Wired and Engaged?: Student Engagement in Online Learning at the Community College Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 10 years, higher education has experienced dramatic changes due to online instruction, especially at community colleges. It is important to recognize the role of the college in the implementation of online techniques and strategies that can serve to engage students effectively in the online learning environment. However, very little…

Lerma, Maria del Pilar

2010-01-01

494

Engaging Online Learners: The Impact of Web-Based Learning Technology on College Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widespread use of the Web and other Internet technologies in postsecondary education has exploded in the last 15 years. Using a set of items developed by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), the researchers utilized the hierarchical linear model (HLM) and multiple regressions to investigate the impact of Web-based learning technology…

Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel; Lambert, Amber D.; Guidry, Kevin R.

2010-01-01

495

i Engaging as an innovative approach to engage patients in their own fall prevention care  

PubMed Central

Decreasing patient fall injuries during hospitalization continues to be a challenge at the bedside. Empowering patients to become active participants in their own fall prevention care could be a solution. In a previous study, elderly patients recently discharged from a United States hospital expressed a need for nurses to give and repeat directives about fall prevention; when the nurse left a brochure on the topic, but did not provide any (or limited) verbal explanations about the content or the importance of the information, the patient felt that the information was insufficient. To address patients’ needs, we developed “i Engaging”, a Web-based software application for use at the bedside. i Engaging is an innovative approach that is used to engage patients in their own fall prevention care during hospital stays. The application was designed based on the assumption that patients are the best and most critical sources of information about their health status. i Engaging has not yet been tested in clinical trials.

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

2014-01-01

496

Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support. Practical Resources for Public Engagement, Public Relations, and Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing recognition that public perception of education is an essential component of soliciting support, this guide is intended to help public-school principals refine their approaches to communication, marketing, public affairs, and public relations. It instructs principals on looking at public engagement, on building public support, on…

National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

497

Engaged-Learning: Community Engagement Classifications at U.S. Land-Grant Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engagement has evolved from concerns of "access," "diversity," and "public service" between the academy and communities. Land-grant institutions (LGI), considered the "public's universities," have represented a unique population in American higher education with their historic 150-year tradition of teaching, research, and service. Carnegie…

Scott, Leodis

2012-01-01

498