Science.gov

Sample records for abatement engaging artisanal

  1. Artisanal cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  2. Noise Abatement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  3. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  4. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  5. Noise Abatement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  6. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  7. Biological abatement of cellulase inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-abatement uses a fungus to metabolize and remove fermentation inhibitors. To determine whether bio-abatement could alleviate enzyme inhibitor effects observed in biomass liquors after pretreatment, corn stover at 10% (w/v) solids was pretreated with either dilute acid or liquid hot water. The ...

  8. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  9. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    PubMed

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity. PMID:26942936

  10. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  11. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  12. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  13. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will usually be necessary only where frequent human use occurs and a lowered noise level would be of...

  14. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  15. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  16. Biological abatement of enzyme inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose pretreatments release phenolic compounds that cause enzyme inhibition and deactivation. Bio-abatement, the biological removal of furfurals, acetic acid and phenolics, may utilize fungal fermentation to metabolize these compounds to CO2, water, cell mass, and heat. Our work with Coni...

  17. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  18. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Supriya

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  19. Microbiological quality of artisanal ice cream.

    PubMed

    Maifreni, M; Civilini, M; Domenis, C; Manzano, M; Di Prima, R; Comi, G

    1993-09-01

    In the course of the years 1990 and 1991, 396 samples of artisanal ice-cream had been collected from different ice-cream shops in Udine and province and analysed. All tested flavours contained aerobic germs, coliforms, Enterococci and yeasts in different quantities. In the analysed samples neither Salmonellae spp., nor Listeria monocytogenes nor Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Numerous species of coliforms and yeasts were randomly isolated and identified. The statistical analysis, used to compare the variables (flavour, month, year), showed significant differences among the samples analysed in the two years. In September, the means of the total aerobic count were significantly different from the ones of July and of August. No significant differences were noted in the means of coliforms, total aerobic counts and yeasts in the different flavours. The techniques for recovery of freeze-stressed coliforms in artificially contaminated samples of ice-cream showed that the three techniques, which use both selective and non-selective mediums, are better than those ones, which use only selective mediums. Lastly, with regard at the coliform values, the ice-creams tested have small-medium quality. In fact 26% of the ice-creams cannot be sealed, according to the Italian Ministry Ordinance (October 11, 1978). PMID:8267839

  20. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... abatement permit holder may use captive-bred raptors held under his or her migratory bird master falconry permit for abatement activities without transferring them to his or her abatement permit, provided the... used under his or her abatement permit. Raptors used under a Federal abatement permit must be...

  1. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    PubMed

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-01

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual. PMID:1002088

  2. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  3. Between Tradition and Tourism: Educational Strategies of a Zapotec Artisan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Melanie G.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the teaching and learning strategies employed by a Zapotec weaver in Oaxaca, Mexico, to draw attention to the personal agency of indigenous artisans participating in the tourist economy, and to examine ways in which non-formal and informal education in skills and understandings related to art can function in the lives of…

  4. Solid Geometry in the Works of an Iron Artisan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The author shares a story of how Luis González, an iron artisan, helped the author build a wooden and iron toy truck. The knowledge required to build the skeleton for the parallelepiped in the construction of the truck is not in the mathematical high school curriculum in Venezuela. Although Luis never received a degree beyond high school,…

  5. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. ach abatement took place in a school buildin...

  6. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  7. A methodological toolkit for field assessments of artisanally mined alluvial diamond deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    This toolkit provides a standardized checklist of critical issues relevant to artisanal mining-related field research. An integrated sociophysical geographic approach to collecting data at artisanal mine sites is outlined. The implementation and results of a multistakeholder approach to data collection, carried out in the assessment of Guinea’s artisanally mined diamond deposits, also are summarized. This toolkit, based on recent and successful field campaigns in West Africa, has been developed as a reference document to assist other government agencies or organizations in collecting the data necessary for artisanal diamond mining or similar natural resource assessments.

  8. Effectiveness of conventional management in Mediterranean type artisanal fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matić-Skoko, S.; Stagličić, N.; Pallaoro, A.; Kraljević, M.; Dulčić, J.; Tutman, P.; Dragičević, B.

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal fisheries throughout the Mediterranean region are managed mostly by applying gear specific regulations. The data about the extent and dynamics by which littoral fish resources respond to commonly proposed changes of such regulations are lacking. Here the results of a 15 year (1995-2009) monitoring programme of littoral fish resources in a pilot region of island Vis aquatorium, central Adriatic Sea, are reported with the scope of investigating whether a more restrictive fishing regime (encompassing an increase in minimum inner layer mesh size of trammel net from 28 to 40 mm and excluding the trammel net from subsistence artisanal fishing) that has progressively been put in place during the study period has been accompanied by expected positive changes of littoral fish resources' abundance, biomass and structure. Significant increases over time were observed in most of the community indices analyzed (abundance and biomass catch per unit effort, diversity indices) as well as a directional change in abundance and biomass catch composition of littoral fish resources. Positive responses were, however, primarily related with a recovery of Mullus surmuletus stock. Additionally, time-series analysis of ABC curves and their corresponding W index revealed that fish community in the study area was still moderately disturbed. Limited extent of conventional management restorative potential is further exacerbated by social issues - noncompliant behavior mainly among subsistence artisanal fishers and consequent resentment of commercial artisanal fishers. In order to improve further the state of the resources a more comprehensive set of management measures incorporating closed areas and a new approach actively involving fishers in the management process should be adopted.

  9. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in... accordance with § 35.1355. Abatement of an intact, factory-applied prime coating on metal surfaces is...

  11. Interaction of pollution abatement with world dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The world dynamics model of Jay W. Forrester was modified to account for pollution abatement. In the modified model, it is assumed that as pollution increases, efforts are made to control pollution. There is a competition between food supply, material standard of living, and pollution abatement for capital, and time is required for diversion of capital toward pollution abatement. Inclusion of pollution abatement in the model drastically alters the response of the world system for the case in which depletion of natural resources is not considered. Instead of undergoing a pollution catastrophe, all system levels move more or less smoothly toward an equilibrium. A FORTRAN program listing of the modified world dynamics model is included.

  12. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1325 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized by EPA, or by EPA at 40 CFR 745.227(e), and shall be completed by achieving clearance in accordance with § 35.1340. If encapsulation or enclosure is used as a method of abatement, ongoing...

  15. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  16. Rapid detection of methanol in artisanal alcoholic beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goes, R. E.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    In the industry of artisanal beverages, uncontrolled production processes may result in contaminated products with methanol, leading to risks for consumers. Owing to the similar odor of methanol and ethanol, as well as their common transparency, the distinction between them is a difficult task. Contamination may also occur deliberately due to the lower price of methanol when compared to ethanol. This paper describes a spectroscopic method for methanol detection in beverages based on Raman scattering and Principal Component Analysis. Associated with a refractometric assessment of the alcohol content, the method may be applied in field for a rapid detection of methanol presence.

  17. FEASIBILITY OF ELK CREEK ACID MINE DRAINAGE ABATEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted within the Elk Creek Watershed, West Virginia to determine the technical and economic feasibility of three acid mine drainage abatement techniques. Alkaline regarding and slurry trench construction were established as technically and economically viable abat...

  18. "A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.

    PubMed

    Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

    2014-07-01

    This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. PMID:24681405

  19. OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-12-01

    This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

  20. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standard and in conformance with the provisions of 40 CFR 1506.5(c) and 23 CFR 636.109. (j) Third party... PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are identified, noise abatement shall be considered and evaluated...

  1. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are...

  2. 23 CFR 772.13 - Analysis of noise abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Analysis of noise abatement. 772.13 Section 772.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.13 Analysis of noise abatement. (a) When traffic noise impacts are...

  3. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard prevention and abatement. 851.22 Section 851.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.22 Hazard prevention and abatement. (a) Contractors must establish and implement a hazard prevention and abatement process to ensure that all identified...

  4. POLLUTION ABATEMENT COSTS AND EXPENDITURES SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) Survey is a Census Bureau product funded via a cooperative agreement with EPA. PACE data was collected by Census from 1974-1996 (except 1987) and 1999. The survey consists of approximately 20,000 manufacturing facilities in ...

  5. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow...

  6. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow...

  7. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  8. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In order for an individual to be certified...

  9. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In order for an individual to be certified...

  10. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In order for an individual to be certified...

  11. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In order for an individual to be certified...

  12. 25 CFR 309.25 - How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? 309.25 Section 309.25 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.25 How can an individual be certified as an Indian artisan? (a) In order for an individual to be certified...

  13. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness Over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model.

    PubMed

    Milburn, Norweeta G; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-12-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM), demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal data collected from 183 newly homeless adolescents followed over 2 years in Los Angeles, CA. In support of RAAM, unadjusted odds of exiting at 2 years and stably exiting over2 years revealed that engagement with pro-social peers, maternal social support, and continued school attendance all promoted exiting behaviors. Simultaneously, exposure to family violence and reliance on shelter services discouraged stably exiting behaviors. Implications for family-based interventions are proposed. PMID:25067896

  14. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  15. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  16. Ochratoxin A in artisan salami produced in Veneto (Italy).

    PubMed

    Armorini, Sara; Altafini, Alberto; Zaghini, Anna; Roncada, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Fifty samples of artisan salami purchased in Veneto (Italy) were analysed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA). The analytical method, based on a sample preparation procedure with immunoaffinity columns (IACs), together with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD), has guaranteed a high rate of recovery (about 97%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 0.06 µg kg(-1) and 0.20 µg kg(-1). OTA was detected in five samples, but only one exceeded the guideline value (1 µg kg(-1)) established by the Italian Ministry of Health for pork meat and derived products. The results would seem to suggest that salami made with the traditional, non-industrial production method can be considered safe as regards contamination by OTA. However, the very high concentration observed in one sample proves that a high OTA contamination is also possible in this type of product. Thus, the controls of mycotoxin contamination must consider also salami. PMID:26431067

  17. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  18. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  19. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  20. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  1. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-03-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop techniques for nitrogen oxides abatement by distributed fuel addition. The major nitrogen oxide of interest is Nitric Oxide (NO), a precursor to premature forest damage and to acid rain. Recently interest has also been evoked with respect to an additional oxide of nitrogen, namely Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O). Therefore, abatement measures for NO{sub x} are being investigated to determine their influence on N{sub 2}O as well. This report briefly describes the significance of N{sub 2}O emissions to the environment and the urgent need to develop techniques that can reduce emissions of both NO and N{sub 2}O. Reburning through distributed fuel addition may be an effective technique for NO{sub x} (mainly NO) emission control as described in the previous quarterly report. Reburning may also be effective in reducing N{sub 2}O levels. A technique for N{sub 2}O measurement by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was developed during this quarter, and is described in this report. This analysis technique will be used in the proposed experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of reburning on N{sub 2}O control.

  2. 29 CFR 4207.10 - Plan rules for abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan rules for abatement. 4207.10 Section 4207.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.10 Plan rules for abatement. (a) General rule. Subject to...

  3. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.971 Section 22.971 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. (a) Strict...

  4. 47 CFR 22.878 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to abate unacceptable interference. 22.878 Section 22.878 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.878 Obligation to abate...

  5. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  6. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. hese 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Departm...

  7. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  8. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  9. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  10. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  11. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The... the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, please refer to that document at 76 FR 39368 (July 6, 2011... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement...

  12. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  13. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. he AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary co...

  14. 30 CFR 722.13 - Failure to abate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Failure to abate. 722.13 Section 722.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.13 Failure to abate. An authorized representative of the...

  15. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2014-08-15

    The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories-batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743-818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox(®) was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610-1930PAFm(3)/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14-0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093-0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E-04 to 3.64E-04PAFm(3)/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E-09 to 2.28E-08 and 8.96E-10 and 2.52E-09 cases/kg of ash, respectively. The results reveal hazards of burning discarded cellphones to recover precious metals, and pinpoints opportunities for manufacturers to reduce toxic materials used in specific electronic components marketed globally. PMID:24937657

  16. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.

    1994-12-31

    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  17. Citizen Engagement for Starlight~ Taking it to a higher level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Audrey Ann

    2015-08-01

    It is clearly evident that the time has come to dramatically increase the level of global citizen engagement for starlight restoration and light pollution abatement.Examining what has worked for other sucessful global campaigns, we'll share a leadership training corp program including a master power point that will be a living document, a truly global collaborative effort by light pollution abatement advocate groups and individuals that will be inclusive and responsive to the needs of current and future leaders... so that they may take activism to the next level... and starlight to the greatest level seen in decades. We can do this if we work together.

  18. NO{sub x} Emission Abatement Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will convert Hanford Site high-level liquid defense waste to a solid vitrified (glass) form suitable for final disposal in a geological repository. Future process flow sheet developments may establish a need for a NO, scrubber in the melter off-gas system. Consequently, a technology review has been conducted to identify and compare applicable off-gas processing alternatives should NO, emission abatement be required. Denitrification processes can be separated into two distinct categories, wet or dry, depending upon whether or not NO{sub x} is absorbed into an aqueous solution. The dry methods of removal are generally more efficient (>90%) than wet scrubbing approaches (>60%); however, most dry approaches are applicable only to NO,. Of the dry removal methods, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using NH3 reductant and a hydrogen zeolite catalyst appears to be the most suitable technology for reducing HWVP NO{sub x} emissions should emission abatement be required. SCR is a relatively simple, well established technology that produces no secondary waste stream and is applicable to a wide range of NO{sub x} concentrations (500 to 30,000 ppm). This technology has been successfully applied to uranium dissolver exhaust streams and has, more recently, been tested and evaluated as the best available control technology for reducing NO, emissions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste calciner facility, and at DOE's West Valley Demonstration Project. Unlike dry NO, scrubbing methods, the wet techniques are not specific to NO{sub x}, so they may support the process in more than one way. This is the only major advantage associated with wet technologies. Their disadvantages are that they are not highly efficient at low NO{sub x} concentrations, they produce a secondary waste stream, and they may require complex chemical support to reduce equipment size. Wet scrubbing of HWVP process NO{sub x} emissions is an option that

  19. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable... licensee that can show that its signal does not directly or indirectly, cause or contribute to...

  20. A METHOD FOR COMPARING MULTICOMPONENT, MULTIMEDIA POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a comparison of the cost-effectiveness of four multicomponent, multimedia pollution abatement options: coal cleaning, limestone, limestone plus adipic acid, and coal cleaning plus limestone plus adipic acid. The comparison makes cost-effectiveness evaluations ...

  1. A Comparison of Lead Abatement Technologies at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeziorowski, Luz Y.; Calla, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Lewis participated in a pilot test of Lead Specifications. The Specifications were sponsored by the Center to Protect Worker's Rights (CPWR). Entitled "Model Specifications for the Protection of Worker's from Lead on Steel Structures", one aspect of this endeavor was to test and compare several lead abatement technologies. The project overview, objectives, team, and requirements as well as abatement methods and materials are outlined.

  2. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  3. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Meraab, J.

    1988-06-27

    This research is directed towards the development of engineering guidelines that define the application of distributed fuel addition as a technique for NOx abatement. It is expected that multiple fuel and air addition in the post-flame of a combustion process will increase free radical concentrations which destroy nitrogenous species and thus help them decay toward their equilibrium concentrations, which can be very low in that region of the combustor. Screening experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale downfired combustor. The objective was to compare NOx emissions arising from various combustion configurations, including fuel and/or air staging. Although the primary focus of this research is on NO control, a secondary effort was directed towards the measurement of N2O emissions from various coal combustion processes. N2O has been identified as a trace gas responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion, and has been hypothesized to arise from combustion processes, in amounts roughly proportional to NO emissions. Results presented in this report showed that the ratio N2O/NO was far from constant. The introduction of secondary air into a combustion process was accompanied an increase in N2O emissions. The measured N2O was always less than 10 ppm even under the most favorable combustion conditions. Reburning with premixed fuel and air mixtures was not effective in reducing NO emissions.

  4. The GABA transaminase, ABAT, is essential for mitochondrial nucleoside metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Bruni, Francesco; Donti, Taraka; Graham, Brett H.; Craigen, William J.; McFarland, Robert; Moretti, Paolo; Lalani, Seema; Scott, Kenneth L.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bonnen, Penelope E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ABAT is a key enzyme responsible for catabolism of principal inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We report an essential role for ABAT in a seemingly unrelated pathway, mitochondrial nucleoside salvage, and demonstrate that mutations in this enzyme cause an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder and mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS). We describe a family with encephalomyopathic MDS caused by a homozygous missense mutation in ABAT that results in elevated GABA in subjects’ brains as well as decreased mtDNA levels in subjects’ fibroblasts. Nucleoside rescue and co-IP experiments pinpoint that ABAT functions in the mitochondrial nucleoside salvage pathway to facilitate conversion of dNDPs to dNTPs. Pharmacological inhibition of ABAT through the irreversible inhibitor Vigabatrin caused depletion of mtDNA in photoreceptor cells that was prevented through addition of dNTPs in cell culture media. This work reveals ABAT as a connection between GABA metabolism and nucleoside metabolism and defines a neurometabolic disorder that includes MDS. PMID:25738457

  5. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  6. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E; Maunder, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  7. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  8. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  9. An estimation of the artisanal small-scale production of gold in the world.

    PubMed

    Seccatore, Jacopo; Veiga, Marcello; Origliasso, Chiara; Marin, Tatiane; De Tomi, Giorgio

    2014-10-15

    The increase in gold price of over 400% between 2002 and 2012, due to a shift towards safe investments in a period of crisis in the global economy, created a rapid increase in gold production. A response to this shift in production was observed for artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) units in remote locations of the world, but this phenomenon has not been quantified yet. The work presented here was done to provide a quantitative tool for estimation of the gold (Au) produced by ASM and the population of workers involved in the production process, and assessment of mercury (Hg) consumed. The following hypotheses were addressed: i) It is possible to estimate, on first approximation, the amount of Au production in the world by artisanal mining; ii) Au production by artisanal mining varies by country and continent and iii) Hg consumption due to ASM can be correlated with the methods applied in the different countries and continents for the production of Au. To do this we estimated the number of miners, calculated the change in Au price and production and then applied an adjustment factor to calculate Hg production by country and continent. The amount of Au produced depends on technology of the miners by continents (highest in South America, medium in Asia and Central America, and lowest in Africa), and the geologic setting (not investigated here). The results of the estimation show that, as of 2011, over 16 million Artisanal Miners, in the world, were involved in gold extraction (mining or treatment), producing between 380 and 450 t of gold per year, with clear global behavior between the continents in terms of recovery efficiency, confirmed by data on Hg release that is higher in countries with lower technology. PMID:24867677

  10. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  11. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.

    PubMed

    Guillén, M D; Palencia, G; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L

    2007-06-01

    Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese. PMID:17517711

  12. Collaborative engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2004-09-01

    A need exists for United States military forces to perform collaborative engagement operations between unmanned systems. This capability has the potential to contribute significant tactical synergy to the Joint Force operating in the battlespace of the future. Collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. Collaborative engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. This paper will address a multiphase U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC) Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL) program to assess information requirements, Joint Architecure for Unmanned Systems (JAUS), on-going Science and Technology initiatives, and conduct simulation based experiments to identify and resolve technical risks required to conduct collaborative engagements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The schedule outlines an initial effort to expand, update and exercise JAUS, provide early feedback to support user development of Concept of Operations (CONOPs) and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and develop a Multiple Unified Simulation Environment (MUSE) system with JAUS interfaces necessary to support an unmanned system of systems collaboartive engagement.

  13. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  14. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  16. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M.; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Maunder, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the “oceanic-artisanal” fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  17. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  18. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  19. Influence of Artisan Bakery- or Laboratory-Propagated Sourdoughs on the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas. PMID:22635989

  20. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  1. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  2. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.9 Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine...

  3. 23 CFR 772.9 - Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures... Analysis of traffic noise impacts and abatement measures. (a) The highway agency shall determine and..., giving weight to the benefits and cost of abatement, and to the overall social, economic...

  4. 47 CFR 22.971 - Obligation to abate unacceptable interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.971 Obligation to abate unacceptable..., causes or contributes to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90 of this chapter... or indirectly, cause or contribute to causing unacceptable interference to a non-cellular part 90...

  5. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  6. Compressor station noise-abatement: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bianucci, J.A.; Bush, R.C.; Dooher, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the noise abatement measures incorporated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company into the design of its Brannan Island Compressor Station. This two unit reciprocating compressor station is located within 100 feet of a state park and 600 feet of a camp site. Operating noise level data is presented and compared to design expectations.

  7. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION ABATEMENT ALTERNATIVES: PICILLO PROPERTY, COVENTRY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the second phase of a two-phase investigation undertaken by the MITRE Corp. to determine the nature and severity of ground and surface water contamination at the Picillo property in Coventry, Rhode Island and to make recommendations for permanent abatement o...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6656-1 - Abatement of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....6656-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6656-1 Abatement of penalty. (a) Exception for first...

  9. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPA FILTRATION UNITS AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine-the filtering efficiencies of 31 high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units in use at asbestos-abatement projects. article-removal efficiencies for these units ranged from 90.53 to > 99.99 percent. ineteen (61%) of the units tested ...

  10. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  11. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  12. PFC Abatement in Capacitevely-Coupled Plasma Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porshnev, P. I.; Alaoui, M.; Diamant, Stela; Francis, Terry; Raoux, Sebastien; Woolston, Mike

    2001-10-01

    A low-pressure plasma reactor, was developed to reduce PFC emissions of dielectric etch tools, is a point-of-use environmentally and economically sound solution. Generally, local electric fields in capacitively-coupled (CC) plasmas are higher than in inductively-coupled (IC) plasmas. As a result, electron energy distributions in CC plasmas have more pronounced high-energy part compared to the ones in IC plasmas. This is particularly important for effective breaking of the strong C-F bonds, which dissociation potentials are observably higher than the average electron energy. CC plasma in the Pegasys (Plasma Exhaust Gas Abatement SYStem) reactor was found to be in so-called g-regime, in which ionization is provided with secondary emission electrons. Though in these plasmas, the majority of electrons still reside in plasma bulk, the most important discharge characteristics, in particular, the abatement efficiency, are determined by highly-energetic electrons from sheath zones. With water being added to the incoming gas mixture, better than 95% destruction removal efficiency of the PFCs has been achieved for all dielectric etch applications. CC plasma-based abatement significantly differs from existing abatement methods, especially combustion and catalytic oxidation, which are much less environmentally friendly and economically viable.

  13. Comparison of Artisan iris-claw intraocular lens implantation and posterior chamber intraocular lens sulcus fixation for aphakic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Teng, He; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare the efficacy and complications of Artisan iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and posterior chamber IOL sulcus fixation for the treatment of aphakic eyes without capsular support after vitrectomy. METHODS A prospective study of 45 cases was conducted. Forty-five eyes without sufficient lens capsule support following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined lens extraction were divided into two groups. Group A: 25 eyes received Artisan iris-claw IOL implantation. Group B: 20 eyes received posterior chamber IOL sulcus fixation. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal endothelial cell loss rate, surgical time and complications were compared between the two groups. Pigment changes of trabecular meshwork and anterior chamber depths were measured at each time point in Artisan group. RESULTS The mean surgical time of Artisan group was significantly shorter (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference in endothelial cell loss rate was noted between two groups at any time point (P>0.05). CDVA of Artian group was better than that of the sulcus fixation group 1d after surgery (P<0.05) and there was no statistically significant difference 1 and 3mo after surgery (P>0.05). Mean IOP showed no significant differences between groups before and after surgery. The postoperative complications of Artisan group were anterior uveitis, iris depigmentation, pupillary distortion and spontaneous lens dislocation. The complications of sulcus fixation group include choroidal detachment, intraocular haemorrhage, tilt of IOL optic part and retinal detachment. CONCLUSION Secondary Artisan IOL implantation can be performed less invasively and in a shorter surgical time period with earlier visual recovery after surgery compared to transscleral suturing fixation of an IOL. This technique is an effective and safe procedure. It is a promising option for the treatment of aphakic eyes without capsular support after vitrectomy. PMID

  14. Trace elements distributions at Datoko-Shega artisanal mining site, northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Boansi, Apea Ohene; Zango, M S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental geochemistry classifies elements into essential, non-essential and toxic elements in relationship to human health. To assess the environmental impact of mining at Datoko-Shega area, the distributions and concentrations of trace elements in stream sediments and soil samples were carried out. X-ray fluorescence analytical technique was used to measure the major and trace element concentrations in sediments and modified fire assay absorption spectrometry in soils. The results showed general depletion of major elements except titanium oxide (TiO2) compared to the average crustal concentrations. The retention of TiO2 at the near surface environment probably was due to the intense tropical weathering accompanied by the removal of fine sediments and soil fractions during the harmattan season by the dry north-east trade winds and sheet wash deposits formed after flash floods. The results also showed extreme contamination of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), plus strong contaminations of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) in addition to moderate contamination of lead (Pb) in the trace element samples relative to crustal averages in the upper continental crust. However Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations tend to be high around the artisanal workings. It was recognised from the analysis of the results that the artisanal mining activity harnessed and introduces some potentially toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Pb mostly in the artisan mine sites. But the interpretation of the trace element data thus invalidates the elevation of As concentrations to be from the mine operations. It consequently noticed As values in the mine-impacted areas to be similar or sometimes lower than As values in areas outside the mine sites from the stream sediment results. PMID:25906709

  15. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  16. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  17. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  18. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Ethan; Steinberg, Daniel; Hodson, Elke; Heath, Garvin

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  19. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  20. The difficulties of abating smoke in late Victorian York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    Historical railway documents and council minutes for the city of York reveal an active interest in abating smoke. As early as the mid-nineteenth century the public became less willing to accept pollution as a necessary part of economic progress. The Sanitary Committee of the council, while diligent in the latter part of the century, seemed unable to use the Public Health Act (1875) effectively. It undertook studies of smoke control devices and their use, but could not identify a workable method of smoke control. Industry, under continual pressure from the Town Clerk's office usually took steps to control smoke emissions. However the improvements in air quality, even when control procedures were adopted by many of the city's major factories, seem disappointing. Weak laws and limited technology hampered a very clear enthusiasm to abate smoke.

  1. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  2. HUD lead-based-paint abatement demonstration (FHA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of lead on human beings, and particularly on young children, have been known for many years. Amendments to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (LPPPA) in 1987 and 1988 required the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to undertake a lead-based paint abatement demonstration program. The overall objective of the demonstration was to 'utilize a sufficient number of abatement methods in a sufficient number of areas and circumstances to demonstrate their relative cost-effectiveness...' One component of the demonstration was conducted in HUD-owned, vacant, single-family properties and was completed in the fall of 1990. A public housing component is expected to be completed in 1991. The report describes the objectives, research design, experience and findings of the completed component, which is generally known as the FHA demonstration, named after the Federal Housing Administration, which held title to the houses.

  3. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  4. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Cecilia S.M. Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E.; Satorres, Sara E.; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia del C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers’ intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  5. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Cecilia S M Lucero; Alcaráz, Lucia E; Satorres, Sara E; Manfredi, Eduardo; Velázquez, Lidia Del C

    2013-12-01

    An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products. PMID:24688505

  6. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  7. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. PMID:27500372

  9. Injuries among Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kyeremateng-Amoah, E.; Clarke, Edith E.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold miners are confronted with numerous hazards often resulting in varying degrees of injuries and fatalities. In Ghana, like many developing countries, there is paucity of information on the causes and nature of the accidents that result in the injuries. The study was a retrospective, cross sectional type that examined the records of injuries of artisanal and small-scale gold miners presented to the emergency department of a district hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana from 2006 to 2013. The causes, types, and outcomes of reported injuries were analyzed for 72 cases. Occurrences of mining accidents reported in selected Ghanaian media during the year 2007–2012 were also analyzed to corroborate the causes of the accidents. Fractures and contusions constituted the most frequently occurring injuries, with collapse of the mine pits and falls being the most frequent cause of accidents reported both by the hospital and media records. This study shows that though varied degrees of injuries occur among the miners, the potential for serious injuries is substantial. Measures to reduce the incidence of injuries and fatalities should include education and training on the use of safe working tools and means of creating a safe working environment. PMID:26404345

  10. Occurrence and genetic diversity of Arcobacter butzleri in an artisanal dairy plant in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Serraino, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the presence, distribution, and persistence of Arcobacter spp. in an artisanal dairy plant and to test the isolates to determine their different genotypes in the processing plant and in foods. Samples were collected in an artisanal cheese factory on four occasions between October and December 2012. Food samples (raw milk, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese, and conditioning liquid), water samples, and environmental samples were analyzed by the culture method; isolates were identified by multiplex PCR and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Arcobacter butzleri was isolated from 29 out of 59 samples (46.6%), 22 of which were from environmental samples and 7 of which were from food samples. Cluster analysis divided the strains into 47 PFGE patterns: 14 PFGE clusters and 33 unique types. Our findings indicate that the plant harbored numerous A. butzleri pulsotypes and that the manual cleaning and sanitation in the studied dairy plant do not effectively remove Arcobacter. The recurrent isolation of A. butzleri suggests that the environmental conditions in the dairy plant constitute a good ecological niche for the colonization of this microorganism. In some cases, the presence of indistinguishable strains isolated from the same facilities on different sampling days showed that these strains were persistent in the processing environment. PMID:23974135

  11. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  12. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

  13. Microwave plasma torch abatement of NF3 and SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup; Chun, Byung Jun; Lee, Sun Ku; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong Su

    2006-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch as a tool for fluorinated compounds (FCs) abatement was presented. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Swirl gas, compressed air for stable plasma, was tangentially injected into the microwave plasma torch and a mixture of N2, NF3, or SF6, and C2H4 was axially injected. The DRE of 99.1% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the total flow rate of 50.1 liters per minute (lpm) by applying a microwave power of 1.4kW. Also, a DRE of SF6 up to 90.1% was obtained at the total flow rate of 40.6lpm using an applied microwave power of 1.4kW. Experimental results indicate that the microwave plasma abatement device can successfully eliminate FCs in the semiconductor industry.

  14. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  15. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  16. The Utilisation of Skilled Artisans as Vocational Instructors in Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whawo, D. Duwovwiji

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the feasibility of hiring skilled craftspeople to teach practical workshop skills in secondary-level prevocational courses in Nigeria. Presents results of a survey of 200 artisans to determine their willingness to teach full- or part-time and minimum salary requirements. Indicates that 85.6% were willing to teach. Discusses…

  17. The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however, women participate in the extraction process itself. Women were found to participate in the extraction of ore only when a deposit had a thin overburden layer, thus rendering the mineralized ore more accessible. When deposits required a significant degree of manual labour to access the ore due to thick overburden layers, women were typically relegated to other roles. The identification of this link encourages the establishment of an alternative research avenue in which the physical and social sciences merge to better inform policymakers, so that the most appropriate artisanal mining assistance programs can be developed and implemented.

  18. Development of Pupils' Transfer Skills by Means of Hands On Activities with Artisan Materials in Natural Sciences Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chicinas, Luminita

    2008-01-01

    Hands on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strength of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical…

  19. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  20. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  1. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  2. Language Teacher Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of language teacher research engagement. The term "research engagement" here covers both engagement IN teacher research (i.e. by doing it) as well as engagement "with" research (i.e. by reading and using it). Research engagement is commonly recommended to language teachers as a potentially…

  3. The public health relevance of air pollution abatement.

    PubMed

    Künzli, N

    2002-07-01

    Assuming a causal relationship between current levels of air pollution and morbidity/mortality, it is crucial to estimate the public health relevance of the problem. The derivation of air pollution attributable cases faces inherent uncertainties and requires influential assumptions. Based on the results of the trinational impact assessment study of Austria, France, and Switzerland, where prudent estimates of the air pollution attributable cases (mortality, chronic bronchitis incidence, hospital admissions, acute bronchitis among children, restricted activity days, asthma attacks) have been made, influential uncertainties are quantified in this review. The public health impact of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and air pollution on the prevalence of chronic cough/phlegm are outlined. Despite all methodological caveats, impact assessment studies clearly suggest that public health largely benefits from better air quality. The studies are selective underestimates as they are strongly driven by mortality, but do not include full quantification of the impact on morbidity and their consequences on quality of life among the diseased and the caregivers. Air pollution abatement strategies are usually political in nature, targeting at polities, regulation and technology in mobile or stationary sources rather than at individuals. It is of note that key clean air strategies converge into abatement of climate change. In general, energy consumption is very closely related to both air pollution and greenhouse gases. The dominant causes of both problems are the excessive and inefficient combustion of fossil fuel. Thus, for many policy options, the benefit of air pollution abatement will go far beyond what prudent health-impact assessments may derive. From a climate change and air pollution perspective, improved energy efficiency and a strong and decisive departure from the "fossil fuel" combustion society is a science-based must. Health professionals must raise their voices

  4. A Molecular Artisans Guide to Supramolecular Coordination Complexes and Metal Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xialu; Young, David J.; Hor, T. S. Andy

    2015-10-01

    As molecular synthesis advances, we are beginning to learn control of not only the chemical reactivity (and function) of molecules, but also of their interactions with other molecules. It is this basic idea that has led to the current explosion of supramolecular science and engineering. Parallel to this development, chemists have been actively pursuing the design of very large molecules using basic molecular building blocks. Herein, we review the general development of supramolecular chemistry and particularly of two new branches: supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These two fields are discussed in detail with typical examples to illustrate what is now possible and what challenges lie ahead for tomorrow's molecular artisans.

  5. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities in Poro cheese, an artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Aldrete-Tapia, Alejandro; Escobar-Ramírez, Meyli C; Tamplin, Mark L; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and structure of Poro cheese, an artisanal food, was analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) in order to gain insight about changes in bacterial communities associated with the cheese-making process. Dairy samples consisting of milk, fermented whey, curd and ripened cheese (during 7 and 60 d) were collected from three manufacturers located in the state of Tabasco, México during dry (March-June) and rainy (August-November) seasons. Independently of producer and season, raw milk samples displayed the highest diversity in bacterial communities. In raw milk, genera found were Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enhydrobacter. Diversity in whey, curd and cheese was lower, principally containing Streptococcus and Lactobacillus; however, bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were occasionally present. After curdling step, the most dominant and abundant species were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. PMID:25084655

  6. Heavenly Networks. Celestial Maps and Globes in Circulation between Artisans, Mathematicians, and Noblemen in Renaissance Europe.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the iconography on a set of star charts by Albrecht Dürer (1515), and celestial globes by Caspar Vopel (1536) and Christoph Schissler (1575). The iconography on these instruments is conditioned by strong traditions which include not only the imagery on globes and planispheres (star charts), but also ancient literature about the constellations. Where this iconography departs from those traditions, the change had to do with humanism in the sixteenth century. This "humanistic" dimension is interwoven with other concerns that involve both "social" and "technical" motivations. The interplay of these three dimensions illustrates how the iconography on celestial charts and globes expresses some features of the shared knowledge and shared culture between artisans, mathematicians, and nobles in Renaissance Europe. PMID:26495585

  7. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately. PMID:25561061

  8. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish. PMID:26691086

  9. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

  10. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination.

    PubMed

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahualá, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as "possibly carcinogenic" and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  11. Emissions and environmental implications of mercury from artisanal gold mining in North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Limbong, Daniel; Kumampung, Jeims; Rimper, Joice; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-20

    In artisanal gold mining practiced in North Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, gold is separated from ore by the use of mercury, which forms an amalgam with gold. All related processes are undertaken with a low level of technical knowledge and skills, no regulation, and with disregard for the safety of human and environment health. The situation is generating serious potential health and environmental risks in the area. As part of an ongoing monitoring program, total mercury concentrations were examined in water, bottom sediment and fish samples from three main rivers in Talawaan Watershed, which receives drainage from gold mining practices. Monitoring began in May-June 2000, almost 2 years after artisanal gold mining had begun. At that time, the mercury concentration in the sediment was generally low, except in places close to the gold processing plants. In the present study, a more systematic sampling and analysis was conducted in May-June 2001. Bottom surface sediments, water, and fish samples were collected at 12 sites along the three main rivers in the watershed. In addition, one site outside the watershed was sampled to serve as a control. Sample collections were conducted in three phases in duplicate, with two-week intervals between each phase. The mercury concentration observed in this study indicated that an increase took place along the three main rivers in the watershed. Solutions to this problem must be formulated as soon as possible in order to avoid a major health, economic, and ecological disaster arising from the continuing discharge of Hg. The present study proposes that mercury dispersion occur downstream of the mining. PMID:12526911

  12. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  13. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  14. Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338μgm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres. PMID:23541941

  15. Abatement of methane emissions from landfills -- the German way

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, G.; Kalb, H.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills are a major source of methane. Methane is generated by biological degradation of native organic matter under anaerobic conditions. In Germany one quarter to one third of the total methane emissions into the air originate from landfills for municipal wastes. These emissions amounts to 1.2--1.9 million metric tons annually. Landfills represent the second most important methane source. For stock farming the technical opportunities to reduce methane emissions are limited. Therefore, environmental policy aiming to abate methane emissions focuses on waste management. In Germany the most effective policy instrument for this task is the Third Administrative Provision to the waste framework law. This provision came into operation in 1993 and requires that waste disposed in landfills must be inert. Beginning in the year 2005 the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the waste will be limited to 1--3%. This limit requires a pretreatment of municipal waste, and among the currently available technology options only an incineration is able to fulfill the stipulated criteria. Methane abatement will be further regulated by the new waste law, Cycle Economy and Waste Law.

  16. Introduction to the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a long-term biological monitoring program and the Environmental Management special issue titled Long-term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management. The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, or BMAP, was implemented to assess biological impairment downstream of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, beginning in 1985. Several of the unique aspects of the program include its long-term consistent sampling, a focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific facility abatement and remedial actions, and the use of quantitative sampling protocols using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper describes the need and importance of long-term watershed-based biological monitoring strategies, in particular for addressing long-term stewardship goals at DOE sites, and provides a summary of the BMAP's objectives, spatial and temporal extent, and overall focus. The primary components of the biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee are introduced, as are the additional 9 papers in this Environmental Management special issue.

  17. Styrene emission abatement in a bathtub manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Niezgodski, D.M.

    1997-12-31

    EPA is moving forward on promulgating the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP-MACT) for the Reinforced Plastics/Composites Source Category which affects styrene emitters like the American Standard plant. While most composites manufacturers are taking a wait and see approach, American Standard realized the need to move foreward with the controls. Styrene has a reputation of being a difficult VOC to abate. Most adsorption technologies shy away from this monomer due to reactions that cause fires. Weatherly refined their treatment of styrene emissions with experience from installations at similar plants in Europe. Weatherly installed a 35,000 scfm concentrator/oxidation Polyad{trademark} system in 1996 at American Standard`s bathtub manufacturing plant in Salem, Ohio. The styrene emissions are captured in the spray booth exhaust and discharged to the Polyad{trademark} system. The system is achieving 93% removal efficiency on the styrene emissions. This paper will describe the Weatherly Polyad{trademark} VOC abatement system at American Standard`s Salem Ohio plant.

  18. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25588032

  19. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  2. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement...

  3. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  4. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  5. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  6. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  7. 29 CFR 4208.9 - Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. 4208.9... Plan adoption of additional abatement conditions. (a) General rule. A plan may by amendment, subject to... actuarial valuation report of the plan. (5) A statement certifying that notice of the adoption of...

  8. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed...

  9. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed...

  10. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a...

  11. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a...

  12. URBAN SOIL LEAD ABATEMENT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT: VOLUME I, U.S. EPA INTEGRATED REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Soil Lead Abatement Demonstration Project (USLADP), known also as the A Three City Lead Study,was authorized in 1986 under Section 111(b)(6) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), which mandated that EPA conduct soil lead abatement projects in up to...

  13. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  14. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  15. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  16. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  17. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration). PMID:26287831

  18. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality

    PubMed Central

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R., Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats’ milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:20229357

  19. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Verstraete, Tine; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-10-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to study the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses. In parallel, conventional culturing was performed. Isolates were identified using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and pheS genes. Discriminant analysis revealed some differences in overall LAB diversity between the two batches and between the two cheeses. Within each batch, the diversity of 8- and 12-week-old cheeses was relatively similar. Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of three species of which no isolates were recovered, i.e. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus gallinarum. Conversely, not all isolated bacteria were detected by PCR-DGGE. We recommend the integrated use of culture-dependent and -independent approaches to maximally encompass the taxonomic spectrum of LAB occurring in Gouda-type and other cheeses. PMID:18721684

  20. Effects of the Jessica oil spill on artisanal fisheries in the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    Born, Abraham F; Espinoza, Eduardo; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Nicolaides, Francis; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to local perceptions, the impact on the local Galápagos artisanal fishery of the 16 January 2001 grounding of the Jessica and subsequent oil spill was relatively minor. No significant changes in fishing effort, total fishing catches or catch-per-unit effort were detected after the spill based on analyses of fisheries monitoring data. Nevertheless, large boats tended to move away from sites near the path of the spill following the grounding in 2001, with no fishing recorded from the oil-affected regions of Floreana and southern Isabela in February 2001. The total fishing effort of small boats operating from the Jessica-grounding island of San Cristóbal also declined immediately after the spill, probably in part because such boats were used in clean up operations. During 2001, prices paid to fishers remained stable at levels higher than in 2000, with the notable anomaly that prices fell precipitously to 30% of previous levels during a 1-2 week period in early February 2001. Fish exports remained at similar levels for the years 2000 and 2001; however, as in the previous year, little fish product was exported from Galápagos in the month following the spill, with most fish product dried and stored for up to two months prior to transport to the continent. PMID:12810096

  1. A preliminary survey of the artisanal fishery on coral reefs of the Tulear Region (southwest Madagascar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, J.; Ramananarivo, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fish catches from the coral reefs of the Tulear region (southwest Madagascar), are analyzed based on fish landings. This region of the island consists of two barrier reefs, two coral banks, three lagoon reefs and a fringing reef. The total reef area studied was 190 km2. Of the whole fishing area, the reef flat was the most frequently used by fishermen. Line catches per unit effort (CPUE) were stable throughout the eight month sampling period (6 to 8 kg/trip to sea), whereas gillnet and seine catches showed differences between the cold period and the warm period. These results appear to be representative of the artisanal fishery catches in the southwest Indian Ocean. Annual fish yield was estimated at 12 t km-2 yr-1. Comparable yields have been recorded in certain regions of the Indo-Pacific, that have similar ratios of coral reef area to adjacent shallows and similar fishing practices. Reef species (Lethrinidae, Siganidae) dominated the catches. At present, coastal waters of the Tulear region are heavily fished, and the fishermen report a progressive decrease in the average size of fish caught over the last 15 years. Management measures are suggested, based on preliminary findings.

  2. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    PubMed Central

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  3. Diving behavior and fishing performance: the case of lobster artisanal fishermen of the Yucatan coast, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Huchim-Lara, Oswaldo; Salas, Silvia; Chin, Walter; Montero, Jorge; Fraga, Julia

    2015-01-01

    An average of 209 cases of decompression sickness (DCS) have been reported every year among artisanal fishermen. divers of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. DCS is a major problem among fishermen divers worldwide. This paper explores how diving behavior and fishing techniques among fishermen relate to the probability of experiencing DCS (Pdcs). Fieldwork was conducted in two communities during the 2012-2013 fishing season. Fishermen were classified into three groups (two per group) according to their fishing performance and followed during their journeys. Dive profiles were recorded using Sensus Ultra dive recorders (Reefet Inc.). Surveys were used to record fishing yields from cooperative and individual fishermen along with fishing techniques and dive behavior. 120 dives were recorded. Fishermen averaged three dives/day, with an average depth of 47 ± 2 feet of sea water (fsw) and an average total bottom time (TBT) of 95 ± 11 minutes. 24% of dives exceeded the 2008 U.S. Navy no-decompression limit. The average ascent rate was 20 fsw/minute, and 5% of those exceeded 40 fsw/minute. Inadequate decompression was observed in all fishermen. Fishermen are diving outside the safety limits of both military and recreational standards. Fishing techniques and dive behavior were important factors in Pdcs. Fishermen were reluctant to seek treatment, and symptoms were relieved with analgesics. PMID:26403014

  4. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z.; Castro, Marcela P.; Cayré, María E.; Garro, Oscar A.; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages. PMID:26955636

  5. Sand dredging and environmental efficiency of artisanal fishermen in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, Fatai A; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Agbola, Peter O; Atewamba, Calvin

    2016-03-01

    Environmentally detrimental input (water turbidity) and conventional production inputs were considered within the framework of stochastic frontier analysis to estimate technical and environmental efficiencies of fishermen in sand dredging and non-dredging areas. Environmental efficiency was low among fishermen in the sand dredging areas. Educational status and experience in fishing and sand dredging were the factors influencing environmental efficiency in the sand dredging areas. Average quantity of fish caught per labour- hour was higher among fishermen in the non-dredging areas. Fishermen in the fishing community around the dredging areas travelled long distance in order to reduce the negative effect of sand dredging on their fishing activity. The study affirmed large household size among fishermen. The need to regulate the activities of sand dredgers by restricting license for sand dredging to non-fishing communities as well as intensifying family planning campaign in fishing communities to reduce the negative effect of high household size on fishing is imperative for the sustainability of artisanal fishing. PMID:26896967

  6. Selection of a suitable plant for phytoremediation in mining artisanal zones.

    PubMed

    Chamba, I; Gazquez, M J; Selvaraj, T; Calva, J; Toledo, J J; Armijos, C

    2016-09-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim of identifying a suitable plant for the phytoremediation of metal-polluted soil from an artisanal mining area in Ecuador. Three zones including a natural zone (NZ), abandoned zone (AZ) and intensively mined zone (IZ) were selected. Three common native plants grown in the three zones were identified and collected, including Miconia zamorensis, Axonopus compressus and Erato polymnioides. The percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization that benefits their own survival in polluted soil was analyzed in the root samples of these candidate species. Analysis of the soils and plants collected from the different zones showed that the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd were comparatively lower in the NZ, higher in the AZ and IZ, and highest in the AZ for all the metals. The concentration of all these metals in plant tissues was the highest in E. polymnioides. The data analysis including the metal accumulation index, bioconcentration factor and translocation factor strongly identified E. polymnioides as a hyperaccumulator plant suitable for phytoremediation. PMID:26940037

  7. Facility-Specific “House” Microbiome Drives Microbial Landscapes of Artisan Cheesemaking Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Cheese fermentations involve the growth of complex microbial consortia, which often originate in the processing environment and drive the development of regional product qualities. However, the microbial milieus of cheesemaking facilities are largely unexplored and the true nature of the fermentation-facility relationship remains nebulous. Thus, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate the microbial ecosystems of two artisanal cheesemaking plants, with the goal of elucidating how the processing environment influences microbial community assemblages. Results demonstrate that fermentation-associated microbes dominated most surfaces, primarily Debaryomyces and Lactococcus, indicating that establishment of these organisms on processing surfaces may play an important role in microbial transfer, beneficially directing the course of sequential fermentations. Environmental organisms detected in processing environments dominated the surface microbiota of washed-rind cheeses maturing in both facilities, demonstrating the importance of the processing environment for populating cheese microbial communities, even in inoculated cheeses. Spatial diversification within both facilities reflects the functional adaptations of microbial communities inhabiting different surfaces and the existence of facility-specific “house” microbiota, which may play a role in shaping site-specific product characteristics. PMID:23793641

  8. Facility-specific "house" microbiome drives microbial landscapes of artisan cheesemaking plants.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mills, David A

    2013-09-01

    Cheese fermentations involve the growth of complex microbial consortia, which often originate in the processing environment and drive the development of regional product qualities. However, the microbial milieus of cheesemaking facilities are largely unexplored and the true nature of the fermentation-facility relationship remains nebulous. Thus, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate the microbial ecosystems of two artisanal cheesemaking plants, with the goal of elucidating how the processing environment influences microbial community assemblages. Results demonstrate that fermentation-associated microbes dominated most surfaces, primarily Debaryomyces and Lactococcus, indicating that establishment of these organisms on processing surfaces may play an important role in microbial transfer, beneficially directing the course of sequential fermentations. Environmental organisms detected in processing environments dominated the surface microbiota of washed-rind cheeses maturing in both facilities, demonstrating the importance of the processing environment for populating cheese microbial communities, even in inoculated cheeses. Spatial diversification within both facilities reflects the functional adaptations of microbial communities inhabiting different surfaces and the existence of facility-specific "house" microbiota, which may play a role in shaping site-specific product characteristics. PMID:23793641

  9. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  10. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls. PMID:25897484

  11. Ethnoecological knowledge of the artisan fishermen of octopi in the community of Coroa Vermelha.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviane S; Schiavetti, Alexandre; Souto, Francisco J B

    2011-06-01

    Coral reefs are quite diverse ecosystems that carry out several ecological functions and plays a relevant socioeconomic role. The artisan fishing of octopi (Octopus spp.) is practiced for the survival of part of the inhabitants of Coroa Vermelha community, in the south of the state of Bahia. We intended to study the knowledge of the octopi fishermen of Coroa Vermelha using the comprehensive ethnoecological proposal of Marques. The data were collected between July, 2006 and April, 2008 through direct observation and from interviews with fishermen met by chance and through the "native specialists" criterion. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out following an itinerary of pre-established questions about the activity of octopi capture, and the biological and ecological aspects of the resource. The data showed that the fishermen have knowledge about biological and ecological aspects of the octopi. Two capture techniques are used: octopus fishing (polvejamento) in the reefs and through diving. Two specific folk are recognized: the "normal octopus" (Octopus insularis) and the "east octopus" (Octopus macropus (?)). The intervieews demonstrated ecological knowledge sometimes compatible with the scientific literature, mainly in which concerns the trophic ecology and behavior of the octopi. PMID:21670875

  12. The Artisanal Production of Pulque, a Traditional Beverage of the Mexican Highlands.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Bravo-Villa, Griselda; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Velasco-Almendarez, Sandra I; Montville, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Pulque is a traditional fermented alcoholic, acidic, viscous drink of the Mexican central highlands. Its production from the "aguamiel" (sap) of agave plants dates back ~1,500 years and continues to be made by artisanal methods. However, the variability of pulque's quality and its instability hamper its widespread distribution and consumption. Microbiological surveys of pulque from three ranches revealed tremendous variability in the types and quantity of the indigenous microbiota. The population of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 6 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(11) CFU/mL. This variability might be attributed to the conditions on the ranches where the pulque was made. In an attempt to identify these sources of variability, the microbial populations of aguamiel and pulque from a single agave plant were determined. Surprisingly, the population size of the "unfermented" aguamiel and the pulque converged by the end of 3 weeks. The potential use of bacteriocinogenic LAB and known starter cultures to improve pulque properties are discussed. PMID:26781856

  13. Soil lead abatement and children's blood lead levels in an urban setting.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, K P; Brophy, M C; Chisolm, J J; Rohde, C A; Strauss, W J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effect of abating soil lead was assessed among Baltimore children. The hypothesis was that a reduction of 1000 parts per million would reduce children's blood lead levels by 0.14 to 0.29 mumol/L (3-6 micrograms/dL). METHODS: In 2 neighborhoods (study and control), 187 children completed the protocol. In the study area, contaminated soil was replaced with clean soil. RESULTS: Soil lead abatement in this study did not lower children's blood lead. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not show an effect in this study, soil lead abatement may be useful in certain areas. PMID:9842383

  14. A Dialogue for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Student engagement is perhaps the key element for almost any learning context. When engaged, learners are enthusiastic and excited about the subject. Their work is informed by the enjoyment of discovery. Engaged learners work willingly, instead of by coercion, and approach their assignments as something that matters to them personally. The spirit…

  15. Engaging Your Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Teachers love to see the spark of engagement when students eagerly engage in learning. But when teachers work with English language learners in the earliest stages of language acquisition, they're often unsure how to foster challenge and engagement with students who know such sparse English. Hill shares six key do's and don'ts for classroom…

  16. Improving Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim; Taylor, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement to discover curricular and pedagogical ideas educators might successfully use to better engage student learning. Student engagement has historically focused upon increasing achievement, positive behaviors, and a sense of belonging to help students remain in school. The…

  17. Measuring Pupil Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This paper advocates categorization of engagement on the basis of a logical relationship with the outcomes of a study and the use of student attributes that are logically related to engagement and/or achievement as covariables. Results from a study involving nine engagement categories, measures of formal reasoning ability, locus of control and…

  18. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  19. Engaging Scholarship with Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Guillermina Gina

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogy of engagement links faculty and students to the needs of local communities while promoting academic success through higher retention and graduation rates in higher education. This work describes engaged scholarship and shares guidelines for documenting student engagement and critical reflection across the higher education curriculum.…

  20. Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Michaela J; Dripps, Weston R; Blomquist, Kerstin K

    2016-10-01

    The alternative food network (AFN) refers to connections between consumers, producers, and sellers of organic, local/regional, "sustainably grown," and other artisanal and niche food not produced by the conventional system (Goodman & Goodman, 2007). Alternative foods are often viewed as the "right" consumption choice while conventional counterparts are positioned as ethically "wrong." A moral positioning of food, avoidance of certain food groups, and anxiety elicited by food consumption choices bears similarities to disordered eating behaviors (Hesse-Biber, Leavy, Quinn, & Zoino, 2006), including a newly proposed eating syndrome, orthorexia nervosa (ON; Vandereycken, 2011; Zamora, Bonaechea, Sánchez, & Rial, 2005). This study examines the relationship among engagement in the AFN, disordered eating behaviors, and special diets. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AFN engagement would be more likely report disordered eating behaviors as well as to follow a special diet. Adult men and women (N = 284) completed a series of measures assessing engagement in the AFN and eating behaviors. We found that individuals with higher AFN engagement were more likely to report ON tendencies but not significantly likely to engage in other disordered eating behaviors. Individuals following a special diet were significantly more engaged in the AFN, more likely to report ON tendencies, and more likely to self-report an eating disorder. Our findings suggest that the most engaged consumers participate in the AFN for the purported benefits reaped by society and the environment and not to moderate their consumption or mask disordered eating behaviors. Future research should prospectively explore associations between AFN engagement, ON and disordered eating behaviors, and special diets as well as consider the utility of incorporating AFN engagement into existing disordered eating prevention programs. PMID:27397727

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF AIR FILTRATION SYSTEMS IN USE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES: RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration systems serve as the principal engineering control to remove asbestos particulate from airstreams at abatement projects. owever, little quantitative information is available on the integrity of these air filtration systems in prev...

  2. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  3. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  4. Optimized combinations of abatement strategies for urban mobile sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Lin, Y C; Chang, L F

    2000-08-01

    The maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale was chosen as a practical index for quantifying ozone-forming impacts. The integer linear and nonlinear programming techniques were employed as the optimization method to maximize MIR and volatile organic compound (VOC) reductions, and minimize ozone's marginal cost with varied control costs. Mobile vehicles were divided into nine categories according to the demands of decision makers and the distinctive features of local circumstance in metro-Taipei. The emission factor (EF) and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) of each kind of vehicle were estimated by MOBILE5B model via native parameters and questionnaires. Compressed natural gas (CNG) and inspection and maintenance (I/M) were the alternative control programs for buses and touring buses; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), I/M, methanol, electrical vehicle (EV) were for taxis and low duty gasoline vehicles. EV, methanol, and I/M were the possible control methods for two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles; I/M programs for low-duty diesel trucks, heavy-duty diesel trucks, and low-duty gasoline trucks. The results include the emission ratios of specific vehicle to all vehicles, the best combination of abated measures based on different objectives, and the marginal cost for ozone and VOC with varied control costs. PMID:11057602

  5. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23350

  6. Identification of root cause and abatement of vibration of monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J. A.

    1998-01-13

    Silicon crystal mirrors are used to reflect high-intensity X-ray beams. A large amount of heat is generated in each mirror. To minimize the effect of thermal expansion on the crystal mirrors, heat is removed by pumping liquid gallium (with a boiling point of 29.8 C) through passages in the crystal mirrors. During system operation, mirror motion should be kept to an acceptable level to avoid performance degradation. There are many potential sources of excitation to the crystal assembly; one such source is the flowing gallium. Two series of tests were performed earlier for a near-prototypical gallium cooling system (1-2). This paper describes a series of tests to measure the general vibration response characteristics of critical components in the monochromator system that contains the mirrors. The main objective of this work is to identify the root cause of vibration and to recommend general guidelines for abatement of vibration. This is achieved by performing many tests to understand the response characteristics under various conditions, by analysis of the response data, and by use of some theoretical considerations.

  7. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  8. Yale FICSIT: risk factor abatement strategy for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, M E; Baker, D I; Garrett, P A; Gottschalk, M; Koch, M L; Horwitz, R I

    1993-03-01

    Based on finding a strong association between number of impairments and risk of falling in earlier studies, Yale FICSIT investigators are conducting an intervention trial comparing the effectiveness of usual care plus social visits (SV) and a targeted risk abatement intervention (TI) strategy in reducing falls among at risk community elderly persons. Subjects include members of a participating HMO who are > or = 70 years of age, cognitively intact, not terminally ill, not too physically active, and possess at least one fall risk factor. The targeted risk factors include postural hypotension; sedative use; at least four targeted medications; upper and lower extremity strength and range of motion impairments; foot problems; and balance, gait, and transfer dysfunctions. The interventions include medication adjustments, behavioral change recommendations, education and training, and home-based exercise regimens targeting the identified risk factors. The interventions are carried out by the study nurse practitioner and physical therapist in TI subjects' homes. The SV subjects receive a comparable number of home visits as the TI subjects during which a structured life review is performed by social work students. The primary outcome is occurrence of falls during the 12-month followup. Secondary outcomes include change in mobility performance and fall-related efficacy. PMID:8440856

  9. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  10. Abatement of malodorants from pesticide factory in dielectric barrier discharges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiantao; Pan, Hua; Su, Qingfa; Liu, Yamin; Shi, Yao

    2010-05-15

    Traditional odor control methods are limitative technically and economically for the abatement of odor from pesticide factory due to its toxicity and complicated composition. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) methods, typically characterized by high removal efficiency, energy yields and good economy, offer possible alternative solutions. This paper provides laboratory scale experimental data on the removal of simulated odors from pesticide factory with various humidity (0-0.8 vol%) and oxygen contents (0-21%) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Peak voltage and initial dimethylamine (DML) concentration are important factors that influence the DML removal efficiency and energy yield. The conversion of DML of 761 mg/m(3) reaches 100% at a peak voltage of 41.25 kV. Under the experiment conditions, the conversion of DML increases with an increase of oxygen contents. And the highest DML conversion was achieved with the gas stream containing 0.3% water. Simultaneously, the concentration of O(3) and OH radical in reactor was measured. Higher conversion, higher energy yield and fewer byproducts were found in mixed odor (DML+dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) treatment than that in single odor treatment. The energy yield is promoted from 2.13 to 5.20mg/kJ. PMID:20116170

  11. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  12. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  13. Short communication: Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus survival and growth in artisanal and industrial ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, F; Losio, M N; Daminelli, P; Cosciani-Cunico, E; Dalzini, E; Serraino, A

    2015-10-01

    Ricotta cheese is a ready-to-eat product with properties (pH >6.0, aw >0.98-0.99) and moisture content (75-80%) that may pose a risk to public health due to postprocess contamination by several bacterial pathogens, including Arcobacters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ricotta cheese during its shelf life assuming postprocessing contamination. Two types of ricotta cheese, artisanal water buffalo (WB) and industrial cow milk ricotta cheese, were experimentally contaminated with A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus and the count was monitored at 2 different temperatures (6°C and 12°C) during shelf life of 5 d for WB cheese and 22 d for industrial ricotta cheese. In WB ricotta cheese the A. butzleri count remained stable during the 5 d of storage at 6°C, whereas a moderate but significant decrease was observed in A. cryaerophilus count. The counts of both species increased when WB ricotta cheese was stored at 12°C. In industrial ricotta cheese stored at 6°C, a significant reduction was observed both in A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts during the 22-d storage period; at 12°C storage, a count increase was observed for both Arcobacter species up to d 14 of storage after which the log cfu/g count resulted constant until d 22 of storage. The ability of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus to survive at 6°C and to grow at 12°C in ricotta cheese has significant food safety implications. PMID:26233450

  14. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. PMID:25577694

  15. Local Ecological Knowledge and Scientific Data Reveal Overexploitation by Multigear Artisanal Fisheries in the Southwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Mariana G.; Machado, Gustavo R.; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R.; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J.; Ferreira, Carlos E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches – combining anecdotal and scientific data – as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness. PMID:25333661

  16. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bender, Mariana G; Machado, Gustavo R; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J; Ferreira, Carlos E L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness. PMID:25333661

  17. Short term impact of artisanal dredges in a Patagonian mussel fishery: Comparisons with commercial diving and control sites.

    PubMed

    Narvarte, Maite; González, Raúl; Medina, Alonso; Avaca, María Soledad; Ginsberg, Susana; Aliotta, Salvador

    2012-02-01

    Mussels in the San Matías Gulf fishery are targeted using artisanal dredges and diving. The main objective of this study was to assess the direct impact of artisanal dredging on the biota and sediments, and to compare the composition of the catches and the individual damage induced by fishing between dredging and commercial diving. The experimental design included samplings from dredge catches, dredge tracks, control sites and commercial diving. According to their damage level, individuals were scored as undamaged, lightly damaged and severely damaged. Sediment characteristics were analyzed using coring samples and traps. Damage of mussels, mostly corresponding to the severely damaged category, was less than 5% both in samples from dredging and diving. Conversely, mean damage of the main bycatch species (sea urchins and ophiuroids) was 75 and 65% in samples from dredging and diving respectively, being most of the individuals lightly damaged. Considering also the catch sample composition of both fishing methods, dredging affected relatively more individuals than diving. Although sediment removal in dredged areas was three times higher than that in non-dredged ones, mean grain size and gravel percentage of sea floor sediments showed subtle differences between them. PMID:22119540

  18. ‘By Merit Raised to That Bad Eminence’: Christopher Merrett, Artisanal Knowledge, and Professional Reform in Restoration London

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the career and reform agenda of Christopher Merrett as a means of evaluating the changing conditions of medical knowledge production in late seventeenth-century London. This period was characterised by increasing competition between medical practitioners, resulting from the growing consumer demand for medical commodities and services, the reduced ability of elite physicians to control medical practice, and the appearance of alternative methods of producing medical knowledge – particularly experimental methods. This competition resulted in heated exchanges between physicians, apothecaries, and virtuosi, in which Merrett played an active part. As a prominent member of both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, Merrett sought to mediate between the two institutions by introducing professional reforms designed to alleviate competition and improve medical knowledge.These reforms entailed sweeping changes to medical regulation and education that integrated the traditional reliance on Galenic principles with knowledge derived from experiment and artisanal practices. The emphasis Merrett placed on the trades suggests the important role artisanal knowledge played in his efforts to reorganise medicine and improve knowledge of bodily processes. PMID:23752982

  19. [Fishery and biology of Rhinobatospercellens (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae) caught by the artisanal fishery at La Pared beach, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, Alejandro; Rago, Néstor; Rangel, Maria Salomé

    2013-03-01

    R. percellens is incidentally caught in Venezuela by the artisanal fishery using bottom gillnets. This species was classified by the IUCN as being "near threatened", and there is poor knowledge about its biology and fishery in Venezuela. For this reason, we analyzed the specimens caught by the artisanal fleet in playa La Pared, once a week, from January to December 2007. We determined total length, sex and maturity for each captured specimen. A total of 210 specimens were analyzed, 159 females and 51 males. The 81% of all specimens caught were adults, but within this group 27% were pregnant. The average size of sexual maturity was found between 51 and 52cm for females and males, respectively. Adult females were found all year round, and pregnant females in seven of the months sampled; highest numbers were found between February-March and September. The analyzed females had a total of 96 embryos with a size range between 2 and 19cm, with a maximum fertility of four embryos per litter. February and June-July showed the maximum breeding time, and considering the broad range of embryos sizes and the frequency of pregnant females along the different months, allow us to believe that they reproduce throughout the year. Fishing regulation including minimum catch size in relation to maturity length and release of pregnant females in water is recommended. PMID:23894969

  20. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Hoeinghaus, David J; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C; Pelicice, Fernando M; Okada, Edson K; Latini, João D; Kashiwaqui, Elaine A L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2009-10-01

    Applying the ecosystem services concept to conservation initiatives or in managing ecosystem services requires understanding how environmental impacts affect the ecology of key species or functional groups providing the services. We examined effects of river impoundments, one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, on an important ecosystem service provided by large tropical rivers (i.e., artisanal fisheries). The societal and economic importance of this ecosystem service in developing countries may provide leverage to advance conservation agendas where future impoundments are being considered. We assessed impoundment effects on the energetic costs of fisheries production (embodied energy) and commercial market value of the artisanal fishery of the Paraná River, Brazil, before and after formation of Itaipu Reservoir. High-value migratory species that dominated the fishery before the impoundment was built constituted a minor component of the contemporary fishery that is based heavily on reservoir-adapted introduced species. Cascading effects of river impoundment resulted in a mismatch between embodied energy and market value: energetic costs of fisheries production increased, whereas market value decreased. This was partially attributable to changes in species functional composition but also strongly linked to species identities that affected market value as a result of consumer preferences even when species were functionally similar. Similar trends are expected in other large tropical rivers following impoundment. In addition to identifying consequences of a common anthropogenic impact on an important ecosystem service, our assessment provides insight into the sustainability of fisheries production in tropical rivers and priorities for regional biodiversity conservation. PMID:19459891

  1. Cost effectiveness of abatement options for emissions control in Egyptian iron foundries

    SciTech Connect

    Rabah, M.A. . Industrial Wastes Lab.)

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on an evaluation of the cost effectiveness of abatement options for controlling emissions in existing iron foundries in Egypt. It is expected that such a study will enable decision by identifying concrete measures for abating total solid emissions (TSP). The structure of iron foundries in the country have been surveyed and the variant types of furnaces, the TSP emission level without any abatement options and data of the annual turnover of these foundries have been obtained. Possible market based instruments (MBI) options that might encourage these firms to seek the most efficient control measures have also been examined. Different abatement options such as updating burner design, switching heavy fuel oil to kerosene or natural gas, installing cleaning systems and/or updating the process technology were tested in terms of emission level and the overall turnover. The effect of installing different cleaning systems such as wet scrubbers and filter bags on the running cost of abating TSP was also investigated. Results obtained reveal that crucible (CrF) and short rotary (SRF) furnaces are the most numerous types of plants in Egypt. The concentration of TSP emissions exceeds the standards as specified in Law. Poor quality scrap input adversely affects the operation of the furnace, and impairs product quality and causes excessive TSP emissions. TSP emissions per ton of cast iron produced are relatively low for induction furnaces (EIFs), and very high in the dirtier technologies, particularly CrF and SRF. Cost analysis shows that the cost of abating one ton of TSP emitted amounts to 3000--5000 L.E and this cost represents a high percentage of turnover to plants abating emissions.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus C106, a Dairy Isolate from an Artisanal Cheese Produced in the Countryside of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Wels, Michiel; Serrano, L Mariela; Eibrink, Beerd-Jan; Backus, Lennart; Bongers, Roger S; Vriesendorp, Bastienne; Siezen, Roland J; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Meijer, Wilco C

    2015-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used for the fermentation of dairy products. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. thermophilus C106 isolated from an artisanal cheese produced in the countryside of Ireland. PMID:26607891

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus C106, a Dairy Isolate from an Artisanal Cheese Produced in the Countryside of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, L. Mariela; Eibrink, Beerd-Jan; Backus, Lennart; Bongers, Roger S.; Vriesendorp, Bastienne; Siezen, Roland J.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Meijer, Wilco C.

    2015-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used for the fermentation of dairy products. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. thermophilus C106 isolated from an artisanal cheese produced in the countryside of Ireland. PMID:26607891

  4. From Engaging Liaison Librarians to Engaging Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    Kara J. Malenfant wrote in her 2010 article "Leading Change in the System of Scholarly Communication: A Case Study of Engaging Liaison Librarians for Outreach to Faculty" that it would be interesting to revisit the University of Minnesota (UMN) Libraries in three years and see how they are doing. Malenfant had documented a culture shift…

  5. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  6. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Calys-Tagoe, Benedict N. L.; Ovadje, Lauretta; Clarke, Edith; Basu, Niladri; Robins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5%) of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years) and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience). The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7%) and crushing (23.1%), and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57%) were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7%) of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points. PMID:26184264

  7. Civic Engagement Comes Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruempel, Beverly J.; Gentzler, Yvonne S.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Keino, Leah C.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how civic engagement came alive in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class. College students are at a critical age to develop a lifelong interest in civic engagement. Students in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class were required to attend two meetings of a public board or agency of their choice. Their assignment was…

  8. Engaging with Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a multi-site global, ethnographic, and mixed methods study on student engagement. Our research has closely examined how engagement and disengagement operate subtly, simultaneously and relationally in the places and spaces where drama is made. Through years of qualitative time in high school classrooms and two different…

  9. Student Engagement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Teachers, more than any other person in the school, have the greatest potential to get students engaged in school and in learning. Creating student-directed learning experiences that challenge, stimulate, and engage kids not only raises test scores, it also fosters life-long learners prepared for success in today's globally connected world. This…

  10. Civic Learning and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the US education system has failed to adequately combat a decline of civic engagement and awareness, resulting in what many are now calling a "civics recession." The good news is that there is growing awareness, at all levels, that we need new and concerted efforts to make civic learning and engagement a core component of every…

  11. Engagement Means Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  12. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui-mei; Liang, Jun-wu

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methods and equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Three separating methods and equipment are used to control three different groups of electronic wastes. The first group includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes of semiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure for this group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric and manganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. The second group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus, HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedure involves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with a separator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions of As, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in a flocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test results showed that all waste gases and water after the abatement procedures presented in this article passed the discharge standards set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. PMID:12491721

  13. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-01

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers. PMID:25369123

  14. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  15. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  16. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  17. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  18. Abatement of CF4 by atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-08-01

    An atmospheric microwave plasma torch is presented for post-pump destruction of perfluorocompound gases (PFCs), which are used widely in the semiconductor industry and are emitted with nitrogen gas for vacuum pump purges. Discharges of the microwave plasma torch are well suited for abatement of PFC contaminants discharged at a typical flow rate. The abatement was carried out using oxygen or air as additive gases. Analytical results are systematically compared to quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data in the laboratory. Destruction and removal efficiency of more than 99% in FTIR data was achieved for carbon tetrafluoride.

  19. The New School Collaborates: Organization and Communication in Immersive International Field Programs with Artisan Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Under the umbrella terms of "humanitarian design," "social design" and "social responsibility," educational institutions and specifically design programs are more and more searching for opportunities to engage their students in critical and hands-on learning via collaborations between students, faculty, communities in need and nonprofit…

  20. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF FINAL CLEANING AND AHERA CLEARANCE SAMPLING AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document final cleaning procedures and evaluate Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air sampling practices used at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school building and...

  1. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint.

    PubMed Central

    Farfel, M R; Chisolm, J J

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: 1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and 2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity. PMID:2136329

  2. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  3. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  4. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  7. Mercury Exposure and Health Impacts among Individuals in the Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Community: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Keri Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is used in gold mining to extract gold from ore by forming “amalgam”—a mixture composed of approximately equal parts mercury and gold. Approximately 15 million people, including approximately 3 million women and children, participate in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in developing countries. Thirty-seven percent of global air emissions of Hg are produced by ASGM. The recently adopted Minamata Convention calls for nations to gather health data, train health-care workers, and raise awareness in regard to ASGM activity. Objective: The purpose of our review was to evaluate the current literature regarding the health effects of Hg among those working and/or living in or near ASGM communities. Methods: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies relating to health effects and biomarkers of Hg exposure in ASGM communities. Articles published from 1990 through December 2012 were evaluated for relevance. Discussion: Studies reporting health assessments, kidney dysfunction, neurological disorders and symptoms, and immunotoxicity/autoimmune dysfunction in individuals living in or near an ASGM community were identified. More than 60 studies that measured biomarkers of Hg exposure in individuals living in or near ASGM communities were also identified. These studies, conducted in 19 different countries in South America, Asia, and Africa, demonstrated that hair and urine concentrations are well above World Health Organization health guidance values in ASGM communities. Conclusions: ASGM workers and their families are exposed to Hg vapor, and workers, workers’ families, and residents of nearby and downstream communities are consuming fish heavily contaminated with methylmercury. Citation: Gibb H, O’Leary KG. 2014. Mercury exposure and health impacts among individuals in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining community: a comprehensive review. Environ Health Perspect 122:667–672; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  8. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  9. A Critique of the Public Education Approach to Industrial Pollution Abatement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    1973-01-01

    Public education cannot be considered an efficient alternative to industrial pollution abatement. The public education alternative stresses that an informed non-industrial public will, out of civic responsibility, bring about sufficient social pressure on the industrial sector to end pollution. However, evidence suggests that the mere presence of…

  10. 30 CFR 75.401 - Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wetting agent. 75.401 Section 75.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.401 Abatement of dust; water or water with a wetting agent....

  11. 29 CFR 1903.14a - Petitions for modification of abatement date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions for modification of abatement date. 1903.14a Section 1903.14a Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.14a Petitions...

  12. Biological inhibitor abatement and ethanol fermentation of sugars from dilute acid-pretreated rice hulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation inhibitors arise from lignin, hemicellulose, and degraded sugar during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Use of a microbe has been explored for abatement of pretreated biomass in which fermentation inhibitors, if left untreated, can complicate microbial conversion of biomass to f...

  13. WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

  14. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  15. Relative toxicity of decamethrin, chlorphoxim and temephos (abate) to simulium larvae.

    PubMed

    Muirhead-Thomson, R C

    1981-09-01

    Tolerance levels Simulium larvae (S. ornatum and S. equinum) to chlorphoxim and decamethrin, relative to those with Abate, were determined in rapid through-flow laboratory test vessels; a 1-hour exposure followed by 24-hour mortality observations being the standard of comparison of the three chemicals. In addition, a further comparison between chlorphoxim and Abate was made on the basis of a 15-minute exposure in a miniature simulated stream, with the same mortality criteria. On the basis of LC95/1-hour data the results showed that decamethrin was approximately 4 times as lethal as chlorphoxim, and approximately 20 times more than Abate. On the basis of a 15-minute exposure, chlorphoxim was found to be even more toxic than Abate--approximately 10 times more--than with the 1-hour exposure--viz 5 times more. Concentration/mortality curves indicate that with both the organophosphorus larvicides there is a critical zone where mortality increases sharply with increase in concentration of toxinant. With decamethrin, there is a more uniform rate of increase in mortality with increasing concentration, these differences being illustrated by comparison at both LC50 and LC95 levels. These findings are discussed firstly, in relation to other laboratory test methods in use, and secondly with reference to the scarcity of comparable laboratory data for Simulium damnosum in the Onchosceriasis Control Programme (OCP) in the Volta River basin area of West Africa. PMID:6179275

  16. IN-PLACE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF HEPA-FILTRATION SYSTEMS AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to assess the in-place performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems at asbestos-abatement siteS in New Jersey to determine each systems particle-removal efficiency. n air-generated dioctyl phthalate aerosol was used to challeng...

  17. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/X-RAY FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF POST-ABATEMENT DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laboratory X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize post-abatement dust collected with a HEPA filtered vacuum. hree size fractions of resuspended dust (0-30 pm, 2.5-15 pm, and <2.5 pm) were collected on teflon filters and analyzed ...

  18. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  19. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  20. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... making scheduled withdrawal liability payments in the second year for those withdrawals, provide a bond... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...) Plan amendments concerning bond/escrow. A plan may, by amendment, adopt rules decreasing the amount...

  1. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  2. ACHIEVING A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY CLEARANCE CRITERION AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES IN NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Representatives of the New Jersey Department of Health's Asbestos Control Service conducted final clearance evaluations at 79 schools where asbestos removal took place during the Summer of 1987. The evaluations entailed a thorough visual inspection of each abatement area by an ex...

  3. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO POLLUTION ABATEMENT: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT FOR COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Responses to Pollution Abatement: A Framework for Measurement and Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the 16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. ...

  4. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  5. Fermentation of Bioenergy Crops Into Ethanol Using Biological Abatement for Removal of Inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is hampered by the presence of inhibitory compounds contained in sugar streams derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Biological abatement is a promising method for removing these inhibitors because it neither consumes chemicals nor generates wastes. In t...

  6. 29 CFR 1903.14a - Petitions for modification of abatement date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petitions for modification of abatement date. 1903.14a Section 1903.14a Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.14a Petitions...

  7. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    PubMed

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  8. [A survey on physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer].

    PubMed

    Tochihara, Y; Ohnaka, T; Nagai, Y; Muramatsu, T

    1993-01-01

    Since the health hazard of asbestos fibers has been widely recognized, the number of asbestos abatement projects in schools has increased rapidly. Most of these projects were planned during summer vacation from school. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing because of the asbestos exposure risk. The purpose of this survey is to study the workload of asbestos abatement work by measuring physiological reactions. Physiological strains of 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatements work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. Body weight loss by the work of all workers was measured, and heart rate, rectal temperature and skin temperatures at five sites of some of them were measured every minute. In both workplaces, the workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoes covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6 degrees C and 28.8 degrees C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces were covered with vinyl seats, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working hours of asbestos abatement were between 46 minutes and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were between 217 g/h and 605 g/h. These values were greater compared to the estimate values when work was done wearing commonly used light clothing. Heart rates during asbestos abatement work did not exceed 150 beats/min in one school where the temperature was 25 degrees C-27 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8507292

  9. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy. PMID:26565090

  10. Engagement and Education

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Shah, Umair A.; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination

  11. Effects of dietary ABATE? on reproductive success, duckling survival, behavior, and clinical pathology in game-farm mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Lamont, T.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-four pairs of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed ABATE? E (temephos) to yield 0, 1, or 10 ppm ABATE? beginning before the initiation of lay, and terminating when ducklings were 21 days of age. The mean interval between eggs laid was greater for hens fed 10 ppm ABATE? than for controls. Clutch size, fertility, hatchability, nest attentiveness of incubating hens, and avoidance behavior of ducklings were not significantly affected by ABATE? ingestion. The percentage survival of ducklings to 21 days of age was significantly lower in both treated groups than in controls, but brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was not inhibited in young which died before termination of the study. In 21-day-old ducklings, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity increased and plasma nonspecific cholinesterase (ChE) activity was inhibited by about 20% in both treatment groups, but there were no significant differences in brain AChE or plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, or plasma uric acid concentration. Clinical chemistry values of adults were not affected. No ABATE?, ABATE? sulfoxide, or ABATE? sulfone residues were found in eggs or tissue samples.

  12. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. PMID:25463565

  13. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  14. Involvement or Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2011-01-01

    To create the kinds of school-family partnerships that raise student achievement, improve local communities, and increase public support, schools need to understand the difference between family involvement and family engagement. Schools that emphasize the latter tend toward doing with families, rather than doing to families. These schools do more…

  15. The Scholarship of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, author Ernest Boyer comes to the conclusion that scholarship of engagement has meaning at two levels: (1) connecting the university's rich resources to the most pressing social, civic, and ethical problems, making it the staging ground for action; and (2) creating a climate in which academic and civic cultures communicate more…

  16. Parental Engagement with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  17. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  18. Engagement in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttle, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and World Wide Web are transforming delivery of education and making it possible for more individuals than ever to have access to knowledge any time and place across the globe. The extent of learner engagement is key to online learning environments. Constructivist learning theory, an emerging theory of connectivity, and Merrill's…

  19. Tools of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Alumni relations professionals need a method of measuring alumni engagement, including giving, that goes beyond counting event attendees and the number of Twitter followers. Social media are changing the way things have been done within the alumni relations profession, but that does not mean that people throw out everything they have done in the…

  20. Turning on Engaged Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Martinez, Irella

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to increase the engagement level of English language learners is daunting, but viable solutions can be achieved if a discussion is started. In schools across California, and all of America, school stakeholders are struggling to articulate ways to ensure that all of the ELLs in their schools are successful. In this article, the…

  1. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  2. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  3. Engaging in Retrospective Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevig, Laurey

    2006-01-01

    Reflection is a powerful means to involve readers actively in gaining new insights about texts and themselves as readers. This article relates the story of three fifth-grade girls engaged in metacognitive inquiry within a classroom book club group. The use of exploratory talk and reflection illustrate how the girls constructed meaning and deepened…

  4. Environmental management of small-scale and artisanal mining: the Portovelo-Zaruma goldmining area, southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N H

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers technical measures and policy initiatives needed to improve environmental management in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district of southern Ecuador. In this area, gold is mined by a large number of small-scale and artisanal operators, and discharges of cyanide and metal-laden tailings have had a severe impact on the shared Ecuadorian-Peruvian Puyango river system. It is shown to be technically possible to confine mining waste and tailings at a reasonable cost. However, the complex topography of the mining district forces tailings management to be communal, where all operators are connected to one central tailings impoundment. This, in turn, implies two things: (i) that a large number of operators must agree to pool resources to bring such a facility into reality; and (ii) that miners must move away from rudimentary operations that survive on a day-to-day basis, towards bigger, mechanized and longer-term sustainable operations that are based on proven ore reserves. It is deemed unlikely that existing environmental regulations and the provision of technical solutions will be sufficient to resolve the environmental problems. Important impediments relate to the limited financial resources available to each individual miner and the problems of pooling these resources, and to the fact that the main impacts of pollution are suffered downstream of the mining district and, hence, do not affect the miners themselves. Three policy measures are therefore suggested. First, the enforcement of existing regulations must be improved, and this may be achieved by the strengthening of the central authority charged with supervision and control of mining activities. Second, local government involvement and local public participation in environmental management needs to be promoted. Third, a clear policy should be defined which promotes the reorganisation of small operations into larger units that are strong enough to sustain rational exploration and environmental

  5. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  6. Olive oil mill wastewaters pollution abatement by physical treatments and biodegradation with Phanerochaetae chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Mebirouk, M; Sbai, L; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, J

    2006-12-01

    This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, suspended and immobilised cultures. When P chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after removal of polyphenols by adsorption on wood sawdust, which allows for removal of 39% of polyphenols. The use of High lignin peroxides (Lip) producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. In fact, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and polyphenols contents are significantly reduced. In addition, a significant effluent decolorization is obvious. PMID:17285940

  7. The Engaged Campus: Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Public Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furco, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Although civic purposes are implicit in the mission statements of higher education institutions, American colleges and universities have not always embraced public engagement initiatives. This paper explores how the recent emergence of the engaged campus movement has helped move public engagement initiatives from the margins to the mainstream by…

  8. Multimedia-based decision support system for hazards recognition and abatement

    DOEpatents

    Czachowski, John B.; Zoldak, John T.

    1998-01-01

    A system for monitoring a site includes a portable data collection module used in the field to collect site specific data, and a processor module located at a central location. The data collection module displays choices of categories of findings, and then specific findings within each category. A selected specific finding is then displayed in report form with a citation to the specific code or statutory requirement, as well as a recommended course of action and an abatement date.

  9. Abating climate change. What will be done and the consequences for investors

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, A.; Mellquist, N.; Shah, S.; Winton, B.

    2008-01-15

    This report is meant for institutional investors. Sections discuss: the science of climate change; global emissions - abatement scenario; coal - the world's dominant fuel for electric generation; CO{sub 2} transport and storage; nuclear energy - the new green solution; renewable energy - harnessing the power of water, wind and sun; regulation; increasing energy efficiency - the lowest cost option; enhancing the efficiency of electric applications; enhancing the efficiency of transportation; macroeconomic implications; and investment implications.

  10. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  11. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  12. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  13. The effect of noise-abatement profiles on noise immissions and human annoyance underneath a subsequent climbpath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbell, Maurice A.

    1990-01-01

    En route noise emissions on the ground can be affected by the detailed characteristics of intended noise-abatement climb profiles and procedures to an extent of 10 or more nautical miles from the start of the takeoff roll of a large or heavy air-carrier-type aircraft. Suggestions submitted to the noise abatement officials of the airports at Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, and Zurick, Switzerland, and the aircarriers Lufthansa German Airlines and SWISSAIR are explained and discussed.

  14. The effect of noise-abatement profiles on noise immissions and human annoyance underneath a subsequent climbpath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbell, Maurice A.

    1990-04-01

    En route noise emissions on the ground can be affected by the detailed characteristics of intended noise-abatement climb profiles and procedures to an extent of 10 or more nautical miles from the start of the takeoff roll of a large or heavy air-carrier-type aircraft. Suggestions submitted to the noise abatement officials of the airports at Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, and Zurick, Switzerland, and the aircarriers Lufthansa German Airlines and SWISSAIR are explained and discussed.

  15. Urbanization decreases attentional engagement.

    PubMed

    Linnell, Karina J; Caparos, Serge; de Fockert, Jan W; Davidoff, Jules

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to the urban environment has been shown dramatically to increase the tendency to process contextual information. To further our understanding of this effect of urbanization, we compared performance on a local-selection task of a remote people, the Himba, living traditionally or relocated to town. We showed that (a) spatial attention was defocused in urbanized Himba but focused in traditional Himba (Experiment 1), despite urbanized Himba performing better on a working memory task (Experiment 3); (b) imposing a cognitive load made attention as defocused in traditional as in urbanized Himba (Experiment 2); and (c) using engaging stimuli/tasks made attention as focused in urbanized Himba, and British, as in traditional Himba (Experiments 4 and 5). We propose that urban environments prioritize exploration at the expense of attentional engagement and cognitive control of attentional selection. PMID:23339348

  16. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  17. Influence of pasteurization, brining conditions and production environment on the microbiota of artisan Gouda-type cheeses.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Heyndrickx, Marc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-05-01

    To monitor the effect of the indigenous milk microbiota and of technological and environmental parameters on the microbiota established in ripened cheese, the diversity and dynamics of the predominant microbial communities in artisan Gouda-type cheeses produced under different conditions was studied. A total of 22 cheese types differing in milk source, milk treatment, production environment and brining conditions were analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using total DNA extracts as well as DNA extracted from culturable fractions. Through band position analysis and band sequencing, the majority of DGGE bands could be attributed to lactic acid bacteria (LAB), although a few bands also belonged to staphylococci and gamma-Proteobacteria. Aided by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), cheeses produced at different locations could clearly be differentiated. The same approach also allowed to distinguish raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, the former showing a more diverse microbiota in terms of a higher species richness and number of DGGE bands. No substantial differences were found between cheeses brined at two different locations. In conclusion, the combined PCR-DGGE approach relying on both total DNA extracts and culturable fractions proved its value for analyzing the effect of technological and environmental parameters on the diversity and dynamics of the microbiota in Gouda-type cheeses. PMID:20227609

  18. Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Pires, José; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, María Letícia

    2010-12-01

    Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one's health and as a product which has healing qualities. For this reason, is necessary to protect consumers from the fraudulent mislabeling of inferior honeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate some properties of artisanal honey samples (n=45) collected from the Northwest of Portugal by using different honey analysis tests such as moisture, ash, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), apparent sucrose, reducing sugars and diastase activity. 77.8% of the total exceeded the quality parameters and should be labeled as "virgin" (humidity ≤18% and HMF ≤25 mg/kg). The present study found a linear correlation (y=0.551x-0.089; R=0.995) between the electrical conductivity of honeys and their ash content. All of the samples showed an Erica sp. pollen percentage ≥15%, and 42% of the total were monofloral Erica sp. In respect to coliforms and Salmonella's presence, all the honey's samples shown to be negative. The existence of sulphite-reducing Clostridia was low, and well below the established limit by MERCOSUR. Yeasts, moulds and aerobic mesophiles were detected in low amounts. PMID:20870005

  19. The construction of ergonomic demands: application on artisan fishing using jangada fishing rafts in the beach of Ponta Negra.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba; Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos de; Oliveira, Larissa Praça de; Celestino, Joyce Elanne Mateus; Veloso, Isis Tatiane de Barros Macêdo; Jaeschke, Anelena

    2012-01-01

    The present article seeks the process of construction of ergonomics demand referring to the artisan fishing activityfound in Ponta Negra beach located in the city of Natal, Brazil. The instruction/construction of demands correspond to the first stage of Work Ergonomic Analysis and allows the understanding of real issues existent in a work situation, rank them and route the providences. The demand presented on this study, features itself as a induced demand, process which some potential demands or hypothetical demands are taken to an organization, after a preview analysis of the work aimed by the study, resulting from a theoretical research (state of the art) and/or from analysis of a reference situation (state of practice), where demands hypothesis are taken in consideration about the pretended work. The demands construction process using interactional methods and techniques, observation methods and techniques and bibliographic research, researches in state of reference or document. This article demonstrates the efficiency of the methodological choice to construct real ergonomic demands and highlights the importance of social construction on that process, which main goal is to refer the ergonomic actions that allow the improvement of work and life conditions for the fishers and sustainability to Jangadeira activity. PMID:22316793

  20. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta. PMID:19913696

  1. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    PubMed

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-08-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  2. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    PubMed Central

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  3. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  4. The perils and promises of microbial abundance: novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas.

    PubMed

    Paxson, Heather; Helmreich, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Microbial life has been much in the news. From outbreaks of Escherichia coli to discussions of the benefits of raw and fermented foods to recent reports of life forms capable of living in extreme environments, the modest microbe has become a figure for thinking through the presents and possible futures of nature, writ large as well as small. Noting that dominant representations of microbial life have shifted from an idiom of peril to one of promise, we argue that microbes--especially when thriving as microbial communities--are being upheld as model ecosystems in a prescriptive sense, as tokens of how organisms and human ecological relations with them could, should, or might be. We do so in reference to two case studies: the regulatory politics of artisanal cheese and the speculative research of astrobiology. To think of and with microbial communities as model ecosystems offers a corrective to the scientific determinisms we detect in some recent calls to attend to the materiality of scientific objects. PMID:24941610

  5. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    PubMed

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  6. Comprehensive abatement performance pilot study: Volume 2 -- Multi-element data analyses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinateder, J.; Ma, Z.J.

    1998-07-01

    The report presents the results of the statistical analysis of multi-element data collected during a pilot study that preceded the Comprehensive Abatement Performance (CAP) Study. The goal of the CAP Study was to assess the long-term efficacy of lead-based paint abatement. For the multi-element analysis, concentrations of lead, as well as of aluminum, barium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, titanium, and zinc in dust and soil samples were measured. Concentrations of barium, cadmium, chromium, titanium, and zinc were measured because these elements were regarded as possible constituents of paint. Concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, nickel, and potassium were measured because these elements were regarded as likely to be found in soil. The multi-element analysis was undertaken to determine whether relationships among these elements could provide a tracer for identifying the sources and pathways of lead in households. Pilot study data were used to (1) characterize the concentrations of lead, aluminum, barium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, titanium, and zinc samples in household dust and soil; (2) measure the differences in these concentrations associated with renovation and lead-based paint abatement; and (3) investigate the relationship among the elements by sample type (i.e., samples taken from different locations).

  7. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  8. Microwave plasma torch abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup; Chun, Byung Jun; Lee, Sun Ku; Hwang, Sang Kyu; Kim, Dong Su

    2006-03-15

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch as a tool for fluorinated compounds (FCs) abatement was presented. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF{sub 3} and SF{sub 6} in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Swirl gas, compressed air for stable plasma, was tangentially injected into the microwave plasma torch and a mixture of N{sub 2}, NF{sub 3}, or SF{sub 6}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} was axially injected. The DRE of 99.1% for NF{sub 3} was achieved without an additive gas at the total flow rate of 50.1 liters per minute (lpm) by applying a microwave power of 1.4 kW. Also, a DRE of SF{sub 6} up to 90.1% was obtained at the total flow rate of 40.6 lpm using an applied microwave power of 1.4 kW. Experimental results indicate that the microwave plasma abatement device can successfully eliminate FCs in the semiconductor industry.

  9. Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

  10. School Engagement: A "Danse Macabre"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shelby L.

    2011-01-01

    A recent review of research on "School Engagement" calls for clarification of the concept of engagement due to its potential for addressing problems of student apathy and low achievement. This paper responds to the request for clarification, points out some "distinctions" and "connexions" between engagement and some polarizing issues in the…

  11. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jo Nell

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  12. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  13. Relationship quality and student engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  14. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation. PMID:21966357

  15. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. PMID:25064646

  16. Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation. PMID:21966357

  17. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  18. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  19. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65) and 89.4% (n=143) not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9%) than females (n=36, 22.5%) with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, p<0.05). An individual’s occupation category was associated with level of knowledge (x2=22.82, p=<0.001). Individuals involved in mining (n=63, 73.2%) were more knowledgeable about the negative health effects of mercury than individuals in other occupations. Of the few individuals (n=17, 10.6%) who knew about arsenic toxicity, the majority (n=10, 58.8%) were miners. Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health

  20. Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, D J; Donnelly, C W

    2010-01-01

    This study 1) evaluated the overall milk quality and prevalence of 4 target pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli O157:H7) in raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheesemaking and 2) examined specific farm characteristics and practices and their effect on bacterial and somatic cell counts (SCC). Raw milk samples were collected weekly from 21 artisan cheese operations (6 organic) in the state of Vermont that manufactured raw-milk cheese from cow (12), goat (5), or sheep (4) milk during the summer of 2008. Individual samples were examined for standard plate counts (SPC), coliform counts (CC), and SCC. Samples were also screened for target pathogens both quantitatively and qualitatively by direct plating and PCR. Overall, 86% of samples had SPC <10,000 cfu/mL, with 42% <1,000 cfu/mL. Additionally, 68% of samples tested were within pasteurized milk standards for coliform bacteria under the United States' Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance at <10 cfu/mL. Log(10) SPC and CC did not differ significantly among species. Similarly, method of sample delivery (shipped or picked up), farm type (organic or conventional), and duration of milking (year-round or seasonal) did not have significant effects on farm aggregated mean log(10) SPC, CC, or SCC. Strong positive correlations were observed between herd size and mean log(10) SPC and between log(10) SPC and CC as well as SCC when data from all animal species were combined. Although SCC for cow milk were significantly lower than those for goat and sheep milk, 98, 71, and 92% of cow, sheep, and goat milk samples, respectively, were within the compliance limits of the United States' Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for SCC. Fourteen of the 21 farms (67%) were positive for Staph. aureus, detected in 38% of samples at an average level of 20 cfu/mL. Neither L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, or Salmonella spp. were detected or recovered from any of the 101 samples tested

  1. Assessment of environmental mercury discharge at a four-year-old artisanal gold mining area on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Krisnayanti, Baiq Dewi; Anderson, Christopher W N; Utomo, Wani Hadi; Feng, Xinbin; Handayanto, Eko; Mudarisna, Nurul; Ikram, Hadiman; Khususiah

    2012-10-26

    Indonesian artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities (ASGM) have been described for the islands of Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sulawesi. But the increased gold price over recent years has seen operations extend to the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. For the current research, an environmental assessment was conducted across three new ASGM locations. Gold is recovered by miners through a two-stage process of whole-ore amalgamation and cyanidation. Waste (tailings) is discharged to land or sea with no concern for contaminants in the tailings. The gold grade of ore is up to 5000 mg kg(-1). The mean gold grade of the amalgamation tailings is 7 mg kg(-1), dropping to 1.2 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. The mean mercury concentration of the amalgamation tailings is about 3000 mg kg(-1) and greater than 1600 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. Samples of paddy rice grain collected adjacent to cyanidation tailings ponds showed methyl mercury concentrations greater than 100 ng g(-1). This is five times above the Chinese permissible level for total mercury in food crops. The mean total mercury concentration in hair of Lombok ASGM workers was greater than that in a non-exposed population; however there was no difference in methyl mercury concentration. This indicates the primary pathway of mercury exposure is inhalation of volatile mercury in the atmosphere. Future exposure may come from ingestion of methyl mercury contaminated rice where discharge of cyanide tailings to paddies continues. To protect the environment and to enhance the sustainability of ASGM, appropriate tailings management must be implemented. The gold grade of the tailings indicates that the residual value might be recoverable with appropriate technology. Ongoing research is investigating systems such as phytoextraction that might assist ASGM operators in Lombok and Sumbawa to improve their environmental performance. PMID:22914762

  2. Upgrading the quality of Africa's rice: a novel artisanal parboiling technology for rice processors in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndindeng, Sali Atanga; Manful, John; Futakuchi, Koichi; Mapiemfu-Lamare, Delphine; Akoa-Etoa, Joséphine M; Tang, Erasmus N; Bigoga, Jude; Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Moreira, Jean

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the quality of locally produced rice, the artisanal parboiling process in West and Central Africa was reconceptualized. A novel parboiling unit was constructed using stainless steel (Inox 304) and fitted directly on an improved stove made from fired bricks. The heat profile at different locations in the unit, the physicochemical properties, cooking properties of the parboiled rice, and the fuel efficiency of the stove were evaluated and compared with that of the traditional system. The heat flow in the new unit was from the top to the bottom while the reverse occurred in the traditional unit. The percent impurities and heat-damaged grains, swelling and water uptake ratios, amylose content, stickiness, and cohesiveness were lower for rice produced using the improved technology (IT) compared to the traditional technology (TT). Whole grains (%), lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), cooking time, viscosity were higher for rice produced using the IT compared to the TT. Most of physicochemical and cooking properties of rice produced using the IT were not different from that of premium quality imported rice and this was achieved when steaming time was between 20-25 min. The improved stove recorded a lower time to boil water and specific fuel consumption and a higher burning rate and firepower at the hot-start high-power phase compared to the traditional stove. Most end users rated the IT as easy and safe to use compared to the TT. The new technology was code-named "Grain quality enhancer, Energy-efficient and durable Material (GEM) parboiling technology." PMID:26788297

  3. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  4. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  5. Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

    2003-04-01

    Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

  6. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.

    2013-06-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning.

  7. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  8. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  9. Modeling Dynamics of Culex pipiens Complex Populations and Assessing Abatement Strategies for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pawelek, Kasia A.; Hager, Elizabeth J.; Hunt, Gregg J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0<1, then an epidemic will not occur. Our modeling results provide insights about control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak. PMID:25268229

  10. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  11. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  12. The influence of metal source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of mine water pollution abatement in catchments.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In mine water pollution abatement, it is commonly assumed that known mine waste sites are the major pollution sources, thus neglecting the possibility of significant contribution from other old and diffuse sources within a catchment. We investigate the influence of different types of pollution source uncertainty on cost-effective allocation of abatement measures for mine water pollution. A catchment-scale cost-minimization model is developed and applied to the catchment of the river Dalälven, Sweden, in order to exemplify important effects of such source uncertainty. Results indicate that, if the pollution distribution between point and diffuse sources is partly unknown, downstream abatement measures, such as constructed wetlands, at given compliance boundaries are often cost-effective. If downstream abatement measures are not practically feasible, the pollution source distribution between point and diffuse mine water sources is critical for cost-effective solutions to abatement measure allocation in catchments. In contrast, cost-effective solutions are relatively insensitive to uncertainty in total pollutant discharge from mine water sources. PMID:16095805

  13. Collaborative engagement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullens, Katherine; Troyer, Bradley; Wade, Robert; Skibba, Brian; Dunn, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle experiments for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This paper describes the work by these organizations to date and outlines some of the plans for future work.

  14. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    M. Lumia; C. Gentile; K. Creek; R. Sandoval

    2003-11-06

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal.

  15. Eligibility of noise-abatement proposals for grants-in-aid under the airport improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnstad, E.

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes the provisions of existing Federal laws, regulations, administrative policies, and grant-program procedures that relate to funding of noise-abatement projects. The report also presents historical data on Federally assisted noise compatibility projects and funding levels in fiscal years 1982 - 1987. A literature search was conducted and parties involved with airport-noise compatibility planning and project implementation were consulted to identify proposals currently not eligible for grant assistance and the reasons for their ineligibility. The report concludes with recommendations to make eligibility criteria more flexible and to provide clearer guidance to parties involved with noise compatibility project formulation, evaluation and implementation.

  16. The abative effect: A new term to describe the action of antecedents that reduce operant responding

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Sean; Snycerski, Susan; Michael, Jack; Poling, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Behavior-analytic terminology concerning the so-called inhibitory effect of operant antecedents lacks precision. The present paper describes the problem with current nomenclature concerning the effects of antecedent events that reduce operant responding and offers a solution to this problem. The solution consists of adopting a new term, abative, for the effect in question. This paper suggests that the new term has several advantages over terms currently used and that adopting this term will yield a variety of practical and theoretical benefits, including, but not limited to, a more consistent vocabulary to describe antecedent—behavior relations. PMID:22477232

  17. Niobium(V) saponite clay for the catalytic oxidative abatement of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Psaro, Rinaldo; Marchese, Leonardo; Guidotti, Matteo

    2014-09-15

    A Nb(V)-containing saponite clay was designed to selectively transform toxic organosulfur chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under extremely mild conditions into nontoxic products with reduced environmental impact. Thanks to the insertion of Nb(V) sites within the saponite framework, a bifunctional catalyst with strong oxidizing and acid properties was obtained. Remarkable activity and high selectivity were observed for the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, at room temperature with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This performance was significantly better compared to a conventional commercial decontamination powder. PMID:25056451

  18. Adult Music Engagement: Perspectives from Three Musically Engaged Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Darrin H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of adult music engagement from the perspectives of musically engaged adults not currently participating in activities that are direct extensions of the typical K-12 music curriculum. Three participants were purposefully chosen and include an avid listener, a church praise team member, and a…

  19. Measuring Teacher Engagement: Development of the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Yerdelen, Sündüs; Durksen, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to create and validate a brief multidimensional scale of teacher engagement--the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)--that reflects the particular characteristics of teachers' work in classrooms and schools. We collected data from three separate samples of teachers (total N = 810), and followed five steps in developing and…

  20. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Mariane; Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  1. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  2. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Lucero, J O; Quijano, G; Arriaga, S; Muñoz, R

    2014-07-15

    The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115±5gm(-3)h(-1). Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30-40gm(-3)h(-1) were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60-90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4×10(3) to 9.0×10(4)CFUm(-3). Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of biotechnologies. PMID:24887128

  3. Diffusion of gases in air and its affect on oxygen deficiency hazard abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, J.C.; White, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    Density differences between air and released gases of cryogenic systems have been used to either require special oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) control measures, or as a means of abatement. For example, it is not uncommon to assume that helium spills will quickly collect at the ceiling of a building or enclosure and will efficiently exit at the nearest vertical penetration or vent. Oxygen concentration reduction was found to be detectable during a localized helium spill throughout the entire 6.3 km Tevatron tunnel. This prompted us to perform diffusion tests in air with common gases used at Fermilab. The tests showed that gases, more readily than expected, diffused through an air column in the direction opposing buoyancy. Test results for helium and sulfur hexafluoride are presented. A system of tests were performed to better understand how easily released gases would fully mix with air and whether they remained fully mixed. The test results have been applied to a new system at Fermilab for ODH abatement.

  4. Demolition Range Noise Abatement Technique Demonstration and Evaluation for the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    CALDERONE,JAMES J.; GARBIN,H. DOUGLAS

    2001-08-01

    Public concern regarding the effects of noise generated by the detonation of excess and obsolete explosive munitions at U.S. Army demolition ranges is a continuing issue for the Army's demilitarization and disposal groups. Recent concerns of citizens living near the McAlester Army Ammunition Plant (MCAAP) in Oklahoma have lead the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) to conduct a demonstration and evaluation of noise abatement techniques that could be applied to the MCAAP demolition range. With the support of the DAC, MCAAP, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), three types of noise abatement techniques were applied: aqueous foams, overburden (using combinations of sand beds and dirt coverings), and rubber or steel blast mats. Eight test configurations were studied and twenty-four experiments were conducted on the MCAAP demolition range in July of 2000. Instrumentation and data acquisition systems were fielded for the collection of near-field blast pressures, far-field acoustic pressures, plant boundary seismic signals, and demolition range meteorological conditions. The resulting data has been analyzed and reported, and a ranking of each technique's effects has been provided to the DAC.

  5. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  6. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  7. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} hydrogen sulfide abatement process - application analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    A new hydrogen sulfide abatement process, known as {open_quotes}BIOX,{close_quotes} has been specifically developed for the geothermal industry. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} (biocide induced oxidation) successfully controls both primary and secondary emissions from cooling towers in pilot, demonstration, and commercial operations by air-wet oxidation. Independent laboratory tests recently controverted the efficacy of {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} to catalytically oxidize sulfides to sulfate. Studies conducted in our laboratory with a simulated cooling tower indicate that the experimental conditions employed by Nardini, et al, are unrealistic for geothermal cooling towers. Furthermore, our investigations demonstrate that the {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} process performs optimally at near neutral pH, a condition common to most geothermal cooling tower circulating water systems. A {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} agent, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA), proved to mitigate sulfide emissions much more efficiently than air, sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} is a proven, cost-effective H{sub 2}S abatement technology.

  9. Abatement of sulfur hexafluoride emissions from the semiconductor manufacturing process by atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

    PubMed

    Lee, How Ming; Chang, Moo Been; Wu, Kuan Yu

    2004-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an important gas for plasma etching processes in the semiconductor industry. SF6 intensely absorbs infrared radiation and, consequently, aggravates global warming. This study investigates SF6 abatement by nonthermal plasma technologies under atmospheric pressure. Two kinds of nonthermal plasma processes--dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and combined plasma catalysis (CPC)--were employed and evaluated. Experimental results indicated that as much as 91% of SF6 was removed with DBDs at 20 kV of applied voltage and 150 Hz of discharge frequency for the gas stream containing 300 ppm SF6, 12% oxygen (O2), and 40% argon (Ar), with nitrogen (N2) as the carrier gas. Four additives, including Ar, O2, ethylene (C2H4), and H2O(g), are effective in enhancing SF6 abatement in the range of conditions studied. DBD achieves a higher SF6 removal efficiency than does CPC at the same operation condition. But CPC achieves a higher electrical energy utilization compared with DBD. However, poisoning of catalysts by sulfur (S)-containing species needs further investigation. SF6 is mainly converted to SOF2, SO2F4, sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxygen difluoride (OF2), and fluoride (F2). They do not cause global warming and can be captured by either wet scrubbing or adsorption. This study indicates that DBD and CPC are feasible control technologies for reducing SF6 emissions. PMID:15373364

  10. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well. PMID:24956747

  11. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    PubMed

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general. PMID:12851012

  12. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  13. Engaged Time in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns E., Beverly H.; Crowley, Paula; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Foremost in an effective curriculum for students with emotional and behavioral disorder (E/BD) is a high level of engaged time--time spent doing meaningful learning activities. Engaged time (time-on-task) is the portion of instructional time that students spend directly involved in learning activities. Walker and Severson (1992) defined the…

  14. Student Engagement and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors assessed student engagement during a short-term study-abroad program using the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Data were collected from a group of Canadian undergraduates spending six weeks in Mexico. Their program included a 10-day bus tour, three half-credit courses, and accommodations with local families.…

  15. Better Schools through Public Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Milan; Luther, Vicki

    It is increasingly clear that even the best schools must engage in systematic and continuous appraisal of their performance, in partnership with the community. A joint planning process could start by engaging citizens in identifying critical issues, relevant assets, and key strategies that can move the community toward a preferred future. Chapter…

  16. Some Fundamentals of Engaging Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Raymond; Monroe, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that stories serve as a singularly effective replacement for direct experience, a useful but sometimes difficult environmental education technique. Argues that the effectiveness of stories is derived from their ability to engage the attention of the reader. Lists elements that can be used to create cognitively engaging stories. Contains…

  17. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  18. Student Engagement: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Paula; Corbin, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in higher education literature and policy on the concepts of student engagement and disengagement. While most academic writings recognise the significance of student engagement, they have tended to concentrate on it in relation to academic activities. Increasingly, universities are "cascading" down the need…

  19. Student Engagement: Buzzword of Fuzzword?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Global interest in the value of student engagement in higher education has led researchers to question whether the use of the term is clear and consistent. This article investigates the construction of the term "student engagement" at three US universities through an analysis of qualitative data. Whereas a shared understanding of the…

  20. Collaborative Stakeholder Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Matt; Chrislip, David; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder engagement and collaboration are essential to the development of an effective state plan. Engaging a diverse group of stakeholders tasked with working together to create education policies that will have a positive, lasting impact on students is not as easy as it sounds. Experts in the field argue that the traditional stakeholder…

  1. Students Individual Engagement in GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik; Rump, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course in planning and management. The analysis shows that…

  2. Effects of Altosid and Abate-4E on deformities and survival in southern leopard frogs under semi-natural conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental wetlands were sprayed with Abate-4E (a.i. temephos) and Altosid (a.i. methoprene) through the summer following label directions. In late August and early Septemeber metamorphing tadpoles were captured and examined for deformities. Tadpoles captured from ponds sprayed with Altosid had a 15% deformity rate mostly involving total or partially missing hind limbs. Tadpoles from control ponds had a 5% rate of deformities. The difference was statistically significant. The relative abundance of tadpoles from ponds sprayed with Abate-4E was significantly lower than those from Altosid-sprayed or control wetlands.

  3. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  4. 26 CFR 301.6404-3 - Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax law to those facts. (2) Penalty and addition to tax. For purposes of section 6404(f) and the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abatement of penalty or addition to tax... Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal...

  5. The Challenges of Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Lyons and Whelan provide a useful list of recommendations as to how community engagement on nanotechnology could be improved, which very few people working in community engagement could disagree with. However, as the conclusions of any study are dependent on the data obtained, if more data had been obtained and analysed then different conclusions might have been reached. Addressing the key issues in the paper and providing more data, also allows an opportunity to expand on current issues relating to community engagement on nanotechnology and the challenges it provides for practitioners. PMID:21258427

  6. 26 CFR 601.105 - Examination of returns and claims for refund, credit or abatement; determination of correct tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Examination of returns and claims for refund, credit or abatement; determination of correct tax liability. 601.105 Section 601.105 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules...

  7. 26 CFR 601.105 - Examination of returns and claims for refund, credit or abatement; determination of correct tax...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... affecting § 601.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... exceeding $200,000 of income, estate, and gift taxes. (3) As to suits for refund, see § 601.103 (c). (4) (5..., credit or abatement; determination of correct tax liability. 601.105 Section 601.105 Internal...

  8. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor. PMID:25841085

  9. Influence of varying nutrient and pesticide mixtures on abatement efficiency using a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland mesocosm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficiency of a vegetated free water surface constructed wetland in abating agrichemicals was examined using varying types of pollutant mixtures. Three different mixture conditions were assessed: nutrients only (N and P); pesticides only (2 herbicides and 1 insecticide); and a mixture of nutrie...

  10. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  11. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  12. Abatement of gaseous and particulate contamination in a space instrument application to a solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument and to limit the effect of the self-generated contaminants during ground, launch, orbiting and landing phases of flight were investigated. It is proposed that a positive pressure and purging flow of clean gas inside the instrument be maintained while on the ground, during launch, and for a period of time in orbit. The pressure to be maintained and the required purging flow are examined in terms of the effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminants ingestion and the abatement of the self-generated contaminants. Considerations have been given to the venting requirements for the structural integrity of the instrument during launch, the limitations on the volume and the pressure of the purging gas to be carried along in orbit, and the required venting area is established based on the internal volume of the instrument, the allowable pressure differential, and the rate of external pressure change during launch.

  13. RECOVERY OF FISH COMMUNITIES IN A WARMWATER STREAM FOLLOWING POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    The long-term recovery process for fish communities in a warm water stream in East Tennessee was studied using quantitative measurements over 20 years. The stream receives effluents from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, but since 1985 these effluents have been greatly reduced, eliminated, or diluted as part of a substantial long-term pollution abatement program. The resulting changes in water quantity and quality led to a recovery of the fish communities, evidenced by significant changes in species richness, abundance (density and biomass), and community composition (e.g., number of fish species sensitive to stress). The fish community changes occurred over a spatial gradient (downstream from the headwater release zone nearest the DOE facility) and temporally, at multiple sampling locations in the stream. Changes in measured parameters were associated with specific remedial actions and the intervening steps within the recovery process are discussed with regard to changes in treatment processes.

  14. Microbial Sulfate Reduction and Its Potential Utility as an Acid Mine Water Pollution Abatement Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Jon H.; Dugan, Patrick R.; Randles, Chester I.

    1969-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of sulfate, iron, and hydrogen (acid) ions in drainage from coal mines and other areas containing waste pyritic materials is a serious water pollution problem. Sulfate can be removed from solution by microbial reduction to sulfide and subsequent precipitation as FeS. A mixed culture of microorganisms degraded wood dust cellulose, and the degradation products served as carbon and energy sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Metabolism of carbon compounds resulted in a net pH increase in the system. Oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) and temperature and carbon supplements were studied in an effort to accelerate the sulfate reduction process, with the ultimate objective of utilizing the process as a pollution abatement procedure. PMID:5775914

  15. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation. PMID:26347931

  16. Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis (PAPA) study. Final report, September 1993-July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    This study developed and demonstrated an analytical methodology that can optimize multiple objectives, subject to programmatic and budget constraints, in the development and evaluation of pollution abatement and prevention investment strategies supporting US Army activities and facilities. It possesses the capability to modify inputs to determine changes an impacts of the different investment strategies produced. Outputs include investments strategies which address what should be bought, when, and where, the costs of the investment, and the benefits derived in terms of pollution reduced (in volume), (OS) and energy savings. Products, can be produced at the Army level, MACOM, state, region, or installation. The methodology is inherently flexible and transferable such that it can readily incorporate changes in policy, data elements, and analytical approach to develop and evaluate investment strategies in other Arm y environmental programs. The PAPA Investment Model (PIM) is a multiobjective, mixed integer linear program, written in C + +, using EXCEL spreadsheet format input.

  17. Citizen Engagement through Public Deliberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sue E.

    2001-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences professionals can encourage citizen participation in local, state, and national government. The public deliberation model developed by the Kettering Foundation's National Issues Forum is designed to engage citizens in the deliberation process. (JOW)

  18. Engagement Assessment Using EEG Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic; Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods to analyze and improve an EEG-based engagement assessment approach, consisting of data preprocessing, feature extraction and engagement state classification. During data preprocessing, spikes, baseline drift and saturation caused by recording devices in EEG signals are identified and eliminated, and a wavelet based method is utilized to remove ocular and muscular artifacts in the EEG recordings. In feature extraction, power spectrum densities with 1 Hz bin are calculated as features, and these features are analyzed using the Fisher score and the one way ANOVA method. In the classification step, a committee classifier is trained based on the extracted features to assess engagement status. Finally, experiment results showed that there exist significant differences in the extracted features among different subjects, and we have implemented a feature normalization procedure to mitigate the differences and significantly improved the engagement assessment performance.

  19. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies. PMID:22869502

  20. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure. PMID:26351197

  1. Abatement of indoor air pollution achieved with coal-biomass household briquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kimiko; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Wang, Qingyue; Yi, Jing; Cheng, Shuqun; Zhou, Yanrong; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    We investigated the abatement of indoor pollution achieved when two types of coal-biomass briquettes (L-BBs and H-BBs) were used in place of honeycombed coal briquettes (H-coal) in household stoves in rural Chongqing, China. Indoor concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and gaseous fluoride were measured. Additionally, we evaluated the factors that affected indoor concentrations of these gases, including the amount of fuel used as well as its sulfur content, the sulfur-emission ratio determined from the amount of sulfur retained in the combustion ash, and the combustion temperature in the stoves. The average 8-h and 24-h SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs were nearly equal to or less than the World Health Organization's 40 ppb guideline, whereas those for H-coal and H-BBs exceeded the guideline. The average 8-h SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs were from 63 to 89% lower than those for H-coal, even though the 8-h average weight of fuel and its sulfur content for L-BBs were equal to those of H-coal. A chemical analysis of combustion ash indicated that the sulfur-emission ratio was from 26 to 48% for L-BBs, as compared with 86% for H-coal, and this difference resulted in reduction of indoor SO 2 concentrations for L-BBs as compared with H-coal. Most of the 8-h average concentrations of CO and gaseous fluoride for all fuels were lower than the WHO guidelines. We concluded that BBs are a useful domestic fuel for the abatement of indoor air pollution.

  2. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction. PMID:20048309

  3. Continuous nitrous oxide abatement in a novel denitrifying off-gas bioscrubber.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Osvaldo D; Arvelo, Ilan A; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    The potential of a bioscrubber composed of a packed bed absorption column coupled to a stirred tank denitrification bioreactor (STR) was assessed for 95 days for the continuous abatement of a diluted air emission of N2O at different liquid recycling velocities. N2O removal efficiencies of up to 40 ± 1 % were achieved at the highest recirculation velocity (8 m h(-1)) at an empty bed residence time of 3 min using a synthetic air emission containing N2O at 104 ± 12 ppmv. N2O was absorbed in the packed bed column and further reduced in the STR at efficiencies >80 % using methanol as electron donor. The long-term operation of the bioscrubber suggested that the specialized N2O degrading community established was not able to use N2O as nitrogen source. Additional nitrification assays showed that the activated sludge used as inoculum was not capable of aerobically oxidizing N2O to nitrate or nitrite, regardless of the inorganic carbon concentration tested. Denitrification assays confirmed the ability of non-acclimated activated sludge to readily denitrify N2O at a specific rate of 3.9 mg N2O g VSS h(-1) using methanol as electron donor. This study constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic assessment of the continuous abatement of N2O in air emission. A characterization of the structure of the microbial population in the absorption column by DGGE-sequencing revealed a high microbial diversity and the presence of heterotrophic denitrifying methylotrophs. PMID:25547842

  4. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae/Staphylococcaceae isolates from artisanal raw milk cheeses, and potential implications on cheese making.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-Otero, C; Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility against 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated in isolates of the genera Lactococcus (46 isolates), Leuconostoc (22), Lactobacillus (19), Staphylococcus (8), Enterococcus (7), and Microccoccus/Kocuria (5) obtained from the predominant microflora of nonrecent and recent types of artisanal raw cow's milk cheeses. Beta-lactams showed broad activity against all genera, although leuconostocs and lactobacilli were highly resistant to oxacillin (80% to 95.5%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was frequent for lactococci and enterococci (particularly for streptomycin), whereas lower rates of resistance were detected for lactobacilli and leuconostocs. Technologically interesting traits for the food industry were distributed among isolates that showed different degrees of resistance to common antibiotics. However, isolates showing resistance to less than 2 antibiotics were mainly those with properties of greatest technological interest (acidifying activity, proteolytic/lipolytic activities, or diacetyl production). PMID:19723213

  5. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  6. Diversity, dynamics, and activity of bacterial communities during production of an artisanal Sicilian cheese as evaluated by 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Cinzia L; Torriani, Sandra; Akkermans, Antoon D L; de Vos, Willem M; Vaughan, Elaine E

    2002-04-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA). Bacterial and Lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the V6 to V8 and V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. DGGE profiles from samples taken during cheese production indicated dramatic shifts in the microbial community structure. Cloning and sequencing of rDNA amplicons revealed that mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including species of Leuconostoc, Lactococcus lactis, and Macrococcus caseolyticus were dominant in the raw milk, while Streptococcus thermophilus prevailed during lactic fermentation. Other thermophilic LAB, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus fermentum, also flourished during ripening. Comparison of the rRNA-derived patterns obtained by RT-PCR to the rDNA DGGE patterns indicated a substantially different degree of metabolic activity for the microbial groups detected. Identification of cultivated LAB isolates by phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA analysis indicated a variety of species, reflecting to a large extent the results obtained from the 16S rDNA clone libraries, with the significant exception of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii species, which dominated in the ripening cheese but was not detected by cultivation. The present molecular approaches combined with culture can effectively describe the complex ecosystem of natural fermented dairy products, giving useful information for starter culture design and preservation of artisanal fermented food technology. PMID:11916708

  7. [Spatio-temporal dynamics of fishing effort in a multi-species artisanal diving fishery and its effects on catch variability: insights for sustainable management].

    PubMed

    Naranjo Madrigall, Helven; Salas Marquez, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal diving fisheries are a source of income, employment and food security of coastal areas in many countries. Understanding the dynamics of these fisheries, including the spatial and temporal dynamics of fishing effort, gears and species can help to address the challenges involved in fisheries management. We aimed to analyze the differences in fishing strategies undertaken by fishers that use two different diving methods (hookah and free diving), the conditions and their potential impacts on catches when adjustments to those strategies are applied over time. For this, detailed information of fishing operations from artisanal boats in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica was analyzed in two fishing seasons (2007-2008 and 2011-2012). Data were collected by onboard observers (fishing site, fishing time, species composition, depth and visibility). Additionally, interviews with divers were applied to obtain information of price per species, species volume and fishing operations. From the total number of trips during both seasons, hookah diving was represented by a sample size of 69.3%, while free diving, with a sample of 41.9%. More than 15 species were identified in each fishing season. Nevertheless, three categories had substantial contributions in both seasons with differences in the proportions for each case: green lobster (Panulirus gracilis), octopus (Octopus sp.) and parrotfish (Scarus perrico and S. ghobban). It is worth noting that an important proportion of catch was retained by fishers for personal consumption purposes, including species of high commercial value. Additional night diving activity, increased the number of dives from one season to another. Besides, cooperation processes in free diving fishing operations, and changes in fishing effort between seasons, defined important changes in fishing strategies. Potential causes of changes in fishing strategies and the implications for management to ensure the sustainability of these fisheries in the

  8. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Juan C.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  9. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  10. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. PMID:27554143

  11. The Artisanal Nuke

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, M. C.

    2014-02-07

    There have been many words written about the value and importance of nuclear disarmament. There have been many words written about the value and importance to the U.S. defense posture of nuclear weapons. This thesis will not be about either one of those points of view. The commentary will not purport to tell anyone that there is a need or there is not a need for one nuclear weapon or thousands of nuclear weapons. This study is more about, "well, they are here -- now what?"

  12. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  13. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitton, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

  14. Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    2006-01-01

    CIRCLE has recently published three detailed fact sheets that update, refine, and in some respects complicate, our knowledge of the links between college education and civic engagement (see "College Attendance and Civic Engagement Among 18 to 25 Year Olds," "Civic Engagement among Recent College Graduates," and "Civic Engagement among 2-year and…

  15. Engagement in clinical interaction: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kovarsky, Dana

    2009-02-01

    This article defines and reviews the concept of ENGAGEMENT in social interaction. Engagement refers to the level of interpersonal involvement displayed by participants in social situations. Various signals, including both spoken and unspoken signals, display engagement of participants in social exchanges. Engagement has been studied from a variety of perspectives, such as language development in children, educational interactions, human-machine exchanges, and medical encounters. Engagement can be conceptualized from a global level (e.g., engagement of persons with a disability in community life) to a local level (e.g., engagement in a particular conversation). Engagement has not been widely studied in the field of speech-language pathology. Therefore, this special issue on engagement in clinical interactions is offered to provide insights that may help clinicians consider methods of improving clinical practices by heightening client engagement in clinical interactions and communicative exchanges. PMID:19145545

  16. A State of Engagement: NASBE Study Group on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace

    2015-01-01

    Education is a $600 billion-a-year enterprise, but the investments states make in education will not benefit students unless they are physically and mentally present in the classroom. Too many students are not. In this report, the National Association of State Boards of Education asks policymakers to promote student engagement through a suite of…

  17. Engagement and Uncertainty: Emerging Technologies Challenge the Work of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Weston; Wright, Wynne; Whyte, Kyle; Gasteyer, Stephen P.; Gehrke, Pat J.

    2014-01-01

    Universities' increasing applications of science and technology to address a wide array of societal problems may serve to thwart democratic engagement strategies. For emerging technologies, such challenges are particularly salient, as knowledge is incomplete and application and impact are uncertain or contested. Insights from science and…

  18. Transfer Student Engagement: Blurring of Social and Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Leonard, Jeannie Brown; Mathias, David

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students are a distinct population. Their characteristics lead to a qualitatively different student experience. Drawing on interviews with a cross-sectional sample of transfer students at George Mason University (GMU), this study focused on the ways transfer students perceived their social and academic engagement, on the ways they engaged…

  19. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  20. Efficiency of final cleaning for lead-based paint abatement in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Trunov, Mikhaylo; Willeke, Klaus; Menrath, William; Friedman, Warren

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of procedures used for the final indoor cleaning after active lead-based paint abatement were evaluated in a 830 ft3 test chamber. Dry and wet scraping and dry machine sanding were applied to wooden doors obtained from lead-hazard control sites. The airborne particle concentration and size distribution were monitored using a real-time particle size spectrometer. Particulates were also collected on filters and analyzed for total dust and lead. The resulting airborne lead mass was determined for each cleaning procedure, and the potential floor lead loading resulting from the dust settling was calculated. Wipe samples were collected to measure the actual floor lead loading. The effectiveness of final cleaning was evaluated first for dry abatement methods. Various cleaning work practices were tested by applying wet and dry debris sweeping as well as no sweeping in combinations with wet and dry removal of plastic sheeting. Considerable resuspension of leaded particles was detected during dry sweeping: the airborne lead mass increase ranged between 65 and 220 percent. However, this increase did not exceed 22 percent when wet sweeping was applied. Minimal or no resuspension was found when the plastic was folded with leaded debris inside (no sweeping was performed prior to the sheeting removal). During folding activity, the "clean" (uncovered) floor surface may be significantly contaminated with leaded dust from workers' shoes and cleaning tools. The first HEPA vacuuming resulted in a 15- to 20-fold decrease of the airborne lead mass; however, it was not sufficient to reduce the floor lead loading to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) clearance level of 40 microg/ft2, as determined by wipe sampling. Wet mopping following the first HEPA vacuuming was proven to be effective to reduce the lead loading significantly below 40 microg/ft2. The second HEPA vacuuming resulted in further reduction of the airborne lead mass concentration. The

  1. Measuring Engagement in Fourth to Twelfth Grade Classrooms: The Classroom Engagement Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Bergin, Christi; Bergin, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on factors that may promote engagement is hampered by the absence of a measure of classroom-level engagement. Literature has suggested that engagement may have 3 dimensions--affective, behavioral, and cognitive. No existing engagement scales measure all 3 dimensions at the classroom level. The Classroom Engagement Inventory (CEI) was…

  2. Evaluation and abatement of noise from aircraft auxiliary power units and airport ground power units. Technical report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.; Samis, R.A.; Toth, S.

    1980-10-07

    APUs and GPUs provide essential service to aircraft during ground operations. Sound levels near these devices range from 80 to 87 dBA at 30 m for APUs, 83 to 103 dBA at 10 m for turbine-engined GPUs, and 71 to 80 dBA at 10 m for piston-engined GPUs. Procedures are provided for: (1) estimating community sound levels due to APUs and GPUs, (2) estimating their exposures in terms of day-night sound levels, and (3) assessing the desirability of noise abatement by comparison to recommended levels for acceptability. Noise abatement options include: operational changes, equipment movement, equipment substitution, equipment quieting, and sound barrier usage.

  3. Determinants of willingness-to-pay for water pollution abatement: a point and interval data payment card application.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Riera, Pere; Giergiczny, Marek

    2012-10-15

    This paper shows a contingent valuation exercise of pollution abatement in remote lakes. In addition to estimating the usual interval data model, it applies a point and interval statistical approach allowing for uncensored data, left-censored data, right-censored data and left- and right-censored data to explore the determinants of willingness-to-pay in a payment card survey. Results suggest that the estimations between models may diverge under certain conditions. PMID:22658990

  4. Civic Education versus Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on a new report titled "A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy's Future", and focuses on civic education and civic engagement. The Obama administration's new report confronts a genuine problem in American education. The decline of civic education and knowledge in America is one of the few…

  5. Constructive Engagement with the Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the gravest concerns that critics of corporate culture have about the consequences of academic-corporate relationships are built on little more than ill-informed speculation, fueled by a lack of direct engagement with corporations. The solution to knowledge gap--and the key to liberation from fears of "creeping corporatization"--may…

  6. Lively Discussions! Fostering Engaged Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Almasi, Janice F., Ed.

    Offering practical, classroom-based strategies teachers can use to promote literacy development, this book presents many examples of children engaging in discussion activities about narrative and informational text that emphasize collaborating, constructing meaning, and using these different types of texts to arrive at new understandings. Chapters…

  7. A Toolkit for Teacher Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are critical to the success of education grantmaking strategies, yet in talking with them we discovered that the world of philanthropy is often a mystery. GFE's Toolkit for Teacher Engagement aims to assist funders in authentically and effectively involving teachers in the education reform and innovation process. Built directly from the…

  8. Research Engagement for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This thought-provoking book examines the new and growing phenomenon of the "research-engaged school"--schools that not only encourage their staff to carry out their own research, but also use published research to inform practice and improve the quality of education. The author draws upon his scholarship and practice in local authorities, schools…

  9. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  10. Student Engagement in Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairo, Allessandra

    2011-01-01

    Faculty, staff, and administrators are all burdened by the lack of time, budgetary constraints, and ever-changing priorities, and facilities staff are no different. With all these constraints, how can real change happen? Student engagement can make facilities work easier and more fulfilling. Involving students from the ground up on projects not…

  11. Motivation, Engagement, and Student Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toshalis, Eric; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Figuring out what motivates and engages individual students is essential. Indeed, it is the prerequisite for implementing student-centered approaches to learning. However, today's teachers--confronting large class sizes, fast-paced academic calendars, and standardized assessments--face particular pressures to lump all students together and "teach…

  12. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  13. Sustaining Engagement and Rural Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Randall

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio State University Medical Center, a large urban academic medical center, and Mary Rutan Hospital, a rural community hospital in Logan County, Ohio, have been linked through a series of scholarly engagements spanning more than thirty years. What emerges from a qualitative study of key informants with personal knowledge of this interaction…

  14. Student Engagement and Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…

  15. Communicating chemistry for public engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartings, Matthew R.; Fahy, Declan

    2011-09-01

    The communication of chemistry to wider society is difficult because of 'chemophobia', its inherent complexity and its lack of unifying grand themes. To engage with citizens about the benefits and related dangers of the field, chemists must improve their dialogue with broader sections of the public -- but how?

  16. Preparing Teachers to Engage Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary M.; Jacobson, Arminta; Hemmer, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Teacher education has the potential to serve as an important forum for overcoming barriers to the engagement of parents in their children?s education. Nevertheless, parent involvement has yet to hold a central role in the teacher education curriculum (Chavkin & Williams, 1987; de Acosta, 1996; Epstein & Dauber, 1991; Hiatt-Michael, 2001) and in…

  17. Understanding Visitor Engagement and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, James B.; Pekarik, Andrew J.; Hanemann, Nadine; Doering, Zahava; Lee, Ah-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine a model of visitor engagement that has been in development over the past 3 years at the Smithsonian Institution. A total of 390 visitors comprised the sample with a subsample ("n" = 102) of visitors who were tracked through an exhibit in the National Museum of Natural History. A 5-factor visitor preference model was…

  18. Nurturing Engaged and Empowered Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking within education circles suggests that if students are not engaged in class discussions they might not be learning. And if they are not learning--students and teachers--are wasting their time. The Teacher Effectiveness in Language Learning (TELL) Project spells out within its planning domain that teachers should plan lessons…

  19. Engaging Families through Artful Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…

  20. Civic Engagement and Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Examining the intersection of civic engagement and environmental literacy is particularly timely because 2012 marked a critical juncture in history: the United Nations Literacy Decade ended, and a 20-year appraisal of the United Nation's Earth Summit commenced. The Literacy Decade, launched in 2003 under the slogan "Literacy as Freedom," situated…

  1. Engaging Students in Quality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henninger, Mary L.; Richardson, Karen Pagnano

    2016-01-01

    Promoting student engagement for all students in physical education, and specifically in game play, is a challenge faced by many middle and high school physical education teachers. Often, the games we play in physical education are not "good games" because, as early as middle school, some students are already resistant to playing…

  2. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  3. Creative Drama Engages Children's Imaginations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Shannon

    1996-01-01

    A teacher describes using melodrama as a way to combine the elements of humor and drama to engage the imaginations of young gifted children. Techniques for use with elementary through junior high students are presented along with the script of a play for first or second graders, with the last lines left blank for students to supply their own…

  4. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  5. Refreshing Engagement: NSSE at 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.; Gonyea, Robert M.; Kinzie, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years ago, 276 bachelor's-granting colleges and universities inaugurated a new approach to assessing college quality by participating in the first national administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This report summarizes what was learned over the NSSE's first 13 years, why the survey is being updated, and new…

  6. Reversible Nut With Engagement Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    1995-01-01

    Document describes nut allowing fastener inserted or removed from either side by simply sliding fastener in or out. Detents on each face of nut, when pushed in, ensure positive engagement of threads. Followed by conventional clockwise turning to lock and counterclockwise turning to unlock nut. Detents, when viewed, show whether nut in positive lock.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Effects of olive mill wastewater physico-chemical treatments on polyphenol abatement and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germinability.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A C; Maucieri, C; Ioppolo, A; Milani, M; Cavallaro, V

    2014-04-01

    Direct spreading on agricultural lands may represent an environmentally friendly disposal method and a possible use of water and nutrients from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). However, the agronomic use of OMWs is limited, among others by polyphenols, which exert phytotoxic effects. Activated charcoal (AC) has been recognized as a very effective agent for polyphenol abatement, as it enables an irreversible process of phenol adsorption. Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has also been described as a cheap and effective method in polyphenols abatement. However, the effects of Ca(OH)2 addition to OMW on seed germination are unclear. In this paper, the effects of AC and/or Ca(OH)2 on OMW polyphenols abatement, and Lolium multiflorum seed germination have been investigated. The highest polyphenols removal, approximately 95%, was observed when 80 g L(-1) of AC was added to OMWs (the maximum dose in this investigation). The addition of Ca(OH)2 not only improved the effectiveness of the AC treatment but also resulted in a significant rise in Lolium seed germination at the highest AC doses (60 and 80 g L(-1)). Considering the high salinity (7300 μS cm(-1)) of these wastewaters, low quantities of Ca(OH)2 may also exert a protective effect on soil structure counteracting the sodium-induced dispersion through the binding action of calcium cation on clays and organic matter. PMID:24289894

  9. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. PMID:25516254

  10. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. ); Hinzman, R.L. ); Shoemaker, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  11. Toxicity of Abate? 4E (temephos) in mallard ducklings and the influence of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Franson, J.C.; Rattner, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Diets mixed to contain 0,0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ppm temephos (determined chemically to contain less than 0.5, less than 0.5, 0.89, 6..0 and 59 ppm temephos, respectively) in an Abate ? 4E formulation, were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 7 d. During this period, half of the ducklings in each dietary treatment group were housed in a heated brooder (39 to 41?C) and half were housed in an unheated brooder (10 to 18?C). Mortality in all dietary groups in the unheated brooder was higher than in the heated brooder. High temephos-related mortality occurred in the 100 ppm group in the unheated brooder but not in any other diet-temperature groups. Ingestion of the 100 ppm temephos diet inhibited plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity, but other selected plasma chemistries were not affected in a dose-related manner. Brain ChE activity was depressed only in the 100 ppm dietary groups; maximum inhibition of brain ChE activity was 48%. These findings suggest that diets containing up to 10 ppm temephos do not directly affect duckling survival during the first week of life and that the toxicity of 100 ppm temephos is markedly enhanced by cold.

  12. Abatement of N{sub 2}O emissions from circulating fluidized bed combustion through afterburning

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, L.; Leckner, B.

    1995-04-01

    A method for the abatement of N{sub 2}O emission from fluidized bed combustion has been investigated. The method consists of burning a secondary fuel after the normal circulating fluidized bed combustor. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), fuel oil, pulverized coal, and wood, as well as sawdust, were used as the secondary fuel. Experiments showed that the N{sub 2}O emission can be reduced by 90% or more by this technique. The resulting N{sub 2}O emission was principally a function of the gas temperature achieved in the afterburner and independent of afterburning fuel, but the amount of air in the combustion gases from the primary combustion also influences the results. No negative effects on sulfur capture or on NO or CO emissions were recorded. In the experiments, the primary cyclone of the fluidized bed boiler was used for afterburning. If afterburning is implemented in a plant optimized for this purpose, an amount of secondary fuel corresponding to 10% of the total energy input should remove practically all N{sub 2}O. During the present experiments the secondary fuel consumption was greater than 10% of the total energy input due to various losses.

  13. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition. PMID:26552261

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A. ); Hinzman, R.L. )

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  15. Transport Sector Marginal Abatement Cost Curves in Computable General Equilibrium Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippichai, Atit; Fukuda, Atsushi; Morisugi, Hisayoshi

    In the last decade, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have emerged a standard tool for climate policy evaluation due to their abilities to prospectively elucidate the character and magnitude of the economic impacts of energy and environmental policies. Furthermore, marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves which represent GHG emissions reduction potentials and costs can be derived from these top-down economic models. However, most studies have never address MAC curves for a specific sector that have a large coverage of countries which are needed for allocation of optimal emission reductions. This paper aims to explicitly describe the meaning and character of MAC curves for transport sector in a CGE context through using the AIM/CGE Model developed by Toshihiko Masui. It found that the MAC curves derived in this study are the inverse of the general equilibrium reduction function for CO2 emissions. Moreover, the transport sector MAC curves for six regions including USA, EU-15, Japan, China, India, and Brazil, derived from this study are compared to the reduction potentials under 100 USD/tCO2 in 2020 from a bottom-up study. The results showed that the ranking of the regional reduction potentials in transport sector from this study are almost same with the bottom-up study except the ranks of the EU-15 and China. In addition, the range of the reduction potentials from this study is wider and only the USA has higher potentials than those derived from the bottom-up study.

  16. Artificial recharge for subsidence abatement at the NASA-Johnson Space Center, Phase I

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1977-01-01

    Regional decline of aquifer head due to ground-water withdrawal in the Houston area has caused extensive land-surface subsidence. The NASA-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC) in southeastern Harris County, Texas, was about 13 to 19 feet above mean sea level in 1974 and sinking at a rate of more than 0.2 foot per year. NASA-JSC officials, concerned about the hurricane flooding hazard, requested the U.S. Geological Survey to study the feasibility of artificially recharging the aquifers for subsidence abatement. Hydrologic digital models were developed for theoretical determinations of quantities of water needed, under various well-array plans, for artificial recharge of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in order to halt the local subsidence at NASA-JSC. The programs for the models were developed for analysis of three-dimensional ground-water flow. Total injection rates of between 2,000 and 14,000 gallons per minute under three general well-array plans were determined for a range of residual clay pore pressures of 10 to 70 feet of hydraulic head. The space distributions of the resultant hydraulic heads, illustrated for injection rates of 3,600 and 8 ,400 gallons per minute, indicated that, for the same rate, increasing the number and spread of the injection locations reduces the head gradients within NASA-JSC. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  18. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Juma Z; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria D; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L

    2014-11-15

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ∼2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45 μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. PMID:25128660

  19. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  20. Abatement characteristics of N2O in low-pressure plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, M.; Lee, J. O.; Lee, J. Y.; Kang, W. S.; Song, Y.-H.

    2016-02-01

    The abatement characteristics of N2O were investigated in a plasma reactor positioned in front of a vacuum pump. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for evaluating the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and the identification of byproducts. The concentration of NO x (NO and NO2) was quantified by using an NO x analyzer. The DRE of N2O was enhanced by increasing the power or decreasing the N2O flow rate. A higher pressure yields a higher DRE of N2O and a lower concentration of NO x in the destroyed N2O. For understanding this phenomenon, the discharge characteristics were analyzed by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The spatial distribution of emission spectra from the discharge in a mixture of N2O and Ar gases was measured by varying the pressure. The mechanisms underlying the pressure effect on the N2O DRE and NO x concentration are discussed in terms of the electron density and the concentration of O radicals.

  1. Modelling agro-forestry scenarios for ammonia abatement in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealey, W. J.; Loubet, B.; Braban, C. F.; Famulari, D.; Theobald, M. R.; Reis, S.; Reay, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emissions from livestock production can have negative impacts on nearby protected sites and ecosystems that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification. Trees are effective scavengers of both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere making tree belts potentially effective landscape features to support strategies aiming to reduce ammonia impacts. This research used the MODDAS-THETIS a coupled turbulence and deposition turbulence model, to examine the relationships between tree canopy structure and ammonia capture for three source types—animal housing, slurry lagoon, and livestock under a tree canopy. By altering the canopy length, leaf area index, leaf area density, and height of the canopy in the model the capture efficiencies varied substantially. A maximum of 27% of the emitted ammonia was captured by tree canopy for the animal housing source, for the slurry lagoon the maximum was 19%, while the livestock under trees attained a maximum of 60% recapture. Using agro-forestry systems of differing tree structures near ‘hot spots’ of ammonia in the landscape could provide an effective abatement option for the livestock industry that complements existing source reduction measures.

  2. Response of meiofaunal and nematode communities to sewage pollution abatement: a field transplantation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K. S.

    2011-11-01

    To assess the recovery rate of meiofaunal and nematode communities upon abatement of sewage pollution, a field transplantation experiment was conducted in Tai Tam, which is a non-polluted, shallow subtidal habitat on the southern portion of Hong Kong Island. The sediments used were from one site located in Victoria Harbour that was heavily influenced by sewage pollution, and one site in the outside-harbor area, which was relatively clean. In addition, sediments from Tai Tam were used as a control. Fresh sediments with meiofauna were collected from the aforementioned sites, placed in plastic trays and transplanted to Tai Tam. Sediments were retrieved at the beginning of the experiment and at 1-, 3-, and 8-weeks after transplantation for analysis of the meiofaunal and nematode communities as well as the sediment characteristics. The results showed that the meiofaunal and nematode communities in the control sediments were consistent at the four sampling periods, while it took three and eight weeks, respectively, for the nematode communities from the outside-harbor and inside-harbor sites to become similar to the control. These findings indicated that the relatively poor habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the sewage polluted inside-harbor sediments required a longer time for recovery than samples from the better habitat quality and the nematode community composition in the outside-harbor sediments.

  3. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  4. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  5. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  6. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand. PMID:27421853

  7. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  8. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  9. Public Engagement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically

  10. Evaluation and assessment of the efficacy of an abatement strategy in a former lead smelter community, Boolaroo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P J; Taylor, M P; Kristensen, L J; Grant-Vest, S; Rouillon, M; Wu, L; Handley, H K

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the recent soil Lead Abatement Strategy (LAS) in Boolaroo, New South Wales, Australia, that was designed to "achieve a reduction in human exposure to lead dust contamination in surface soils". The abatement programme addressed legacy contamination of residential areas following closure of lead smelting operations in 2003 at the Pasminco Cockle Creek Smelter (PCCS). The principal objective of the LAS was to "cap and cover" lead-contaminated soils within the urban environment surrounding the PCCS. Soil lead concentrations of 2500-5000 mg/kg were scheduled for removal and replacement, while concentrations between 1500 and 2500 mg/kg were replaced only under limited circumstances. To date, there has been no industry, government or independent assessment of the clean-up programme that involved >2000 homes in the township of Boolaroo. Thus, by measuring post-abatement soil lead concentrations in Boolaroo, this study addresses this knowledge gap and evaluates the effectiveness of the LAS for reducing the potential for lead exposure. Soil lead concentrations above the Australian residential soil health investigation level value for residential soils (300 mg/kg) were identified at all but one of the residential properties examined (n = 19). Vacuum dust samples (n = 17) from the same homes had a mean lead concentration of 495 mg/kg (median 380 mg/kg). Bio-accessibility testing revealed that lead in household vacuum dust was readily accessible (% bio-accessible) (mean = 92 %, median = 90 %), demonstrating that the risk of exposure via this pathway remains. Assessment of a limited number of properties (n = 8) where pre-abatement soil lead levels were available for comparison showed they were not statistically different to post-abatement. Although the LAS did not include treatment of non-residential properties, sampling of community areas including public sports fields, playgrounds and schools (n = 32) was undertaken to determine the

  11. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  12. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size

  13. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  14. Strategies to Enhance Physician Engagement.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare reform and other externally driven healthcare initiatives have introduced a number of new healthcare requirements that are restructuring the way we provide healthcare services. With a growing focus on health plan efficiency and accountability for value-based performance metrics extending across the full spectrum of care, healthcare organizations are looking to develop new models of care to meet the needs of today's healthcare environment. Physician alignment and engagement are keys to success. But many physicians feel threatened, overwhelmed, and frustrated with the changes, and it's beginning to take its toll on physician attitudes and perspectives about care. Enhancing physician engagement requires a multistep process that includes making an effort to better understand their world; encouraging opportunities for input and participation in care redesign; providing education, training, guidance, and support; and making the effort to recognize and thank them for what they do. PMID:26665482

  15. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  16. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

  17. Shape controllers enhance the efficiency of graphene-TiO2 hybrids in pollutant abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordello, F.; Odorici, E.; Hu, K.; Minero, C.; Cerruti, M.; Calza, P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic activity of all synthesized materials under UV-A light using phenol as a target molecule. GNP-TiO2 composites synthesized on COOH-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} facets, were more efficient at abating phenol than those synthesized on NH2-functionalized GNP, exposing {101} and {100} facets. However, neither of these composites was stable under irradiation. The addition of both OA and EDA stabilized the materials under irradiation; however, only the composite prepared on COOH-functionalized GNP in the presence of EDA showed a significant increase in phenol degradation rate, leading to results that were better than those obtained with TiO2 alone. This result can be attributed to Ti-OH complexation by EDA, which protects GNP from oxidation. The orientation of the most reducing {101} facets toward GNP and the most oxidizing {100} facets toward the solution induces faster phenol degradation owing to a better separation of the charge carriers.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) has been recently considered as a method to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 by favoring charge carrier separation. Here, we show that it is possible to improve the efficiency of GNP-TiO2 composites by controlling the shape, stability, and facets of TiO2 NPs grown on GNP functionalized with either COOH or NH2 groups, while adding ethylendiamine (EDA) and oleic acid (OA) during a hydrothermal synthesis. We studied the photocatalytic

  18. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system. PMID:24699420

  19. Randomized Trial of a Delirium Abatement Program for Post-acute Skilled Nursing Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Bergmann, Margaret A.; Kiely, Dan K.; Orav, E John; Jones, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a Delirium Abatement Program (DAP) can shorten the duration of delirium among new admissions to post-acute care (PAC). Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Eight skilled nursing facilities specializing in PAC within a single metropolitan region. Participants Four hundred fifty-seven participants with delirium at PAC admission. Intervention The DAP consisted of four steps: 1) assessment for delirium within 5 days of PAC admission, 2) assessment and correction of common reversible causes of delirium, 3) prevention of complications of delirium, and 4) restoration of function. Measurements Eligible patients were screened by trained researchers. Those with Confusion Assessment Method defined delirium were eligible for participation via proxy consent. Two weeks and one month after enrollment, regardless of location, participants were re-assessed for delirium by researchers blind to intervention status. Results Nurses at DAP sites detected delirium in 41% of participants vs. 12% in usual care (UC) sites (p<.001) and completed DAP documentation in most delirium-detected participants. However, the DAP intervention had no impact on delirium persistence based on two measurements at 2 weeks (DAP 68% vs. UC 66%) and 1 month (DAP 60% vs. UC 51%), adjusted p values ≥ 0.20. Adjusting for baseline differences between DAP and UC participants and restricting analysis to delirium-detected DAP participants did not alter the results. Conclusion Detection of delirium improved at the DAP sites, however, the DAP had no impact on the persistence of delirium. This effectiveness trial demonstrated that a nurse-led DAP intervention was not effective in typical PAC facilities. PMID:20487083

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  1. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  2. Long term trends in sewage abatement and water quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Long-term trends in dissolved oxygen (DO) and coliform bacteria concentrations are used to evaluate the impact of 70 years of sewage abatement and treatment in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary near New York City (NYC). Regional construction of wastewater treatment plants since the 1920`s has reduced discharges of untreated sewage into the estuary from approximately 47 M{sup 3}/S in 1936 to less than 0.1 M{sup 3}/S by 1994. From at least 1922 through the early 1960s, average summer DO percent saturation in the Hudson River varied between 35--50% in surface waters and 25--40% in bottom waters. Beginning in the late 1970s, DO concentrations increased through the 1980s and especially into the 1990s, coinciding with the secondary treatment upgrade of the 7.4 M3/s North River plant in the spring of 1991. Average summer percent saturation in the early 1 990s exceeded 80% in surface waters and 60% in bottom waters. In addition, summer DO minima increased from less than 1.5 mg/L in the early 1970s, to greater than 3.0 mg/L in the 1990s, and the duration of hypoxia during summer months has been reduced. While this general trend has been observed throughout the estuary, some areas have displayed recent declines in DO, possibly due to increasing eutrophication. Total coliforms also display strong decreasing trends from the 1960s into the 1990s, with declines attributed to plant construction and expansion, and improved operation of the sewer system. Metal loadings have also decreased significantly. Signs of improved ecosystem quality include reopened beaches and shellfish beds, re-infestation of woodpilings by marine wood-borers, and the resurgence of wading birds in several areas of the estuary.

  3. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  4. Use of multi-transition-metal-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, K.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.; Kwong, C.W.; Wan, M.P.

    2008-04-15

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. It has a global warming potential (GWP) 23 times greater than carbon dioxide. Reducing methane emissions would lead to substantial economic and environmental benefits. This study investigated the performance of multi-transition-metal-(Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite 13X catalysts in methane emissions abatement. The catalytic activity in methane combustion using multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was studied with different parameters including the molar percentage of metal loading, the space velocity, and the inlet methane concentration under atmospheric pressure and at a relatively low reaction temperature of 500 C. The performance of the catalysts was determined in terms of the apparent activation energy, the number of active sites of the catalyst, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. This study showed that multi-ion-exchanged catalysts outperformed single-ion-exchanged and acidified 13X catalysts and that lengthening the residence time led to a higher methane conversion percentage. The enhanced catalytic activity in the multi-ion-exchanged catalysts was attributed to the presence of exchanged transition ions instead of acid sites in the catalyst. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was influenced by the metal loading amount, which played an important role in affecting the apparent activation energy for methane combustion, the active sites, and the BET surface area of the catalyst. Increasing the amount of metal loading in the catalyst decreased the apparent activation energy for methane combustion and also the BET surface area of the catalyst. An optimized metal loading amount at which the highest catalytic activity was observed due to the combined effects of the various factors was determined. (author)

  5. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking. PMID:26045497

  6. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  7. Civic Engagement and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race…

  8. Engaging Student Learning in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Andy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the significance of engagement as a stance toward teaching and learning, noting how engagement can affect the way teachers and students interact in physical education settings and surrounding environments and presenting activities to encourage engagement (develop performance routines, say and switch, roundtable brainstorm, bubble gum…

  9. Civic Engagement and the "Research College"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges infrequently appear as prominent models of civic engagement. Yet their low profile and limited role in the higher education engagement discourse masks great potential. This article challenges these institutions to connect liberal education and civic engagement and argues that this is practicable within current priorities and…

  10. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  11. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  12. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  13. Engagement States and Learning from Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive, affective, and behavioral states of engagement enhance or impede enjoyment of, and performance with, educational games. We propose a comprehensive model of engagement states and apply it to research on educational game development and research on the role of various aspects of engagement on game play and…

  14. Sustaining Student Engagement in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse…

  15. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  16. Civic Engagement: A Tool for Building Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jose Zapata

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of a global economy, there is the need for a type of educational system that promotes civic engagement as a means of building new models toward a democratic society. In this article, the author discusses civic engagement as a tool for building democracy. As educators seek to develop models of civic engagement in teacher education,…

  17. The Two Cultures of Undergraduate Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven; Cantwell, Allison M.; Hanneman, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data on upper-division students in the University of California system, we show that two distinct cultures of engagement exist on campus. The culture of engagement in the arts, humanities and social sciences focuses on interaction, participation, and interest in ideas. The culture of engagement in the natural sciences and engineering focuses…

  18. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Engaging in College Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…

  20. Mercury concentrations in water resources potentially impacted by coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chavon R; Leaner, Joy J; Nel, Jaco M; Somerset, Vernon S

    2010-09-01

    Total mercury (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in various environmental compartments collected from water resources of three Water Management Areas (WMAs) - viz. Olifants, Upper Vaal and Inkomati WMAs, potentially impacted by major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) sources (i.e coal-fired power stations and artisanal gold mining activities). Aqueous TotHg concentrations were found to be elevated above the global average (5.0 ng/L) in 38% of all aqueous samples, while aqueous MeHg concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.02 ng/L) to 2.73 +/- 0.10 ng/L. Total Hg concentrations in surface sediment (0-4 cm) ranged from 0.75 +/- 0.01 to 358.23 +/- 76.83 ng/g wet weight (ww). Methylmercury accounted for, on average, 24% of TotHg concentrations in sediment. Methylmercury concentrations were not correlated with TotHg concentrations or organic content in sediment. The concentration of MeHg in invertebrates and fish were highest in the Inkomati WMA and, furthermore, measured just below the US EPA guideline for MeHg in fish. PMID:20665320

  1. [Deterritorialization of artisanal fisheries in Sepetiba Bay (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil): an overview of occupational health and environmental issues].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Rodrigues, Silvio Cesar Alves

    2014-10-01

    This paper outlines the consequences of deterritorialization of artisan fishing folk in Sepetiba Bay in the State of Rio de Janeiro on the occupational and health status of this population living in the area. By means of the concept of social determinants in health, it compares the new patterns of growth in the region with the living and occupational health conditions of these workers. This relationship was explained after conducting semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The results point to a strong relationship between the port undertakings and the installations of the nuclear program of the Brazilian Navy with subsistence and extractive fishing, contributing to an increase in the time spent at sea and the inherent occupational risks involved in subsistence fishing. This is in addition to the economic and environmental impacts on the productivity and quality of fishing production, which are a direct consequence of the dredging works and the new navigation and anchoring norms established and imposed by the state. PMID:25272109

  2. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  3. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Mattah, Memuna M.; Armah, Frederick A.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  4. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production. PMID:25387611

  5. Using a Partial Sum Method and GPS Tracking Data to Identify Area Restricted Search by Artisanal Fishers at Moored Fish Aggregating Devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica

    PubMed Central

    Alvard, Michael; Carlson, David; McGaffey, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym), on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD) technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case. PMID:25647288

  6. Becoming an Engaged Campus: A Practical Guide for Institutionalizing Public Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beere, Carole A.; Votruba, James C.; Wells, Gail W.

    2011-01-01

    "Becoming an Engaged Campus" offers campus leaders a systematic and detailed approach to creating an environment where public engagement can grow and flourish. The book explains not only what to do to expand community engagement and how to do it, but it also explores how to document, evaluate, and communicate university engagement efforts. An…

  7. Student and Staff Engagement: Developing an Engagement Framework in a Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement is emerging as a key focus in higher education, as engagement is increasingly understood as a prerequisite for effective learning. This paper reports on the development of an Engagement Framework that provides a practical understanding of student (and staff) engagement which can be applied to any discipline, year level or…

  8. Effects of temephos (Abate? 4E) on fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax and Uca minax) on a Delaware salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinkney, A.E.; McGowan, P.C.; Murphy, D.R.; Lowe, T.P.; Sparling, D.W.; Meredith, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    The non-target effects of temephos (as Abate 4E, 44.6% active ingredient) on fiddler crabs were examined on the salt marsh at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), near Dover, DE. Six 170 x 170 m plots were established; 3 were sprayed on 4 occasions at a rate of 1.5 fl oz/acre (0.054 kg active ingredient/ha) and 3 were controls. On each plot, marsh fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) populations were monitored by repeatedly counting the number of burrow holes in 2 counting areas marked out along tidal guts. One half of each counting area was covered with bird netting to evaluate sublethal toxic effects, which, if present, could result in increased susceptibility to bird predation. A statistically significant linear association was established between the number of holes and the number of crabs. No significant differences were found in the numbers of holes (or crabs) in the sprayed vs. control plots and in the covered vs. uncovered sections. However, survival of juvenile crabs in in situ bioassays was significantly reduced (16% lower) by the spraying. Median acetylcholinesterase activity in claw muscle of red-jointed fiddler crabs (U. minax) collected 2 days after an operational spray with Abate 4E was significantly reduced (28% lower) compared to unsprayed crabs. In view of the toxicity to juvenile crabs and the cholinesterase inhibition, we recommend continued monitoring and research for non-target impacts of Abate 4E on fiddler crabs to establish whether the reported level of cholinesterase inhibition results in acute or chronic toxicity.

  9. Managing margins through physician engagement.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nicholas J

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals should take the following steps as they seek to engage physicians in an enterprisewide effort to effectively manage margins: Consider physicians' daily professional practice requirements and demands for time in balancing patient care and administrative duties. Share detailed transactional supply data with physicians to give them a behind-the-scenes look at the cost of products used for procedures. Institute physician-led management and monitoring of protocol compliance and shifts in utilization to promote clinical support for change. Select a physician champion to provide the framework for managing initiatives with targeted, efficient communication. PMID:22788036

  10. Long-run energy-technology choices, CO/sub 2/ abatement policies, and CO/sub 2/ shadow prices

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1983-01-01

    This study advances a particular research methodology in which existing knowledge of CO/sub 2/ environmental quality and damage functions is embedded in a long-run growth model that permits substitution among energy technologies. The authors illustrate a decentralized abatement policy in which the shadow price of constraining CO/sub 2/ concentrations is utilized to estimate an optimal tax rate on CO/sub 2/ polluting technologies. A quantitative implementation of this approach is carried out based on existing energy-resource reserve and technology cost data, and on their appraisal of preliminary environmental quality and damage data.

  11. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

  12. Patient engagement in research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A compelling ethical rationale supports patient engagement in healthcare research. It is also assumed that patient engagement will lead to research findings that are more pertinent to patients’ concerns and dilemmas. However; it is unclear how to best conduct this process. In this systematic review we aimed to answer 4 key questions: what are the best ways to identify patient representatives? How to engage them in designing and conducting research? What are the observed benefits of patient engagement? What are the harms and barriers of patient engagement? Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane, EBSCO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier and Google Scholar. Included studies were published in English, of any size or design that described engaging patients or their surrogates in research design. We conducted an environmental scan of the grey literature and consulted with experts and patients. Data were analyzed using a non-quantitative, meta-narrative approach. Results We included 142 studies that described a spectrum of engagement. In general, engagement was feasible in most settings and most commonly done in the beginning of research (agenda setting and protocol development) and less commonly during the execution and translation of research. We found no comparative analytic studies to recommend a particular method. Patient engagement increased study enrollment rates and aided researchers in securing funding, designing study protocols and choosing relevant outcomes. The most commonly cited challenges were related to logistics (extra time and funding needed for engagement) and to an overarching worry of a tokenistic engagement. Conclusions Patient engagement in healthcare research is likely feasible in many settings. However, this engagement comes at a cost and can become tokenistic. Research dedicated to identifying the best methods to achieve engagement is lacking and clearly needed. PMID

  13. The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Murad, Havi; Regier, Natalie G.; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Background Engagement refers to the act of being occupied or involved with an external stimulus. In dementia, engagement is the antithesis of apathy. Objective The Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement was examined, in which environmental, person, and stimulus characteristics impact the level of engagement of persons with dementia. Methods Participants were 193 residents of 7 Maryland nursing homes. All participants had a diagnosis of dementia. Stimulus engagement was assessed via the Observational Measure of Engagement. Engagement was measured by duration, attention, and attitude to the stimulus. 25 stimuli were presented, which were categorized as live human social stimuli, simulated social stimuli, inanimate social stimuli, a reading stimulus, manipulative stimuli, a music stimulus, task and work-related stimuli, and two different self-identity stimuli. Results All stimuli elicited significantly greater engagement in comparison to the control stimulus. In the multivariate model, music significantly increased engagement duration, while all other stimuli significantly increased duration, attention, and attitude. Significant environmental variables in the multivariate model that increased engagement were: use of the long introduction with modeling (relative to minimal introduction), any level of sound (most especially moderate sound), and the presence of between 2 to 24 people in the room. Significant personal attributes included MMSE scores, ADL performance and clarity of speech, which were positively associated with higher engagement scores. Conclusions Results are consistent with the Comprehensive Process Model of Engagement. Person attributes, environmental factors, and stimulus characteristics all contribute to the level and nature of engagement, with a secondary finding being that exposure to any stimulus elicits engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:21946802

  14. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  15. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  16. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inlandareas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27 percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  17. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Crumby, W.D.

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  18. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions. PMID:25108828

  19. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  20. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.