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1

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

2012-01-01

2

Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.  

PubMed

Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

2013-12-01

3

Microbiological baseline study of poultry slaughtered in provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Studies to determine baseline levels of microbial contaminants and foodborne bacterial pathogens are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programs, Good Manufacturing/Production Practices, and various interventions. In 2004 and 2005 poultry carcass rinses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada, were tested to determine the levels of aerobic plate count bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp., and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Samples were collected from 3 high volume and 62 low volume abbatoirs. All samples (1296) were positive for aerobic plate count bacteria, with 98.8% of samples having counts of 100 000 or less colony forming units (CFU)/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 99.7% of the 1296 carcasses and were recovered at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.3% of the samples. Generic E. coli were recovered from 99.1% of the 1296 carcasses at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.6% of the samples. Seventy five percent of 1234 samples that were tested for Campylobacter were positive; 37.5% of 1295 samples that were tested for Salmonella were positive; and only 2 of 1296 samples tested for STEC were positive (0.15%). PMID:19412397

Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero

2009-01-01

4

Microbiological baseline study of beef and pork carcasses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 2006 and 2007 beef and pork carcass swabs from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada were tested to determine the levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swabs from beef and pork carcasses from 48 and 34 facilities, respectively, were analyzed. All samples tested were positive for aerobic bacteria with 99.8% of beef and 96.0% of pork samples, having total counts of ? 100 000 CFU/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 22.4% and 42.0% of beef and pork carcass samples, respectively. Generic E. coli were recovered from 14.6% of beef and 33.7% of pork carcass samples. For beef carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 0.1% of 1036 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 1.5% of 1022 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 5.4% of 1018 samples tested for STEC. For pork carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 1.6 % of 1076 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 8.8% of 1070 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 4.8% of 1067 samples tested for STEC. PMID:22467964

Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero

2011-01-01

5

At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

6

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

2013-01-01

7

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...or chopping in the manufacturing of meat food products. As used in this...of frozen boneless manufacturing meat of one...

2012-01-01

8

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

...and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...or chopping in the manufacturing of meat food products. As used in this...of frozen boneless manufacturing meat of one...

2014-01-01

9

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...or chopping in the manufacturing of meat food products. As used in this...of frozen boneless manufacturing meat of one...

2013-01-01

10

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...or chopping in the manufacturing of meat food products. As used in this...of frozen boneless manufacturing meat of one...

2011-01-01

11

Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis. PMID:22726722

2012-01-01

12

9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

2012-01-01

13

9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.  

...2014-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

2014-01-01

14

9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

2013-01-01

15

9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

2011-01-01

16

A survey of pre-slaughter conditions, halothane gene frequency, and carcass and meat quality in five Spanish pig commercial abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 15,695 commercial pigs delivered to five abattoirs, were surveyed during winter and summer. Information about on-farm fasting, transport duration and stocking density, and lairage time was collected. Cortisol, creatine phospho-kinase (CPK), and lactate, and DNA for halothane genotype were analysed in a subsample of pigs at exsanguination in every journey. Electrical conductivity (PQM) in

M. Gispert; L. Faucitano; M. A. Oliver; M. D. Guŕrdia; C. Coll; K. Siggens; K. Harvey; A. Diestre

2000-01-01

17

Economic Assessment of Food Safety Regulations: The New Approach to Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

USDA is now requiring all Federally inspected meat and poultry processing and slaughter plants to implement a new system called Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to reduce potentially harmful microbial pathogens in the food supply. This report finds that the benefits of the new regulations, which are the medical costs and productivity losses that are prevented when foodborne

Stephen R. Crutchfield; Jean C. Buzby; Tanya Roberts; Michael Ollinger; C.-T. Jordan Lin

1997-01-01

18

Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing  

PubMed Central

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

19

Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 2005-2010 data from ten French slaughterhouses  

PubMed Central

Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer’s lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. PMID:23628140

2013-01-01

20

Characterization of the Effluent Wastewater from Abattoirs for Land Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627?mg\\/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099?mg\\/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content

Gauri S. Mittal

2004-01-01

21

Improving meat inspection and control in resource-poor communities: the Nepal example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat is an important source of protein and a valuable commodity in resource-poor communities. In many developing countries, lack of appropriate slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as invaluable by-products from animal carcasses. Slaughtering places are frequently contaminated and may not be protected against dogs, rodents and insects. Meat products coming from

Durga Datt Joshi; Mahendra Maharjan; Maria Vang Johansen; Arve Lee Willingham; Minu Sharma

2003-01-01

22

Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.  

PubMed

The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment. PMID:1146147

Watson, W A

1975-04-26

23

Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.  

PubMed

World rabbit meat production is estimated to be over 1 million tons, and Spain is the third largest producer. Although rabbit meat is marketed and consumed worldwide, information on microbiological quality is very scarce. Here, we report indicator organisms, spoilage flora, sensory quality, and some physicochemical traits of 24 h postmortem chilled rabbit carcasses and prepackaged rabbit meat stored chilled in air for 0 to 3 days at the retail level. The mean total bacterial count (4.01 +/- 0.48 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a small abattoir by a manual process was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that (4.96 +/- 0.90 log CFU/g) for carcasses dressed at a large abattoir in automated slaughter lines. Both groups of carcasses had mean pH values of 5.98. The dominant contaminants on carcasses from the small abattoir were Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. These microorganisms and Brochothrix thermosphacta were dominant on carcasses from the large abattoir. On prepacked hind legs (pH 6.26 +/- 0.18) stored at -1 to +1 degree C (supermarket 1), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 5.87 +/- 1.03 log CFU/g, and the major microbial groups were Pseudomonas, yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta. On prepacked whole carcasses (pH 6.37 +/- 0.18) displayed at -1 to +5 degrees C (supermarket 2), mean aerobic mesophilic count was 6.60 +/- 1.18 and the same microbial groups were dominant. Relative Escherichia coli incidence was supermarket 2 > large abattoir > supermarket 1 > small abattoir. Overall, low numbers of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic clostridia, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and molds were found. Sensory scores, pH values, and L-lactic acid content differentiated fresh carcasses from retail samples. Data obtained suggest that the microflora of chilled rabbit meat are different from those found on the meat of other animals. PMID:15151235

Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

2004-05-01

24

78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...importers and customs brokers to enter FSIS import inspection application information directly into the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), which transfers data into ACE as part of the CBP entry process. The PGA Message Set is a harmonized data set...

2013-03-29

25

Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at

Borna Müller; Benjamin Steiner; Bassirou Bonfoh; Adama Fané; Noel H Smith; Jakob Zinsstag

2008-01-01

26

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2011-01-01

27

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

2011-01-01

28

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

2011-01-01

29

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

2011-01-01

30

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2011-01-01

31

9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings...308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of...

2013-01-01

32

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an...

2012-01-01

33

9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings...308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of...

2012-01-01

34

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.  

...Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition...

2014-01-01

35

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an...

2011-01-01

36

9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.  

... false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings...308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of...

2014-01-01

37

9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings...308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of...

2011-01-01

38

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition...

2013-01-01

39

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2013-02-01

40

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

2011-01-01

41

The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs' Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on  Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on  Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834

Olorode, Oluwayemisi A

2012-01-01

42

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42...42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product §...

2012-01-01

43

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

... Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42...42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product §...

2014-01-01

44

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42...42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product §...

2013-01-01

45

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42...42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product §...

2011-01-01

46

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

2011-01-01

47

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2011-01-01

48

9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Service § 354.10 Inspection service. Any inspection service in accordance with the...

2012-01-01

49

9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Service § 354.10 Inspection service. Any inspection service in accordance with the...

2011-01-01

50

9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Service § 354.10 Inspection service. Any inspection service in accordance with the...

2014-01-01

51

9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Service § 354.10 Inspection service. Any inspection service in accordance with the...

2010-01-01

52

9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Service § 354.10 Inspection service. Any inspection service in accordance with the...

2013-01-01

53

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.121 Ante-mortem inspection. An...

2012-01-01

54

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.121 Ante-mortem inspection. An...

2011-01-01

55

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.121 Ante-mortem inspection. An...

2013-01-01

56

9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

57

9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

58

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

2011-01-01

59

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

2012-01-01

60

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

...2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

2014-01-01

61

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

2013-01-01

62

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Appeals § 354.134 Appeal inspections; how made. Any person receiving inspection service...

2014-01-01

63

9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Reports § 354.90 Report of inspection work. Reports of the work of inspection carried on...

2014-01-01

64

9 CFR 354.74 - Prerequisites to inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.74 Prerequisites to inspection. Inspection of...

2010-01-01

65

9 CFR 354.74 - Prerequisites to inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.74 Prerequisites to inspection. Inspection of...

2011-01-01

66

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Appeals § 354.134 Appeal inspections; how made. Any person receiving inspection service...

2011-01-01

67

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.30 Who may obtain inspection service. An application...

2014-01-01

68

9 CFR 354.74 - Prerequisites to inspection.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.74 Prerequisites to inspection. Inspection of...

2014-01-01

69

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.30 Who may obtain inspection service. An application...

2011-01-01

70

9 CFR 354.74 - Prerequisites to inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.74 Prerequisites to inspection. Inspection of...

2013-01-01

71

9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Reports § 354.90 Report of inspection work. Reports of the work of inspection carried on...

2012-01-01

72

9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Reports § 354.90 Report of inspection work. Reports of the work of inspection carried on...

2013-01-01

73

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Appeals § 354.134 Appeal inspections; how made. Any person receiving inspection service...

2012-01-01

74

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.30 Who may obtain inspection service. An application...

2013-01-01

75

9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Reports § 354.90 Report of inspection work. Reports of the work of inspection carried on...

2011-01-01

76

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Application for Inspection Service § 354.30 Who may obtain inspection service. An application...

2012-01-01

77

9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

78

9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

79

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2011-01-01

80

A prospective follow-up study on transmission of campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.  

PubMed

Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

2014-09-01

81

9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.  

...the meat entered the meat processing establishment, and original certification (including temperature recording charts and graphs), must be kept for all cooked meat by the full-time salaried meat inspection official of the National Government of...

2014-01-01

82

9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the meat entered the meat processing establishment, and original certification (including temperature recording charts and graphs), must be kept for all cooked meat by the full-time salaried meat inspection official of the National Government of...

2013-01-01

83

9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...  

...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

2014-01-01

84

9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

2012-01-01

85

9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

2013-01-01

86

Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. Of 3330 animals screened only 60 exhibited gross visible lesions. From these animals, twenty strains of M. bovis were isolated and characterised by spoligotyping. Results Organ lesions typical of BTB were most often detected in the liver, followed by the lung and the peritoneum. M. bovis was isolated from 20 animals and 7 different spoligotypes were observed among these 20 strains; three of the patterns had not been previously reported. Spoligotype patterns from thirteen of the strains lacked spacer 30, a characteristic common in strains of M. bovis found in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. However, unlike the other three Central African countries, the majority of spoligotype patterns observed in Mali also lacked spacer 6. Of the remaining seven strains, six had spoligotype patterns identical to strains commonly isolated in France and Spain. Conclusion Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin. PMID:18637160

Müller, Borna; Steiner, Benjamin; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Fané, Adama; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

2008-01-01

87

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

2011-01-01

88

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats. PMID:23213629

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

89

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.122 Condemnation on ante-mortem...

2011-01-01

90

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection...

2011-01-01

91

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.123 Segregation of suspects on...

2013-01-01

92

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.123 Segregation of suspects on...

2012-01-01

93

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection...

2014-01-01

94

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.123 Segregation of suspects on...

2014-01-01

95

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.122 Condemnation on ante-mortem...

2013-01-01

96

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection...

2013-01-01

97

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection...

2012-01-01

98

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.123 Segregation of suspects on...

2011-01-01

99

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.122 Condemnation on ante-mortem...

2014-01-01

100

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.122 Condemnation on ante-mortem...

2012-01-01

101

Effects of abattoir and slaughter handling systems on stress indicators in pig blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigs from four farms were slaughtered at two abattoirs, each with two slaughter handling systems. Pigs at abattoir X were electrically stunned, either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a race-restrainer. At abattoir Y pigs were stunned either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a dip-lift carbon dioxide stunner. At exsanguination, 96 blood samples

CM Weeding; EJ Hunter; HJ Guise; RH Penny

1993-01-01

102

9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

2013-01-01

103

9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

2011-01-01

104

9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.  

... Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

2014-01-01

105

9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

2012-01-01

106

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

2014-01-01

107

Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

2009-12-01

108

Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481

2013-01-01

109

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

110

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

111

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

112

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

113

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

114

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

115

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

116

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

117

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

118

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

119

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

120

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

121

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

122

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

123

9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

124

9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

125

9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

126

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2011-01-01

127

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.110 Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative...

2012-01-01

128

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.110 Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative...

2013-01-01

129

9 CFR 354.62 - Inspection mark with respect to product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Identifying and Marking Products § 354.62 Inspection mark with respect to product. The...

2012-01-01

130

9 CFR 354.107 - Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.107 Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis. The...

2012-01-01

131

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Acceptability of Other Official Inspection Systems § 354.161 Requirements as to manner...

2011-01-01

132

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.76 Time of inspection in an official plant....

2013-01-01

133

9 CFR 354.109 - Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.109 Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative...

2013-01-01

134

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.76 Time of inspection in an official plant....

2012-01-01

135

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.110 Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative...

2011-01-01

136

9 CFR 354.105 - Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.105 Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates. Additional...

2011-01-01

137

9 CFR 354.107 - Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.107 Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis. The...

2014-01-01

138

9 CFR 354.105 - Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.105 Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates. Additional...

2012-01-01

139

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Acceptability of Other Official Inspection Systems § 354.161 Requirements as to manner...

2012-01-01

140

9 CFR 354.107 - Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.107 Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis. The...

2011-01-01

141

9 CFR 354.109 - Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.109 Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative...

2011-01-01

142

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Acceptability of Other Official Inspection Systems § 354.161 Requirements as to manner...

2013-01-01

143

9 CFR 354.105 - Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.105 Fees for additional copies of inspection certificates. Additional...

2014-01-01

144

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.110 Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative...

2014-01-01

145

9 CFR 354.62 - Inspection mark with respect to product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Identifying and Marking Products § 354.62 Inspection mark with respect to product. The...

2013-01-01

146

9 CFR 354.109 - Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.109 Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative...

2012-01-01

147

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.76 Time of inspection in an official plant....

2011-01-01

148

9 CFR 354.62 - Inspection mark with respect to product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Identifying and Marking Products § 354.62 Inspection mark with respect to product. The...

2011-01-01

149

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Basis of Acceptability of Other Official Inspection Systems § 354.161 Requirements as to manner...

2014-01-01

150

9 CFR 354.62 - Inspection mark with respect to product.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Identifying and Marking Products § 354.62 Inspection mark with respect to product. The...

2014-01-01

151

9 CFR 354.109 - Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative agreement.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Fees and Charges § 354.109 Fees or charges for inspection service performed under cooperative...

2014-01-01

152

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.76 Time of inspection in an official plant....

2014-01-01

153

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...inspection services. (a) Any person desiring to process an exotic animal, exotic animal carcasses, exotic animal meat and meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval of such establishment...

2012-01-01

154

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

...inspection services. (a) Any person desiring to process an exotic animal, exotic animal carcasses, exotic animal meat and meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval of such establishment...

2014-01-01

155

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspection services. (a) Any person desiring to process an exotic animal, exotic animal carcasses, exotic animal meat and meat food products in an establishment under exotic animal inspection service must receive approval of such establishment...

2013-01-01

156

Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord

2014-01-01

157

Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

2014-01-01

158

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2010-01-01

159

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

2010-01-01

160

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2011-01-01

161

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2013-01-01

162

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2014-01-01

163

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2012-01-01

164

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2011-01-01

165

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

166

Abattoirs as Non-Hospital Source of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producers: Confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test and Characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers. PMID:24728403

Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Iroha, Ifeanyi R.; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey

2014-01-01

167

DIPTERAN FAUNA OF AN ABATTOIR AND ITS CONTIGUOUS FALLOW PLOT IN A GUINEA SAVANNA ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

The pitfall trap was used in the study of the dipteran populations of an abattoir and a contiguous fallow plot, in relation to their relative abundance and distribution. A total number of 140 adult species of Synydas and Stomorhina cribrata, and 400 dipteran larvae were captured at the abattoir using pitfall techniques, with correspondingly fewer species of similar dipterans trapped at the contiguous fallow plot. Significant difference existed in the trapping of the Diptera larvae with more trapped at the abattoir than the fallow plot using Student t-test. There was also a preponderance of calliphorid species at the abattoir when the sweep net was used, with these species implicated as being potential pests of medical and forensic importance. The presence of Sarcophaga sp. and Fannia canicularis in the sweep net collection at the abattoir was also traced to the presence of decaying fall-offs from carcass. Other possible implications of the collected dipteran species at the abattoir and its vicinity were also discussed.

Ewuim Sylvanus Chima

168

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2012-01-01

169

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2011-01-01

170

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2014-01-01

171

9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a) All...

2012-01-01

172

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2013-01-01

173

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2011-01-01

174

Enterobacteriaceae associated with meats and meat handling.  

PubMed Central

The source of Enterobacteriaceae on meats was shown to be associated with the meat-handling work surfaces in two packing plants studies. A total of 2,343 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and identified from meat samples and work surfaces at the packing plants and at the retail facilities. Escherichia coli biotype I and Serratia liquefaciens were detected at all stages of meat handling, indicating that they may be present in meats throughout the meat-handling system. Enterobacter agglomerans and S. liquefaciens were the predominant Enterobacteriaceae at the retail level, but they had limited indicator potential for sanitation and hygiene, Klebsiella pneumoniae was a frequent isolate among Enterobacteriaceae from meats and meat-handling surfaces in the packing plants but not at the retail level, indicating that this organism might signal unhygienic handling of meats at the retail level. PMID:7195193

Stiles, M E; Ng, L K

1981-01-01

175

A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.  

PubMed

A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697

Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

2012-10-01

176

Meat products and consumption culture in the West.  

PubMed

Meat products and consumption culture in the West may be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The dominant cultural source was Greco-Roman, with evidence from archeology, surviving documents and the names of meat cuts. The initial uniformity of meat technology and language in the Roman Empire was lost as national boundaries and languages fragmented. More recently, however, there has been a strong trend back to uniformity in meat cutting and grading. This started in the USA to solve logistical problems associated with long-distance commerce and similar changes occurred with the formation of the EU. Issues such as meat inspection and animal transport have been strongly influenced by the effect of literature on public opinion, which then led to legislated improvements. Innovations in other areas such as meat distribution and preservation had military origins. Meat consumption culture was involved in the early development of language, social grouping and religions. PMID:20605689

Swatland, H J

2010-09-01

177

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01

178

Influenza Virus A (H10N7) in Chickens and Poultry Abattoir Workers, Australia  

PubMed Central

In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers. PMID:22516302

Kirkland, Peter D.; Arzey, K. Edla; Frost, Melinda; Maywood, Patrick; Conaty, Stephen; Hurt, Aeron C.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Barr, Ian; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Ratnamohan, Mala; McPhie, Kenneth; Selleck, Paul

2012-01-01

179

Total Lipids of Sarda Sheep Meat that Include the Fatty Acid and Alkenyl Composition and the CLA and Trans -18:1 Isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle were analyzed from commercial adult Sarda sheep in Sardina taken from local abattoirs, and in the subsequent year\\u000a from three local farms in the Sassari region that provided some information on the amount and type of supplements fed to the\\u000a pasture-fed sheep. The complete lipid analysis of sheep meat included the fatty

Viviana Santercole; Rina Mazzette; Enrico P. L. De Santis; Sebastiano Banni; Laki Goonewardene; John K. G. Kramer

2007-01-01

180

Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

2014-01-01

181

Risk assessment of DFD meat due to pre-slaughter conditions in pigs.  

PubMed

A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to identify and assess the risk factors for pork becoming dark, firm and dry meat (DFD). A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 3075 commercial pigs delivered from different farms to five commercial Spanish pig abattoirs were surveyed. The DFD condition was described as an ordinal response variable (normal, moderate and serious) based on measurements of pH(24) in the Semimembranosus muscle. The abattoir, the floor of the lorry, the season, the gender, and the stocking density during transportation influenced the risk of DFD, as well as on-farm fasting time, lairage time and estimated carcass lean content. No effect of the RYR1 gene in the risk of DFD was found. Abattoirs should be especially careful with females slaughtered in winter, where the risk of serious DFD is 4.6% higher than with males slaughtered in summer. The risk of DFD increased with high stocking density and lairage time, and with on-farm fasting times longer than 22h. Our results revealed that lowering the stocking density from 0.37 to 0.50m(2) per 100kg pig during transport would increase the risk of DFD pork by 11%. PMID:20416842

Guŕrdia, M D; Estany, J; Balasch, S; Oliver, M A; Gispert, M; Diestre, A

2010-04-22

182

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

183

Lipid stability in meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or

P. A. Morrissey; P. J. A. Sheehy; K. Galvin; J. P. Kerry; D. J. Buckley

1998-01-01

184

Ambivalence towards meat.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

2004-02-01

185

Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

2014-01-01

186

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2014-01-01

187

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2013-01-01

188

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2011-01-01

189

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2012-01-01

190

9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.  

...23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...comminuted, flattened cake of meat food product. (2) Comminuted. ...writing by a process authority for safety and efficacy in meeting the...

2014-01-01

191

Radiographic inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This experiment has several objectives which will familiarize the students with the use of a radiographic inspection system, the method of taking a radiograph, darkroom developing procedures, and inspection of a radiograph. The equipment consists of a Faxitron model 8075 radiographic inspection system. Detailed step-by-step procedures are described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

192

A stochastic model to estimate the prevalence of scrapie in Great Britain using the results of an abattoir-based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997\\/1998, an abattoir survey was conducted to determine the likely exposure of the human population to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection in sheep submitted for slaughter in Great Britain. The survey examined brain material from 2809 sheep processed through British abattoirs. Sampling was targeted by age: 45% of animals tested were ?15 months old. All samples of adequate quality

C. R Webb; J. W Wilesmith; M. M Simmons; L. J Hoinville

2001-01-01

193

Formation and identification of nitrosylmyoglobin by Staphylococcus xylosus in raw meat batters: a potential solution for nitrite substitution in meat products.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from Chinese dried sausage were assessed for their ability to convert metmyoglobin into nitrosylmyoglobin in Mann-Rogosa-Sharp broth model systems and raw pork meat batters without the addition of nitrite. The results showed that samples in model systems with S. xylosus cultures had an absorption spectra that is typical of nitrosylmyoglobin, an obvious pink colour (judged by visual inspection) and a significantly higher a-value than the control samples or samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus. In raw meat batters, the a-values of the S. xylosus samples were almost the same as those for the meat with nitrite added. The complementary analysis of meat batter samples by photochemical information from UV-vis, electron spin resonance and resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed that the existing status of the myoglobin in meat batters inoculated with S. xylosus was mainly pentacoordinate nitrosylmyoglobin. This study provides a potential solution for nitrite substitute in meat products. PMID:22926033

Li, Peijun; Kong, Baohua; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Dongmei; Liu, Ning

2013-01-01

194

9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...352.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...and parts of carcasses, or horse meat food products shall be those in § 312.3...

2011-01-01

195

9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.  

...352.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...and parts of carcasses, or horse meat food products shall be those in § 312.3...

2014-01-01

196

9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...352.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...and parts of carcasses, or horse meat food products shall be those in § 312.3...

2012-01-01

197

9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...352.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...and parts of carcasses, or horse meat food products shall be those in § 312.3...

2013-01-01

198

Meat, Poultry and Fish  

MedlinePLUS

Meat, Poultry and Fish Updated:Aug 11,2014 AHA Recommendation Choose fish, shellfish, poultry without the skin, and trimmed lean meats, no more ... at least 2 servings of baked or grilled fish each week, especially oily fish. Choose low-sodium, ...

199

Cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from various municipal abattoirs in Oman.  

PubMed

A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. PMID:25096054

Al-Kitani, Fadya; Baqir, Senan; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Roberts, Derek

2014-12-01

200

RETAIL MEAT MANAGERS' PROFITABILITY EXPECTATIONS FOR IRRADIATED RED MEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from 40 personal interviews with meat department managers at grocery stores and supermarkets to investigate managers' expectations regarding the profitability potential of irradiated red meats. The study models managers' profitability expectations as function of many attributes and factors, such as the meat manager's or store's characteristics, how familiar the meat manager is with irradiation, and opinions

Joe Gaynor; Kimberly L. Jensen; Edward C. Jaenicke

2002-01-01

201

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

202

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness is reviewed, where the meat structural origin of variation in meat tenderness is tried to be elucidated. Processes, such as rigor development and ageing, known to influence the properties of the structural components, is covered, and variables that influence those processes, such as chilling, electrical stimulation and stress ante-mortem, are discussed. Meat tenderness can be

E. Tornberg

1996-01-01

203

Food Safety and Meat Microbiology  

E-print Network

Food Safety and Meat Microbiology School July 17-19, 2012 Master Meat Crafter Program Department) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Meat Science Laboratory are again hosting the Food Safety and Meat your food safety systems and the safety of your products. Topics will include microbiology, sanitation

Sheridan, Jennifer

204

Development of the aerobic spoilage flora of chilled rabbit meat.  

PubMed

Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is over 1,000,000ton, little information is available on rabbit meat microbiology. This paper reports on the microflora developing on chill-stored rabbit carcasses. Four different lots of 24h post-mortem rabbit carcasses dressed and kept at 0°C in a medium-size abattoir were collected and evaluated for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological changes during aerobic storage at 3±1°C. Mean initial pH value (pH(24)), extract-release volume (ERV) and lactate content of Biceps femoris muscle, were 6.26±0.20, 13.50±3.50ml and 0.70±0.07%, respectively. As with other muscle foods kept chilled in air, pH increased and ERV and lactate decreased as storage progressed. Initial levels (logcfu/g) of aerobes (APC), psychrotrophic flora, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were 4.76±0.31, 4.81±0.81, 3.39±1.12, 2.01±0.92, 2.76±0.51, 0.49±0.45 and 3.46±0.32, respectively. Pseudomonads, most of them fluorescent, and to a lesser extent B. thermosphacta and yeasts grew faster than the remaining microorganisms and became predominant at the end of the shelf life. Carcasses spoiled when mean APC, psychrotrophic and pseudomonads numbers were ca. 8logcfu/g, their mean shelf life being estimated at 6.8 days. A lot of DFD-like rabbit carcasses, with higher pH and lower ERV values but similar microbial loads to normal meat, developed a strong putrid odour after 4 days. PMID:22063497

Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

2005-06-01

205

Isolation and multilineage differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells localized in the stromal compartment of the bone marrow (BM). The potential of MSC for mesenchymal differentiation has been well documented in different animal models predominantly on rodents. However, information regarding bovine MSC (bMSC) is limited, and the differentiation potential of bMSC derived from fetal BM remains unknown. In the present study we sought to isolate bMSC from abattoir-derived fetal BM and to characterize the multipotent and differentiation potential under osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic conditions by quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. These cells expressed high levels of MSC surface markers (CD73, CD90, and CD105) and low levels of hematopoietic surface markers (CD34 and CD45). Culture of bMSC under osteogenic conditions during a 27-day period induced up-regulation of the osteocalcin (OC) gene expression and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity, and promoted mineralization of the matrix. Increasing supplementation levels of ascorbic acid to culture media enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bMSC; whereas, reduction of FBS supplementation compromised osteogenesis. bMSC increased expression of cartilage-specific genes aggrecan (ACAN), collagen 2A1 (COL2A1) and SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9) at Day 21 of chondrogenic differentiation. Treatment of bMSC with adipogenic factors increased levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (AP2) mRNA and accumulation of lipid vacuoles after 18 days of culture. NANOG mRNA levels in differentiating bMSC were not affected during adipogenic culture; however, osteogenic and chondrogenic conditions induced higher and lower levels, respectively. Conclusions Our analyses revealed the potential multilineage differentiation of bMSC isolated from abattoir-derived fetal BM. NANOG mRNA pattern in differentiating bMSC varied according to differentiation culture conditions. The osteogenic differentiation of bMSC was affected by ascorbic acid and FBS concentrations in culture media. The simplicity of isolation and the differentiation potential suggest that bMSC from abattoir-derived fetal BM are appropriate candidate for investigating MSC biology and for eventual applications for regenerative therapy. PMID:23826829

2013-01-01

206

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

207

Meat spoilage during distribution.  

PubMed

Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions. PMID:22062098

Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

2008-01-01

208

Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure  

PubMed Central

Abstract A study was performed to evaluate the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat collected at slaughterhouses and its potential transmission to pigs via pig meat. A total of 1039 blood samples were collected from pigs upon their arrival at the abattoir. The following day, meat samples (n = 1027) were collected from the carcasses of these same pigs. Samples originated from 2 Canadian slaughterhouses, 1 situated in the province of Quebec and the other situated in the province of Manitoba. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to PRRSV and both serum and meat samples were also tested for PRRSV nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seropositivity to PRRSV for all serum samples was 74.3%. Furthermore 45 (4.3%) of the total serum samples and 19 (1.9%) of the 1027 meat samples were positive for PRRSV by PCR. Sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 5 performed on 15 of the 19 PRRSV strains identified in pig meat indicated that 9 were field strains and 6 were vaccine-like (98% to 99.7% nucleotide homology with the Ingelvac RespPRRS/Repro vaccine). One of these 6 strains presented an intermediate 2-6-2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cut pattern and the others showed the characteristic 2-5-2 RFLP pattern of the vaccine strain. All strains sequenced were determined to be North American strains. In only 1 of the 19 PRRSV-positive meat samples could PRRSV be isolated. To test the potential infectivity of meat samples containing residual PRRSV, 11 of the PCR-positive meat samples (weighing 1.05 to 1.8 kg) were each used in feeding experiments of 2 PRRSV antibody-negative specific pathogen-free pigs of 9 wk of age. Samples were cut into several pieces and fed to each pair of pigs on 2 consecutive days. Each pig pair was housed in a separate cubicle and serum samples were collected at –7, 0, 7, 14, and 20 to 21 days post exposure. Seven pig pairs were found to be infected by PRRSV following ingestion of meat samples, including meat samples containing vaccine-like virus, as judged by the demonstration of PRRSV antibodies and/or PRRSV nucleic acid in the serum. In summary, the present study indicated that low residual quantities of PRRSV may be found in a small percentage of pig meat collected at slaugtherhouses. Furthermore, when this meat was fed raw to pigs in the experimental setting designed, pigs could be infected by PRRSV. PMID:15581220

2004-01-01

209

Effect of electrical and mechanical stunning on bleeding, instrumental properties and sensory meat quality in rabbits.  

PubMed

Different voltage and frequency (T-1=49V, 250Hz; T-2=130V, 172Hz; T-3=22V, 833Hz) combinations of electrical stunning and cervical dislocation (T-4) were studied in 101 commercial rabbits in an industrial abattoir. Electrical stunning accelerated the early muscular acidification, providing lower pH-45 and pH-2h values on Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris and higher pH-24h on Biceps femoris than cervical dislocation (P<0.02). Furthermore, meat from rabbits stunned with electrical methods showed more redness (a* with mean values 1.17-1.30 vs. 0.66, P<0.02), although this cannot be associated to low exsanguination levels because electrical methods tend to produce even higher bleeding percentage than mechanical stunning (P=0.063). Haematin content in muscle, water-holding capacity and cooking losses were similar in all treatments. Shear force did not change because of the stunning methods, but the members of experienced panel found the meat coming from electrical stunning T-1 (with intermediate voltages and frequencies) tougher and less juicy than the meat obtained with other electrical applications or with cervical dislocation (P<0.05). PMID:24973775

Lafuente, R; López, M

2014-10-01

210

Study on the prevalence of cystic hydatidosis and its economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2008 to March 2009 to assess the status of cystic hydatidosis in cattle\\u000a slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. Out of the total 632 cattle examined visually and manually (palpation and incision),\\u000a 333 (52.69%) were found harboring hydatid cysts. A significantly higher infection was detected in older cattle (P??\\u000a 2?=?4.36) than young. Regarding body

Feyesa Regassa; Alemante Molla; Jemere Bekele

2010-01-01

211

Cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora export Abattoir, northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional and retrospective studies were conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir in northern Ethiopia. Out of the 308 cattle examined for the presence of hydatid cysts, 63 (20.5 %) of them were found harboring hydatid cysts in one or more of their internal organs. Results of the study showed higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in adult (22.4 %; 49/219) than in young (15.7 %; 14/89) cattle. Lowest prevalence of hydatid cysts was observed in cattle from Debark (7.7 %; 2/26) whereas highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in cattle from Fogera (28.2 %; 11/39). The lungs (69.3 %; 61/88) were the most affected organs followed by the livers (28.4 %; 25/88). A total of 230 hydatid cysts from different internal organs of 63 infected cattle were differentiated into 60.4 % calcified, 30 % fertile and 9.6 % sterile cysts. Likewise, a total of 13 % (30/230) small, 15.6 % (36/230) medium, and 10.9 % (25/230) large hydatid cysts were recorded. Lung harbored the highest overall count (76.9 %; 177/230) and greatest proportion of large size cysts (13.5 %; 103/177) than all the other organs. Liver harbored the highest proportion of calcified cysts (68 %; 34/50). An overall proportion of 30 % (69/230) fertile cysts were recorded. The greatest proportion of fertile cysts (33.3 %; 59/177) was recorded in lungs followed by the livers (20 %; 10/50). A retrospective data of 5 years (2004/5-2009/10) revealed an overall prevalence of 30.4 % (9,106/29,951) and highest overall prevalence of 65.5 % hydatid cysts in the lungs followed by livers (33.5 %) and least in spleen (0.04 %). In conclusion the findings reported herein show that cystic echinococcosis is widespread in cattle slaughtered in Gondar export Abattoir and suggests that the lung is the most important source of hydatid cysts for definitive hosts in the area. PMID:25320493

Abebe, Abebaw; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

212

Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.  

PubMed

The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

2014-01-01

213

Healthier meat and meat products: their role as functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of

F Jiménez-Colmenero; J Carballo; S Cofrades

2001-01-01

214

Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  

PubMed

This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

215

Determination of microbial transglutaminase in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase is an enzyme that can be used to cross-link pieces of meat, fish or meat products. The resulting product gives the optical impression of an intact chunk of meat. The usage of transglutaminase as a food additive is permitted in some countries. However, its utilisation has to be declared to ensure transparency for consumers. This paper describes two orthogonal analytical methods suited for the detection of technological relevant transglutaminase concentrations (around 25 mg pure enzyme in 1 kg of product) in meat and meat products. The mass spectrometry-based approach relies on a previous digestion with Achromobacter lyticus protease and LC-MS/MS separation and detection. Sufficient selectivity was obtained by monitoring four different peptides. The orthogonal (complementary and independent), ELISA-based approach relies on two commercially available bacterial transglutaminase-specific antibodies, combined to a sandwich ELISA. The two methods were tested by analysing some 60 samples obtained from the market. PMID:22747363

Kaufmann, A; Köppel, R; Widmer, M

2012-01-01

216

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

217

High Pressure Processing of Meat, Meat Products and Seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure processing (HPP) allows the decontamination of foods with minimal impact on their nutritional and sensory features.\\u000a The use of HPP to reduce microbial loads has shown great potential in the meat, poultry and seafood industry. HPP has proven\\u000a to be a promising technology, and industrial HPP applications have grown rapidly, especially in the stabilization of ready-to-eat\\u000a meats and

Marco Campus

2010-01-01

218

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

219

Biomechanical characterization of meat tenderness  

E-print Network

, especially if the meat product is firm. Bourne (1967), as reported by Berry (1983), referred to deformation as "small compression" which he defined as less than 25'/o absolute compression or less than 50'%%d rupture compression. Tensile measurements have..., especially if the meat product is firm. Bourne (1967), as reported by Berry (1983), referred to deformation as "small compression" which he defined as less than 25'/o absolute compression or less than 50'%%d rupture compression. Tensile measurements have...

Marburger, Randi Michelle

2012-06-07

220

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness.  

PubMed

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness is reviewed, where the meat structural origin of variation in meat tenderness is tried to be elucidated. Processes, such as rigor development and ageing, known to influence the properties of the structural components, is covered, and variables that influence those processes, such as chilling, electrical stimulation and stress ante-mortem, are discussed. Meat tenderness can be evaluated both by sensory and instrumental methods. The relationships between mechanical and sensory assessments tend to be non-linear, which can be due to non-linearity in the sensory evaluation and that muscle fibre orientation is easier to control in instrumental than in sensory evaluation. Structural changes of the meat occuring during rigor development are both longitudinal and lateral contraction of the myofibrillar mass. Other structural events, based on the proteolytic action, are the loosing up of the myofibrils held together laterally, weakening of the myofibrillar length and myofibril fragmentation. Using instrumental recordings of meat toughness (Warner-Bratzler (W-B) peak force), it decreases significantly with degree of contraction, when raw, but the reverse is found, when meat is cooked above 60 °C. A structural explanation to this behaviour is suggested to be the following. When meat is raw the lateral contraction of the meat fiber increases with shorter sarcomeres, giving rise to a larger viscous component and hence a lower W-B peak force. On heating, however, with a larger extracellular space, when shortened, there is more room for the connective tissue to contract without being restricted by the myofibrillar mass. This in turn gives a higher number of fibers per unit cross-sectional area, hence a larger elastic modulus and a higher W-B peak force, when cooked. When chilling of muscle during rigor both warm- and cold-shortening occur. Minimal shortening region is for beef M. longissimus dorsi (LD) 10-15 °C and for M. semimembranosus (SM) 7-13 °C. For the SM muscle there is a high correlation between percentage shortening and ultimate tenderness both in the warm- and cold-shortening region. But for the LD muscle this is only the case in the cold-shortening region. This observation suggests that the LD muscle is a more enzymatically active muscle than SM. The influence of low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES) was followed in the cold-shortening region for muscles LD and SM. A significant effect on tenderness 15 days post-mortem was only observed for LD at 1 °C and 4 °C, but not for SM. It was suggested that enhanced proteolysis could be the reason for the improved tenderness on ES of LD, as colds-hortening was not prevented by ES. Long-term and short-term stress ante-mortem can give rise to DFD (dark, firm and dry)-and PSE (pale, soft and exudative)-meat, respectively. DFD-meat (pH(u) > 6.0 in LD) has relatively short sarcomere lengths, but still it is swollen laterally and has consequently a small extracellular space. Therefore DFD-meat usually is tender. PSE-meat has a large variation in sarcomere length. The long sarcomeres of PSE-meat is suggested to be caused by reduced shortening, due to the denaturation of the sarcoplasmic proteins during rigor. The short sarcomeres can be caused by a higher percentage of rigor development in the warm-shortening region and that the denaturation of the myosin heads cause both longitudinal and lateral contraction of the myofibrillar mass. There is also a large variation in tenderness of PSE-meat, but it has been found that this variation is positively correlated to the sarcomere length (r = 0.52**), as has been shown for the other variables that governs the rigor process. PMID:22060650

Tornberg, E

1996-01-01

221

A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences. PMID:23569835

Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

2012-01-01

222

Piping inspection instrument carriage  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

1993-09-20

223

A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.  

PubMed

Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio. PMID:20377948

Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

2010-04-01

224

165 F ... Poultry, ground poultry Stuffing with poultry, meat & fish  

E-print Network

165° F ... Poultry, ground poultry Stuffing with poultry, meat & fish Microwave cooking & reheating Reheating leftovers 155° F ... Ground meat & fish Injected meat (i.e. tenderized) 145° F ... Meat, fish

225

Proteomic approach for the detection of chicken mechanically recovered meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanically recovered meat is cheaper than raw meat and thus has been incorporated into many meat-derived products. EU regulations exclude mechanically recovered meat from the definition of meat; as a consequence analytical procedures are needed to differentiate it from hand-deboned meat. The present pilot study has utilized a proteomic approach to find potential markers for the detection of chicken mechanically

I. Surowiec; K. M. Koistinen; P. D. Fraser; P. M. Bramley

2011-01-01

226

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

227

Cloned transgenic offspring resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer in the goat: oocytes derived from both follicle-stimulating hormone-stimulated and nonstimulated abattoir-derived ovaries.  

PubMed

The use of nuclear transfer (NT) techniques to create transgenic offspring capable of producing valuable proteins may have a major impact on the pharmaceutical market. Our objective was to compare the in vivo developmental potential of NT embryos produced from the fusion of transgenic donor cells with cytoplasts prepared from either FSH-stimulated ovaries or nonstimulated abattoir-derived ovaries. Donor cells were prepared from a transgenic fetus carrying the gene for human antithrombin III as a marker and used within four to eight subpassages. Cells were serum deprived for 4 days prior to cytoplast transfer. Oocytes were enucleated by removing the metaphase plate using a DNA stain and epifluorescent illumination. Donor cells were fused to enucleated oocytes by electric pulse and then chemically activated. There was no difference in the number of transferable embryos produced from cytoplasts of FSH-stimulated ovaries or from the fusion of cytoplasts from abattoir ovaries, nor was there a difference in the number of pregnancies established per recipient with either treatment. All pregnancies from both groups culminated in the births of healthy female kids (five total). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned goats produced from NT using cytoplasts derived from abattoir ovaries. PMID:11673271

Reggio, B C; James, A N; Green, H L; Gavin, W G; Behboodi, E; Echelard, Y; Godke, R A

2001-11-01

228

MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice  

E-print Network

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, there will be some texture and Clavor loss. Discard DAIRY Still contains ice crystals and feels Ice cream, frozen yogurt Discard Discard Cheese (soft and semi-soft) Refreeze. May

Liskiewicz, Maciej

229

Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

Nřrrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

230

An efficient sampling technique used to detect four foodborne pathogens on pork and beef carcasses in nine Belgian abattoirs.  

PubMed

The method presented in this paper should prove useful in assessing the effectiveness of HACCP plans developed in slaughterhouses. Samples were collected by swabbing well-defined areas of pork and beef carcasses with sterile gauze. Between 160 and 420 half-carcasses were swabbed in each of nine pork or beef slaughterhouses. Swabs from five carcasses were placed in the same sterile Stomacher bag, constituting a single composite sample. Standard or validated analytical methods were used to isolate and characterize four foodborne pathogens. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., and verocytotoxin-producing E. coli were detected, respectively, in 27, 2, 2, and 14% of the pork samples and 0, 22, 10, and 5% of the beef samples. Of the 10 samples positive for E. coli O157, only one yielded an isolate confirmed to be enterohemorrhagic. Since Salmonella spp. appear as the main contaminant port (27%) and L. monocytogenes as the main containment of beef (22%), any slaughterhouse sampling plan should include testing for the former in the case of pork carcasses and for the latter in the case of beef carcasses. One should also test regularly for the presence of E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp. in pork and beef abattoirs. The method presented here is an easy way to assess the contamination rate of carcasses at the end of the slaughtering process. PMID:9709223

Korsak, N; Daube, G; Ghafir, Y; Chahed, A; Jolly, S; Vindevogel, H

1998-05-01

231

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOEpatents

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05

232

Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. (Technological Education Institute, Larissa (Greece)); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. (Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))

1989-05-01

233

Building Inspection Technology Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Debra Anderson's building inspection technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The main goal of the course is to teach students the building inspection review process, code requirements and evaluating the adequacy of structural elements. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Anderson, Debra

2011-12-28

234

Control rod inspection experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full text: The Technical Specifications of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk II Nuclear Reactor require, among other things, that the control rods be 'visually inspected' every two years for indication of significant distortion or deterioration. The 'visual inspection' presently consists of close-up photography of the poison section, measurement of the diameter of the cladding with a vernier caliper, weighing

McEwan; Michael J

1978-01-01

235

Hysterisis Modeling by Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

By looking at the hysteresis loop of a core, its nonlinear magnetizing branch can be modeled by visual inspection. Three constants on the hysteresis loop reveal enough information about the core loss and non-linear inductance that power measurements and data-pairs can be avoided. An experimental hysteresis loop is taken from a CT and its model put together by visual inspection.

Fabian M. Uriarte; I. NOMENCLATURE

2006-01-01

236

Understanding Java Stack Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current implementations of Java make security decisions by searching the runtime call stack. These systems have attractive security properties, but they have been criticized as being dependent on specific artifacts of the Java imple- mentation. This paper models the stack inspection algorithm in terms of a well-understood logic for access control and demonstrates how stack inspection is a useful tool

Dan S. Wallach; Edward W. Felten

1998-01-01

237

Coliforms from hides and meat.  

PubMed Central

Coliform tests were performed on 85 hide and 75 meat samples. IMViC reactions were determined on isolates from positive confirmed and fecal tests, and strains other than Escherichia coli were identified. Strains typed as Aerobacter aerogenes types I and II were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (51.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (15%), and Enterobacter liquefaciens, Serratia, and unidentified coliforms (12.1%). K. pneumoniae appeared to be responsible for less than 1% positive fecal tests. PMID:319754

Newton, K G; Harrison, J C; Smith, K M

1977-01-01

238

The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted

Abdul Salam Babji

239

Remote Inspection Technologies for Aircraft Skin Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft flight pressurization\\/depressurization cycles cause their skins to inflate and deflate, stressing the skin around the rivets that fasten it to the airframe. The resulting strain, exacerbated by any corrosion that might be present, drives the growth of the initially microscopic cracks that are an unavoidable by-product of rivet installation. To avoid catastrophe, aircraft are periodically inspected for cracks and

Mel Siegel; Priyan Gunatilake

1997-01-01

240

Backyard Production of Meat Rabbits in Texas  

E-print Network

a small amount of water. Season to taste. Barbecued Rabbit 3 pounds rabbit meat, cut into serving-size pieces Salt and pepper, to taste Flour 3 tablespoons vegetable oil Sauce: 1 cup cider vinegar 2 teaspoons hot red pepper sauce 1 teaspoon salt 2... for 15 minutes; pour the sauce over the meat. Cover the pan and bake at 325 o F until the meat is tender (about 45 minutes). Uncover the pan and place it under the broiler. Broil 15 minutes or until the meat is brown. Serves 6. Note: The sauce, when made...

Lukefahr, Steven D.; Paschal, Joseph C.; Ford, John E.

1998-06-11

241

Influences on meat consumption in Australia.  

PubMed

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

Lea, E; Worsley, A

2001-04-01

242

Consumer phase risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.  

PubMed

The foodborne disease risk associated with the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has been the subject of recent efforts in quantitative microbial risk assessment. Building upon one of these efforts undertaken jointly by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the purpose of this work was to expand on the consumer phase of the risk assessment to focus on handling practices in the home. One-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation was used to model variability in growth and cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes during food storage and preparation of deli meats. Simulations approximated that 0.3% of the servings were contaminated with >10(4) CFU/g of L. monocytogenes at the time of consumption. The estimated mean risk associated with the consumption of deli meats for the intermediate-age population was approximately 7 deaths per 10(11) servings. Food handling in homes increased the estimated mean mortality by 10(6)-fold. Of all the home food-handling practices modeled, inadequate storage, particularly refrigeration temperatures, provided the greatest contribution to increased risk. The impact of cross-contamination in the home was considerably less. Adherence to USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service recommendations for consumer handling of ready-to-eat foods substantially reduces the risk of listeriosis. PMID:16492183

Yang, Hong; Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta A; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

2006-02-01

243

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.  

PubMed

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

2011-08-01

244

Remote surface inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

1993-01-01

245

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

246

Utilities Inspection Technologies  

E-print Network

to be higher or lower than actual temperatures. Infrared readings and images are also affected by dust, moisture, surface emissivities, viewing angles, applied loads, component size and mass. For buried pipe systems, the composition of ground covering... Boroscopes are used to visually inspect interior surfaces. A boroscope usually includes a series of lenses that project the view of the inspected area back to the operator through an eyepiece or to a monitor and video recorder. Generally, this equipment...

Messock, R. K.

247

Nuclear Plant Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

1983-01-01

248

75 FR 51437 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the production of meat from Advanced Meat Recovery systems because...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advanced Meat Recovery. OMB Number...the production of meat from Advanced Meat Recovery (AMR) systems...information to regulations, directives and notices. Customers...

2010-08-20

249

Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

1976-01-01

250

Meat Demand under Rational Habit Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to explore the theoretical implications of a meat demand model with rational habits. To introduce consumption dynamics, habit persistence is used to motivate intertemporally related preferences. The impact of food safety information on meat consumption is systematically analyzed. Important differences between myopic habits and rational habits are outlined.

Chen Zhen; Michael K. Wohlgenant

2005-01-01

251

DNA-Based Traceability of Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definitions of meat traceability are as varied as the people who write them. In essence, they have been encapsulated by McKean (2001) who defined traceability of meat as “the ability to maintain a credible custody of identification for animals or animal products through various steps within the food chain from the farm to the retailer”.

Shackell, G. H.; Dodds, K. G.

252

Storage quality of dark, firm, dry meat.  

PubMed Central

Dark, firm, dry meat contains little or no glucose. Therefore, spoilage bacteria growing on such meat immediately attack amino acids so that spoilage odors and ammonia are detectable at comparatively low cell densities (about 10(6)/cm2). PMID:29565

Newton, K G; Gill, C O

1978-01-01

253

A novel detection method for Alaria alata mesocercariae in meat.  

PubMed

Distomum musculorum suis (DMS), the mesocercarial stage of the trematode Alaria alata, can cause severe damages within their hosts, and since several reports about cases of human larval alariosis have been published, it became apparent that infected game animals and in particular wild boars are a potential source of infection for both humans and animals. A final statement concerning the health risks for consumers could not be given due to the lack of information about both the prevalence of DMS and the suitability of Trichinella inspection methods to detect this parasite in wild boar meat. Our studies concentrate on (1) the verification of suitability of the official digestion methods for Trichinella spp. for DMS detection in wild boars, (2) development, optimization, and validation of methods, and (3) the distribution of the parasites within their paratenic hosts. A total of 868 individual samples/digests from 48 wild boars were analyzed by the reference method for Trichinella detection in meat samples according to regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. In addition to the official protocol, a method modification with Pankreatin(c) and bile acid was applied for analysis of adipose tissue samples (n = 89). On the basis of our results, a new detection method based on a larvae migration technique was developed and used for detection of DMS in 574 single samples. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of DMS in wild boars in a total of 1377 single sample migrations/digestions from 35 positive animals were analyzed by application of all three methods. The official digestion method for Trichinella spp. in wild boars meat is inapplicable for the detection of A. alata mesocercariae as it shows shortcomings in both digestion and sampling. A direct comparison between the newly developed A. alata mesocercariae migration technique and the official digestion method for Trichinella spp. based on 574 single samples from 18 animals clearly shows that the sensitivity to detect A. alata developmental stages in tissues of wild boars of the new method is nearly 60% higher compared with the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion as laid down in regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. Among other advantages, this method offers a simple, highly applicable, fast, and cost effective way to detect DMS in wild boars which is already applicable in routine veterinary inspection. PMID:20405145

Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Grosse, Knut; Zeitler, Lina; Lücker, Ernst

2010-06-01

254

Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968

Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, Jose Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira

2013-01-01

255

Cross-contamination between processing equipment and deli meats by Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Contamination of luncheon meats by Listeria monocytogenes has resulted in outbreaks of listeriosis and major product recalls. Listeriae can survive on processing equipment such as meat slicers which serve as a potential contamination source. This study was conducted to determine (i) the dynamics of cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes from a commercial slicer and associated equipment onto sliced meat products, (ii) the influence of sample size on the efficacy of the BAX-PCR and U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service enrichment culture assays to detect L. monocytogenes on deli meat, and (iii) the fate of L. monocytogenes on sliced deli meats of different types during refrigerated storage. Three types of deli meats, uncured oven-roasted turkey, salami, and bologna containing sodium diacetate and potassium lactate, were tested. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated at ca.10(3) CFU onto the blade of a commercial slicer. Five consecutive meat slices were packed per package, then vacuum sealed, stored at 4 degrees C, and sampled at 1 and 30 days postslicing. Two sample sizes, 25 g and contents of the entire package of meat, were assayed. Total numbers of L. monocytogenes-positive samples, including the two sample sizes and two sampling times, were 80, 9, and 3 for turkey, salami, and bologna, respectively. A higher percentage of turkey meat samples were L. monocytogenes positive when contents of the entire package were assayed than when the 25-g sample was assayed (12.5 and 7.5%, respectively). Lower inoculum populations of ca. 10(1) or 10(2) CFU of L. monocytogenes on the slicer blade were used for an additional evaluation of oven-roasted turkey using two additional sampling times of 60 and 90 days postslicing. L. monocytogenes-positive samples were not detected until 60 days postslicing, and more positive samples were detected at 90 days than at 60 days postslicing. When BAX-PCR and enrichment culture assays were compared, 12, 8, and 2 L. monocytogenes-positive samples were detected by both the enrichment culture and BAX-PCR, BAX-PCR only, and enrichment culture only assays, respectively. The number of L. monocytogenes-positive samples and L. monocytogenes counts increased during storage of turkey meat but decreased for salami and bologna. Significantly more turkey samples were L. monocytogenes positive when the contents of the entire package were sampled than when 25 g was sampled. Our results indicate that L. monocytogenes can be transferred from a contaminated slicer onto meats and can survive or grow better on uncured oven-roasted turkey than on salami or bologna with preservatives. Higher L. monocytogenes cell numbers inoculated on the slicer blade resulted in more L. monocytogenes-positive sliced meat samples. In addition, the BAX-PCR assay was better than the enrichment culture assay at detecting L. monocytogenes on turkey meat (P < 0.05). PMID:16416903

Lin, Chia-Min; Takeuchi, Kazue; Zhang, Lei; Dohm, Cynthia B; Meyer, Joseph D; Hall, Paul A; Doyle, Michael P

2006-01-01

256

Nested case-control study of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers in the meat industry.  

PubMed

Workers in the meat industry are exposed to viruses that cause leukemia and lymphoma in cattle and chickens, and also to carcinogenic chemical agents. This case-control study, nested in a cohort of members of a meatcutters' union in Baltimore, Maryland, investigated whether occupational exposures are associated with death from tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems. Cases of these tumors represent all deaths which occurred in the cohort between 1949 and 1980. Excess risks of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems were observed throughout the meat industry, except in meatpacking plants. Slaughtering activities involving heavy exposure to oncogenic viruses were strongly associated with these tumors, especially with lymphomas. Thus, elevated risks were observed for butchers who killed animals (odds ratio (OR) = 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-27.0); workers in chicken-slaughtering plants (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 0.8-13.1); and workers in cattle/sheep/pig abattoirs (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 0.8-9.5). Among supermarket workers, wrapping meat (mainly a female activity) was associated with increased risk of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.0-14.3), with the odds of both lymphomas and tumors of the myeloid stem cell being elevated. On the other hand, meatcutting in supermarkets (almost exclusively a male activity) was associated with multiple myeloma; the odds ratio for men was 18.0 (95% CI 1.6-207.5), with no myeloma cases being recorded in women. These associations persisted after limited control for exposures outside the industry that have also been observed to be associated with excess risk, such as exposure to pesticides, working/living on pig farms, and exposure to X-rays. The findings provide evidence that workers in the meat industry may be at elevated risk of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to identify more conclusively which exposures play an etiologic role in the occurrence of the different histologic types of these tumors. PMID:9554414

Metayer, C; Johnson, E S; Rice, J C

1998-04-15

257

Predictors of Bovine TB Risk Behaviour amongst Meat Handlers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Guided by the Health Belief Model  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. Results Just over a quarter (28.1%) of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p?=?0.03), not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p?=?0.001), and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p?=?0.001). Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value?=?0.021). Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively). Conclusion Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM. PMID:23409127

Hambolu, Dupe; Freeman, Jenny; Taddese, Henock B.

2013-01-01

258

Revise storage tank inspections  

SciTech Connect

To avoid catastrophic failures and other product-loss incidents, operators must periodically inspect atmospheric storage tanks. Realizing the serious impact of these evaluations, API published an inspection document, API-653, to help operators fully scrutinize a storage tank`s current condition and future service life. Especially for older tanks, problems can occur when vital design information, particularly weld-joint efficiency data is missing. The case history shows how to inspect and evaluate an older storage tank when corrosion is found on the lower shell concourse and critical design information is lost. This example is a step-by-step evaluation of the corrosion`s impact and extent. More important, the example identifies some pitfalls when using default assumptions for corrosion. Because storage capacity is critical, operating facilities must use all resources to their full capabilities. Operating tanks with compromised fill heights can incur losses. Use these guidelines to confirm that the tank-shell thickness satisfies API-653 requirements.

Carucci, V.A. [Carmagen Engineering, Inc., Madison, NJ (United States); Ay, R.L. [COADE, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

259

Home Inspection Checklist.  

E-print Network

8-1586 Texas Agricultural Extension Service HOME INSPECTION CHECKLIST MAR 3 1 1988 Susan M. Quiring* Why A Home Inspection? If you're looking for a "perfect" house, you won't find it. Every house has its strengths and weaknesses. Some flaws... can be corrected easily, but others will require expensive repairs. Selecting your new home will affect your family's financial security and satisfaction in years to come. So it's important to gather as much information as possible and to avoid...

Quiring, Susan M.

1987-01-01

260

Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

261

The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.  

PubMed

This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. PMID:23793078

Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

2013-11-01

262

An outline of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance and its future prospects.  

PubMed

Discussed are the outlines of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance to replace the current meat inspection. An example of a system that uses the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)-principles in the entire production chain from stable to table is also given. Continuous evaluation of risks is the main driving force of the new system. Only then the system has the means to remain flexible and provide for the data necessary to convince trade partners that the products they buy are safe. A monitoring system that keeps track of the important health hazards in the entire chain from stable to table is therefore necessary. This includes monitoring of cases of disease in the human population caused by the hazardous agents of concern. Coordination of the monitoring and control and processing of the information is done by an independent body. Furthermore, the system demands a production from stable to table that is based on the ideas of Integrated Quality Control (IQC), HACCP, and certification of production processes and quality control procedures. Clear legislation provides for criteria about acceptable or unacceptable health risks for the consumer and determines at what moments which risks should be controlled by the producers. Simultaneously, the legislation has to be flexible enough to be able to adapt quickly to any changes in risks, or in the way risks should be controlled. In the new system current meat inspection can easily be carried out by employees of the slaughter houses and is no longer a direct responsibility of the authorities. The authorities only demand certain safety levels and verify whether producers stick to these. Producers remain fully responsible for the safety and quality of their products, and fully liable in case of any damage to the consumers' health. However, it is to be expected that some EU Member-States miss the organizational and agricultural basis for a successful application of the new system. Consequences are that two parallel flows of meat and meat products may come to existence. One flow will exist of meat produced according to the new, and with respect to safety assurance, superior system. The other flow will consist of meat produced and inspected in the traditional way. However, this meat will contain all the flaws that required a revision of the system in the first place. This, and the fact that EU policy ordains that part-taking in an alternative meat inspection system should be voluntary, may very well result in a very slow start-up of the new system. One of the easiest solutions, however, would be to implement a decontamination step in the slaughtering process, provided that this is accompanied by strict codes of hygienic practices and good manufacturing practices. Not only would this lead to safer meat, but also result in the two separate flows of meat becoming one flow again as well as an easier to organize livestock production according to HACCP-principles. PMID:10568002

Berends, B R; van Knapen, F

1999-10-01

263

Meat Consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens, and Risk of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed

Esther M. John; Mariana C. Stern; Rashmi Sinha; Jocelyn Koo

2011-01-01

264

Inspecting Playgrounds for Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safe playgrounds are an essential mission for public park, recreation, education, and child care agencies. The article describes how to create safety programs and offers lists of safety program components, safety inspection steps, and preventive maintenance schedules. It also presents playground safety checklists and notes three available…

Gold, Seymour M.

1991-01-01

265

Remote Inspection Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

Roman, Harry T.

2013-01-01

266

Infrared Inspection Techniques  

E-print Network

Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

1979-01-01

267

4-H Meat Project Helper's Guide Congratulations! You have been asked to be a 4-H Meat Project Helper by a young person interested in understanding  

E-print Network

young people explore meat usage, meat's value as food, how meat is produced, the meat industry, and meat-being. It is your job to guide the young person through the experiences outlined in this activity guide.The young the most from this learning experience: · Review the Marvelous Meat Activity Guide. · Support the youth

Liskiewicz, Maciej

268

From Inspection to School Improvement? Evaluating the Accelerated Inspection Programme in Waltham Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the main findings from the evaluation of the Accelerated Inspection Programme (AIP) in Waltham Forest under three main phases (pre-inspection, inspection, and post inspection). Focuses on the relationship between inspection and school improvement. Discusses the recommendations. (CMK)

Hopkins, David; Harris, Alma; Watling, Rob; Beresford, John

1999-01-01

269

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

270

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

...approval. This may be appropriate when past inspection findings and analysis justifies the increased inspection interval. (c) Fracture critical member (FCM) inspections. (1) Inspect FCMs at intervals not to exceed twenty-four months. (2)...

2014-04-01

271

A study of defects on EUV masks using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

E-print Network

-701 5 ASML, 25 Corporate Circle, Albany, NY 12203 ABSTRACT The availability of defect-free masks remains) in Albany. After exposure, the wafers were inspected with a wafer inspection tool (KLA 28XX) at CNSE

272

Selenium content of game meat  

SciTech Connect

Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States) Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1991-03-11

273

Downstream Meat Marketing Practices: Lessons Learned from the Livestock and Meat Marketing Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, Congress mandated a study of the effects of alternative marketing arrangements (AMAs) on livestock and meat markets. This paper summarizes the results of analyses on the distribution and sales of beef and pork products downstream from the packer from Volume 2 (Cates et al., 2007) and Volume 6 (Muth et al., 2007) of the GIPSA Livestock and Meat

John D. Lawrence; Mary K. Muth; Justin Taylor; Stephen R. Koontz

2007-01-01

274

Nutrient composition of green crab ( Carcinus maenus) leg meat and claw meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is underway in New England to examine the potential for initiating a commercial fishery for the invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenus). Information on the nutrient composition is needed to facilitate the processing, utilization, and marketing of value-added green crab products. Green crabs were harvested and individually weighed and measured for carapace width. Claw meat and leg meat samples

Denise I. Skonberg; Brian L. Perkins

2002-01-01

275

The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a

Jean-Pierre Garnier; Ronald Klont; Graham Plastow

2003-01-01

276

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from prepacked meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four strains of lactic acid bateria isolated from refrigerated, prepacked meat and meat products were together with 59 reference strains of Brochothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus phenotypically classfied, using 96 unit characters. Data were examined using Simple Matching (SSM) or Jaccard coefficient (SJ), and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. Twenty-three clusters with two or more members were

Elisabeth Borch; Göran Molin

1988-01-01

277

Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level  

PubMed Central

Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

2012-01-01

278

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

279

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

Bernardi, R.T.

1995-12-01

280

Nondestructive inspection perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents ideas for consideration by those concerned with commercial aircraft nondestructive inspection (NDI). The perspective is that of an individual with a background in military aircraft NDI, and important differences are indicated between the commercial NDI and military NDI activities. In particular, it is significantly more expensive to implement some new NDI technology, and therefore, in-depth cost-benifit studies for commercial users are recommended.

Froom, Douglas A.

1992-01-01

281

Code inspection instructional validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option will produce the most effective results.

Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

1992-01-01

282

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

283

Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance.  

PubMed

What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. PMID:21315123

Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Weijzen, Pascalle; Engels, Wim; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2011-06-01

284

Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

285

AGR-1 Source Inspection Report for First Inspection  

SciTech Connect

Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) of the Idaho National Laboratory completed a source inspection at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 7 and 8th, 2005. The objective of this inspection was to ensure that all required data collection forms, data collection processes and methods of data acceptance are in place prior to starting the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) particle coating production run. Material traceability and calibration requirements defined for Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) were also reviewed during this inspection.

Gary D. Roberts; Charles M. Barnes

2005-10-01

286

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

287

Dietary Epidemiology of Essential Tremor: Meat Consumption and Meat Cooking Practices  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Harmane [1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole] is a tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in essential tremor (ET) patients for unclear reasons. Potential mechanisms include increased dietary harmane intake (especially through well-cooked meat) or genetic-metabolic factors. We tested the hypothesis that meat consumption and level of meat doneness are higher in ET cases than in controls. Methods Detailed data were collected using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meat Questionnaire. Results Total current meat consumption was greater in men with than without ET (135.3 ± 71.1 vs. 110.6 ± 80.4 g/day, p = 0.03) but not in women with versus without ET (80.6 ± 50.0 vs. 79.3 ± 51.0 g/day, p = 0.76). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males, higher total current meat consumption was associated with ET (OR = 1.006, p = 0.04, i.e., with 10 additional g/day of meat, odds of ET increased by 6%). Male cases had higher odds of being in the highest than lowest quartile of total current meat consumption (adjusted OR = 21.36, p = 0.001). Meat doneness level was similar in cases and controls. Conclusion This study provides evidence of a dietary difference between male ET cases and male controls. The etiological ramifications of these results warrant additional investigation. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:18382115

Louis, Elan D.; Keating, Garrett A.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M.; Factor-Litvak, Pam

2008-01-01

288

Safeguards management inspection procedures  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes.

Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

1984-08-01

289

Evaluation of EUV mask defect using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key challenge before EUVL is to make defect-free masks, for which it is important to identify the root cause of defects, and it is also necessary to establish suitable critical mask defect size for the production of ULSI devices. Selete has been developing EUV mask infrastructures such as a full-field actinic blank inspection tool and 199nm wavelength patterned mask inspection tool in order to support blank/mask supplier in reducing blank/mask defects which impact on wafer printing. In this paper, by evaluating the printability of programmed phase defects and absorber defects exposed by full-field scanner EUV1, we demonstrate that defect detection sensitivities of ABI (actinic blank inspection) and PI (patterned mask inspection) are higher than that of WI (wafer inspection) in HP32nm. The evaluations were done by comparing the detection sensitivities of full-field actinic blank inspection tool, 199nm wavelength patterned mask inspection tool, and wafer EB inspection tool. And then, based on the native defect analysis of blank/mask, we ascertained that actinic blank inspection and patterned mask inspection developed at Selete, are effective in detecting killer defects both at the main pattern and at light-shield border area.

Kamo, Takashi; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Yamane, Takeshi; Shigemura, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Noriaki; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Tawarayama, Kazuo; Nozoe, Mari; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Suga, Osamu; Mori, Ichiro

2011-04-01

290

Visual Inspection of Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation evaluates the parameters that affect visual inspection of cleanliness. Factors tested include surface reflectance, surface roughness, size of the largest particle, exposure time, inspector and distance from sample surface. It is concluded that distance predictions were not great, particularly because the distance at which contamination is seen may depend on more variables than those tested. Most parameters estimates had confidence of 95% or better, except for exposure and reflectance. Additionally, the distance at which surface is visibly contaminated decreases with increasing reflectance, roughness, and exposure. The distance at which the surface is visually contaminated increased with the largest particle size. These variables were only slightly affected the observer.

Hughes, David; Perez, Xavier

2007-01-01

291

Ceramic inspection system  

DOEpatents

A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

Werve, Michael E. (Modesto, CA)

2006-05-16

292

Meat handling practices in households of Mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study revealed that domestic meat handling practices of Mainland China involved serious food safety risks. Of the 1393 respondents, 89.8% did not use cooler bags to transport raw meat home, 62.3% failed to thaw raw meat properly, 40.4% did not wash hands with detergents after raw meat preparation, 44.8% cleaned cutting boards in ways that allowed cross-contamination, 73.6% marinated

S. L. Gong; Y. S. Yang; Hua Shen; X. Y. Wang; H. P. Guo; Li Bai

2011-01-01

293

Flexible Borescope For Inspecting Ducts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Borescope and associated equipment developed specifically for use in optical inspection of inside of flexible joints in rocket-engine fuel duct. Apparatus includes assembly, characterized as "mouse/canoe," at sensing end of 10-ft borescope cable. Borescope tip rides in mouse/canoe. The mouse/canoe made laterally compressible, to facilitate movement past constrictions and provides fixed distance from inspection point permitting accurate description in duct inspected.

Shinozaki, Keith; Armstrong, Mike P.; Urquidi, Ron

1995-01-01

294

Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

Toldrá, Fidel

295

Automated Telerobotic Inspection Of Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of automated telerobotic inspection of surfaces undergoing development. Apparatus implementing method includes video camera that scans over surfaces to be inspected, in manner of mine detector. Images of surfaces compared with reference images to detect flaws. Developed for inspecting external structures of Space Station Freedom for damage from micrometeorites and debris from prior artificial satellites. On Earth, applied to inspection for damage, missing parts, contamination, and/or corrosion on interior surfaces of pipes or exterior surfaces of bridges, towers, aircraft, and ships.

Balaram, J.; Prasad, K. Venkatesh

1996-01-01

296

Inspection system performance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system.

Jensen, C.E.

1995-01-17

297

Utilization of microbes to process and preserve meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how, and to what extent, the addition of microorganisms to meats helps to meet the needs of consumers and industry. Lactic acid bacteria adapted to meats improve the safety of fermented sausages by means of acid formation. Using selected strains, the safety of certain non-fermented, perishable meat products may be improved without affecting their shelf life. Certain

Friedrich-Karl Lücke

2000-01-01

298

Fishery Leaflet 415 PASTF.URIZATION OF CRAB MEAT  

E-print Network

of heating the fresh-cooked crab meat at a temperature below the boiling point of water. The exposure to heat of water which kill the rr~jority of organisms that cause sp0illl,-,,;e of fresh-cooked crab meat. The bac Experiments in pasteurizing the fresh-cooked meat of the blue crab Ca11inectes saptdua were conducted

299

Modeling pathogen growth in meat products: future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat products are perishable foods and unless stored under proper conditions spoil quickly. In addition, if pathogens are present, meat products may become hazardous for consumers. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. can grow and cause illness by the ingestion of the bacterial cells, therefore, assurance of meat safety and quality is of utmost importance.

Eyal Shimoni; Theodore P. Labuzay

2000-01-01

300

Apply Kansei Engineering for Health and Environmental in Meat Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat is one of the important sources of nutrients required by the human body. In addition to pork, consumers in Taiwan can also choose other livestock or poultry meats such as beef, mutton, chicken, duck, and goose. Traditionally, the superiority evaluation criteria for choosing these 6 meats are mainly based on intuition and sales volumes. Consequently, the present article is

Kuang-Fa Liu; Jee-Ray Wang; Jiam-Hwa Lee; Chi-Mei Wang; Chang-Ray Lin; Ming-Che Liou

2010-01-01

301

Physiology, metabolism Adaptation of Lactobacillus sakei to meat  

E-print Network

sakei is a lactic acid bacterium commonly found on meat and meat products. Meat is a rich substrate is then metabolized through the pentose-P pathway involving xylulose-5P phosphoketolase and acetate kinase. Whereas phosphoketolase and acetate kinase activities remained unchanged in L. sakei ptsI mutants, ribose kinase activity

Boyer, Edmond

302

Lung cancer risk and red meat consumption among Iowa women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Some epidemiologic studies suggest that diets high in total fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol are associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Others suggest that diets high in red meat consumption, particularly well-done red meat, are a lung cancer risk factor. In Iowa, we had the opportunity to investigate concurrently the role of meat intake and macronutrients in lung

Michael C. R Alavanja; R. William Field; Rashmi Sinha; Christine P Brus; Vickie L Shavers; Eileen L Fisher; Jane Curtain; Charles F Lynch

2001-01-01

303

Effect of Meat (Beef, Chicken, Bacon) on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcino- genesis in rats.

Géraldine Parnaud; Ginette Peiffer; Sylviane Taché; Denis E. Corpet

304

9 CFR 203.2 - Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to...  

...giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees. 203.2 Section...giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees. (a) In...the Packers and Stockyards Act have made gifts of meat to Government employees...

2014-01-01

305

D.E. Corpet / Meat Science 2011 -doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.009 Red meat and colon cancer  

E-print Network

D.E. Corpet / Meat Science 2011 - doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.009 . 1 Red meat and colon cancer meat, processed meat, safer meat, colon cancer, epidemiology, heme iron Introduction Is it safe to eat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry. PMID:23267400

Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

2012-01-01

307

LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By: __________________________  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By, and alignment procedures kept with laser equipment? yes no 3. Have all commercially produced Class 3b and 4 lasers and all lasers made or modified on campus been registered with the University's Laser Safety

Bolch, Tobias

308

Test Inspected Unit or Inspect Unit Tested Code?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code inspection and unit testing are two popular fault- detecting techniques at unit level. Organizations where inspections are done generally supplement it with unit testing, as both are complementary. A natural question is the order in which the two techniques should be exercised as this may impact the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the verification process. In this paper, we

Atul Gupta; Pankaj Jalote

2007-01-01

309

Electrical Inspection in the PHYSICS Division  

E-print Network

Electrical Inspection in the PHYSICS Division October 20, 2006 by Bruce G. Nardi #12;2 Overview and Background The Electrical Equipment Inspection Program ďż˝ Why are we doing it ďż˝ The inspections are requiredCFR851.23(a)(13) for NEC. ďż˝ Inspections will enhance safety. The initial 100 inspections at APS had

Kemner, Ken

310

The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

1995-03-01

311

Meat and Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Meats cooked at high temperatures, such as pan-frying or grilling, are a source of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We prospectively examined the association between meat types, meat cooking methods, meat doneness, and meat mutagens and the risk for prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression, using age as the underlying time metric and adjusting for state of residence, race, smoking status, and family history of prostate cancer. During 197,017 person years of follow-up, we observed 668 incident prostate cancer cases (613 of these were diagnosed after the first year of follow-up and 140 were advanced cases) among 23,080 men with complete dietary data. We found no association between meat type or specific cooking method and prostate cancer risk. However, intake of well or very well done total meat was associated with a 1.26-fold increased risk of incident prostate cancer (95% CI 1.02, 1.54) and a 1.97-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.26, 3.08) of advanced disease when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest. Risks for the two heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-b]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were of borderline significance for incident disease, 1.24 (95% CI 0.96, 1.59) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.93, 1.55) respectively, when the highest quintile was compared with the lowest. In conclusion, well and very well done meat was associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer in this cohort. PMID:18199713

Koutros, Stella; Cross, Amanda J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Sinha, Rashmi

2010-01-01

312

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Separated (Species) may be used in accordance with § 319.6. To facilitate chopping or mixing or to dissolve the usual curing ingredients, water or ice may be used in the preparation of luncheon meat in an amount not to exceed 3 percent of...

2012-01-01

313

Methodology for meat species identification: A review.  

PubMed

This review covers methods available for the recognition of the species of animal whose meat is present in raw materials or meat products. Isolation of species-specific proteins is cumbersome; however, isoelettric focusing followed by recognition of the pattern of protein bands is particularly effective for speciation. Immunoassay has been established as a powerful technique for the determination of food protein analytes in suitable extracts of unresolved mixtures. Simple immunodiffusion using antisera to serum proteins is sufficient to provide a check on the identity of suspect raw samples; routine control would involve extensive sampling programmes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures are also appropriate, but attempts to quantify individual meat species in mixtures have not been successful due to the variability of residual blood levels. Species identification in heat-processed meat products is hindered by progressive denaturation of the protein markers, leading to loss of solubility and antigenicity; the effects of heating can be minimised by a judicious choice of analyte and its solubilisation by renaturation. PMID:22054648

Hitchcock, C H; Crimes, A A

1985-01-01

314

TRACEABILITY AND CERTIFICATION IN MEAT SUPPLY CHAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety problems such as the BSE and dioxin crises focused attention on traceability systems and the certification of such systems. This study analyzes the status and perspectives of traceability systems and certification schemes, and reviews their potential costs and benefits. Results indicate that traceability and certification in meat supply chains comprise a very dynamic area with an increasing impact.

Miranda P. M. Meuwissen; Annet G. J. Velthuis; Henk Hogeveen; Ruud B. M. Huirne

2003-01-01

315

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

SciTech Connect

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2008-05-01

316

Irish consumer preference for organic meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumer of today places increased importance on food safety, environmental and health issues and quality, hence some are willing to purchase organic meat. Evaluation models used in previous organic food research have identified variables such as health consciousness, environmental concern, animal welfare and income as important determinants of organic food choice. The objective of this research was to examine

P. O’Donovan; M. McCarthy

2002-01-01

317

Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the

X. Cindy Tian; Chikara Kubota; Kunihito Sakashita; Yoshiaki Izaike; Ryoichi Okano; Norio Tabara; Carol Curchoe; Lavina Jacob; Yuqin Zhang; Sadie Smith; Charles Bormann; Jie Xu; Masumi Sato; Sheila Andrew; Xiangzhong Yang

2005-01-01

318

Meat consumption: trends and quality matters.  

PubMed

This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed. PMID:25060586

Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

2014-11-01

319

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

ScienceCinema

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2009-09-01

320

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

2014-12-01

321

Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.  

PubMed

Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

2014-01-01

322

1990 waste tank inspection program  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1990-01-01

323

1990 waste tank inspection program  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1990-12-31

324

Tube-weld inspection tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool compares weld width with notch width. Weld is considered satisfactory if weld is wider than notch. Fiber optics permit inspection head to be completely rotated around tube for complete inspection of weld. Forty-five degree mirror mounted over notch aids in comparing notch and weld widths.

Stanford, H. B.

1978-01-01

325

Device for inspecting vessel surfaces  

DOEpatents

A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

326

Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads  

SciTech Connect

Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

2005-04-01

327

Robotics and industrial inspection  

SciTech Connect

Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

Casasent, D.P.

1983-01-01

328

TPS Inspection and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

329

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.17 Inspection...inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections...might adversely affect the project measures. At the...

2010-01-01

330

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.17 Inspection...inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections...might adversely affect the project measures. At the...

2011-01-01

331

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.17 Inspection...inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections...might adversely affect the project measures. At the...

2012-01-01

332

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.17 Inspection...inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections...might adversely affect the project measures. At the...

2013-01-01

333

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

...Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.17 Inspection...inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections...might adversely affect the project measures. At the...

2014-01-01

334

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program 2001  

SciTech Connect

The waste tank in-service inspection program is an ongoing program. This report gives results of the 2001 inspections and summarizes significant findings of previous in-service inspections for each waste tank.

Waltz, R.S.

2002-06-25

335

46 CFR 131.570 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.570 Quarterly inspections. (a) Each apparatus that controls a lifeboat winch, including motor controllers, emergency switches, master switches, and limit switches, must be inspected once each 3...

2010-10-01

336

46 CFR 122.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Monthly inspections. 122.722 Section 122.722 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.722 Monthly inspections. Each survival craft,...

2010-10-01

337

46 CFR 185.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Monthly inspections. 185.722 Section 185.722 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.722 Monthly inspections. Each survival craft,...

2010-10-01

338

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

2011-01-01

339

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

2012-01-01

340

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

2013-01-01

341

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

2010-01-01

342

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2010-01-01

343

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2011-01-01

344

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2013-01-01

345

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2014-01-01

346

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2012-01-01

347

The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

348

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption.  

PubMed

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone to early microbial spoilage, but contamination of the meat with Salmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica may be relatively common, and infection of the meat with Trichinella may occur occasionally. Those organisms from horse meat could cause disease when the raw meat is eaten. Moreover, accumulation of cadmium in horse liver and kidney may render those tissues unsafe for human consumption. PMID:22060926

Gill, C O

2005-11-01

349

Desulfotomaculum peckii sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic member of the genus Desulfotomaculum, isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters.  

PubMed

A novel anaerobic thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium designated strain LINDBHT1(T) was isolated from an anaerobic digester treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. Strain LINDBHT1(T) grew at temperatures between 50 and 65 °C (optimum 55-60 °C), and at pH between 5.9 and 9.2 (optimum pH 6.0-6.8). Strain LINDBHT1(T) required salt for growth (1-40 g NaCl l(-1)), with an optimum of 20-30 g l(-1). In the presence of sulfate as terminal electron acceptor, strain LINDBHT1(T) used H2/CO2, propanol, butanol and ethanol as carbon and energy sources but fumarate, formate, lactate and pyruvate were not utilized. Butanol was converted to butyrate, while propanol and ethanol were oxidized to propionate and acetate, respectively. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate were utilized as terminal electron acceptors but elemental sulfur, iron (III), fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not used. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain LINDBHT1(T) was affiliated to the genus Desulfotomaculum with the type strains of Desulfotomaculum halophilum and Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum as its closest phylogenetic relatives (about 89% similarity). This strain represents a novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotomaculum peckii sp. nov.; the type strain is LINDBHT1(T) (=DSM 23769(T)=JCM 17209(T)). PMID:23064354

Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2013-06-01

350

Characterization of Defluviitalea saccharophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters, and proposal of Defluviitaleaceae fam. nov.  

PubMed

A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, terminal-spore-forming bacterium was isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. This strain, designated LIND6LT2(T), grew at 40-60 °C (optimum 50-55 °C) and at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). It did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated it up to 2%. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as electron acceptors. Growth of LIND6LT2(T) was inhibited by sulfite (2 mM). Strain LIND6LT2(T) used cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, mannitol, sucrose and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, formate, butyrate and isobutyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(16:0) (68.4%) and C(14:0) (8.3%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.2 mol%. On the basis of its phylogenetic and physiological properties, a new genus and species, Defluviitalea saccharophila gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed to accommodate strain LIND6LT2(T), placed in Defluviitaleaceae fam. nov. within the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales. Strain LIND6LT2(T) (=DSM 22681(T) =JCM 16312(T)) is the type strain of Defluviitalea saccharophila, which itself is the type species of Defluviitalea. PMID:21515711

Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Hamdi, Moktar; Fauque, Guy; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2012-03-01

351

14 CFR 21.449 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures § 21.449 Inspections. Upon request, each DAS and each applicant shall let the Administrator inspect his facilities, products, and...

2010-01-01

352

46 CFR 185.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2013-10-01

353

46 CFR 185.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2012-10-01

354

46 CFR 185.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2011-10-01

355

46 CFR 185.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2013-10-01

356

46 CFR 185.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2013-10-01

357

46 CFR 185.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2010-10-01

358

46 CFR 185.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2011-10-01

359

46 CFR 185.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2012-10-01

360

46 CFR 185.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2012-10-01

361

46 CFR 185.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2011-10-01

362

76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...between operations as set out in their Sanitation SOPs. Establishments that conduct...associated training in the development of Sanitation SOPs. FSIS received several comments...associated training in the development of Sanitation SOPs. FSIS has very limited...

2011-05-02

363

Myoglobin as marker in meat adulteration: a UPLC method for determining the presence of pork meat in raw beef burger.  

PubMed

The identification of meat animal species used in raw burgers is very important with respect to economic and religious considerations. Therefore, international supervisory bodies have implemented procedures to control the employed meat species. In this paper we propose myoglobin as a powerful molecular marker to evaluate the presence of non-declared meat addition in raw beef burgers by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the separation and identification of edible animal species (beef, chicken, horse, ostrich, pig and water buffalo). Meat samples were pre-treated with sodium nitrite to transform oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin to the more stable metmyoglobin. The developed method was validated, preparing mixtures with different percentages of pork and beef minced meat. The obtained results show that using myoglobin as marker, 5% (25 mg/500 mg) of pork or beef meat can be detected in premixed minced meat samples. PMID:23870895

Giaretta, Nicola; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Lippert, Martina; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

2013-12-01

364

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products in Algiers (Algeria).  

PubMed

This study was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of raw meat and processed meat products contaminated by Salmonella in the region of Algiers, Algeria, to identify serovars and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates. Out of the total 314 samples (144 of raw red meat and meat products, 128 of raw poultry meat and poultry products, and 42 of processed meat products) collected from various retail outlets, 61 (19.43%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The most significant occurrences were recorded for the categories of red meat (23.61%, n=34) and poultry (17.97%, n=23). Among the 64 isolates recovered, 21 different serovars were identified and two strains were nontypable. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Anatum (14.6%, n=9), Salmonella Altona (12.50%, n=8), Salmonella Corvallis (7.81%, n=5), Salmonella Enteritidis (7.81%, n=5), and Salmonella Typhimurium (7.81%, n=5). Sixty-two Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 32 selected antimicrobial agents. Fifty-six (90.32%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, of which 20 (32.26%) showed multidrug resistance. Resistance to sulphonamides (87.10%, n=54) was the most common. Resistance rates were lower to nalidixic acid (16.13%, n=10), streptomycin (16.13%, n=10), and tetracycline (12.90%, n=8), while resistance to pefloxacin was estimated at 4.84% (n=3). Fourteen different resistance patterns were observed. The "ACSSuT" pentaresistance pattern was observed in three of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The obtained results show that these foodstuffs are a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections. PMID:22571639

Mezali, Lynda; Hamdi, Taha Mossadak

2012-06-01

365

Visual inspection for CTBT verification  

SciTech Connect

On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

1997-03-01

366

Fully Employing Software Inspections Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

2009-01-01

367

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections  

PubMed Central

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferte, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallee, I.

2011-01-01

368

The microbiology of DFD fresh meats: A review.  

PubMed

Muscle which is deficient in glycogen because of exercise or stress prior to slaughter produces dark, firm, dry (DFD) meat. Such meat is characterized by a high ultimate pH (>6·0) and deficiencies in glucose and glycolytic intermediates. These factors can result in bacterial spoilage becoming evident at an early stage of growth of the meat flora. Spoilage becomes apparent when bacteria attack amino acids. This does not occur under aerobic conditions until bacteria exhaust the glucose at the meat surface. However, since glucose is absent in DFD meat, amino acids are utilised without delay and spoilage becomes evident at lower cell densities than in normal meat. The absence of glucose also allows the anaerobic flora to produce spoilage odours at an early stage. Additionally, the high pH of DFD meat allows growth of potent spoilage organisms which are inhibited at the usual ultimate pH of meat. Early aerobic spoilage can be prevented by the addition of glucose, but prevention of early anaerobic spoilage requires the addition of a citrate buffer which reduces the surface pH, as well as providing a carbohydrate substrate which is utilised in preference to amino acids. Comparisons can be made between spoilage of DFD red meat and spoilage of white meats from poultry and fish, which normally have a high ultimate pH. PMID:22056031

Newton, K G; Gill, C O

1981-05-01

369

Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

370

Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

2001-04-01

371

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

Bernardi, R.T.

1996-12-31

372

Text Detectives Investigate Meat Eating Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify the text features of non-fiction books and use several informational texts on meat-eating plants to answer text dependent questions. Students will become "text detectives" and learn how to use the text to find the evidence to prove that their answers to questions are right. The students will learn to use evidence from informational texts to write explanatory paragraphs.

2013-01-13

373

Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment,\\u000a and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane\\u000a food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian\\u000a and rights-based viewpoints, all in the

Evelyn B. Pluhar

2010-01-01

374

46 CFR 151.04-3 - Initial inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Initial inspection. (a) The initial inspection which may consist of a series of inspections during the construction of an unmanned barge shall include a complete inspection of the structure, auxiliary machinery, and equipment. The inspection...

2010-10-01

375

Multirobot inspection of industrial machinery  

E-print Network

Inspection of aircraft and power generation machinery using a swarm of miniature robots is a promising application both from an intellectual and a commercial perspective. Our research is motivated by a case study concerned ...

Correll, Nikolaus

376

Surface inspection: Research and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

Batchelder, J. S.

1987-01-01

377

Introduce Construction Technology through Home Inspection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing technology education students to the field of home inspection gives them a great opportunity to learn about and apply construction technology content. In working with his 8th-grade students, the author covers the purpose of a home inspection, the dynamic of home inspections, the process involved in inspecting schools and homes and…

Wiggins, Enrique R.

2007-01-01

378

Current NDT Research & Development for NPP Inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current dynamic process in computing, microelectronic s, smart sensors and automation provide NDT system engineers with challenging opportunities for improved NDT solutions. We focus on the quantification of inspection results with r espect to flaw type, flaw location and flaw size, at high inspection speeds. We strive to conquer tradi tional inspection limitations, such as the ultrasonic inspection of

Peter BIEDER; Gerd DOBMANN; Michael KRÖNING; Jinhong LIU

2008-01-01

379

Meat from wild boar (Sus scrofa L.): a review.  

PubMed

Wild boar is a species that is utilised for food and sport hunting throughout the world. Recent increases in natural populations and the potential of farming wild boars have stimulated interest in this species as a meat producer. Compared to domestic pigs, wild boars present a higher degree of carcass fatness and larger loin areas, more slow-twitch oxidative (I) and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (IIA) and less fast-twitch glycolytic (IIB) muscle fibres, and darker, less tender and leaner meat. Differences in diets might contribute to differences in cooked meat flavour and fatty acid composition between wild boars and domestic pigs. Higher ?-tocopherol concentrations in wild boar might extend its meat shelf-life. Mechanical massaging of muscles, vacuum package ageing and addition of marinates have been attempted to tenderise wild boar meat. Further research on hunting protocols for wild boar, and value-added products from its meat, are needed. PMID:23501250

Sales, James; Kotrba, Radim

2013-06-01

380

Diversity of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum associated with meat spoilage.  

PubMed

Leuconostoc gasicomitatum isolates (n=384) associated with spoilage of meat and vegetable-based foods were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Our aim was to evaluate the diversity and distribution of spoilage-associated L. gasicomitatum isolates from meat products, and to determine whether the PFGE genotypes are specific to product, producer, or isolation year (1997-2007). PFGE typing differentiated the isolates into 68 genotypes, and revealed that none one of the 54 genotypes associated with meat products was recovered from vegetable-based foods. Generally, the meat-derived genotypes were not specific to meat animal species, and many genotypes included isolates from products of different types or processors, as well as isolates collected in different years. Furthermore, certain genotypes were repeatedly identified from products of the same processing plant suggesting that the processing environment may have an impact on L. gasicomitatum contamination of meat products. PMID:19836091

Vihavainen, Elina J; Björkroth, K Johanna

2009-11-30

381

Randomized unannounced inspections at any time  

SciTech Connect

A general model of randomized inspections for unannounced inspections at any time is proposed. The model is designed to satisfy the existing IAEA inspection criteria including both timeliness and detection probability goals. In addition, the inspection effectiveness is enhanced significantly since inspections may commence at any time. Evaluation of the results of inspections implemented according to the model does not require changes in the concept of timeliness or the use of average'' detection time. Potential significant savings in inspection resources arising from the application of the model are estimated.

Lu, Ming-Shih.

1993-01-01

382

In Situ Robotic Inspection Of Welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated system reduces delays in inspection and rework. System reduces inspection-and-rework delay from days to hours. Path of inspection sensors taken directly from welding path saving time in programming for inspection. Inspection data stored so not lost as inspection equipment turned off. Same robot welding workpiece used to inspect it. In preparation, welding tool mounted on end effector of robot replaced with eddy-current or ultrasonic sensor. Robot recalls welding path from memory and retraces it, recording sensor output as it proceeds.

Van Wyk, Lisa M.; Garcia, Raul C., Jr.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

1992-01-01

383

9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards. 310...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.1 Extent and...

2011-01-01

384

9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards. 310...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.1 Extent and...

2013-01-01

385

9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards. 310...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.1 Extent and...

2010-01-01

386

9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards. 310...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.1 Extent and...

2014-01-01

387

9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards. 310...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.1 Extent and...

2012-01-01

388

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

389

Macellibacteroides fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Porphyromonadaceae isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters.  

PubMed

A novel obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped mesophilic bacterium, which stained Gram-positive but showed the typical cell wall structure of Gram-negative bacteria, was isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. The strain, designated LIND7H(T), grew at 20-45 °C (optimum 35-40 °C) and at pH 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5). It did not require NaCl for growth, but was able to grow in the presence of up to 2?% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain LIND7H(T) used cellobiose, glucose, lactose, mannose, maltose, peptone, rhamnose, raffinose, sucrose and xylose as electron donors. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were lactate, acetate, butyrate and isobutyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(15?:?0), C(17?:?0) 2-OH and a summed feature consisting of C(18?:?2)?6,9c and/or anteiso-C(18?:?0), and the major menaquinones were MK-9, MK-9(H(2)) and MK-10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.4 mol%. Although the closest phylogenetic relatives of strain LIND7H(T) were Parabacteroides merdae, Parabacteroides goldsteinii and Parabacteroides gordonii, analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence showed that strain LIND7H(T) was not a member of the genus Parabacteroides. On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic properties, strain LIND7H(T) (?=?CCUG 60892(T)?=?DSM 23697(T)?=?JCM 16313(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus within the family Porphyromonadaceae, Macellibacteroides fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:22180609

Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Hedi, Abdeljabbar; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Falsen, Enevold; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hamdi, Moktar; Fauque, Guy; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

2012-10-01

390

Sensory and chemical characteristics of ground goat meat products  

E-print Network

. 41 6 Trained sensory panel scores of feeling factors, tastes, and aflertastes for plain goat meat loaves aerobically stored at 4'C for 0, 3, or 6 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7 Trained sensory panel scores of texture attributes for plain goat... taste ratings were similar. There are no published studies documenting the relationship between the flavor intensity of goat meat and its acceptability as rated by consumers, nor has the ability of consumers to differentiate goat meat &om beef been...

Myers, Cheri Elizabeth

2012-06-07

391

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01

392

Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.  

PubMed

This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

2013-01-01

393

Device Rotates Bearing Balls For Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entire surface of ball inspected automatically and quickly. Device holds and rotates bearing ball for inspection by optical or mechanical surface-quality probe, eddy-current probe for detection of surface or subsurface defects, or circumference-measuring tool. Ensures entire surface of ball moves past inspection head quickly. New device saves time and increases reliability of inspections of spherical surfaces. Simple to operate and provides quick and easy access for loading and unloading of balls during inspection.

Burley, R. K.

1988-01-01

394

Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk of campylobacteriosis from Danish frozen meat increased but remained lower compared to chilled meat. In total, the relative risk from broiler meat available for sale in Denmark increased from 2001 to 2005 after which the risk decreased to a level similar to the period 2001-2002. The use of QMRA in the evaluation of intervention strategies based on monitoring data provided an added value, compared to the traditional approach of only using changes in prevalence. The estimated human health risk is a function of prevalence and the distribution of concentrations, and therefore takes best usage of the available data, while providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers. PMID:23416547

Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Rosenquist, Hanne

2013-03-15

395

40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory....

2013-07-01

396

40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory....

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory....

2011-07-01

399

Detection of coagulase positive staphylococci in meat products sold in Alexandria using two different media.  

PubMed

Microbiological examination of 200 meat products collected from 30 supermarkets in Alexandria revealed that CHROMagar Staph aureus yielded higher counts than Baird Parker medium that were significant in all examined products except sausage. The prevalence of coagulase positive staphylococci was 4%, moreover, CHROMagar Staph aureus showed higher recovery rate and specificity (87.5% and 98.9%; respectively) than Baird Parker medium (50.0% and 15.6%; respectively) during their detection. Sanitary evaluation of the supermarkets revealed that all of them were acceptable regarding prevention of bacterial growth parameter, although their mean score was only 55%. Avoidance of contamination parameter had the lowest mean score percent (15.6 +/- 27.3) with only about seven percent of the inspected supermarkets being acceptable. Although all recruited food handlers were apparently healthy, in few supermarkets, handlers were wearing clean light colored uniform (6.7%) and gloves (3.3%). Despite the presence of hand washing basins in all supermarkets, few of them were provided with hot water (6.7%) and detergents were available in 30% of them. Improvement of the sanitary conditions under which meat products are handled in the supermarkets is a must, also, improving the selectivity of CHROMagar Staph aureus in addition to both specificity and recovery rates of Baird Parker medium is recommended. PMID:16916048

Bakr, Wafaa M K; Fawzi, Mohamed; Hashish, Mona H

2004-01-01

400

ANALYZING HIGHWAY DAMAGE COSTS ATTRIBUTED TO TRUCK TRAFFIC OF PROCESSED MEAT AND RELATED INDUSTRIES IN SOUTHWEST KANSAS  

E-print Network

-trailers) have been used primarily for transporting processed meat, meat byproducts, grain, and other related products. With the continuous growth of the industries, there will be more trucks on highways transporting meat and meat-related products in southwest...

Liu, Chunxiao

2007-12-03

401

7 CFR 319.75-9 - Inspection and phytosanitary certificate of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-9 Inspection and phytosanitary certificate of inspection. (a) Any nursery stock, plant,...

2010-01-01

402

Meat quality and transport stress of cattle.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of transport time up to 14 hours and the effects of vehicle design on animal welfare, stress and meat quality. 18 transports (six short, medium and long) with a total of 486 animals (118 sample animals, heifers and bulls) were carried out on commercial vehicles in summer 2000 and winter 2001. Animal welfare and stress were evaluated by blood serum parameters, heart rate monitoring, behaviour recording and occurrence of carcass bruising. Meat quality was evaluated by post mortem muscle glycogen content, pH value, temperature, drip loss, colour and tenderness measurements. Heifers had lower heart rates than young bulls during loading (95 vs 114 beats per minute, bpm), whereas during transport, both had an average heart rate of 100 bpm, furthermore during unloading, heifers had higher heart rates than bulls (109 vs 100 bpm). Blood sampling during unloading could have marginally increased heart rates during the unloading procedure. Studied cattle had lower heart rates during medium and long distance transports compared with short transports. Monitoring of animal behaviour during transport showed that the former settled down faster than the latter. Single- and two-animal pens in medium and long distance vehicles prevented nervous and stressful movements of cattle, which were more prominent in large pens of short distance lorry. Present results suggest that larger pens of three or four animals could increase cattle stress during transport. Moreover during unloading, cattle loaded in single- or two-animals pens had significantly lower blood cortisol content than those loaded in larger groups of three or four animals (P < 0.01). The amount of severe carcass bruising was highest in animals transported over short times and loaded into groups of four cattle. Severe damages occurred most often on perianal and hipbone area of the carcass surface. Present results showed that muscle glycogen level was highest after long transport. These animals were fed more regularly from the last feeding up to stunning than medium or short distance animals. Animals in single-pens had the highest muscle glycogen level. Transport distance or number of animals in one pen had a minor effect on muscle pH values or temperatures during 24 hours post mortem (pm). Drip loss of the M. longissimus dorsi (LD) was highest after long transport, but animal number in one pen had no effect on drip loss. Colour of the LD muscle was independent on transport conditions. Light colour of three animal groups resulted from high amounts of heifers, which had lighter colour than bulls. All meat samples were quite tender. However, heifers had significantly tender meat than young bulls (P < 0.001). Higher amounts of heifers had the most tender meat after short transports. Mean DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat occurrence was 2.1% in this project, DFD frequency was lowest after short, then after long and highest after medium distance transports. Because of not evenly distributed numbers of bulls (low) and heifers (high) it was difficult to compare short and long distance transport effects. PMID:12731114

Honkavaara, M; Rintasalo, E; Ylönen, J; Pudas, T

2003-03-01

403

Effect of Meat and Isolated Meat Proteins on the Thermal Inactivation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B1  

PubMed Central

The thermal inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxin B was studied in a phosphate-saline buffer, in the presence of two meat proteins, myosin and metmyoglobin (MetMb), and in a ground-beef slurry. When enterotoxin B was incubated at temperatures from 60 to 110 C, it was shown that the initial thermal inactivation at 80 C was faster than at 100 or 110C. The heating of enterotoxin B at 60, 80, and 100 C in the presence of either myosin or MetMb resulted in a rapid loss of the enterotoxin. Thermal loss of the enterotoxin B molecule in the presence of meat proteins was more pronounced at 80 C than at either 60 or 100 C. Thermal loss of enterotoxin B molecule in the presence of meat proteins was more pronounced at 80 C than at either 60 or 100 C. Thermal loss of enterotoxin B in a ground round slurry was rapid when compared to inactivation in a phosphate-saline buffer. The rapid loss of enterotoxin B in the slurry may be due to a combination of thermal inactivation and the binding of enterotoxin molecules to meat proteins. PMID:5797943

Satterlee, L. D.; Kraft, A. A.

1969-01-01

404

Quantitative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in selected categories of deli meats: impact of lactate and diacetate on listeriosis cases and deaths.  

PubMed

Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control approaches and to help define the combinations of control strategies that will have the greatest impact on public health. PMID:19517724

Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

2009-05-01

405

A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks123  

PubMed Central

Background: Red and processed meat consumption may play a role in lung cancer pathogenesis because of these meats' fat and carcinogen content. Objective: We prospectively investigated whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, and intake of specific meat mutagens and heme iron are associated with lung carcinoma. Design: Men (n = 278,380) and women (n = 189,596) from the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study with no history of cancer at baseline were monitored for 8 y. Diet was assessed with a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was used to estimate the intake of individual heterocyclic amines, benzo(a)pyrene, and heme iron. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: In a comparison of quintiles 5 with 1 (Q5vsQ1), a high intake of red meat was associated with an increased risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P for trend = 0.005) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.32; P for trend = 0.05). A high intake of processed meat increased the risk only in men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P for trend = 0.003). In an analysis stratified by smoking status, we observed a tendency for an increased risk with red meat intake in never smoking men and women; however, the risks were not statistically significant. In a comparison of tertiles 3 and 1 (T3vsT1), the risk of lung carcinoma was associated with intake of well-/very-well-done meat (HRT3vsT1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35; P for trend = 0.002) and the intake of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38; P for trend = 0.04) in men. Heme iron intake increased the risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.45; P for trend = 0.02) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.42; P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion: We observed a moderate association between meat consumption and lung carcinoma, which might be explained by heme iron intake, high-temperature cooking, and associated mutagens. PMID:19369370

Sinha, Rashmi; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Caporaso, Neil E; Schatzkin, Arthur; Cross, Amanda J

2009-01-01

406

Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

407

Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks  

SciTech Connect

Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

Choset, Howie

2003-09-11

408

COMMENTARY Open Access Processing of meats and cardiovascular risk: time  

E-print Network

, with CVD. Preservatives are the notable difference; the calculated blood-pressure effects of sodium guidelines emphasize selecting lean (low-fat) meats to reduce saturated fat and cholesterol, but growing with total or cause-specific mortality; conversely, intake of processed meat was associated with a 30% higher

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

The role of rabbit meat as functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview

Antonella Dalle Zotte; Zsolt Szendr?

2011-01-01

410

Experimental evidence of hyperbolic heat conduction in processed meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to present experimental evidence of the wave nature of heat propagation in processed meat and to demonstrate that the hyperbolic heat conduction model is an accurate representation, on a macroscopic level, of the heat conduction process in such biological material. The value of the characteristic thermal time of a specific material, processed bologna meat,

K. Mitra; S. Kumar; A. Vedavarz; M. K. Moallemi

1995-01-01

411

MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE AND VACUUM PACKAGING OF MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension of the shelf-life of meat and poultry products is one of the technology needs to meet the demands of consumers. In this respect, increasing attention is put on packaging techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging (VP) are recent innovations that have been gaining importance as preservation techniques to improve the shelf-life of meat and poultry. MAP provides

D. Narasimha Rao; N. M. Sachindra

2002-01-01

412

Effect of Processing on Turkey Meat Quality and Proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern processing techniques for turkey involve rapid chilling to slow microbial growth and early deboning of the economically important breast meat. This paper shows that these 2 processes lead to significantly tougher meat with higher cooking losses. The toughening appears to be due to less extensive proteolysis and short- ening of the sarcomeres. Calpains I and II and their inhibi-

F. Obanor; J. D. Morton; G. H. Geesink; R. Bickerstaffe

413

Cloned Meat, Voluntary Food Labeling, and Organic Oreos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it had reviewed all the available evidence and was poised to approve meat and milk from cloned animals and their progeny. Such products, said the FDA, are virtually identical to meat or milk from a non-clone. Further, the FDA announced it would almost certainly not require food from clones

Donna M. Byrne

2009-01-01

414

A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial processing, consumer food preparation, and the dose–response relationship. The modelling approaches vary between the models, and this has

Maarten Nauta; Andy Hill; Hanne Rosenquist; Sigrid Brynestad; Alexandra Fetsch; Peter van der Logt; Aamir Fazil; Bjarke Christensen; Elly Katsma; Birgitte Borck; Arie Havelaar

2009-01-01

415

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%

416

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

417

UPGRADING MEAT PACKING FACILITIES TO REDUCE POLLUTION. WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

;Contents: Micro-organisms and their role in waste treatment; Waste loads from the meat packing industry; Procedures in the planning, design, and construction of a wastewater-treatment system; Wastewater-treatment methods for the meat packing industry; Operation and maintenance o...

418

Consumers want safer meat - but not at all costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers, the public authorities, and the food industry are all concerned with the safety of meat. The increasing demand for safer food from the consumers and the public authorities puts pressure on producers to identify efficient methods to reduce risks. Earlier studies have shown that consumers state a willingness to pay for safer meat - but we know very little

419

Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

2011-01-01

420

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2010-01-01

421

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2011-01-01

422

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2012-01-01

423

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2013-01-01

424

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2014-01-01

425

The role of rabbit meat as functional food.  

PubMed

Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894

Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

2011-07-01

426

Improving meat cutters' work: changes and effects following an intervention.  

PubMed

Meat cutters face higher risks of injury and musculoskeletal problems than most other occupational groups. The aims of this paper were to describe ergonomics changes implemented in three meat cutting plants and to evaluate effects related to ergonomics on the individual meat cutters and their work. Data was collected by interviews, observations, document studies and a questionnaire (n = 247), as a post intervention study. The changes implemented consisted of reducing knife work to a maximum of 6 h per day and introducing a job rotation scheme with work periods of equal length. Tasks other than traditional meat cutting were added. A competence development plan for each meat cutter and easy adjustment of workplace height were introduced. The questionnaire showed a reduction in perceived physical work load. In general, the changes were perceived positively. Figures from the company showed a positive trend for injuries and sick leave. PMID:23647887

Vogel, K; Karltun, J; Eklund, J; Engkvist, I-L

2013-11-01

427

A study relating the composition of follicular fluid and blood plasma from individual Holstein dairy cows to the in vitro developmental competence of pooled abattoir-derived oocytes.  

PubMed

The fertility of high-performance (high milk yield) dairy breeds such as the Holstein within the Australian dairy herd has been on the decline for the past two decades. The 12-month calving interval for pasture-based farming practices results in oocyte maturation coinciding with peak lactation, periods of negative energy balance, and energy partitioning for lactation, causing energy deficiency in some organ systems, including the reproductive system. Oocyte developmental competence (the ability to undergo successful fertilization, embryo development, and establishment of pregnancy) is intrinsically linked with the composition of follicular fluid (FF). The aim of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between the fat and carbohydrate levels in plasma and FF and the ability to support in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM). Plasma and FF were collected in vivo from eight Holstein cows between 52 and 151 days post-partum. Plasma glucose trended (P = 0.072) higher and triglyceride levels were significantly higher than in FF (P < 0.05), but there were no relationships between FF and plasma composition. Glucose FF concentration was negatively related to follicular lactate and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and days post-partum. Conversely, FF triglyceride concentrations were positively related to FF NEFA levels and negatively related to milk fat and protein composition. Abattoir-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in either 50% FF (FF-IVM) or 50% plasma (plasma-IVM), with on-time embryo development then assessed. Although there were no differences between animals, the blastocyst rates after FF-IVM were negatively related to plasma glucose and days post-partum and positively related to body condition score and plasma NEFA levels. In comparison to the previous studies, total NEFA levels in FF were not related to animal parameters and did not influence oocyte developmental competence in vitro. Results from this study suggest that days post-partum and body condition score influence carbohydrate metabolism within the follicular environment, and this may be attributed to the pasture-based feed system applied in the Australian dairy industry. PMID:24746097

Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Yelland, Robert; MacMillan, Keith L; Robker, Rebecca L; Thompson, Jeremy G

2014-07-01

428

Evaluation of meat born lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures for the biopreservation of cooked meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 91 strains, originating from meat products, were subjected to a step-by-step screening and characterisation to search for potential protective cultures to be used in the cooked cured meat industry. Strains were first tested on their homofermentative and psychrotrophic character and salt tolerance. Secondly, the antibacterial capacities towards Listeria monocytogenes, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum and Brochotrix thermosphacta were

L. Vermeiren; F. Devlieghere; J. Debevere

2004-01-01

429

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. 311.38 Section 311.38 Animals...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. Meat and meat byproducts from livestock...shall be condemned unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation...

2012-01-01

430

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. 311.38 Section 311.38 Animals...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. Meat and meat byproducts from livestock...shall be condemned unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation...

2013-01-01

431

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. 311.38 Section 311.38 Animals...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. Meat and meat byproducts from livestock...shall be condemned unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation...

2011-01-01

432

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. 311.38 Section 311.38 Animals...from livestock which have been exposed to radiation. Meat and meat byproducts from livestock...shall be condemned unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation...

2014-01-01

433

Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)

Buckley, James F.

1987-01-01

434

Underwater Inspection Of Naval Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive testing (NDT) performed underwater is one of the major maintenance methods to assure the efficient operation of naval structures such as piers, navigational aids, etc. Methods used for NDT of naval structures include general methods such as visual testing, ultrasonics and radiography. Visual testing, supplemented by instruments such as TV cameras and stereo-photography, offers good capability for surface inspection

H. Berger; R. Brackett; J. Mittleman

1983-01-01

435

Robust automated multiple view inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Automated Multiple View Inspection (AMVI) has been developed for automated defect detection of manufactured objects, and the framework was success- fully implemented for calibrated image sequences. How- ever, it is not easy to be implemented in industrial environments because the calibration is a difficult and an unstable process. To overcome these disadvantages, the robust AMVI strategy, which assumes that

Luis Pizarro; Domingo Mery; Rafael Delpiano; Miguel Carrasco

2008-01-01

436

49 CFR 195.206 - Material inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material inspection. 195.206 Section 195.206 Transportation...PIPELINE Construction § 195.206 Material inspection. No pipe or other component may be installed in a pipeline...

2010-10-01

437

29 CFR 1915.111 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.111 Inspection. The... (a) All gear and equipment provided by the employer for rigging and materials handling shall be inspected before each...

2013-07-01

438

29 CFR 1915.111 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.111 Inspection. The... (a) All gear and equipment provided by the employer for rigging and materials handling shall be inspected before each...

2011-07-01

439

29 CFR 1915.111 - Inspection.  

...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.111 Inspection. The... (a) All gear and equipment provided by the employer for rigging and materials handling shall be inspected before each...

2014-07-01

440

29 CFR 1915.111 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.111 Inspection. The... (a) All gear and equipment provided by the employer for rigging and materials handling shall be inspected before each...

2012-07-01

441

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...bridge at all times during each initial, routine, in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate...and bridges that are scour critical. (1) Bridges with fracture critical members. In the inspection records, identify...

2012-04-01

442

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bridge at all times during each initial, routine, in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate...and bridges that are scour critical. (1) Bridges with fracture critical members. In the inspection records, identify...

2013-04-01

443

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bridge at all times during each initial, routine, in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate...and bridges that are scour critical. (1) Bridges with fracture critical members. In the inspection records, identify...

2010-04-01

444

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

...bridge at all times during each initial, routine, in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate...and bridges that are scour critical. (1) Bridges with fracture critical members. In the inspection records, identify...

2014-04-01

445

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...bridge at all times during each initial, routine, in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate...and bridges that are scour critical. (1) Bridges with fracture critical members. In the inspection records, identify...

2011-04-01

446

47 CFR 2.936 - FCC inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC inspection. 2.936 Section 2.936 Telecommunication...Conditions Attendant to An Equipment Authorization § 2.936 FCC inspection. Upon reasonable request, each...

2010-10-01

447

30 CFR 27.30 - Inspection.  

...Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.30 Inspection. A detailed inspection shall be made by MSHA of...

2014-07-01

448

7 CFR 29.39 - Permissive inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 2 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Permissive inspection. ? 29.39 ? Section 29.39 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture ? AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ? COMMODITY STANDARDS...

2010-01-01

449

Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor  

DOEpatents

A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, William T. (Martinez, GA); Treanor, Richard C. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

450

7 CFR 929.103 - Inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS...procedure. (a) Inspection of withheld cranberries shall be limited to any plant, storage...sampling, weighing, and inspection of cranberries. (b) The handler offering any...

2010-01-01

451

46 CFR 122.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2013-10-01

452

46 CFR 122.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2012-10-01

453

46 CFR 122.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2012-10-01

454

46 CFR 122.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2011-10-01

455

46 CFR 122.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2011-10-01

456

46 CFR 122.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.722 Monthly inspections. Each...

2012-10-01

457

46 CFR 122.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2010-10-01

458

46 CFR 122.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2013-10-01

459

46 CFR 122.726 - Annual inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.726 Annual inspections. (a)...

2011-10-01

460

46 CFR 122.724 - Quarterly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.724 Quarterly inspections. (a)...

2013-10-01

461

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2013-07-01

462

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2014-07-01

463

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2012-07-01

464

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2010-07-01

465

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2013-07-01

466

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2011-07-01

467

A highly redundant robot system for inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work on the serpentine inspection system at JPL is described. The configuration of the inspection system consists of 20 degrees of freedom in total. In particular, the design and development of the serpentine micromanipulator end-effector tool which has 12 degrees of freedom is described. The inspection system is used for application in JPL's Remote Surface Inspection project and as a research tool in redundant manipulator control.

Lee, Thomas S.; Ohms, Tim; Hayati, Samad

1994-01-01

468

1 | Plant Health Inspections | Roddie Burgess | 01/11/2010 Plant Health Inspections  

E-print Network

, is collaboration, not confrontation. The Law Plant Health inspections are carried out using powers set out, on conviction, face a fine of up to ÂŁ5000. These powers must be used wisely, #12;2 | Plant Health Inspections1 | Plant Health Inspections | Roddie Burgess | 01/11/2010 Plant Health Inspections Guidance

469

Acceptance Inspection for Audio Cassette Recorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of inspections for cassette recorders that can be performed to assure that the devices are acceptable is described. The inspections can be completed in 20 minutes and can be performed by instructional personnel. The series of inspection procedures includes tests of the intelligibility of audio, physical condition, tape speed, impulse…

Smith, Edgar A.

470

Columbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report  

E-print Network

Columbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Flammable Storage Area Lack Pack Storage Area Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Location: Bldg. Room: Date: Inspected By with chemical being stored? 3. Is the area free from evidence of leaks and spills? 4. Are all waste

Jia, Songtao

471

Use of ultrasonic arrays for piping inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic inspection is frequently used to detect defects in structures during manufacturing, maintenance, and service. Traditionally the inspection is performed by manually or robotically scanning the surface with a single ultrasonic transducer. A flexible ultrasonic transducer array represents an innovative solution to many of the problems associated with traditional ultrasonic inspections. The flexible array consists of hundreds of ultrasonic pulser-receivers

Robert S. Frankle

1996-01-01

472

Nondestructive visual inspection of aging aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-flight structural failure of an Aloha Airlines 737-200 in April of 1988 brought international attention to the aging aircraft issue and prompted operators to improve inspection and maintenance procedures for their fleets. The use of nondestructive visual inspection equipment such as borescopes, fiberscopes, and videoimagescopes allow maintenance personnel to inspect internal aircraft structure for corrosion and fatigue without costly

Peter Samsonov

1995-01-01

473

Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they

Donald J. Hagemaier

1992-01-01

474

Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

Brot, Abraham

1994-01-01

475

Compounding pharmacies: before and after an inspection.  

PubMed

Recent events have directed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's attention to compounding pharmacies and have increased the frequency and vigorousness of pharmacy inspections. It is critical for compounding pharmacists to be prepared for such inspections and to understand their responsibilities after an inspection is over. PMID:24459779

Kulkarni, Darshan; Ricketts, Samantha

2013-01-01

476

ROV-AIDED DAM INSPECTION: PRACTICAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are used in a growing number of underwater missions, mostly inspections of different types of installations such as: telecommunication cables, pipes or oil extraction installations. A field where UUVs are still starting to prove their utility is dam inspection. This paper presents details our first approach in dam inspection. A set of experiments carried out

Joan Batlle; Tudor Nicosevici; Rafael Garcia; Marc Carreras

477

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2013-10-01

478

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2010-10-01

479

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2012-10-01

480

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2011-10-01

481

A Survey of Automated Visual Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we survey the automated visual inspection systems and techniques that have been reported in the literature from 1988 to 1993. Several earlier systems are also discussed. In the survey, a taxonomy of inspection systems based on their sensory input is presented. The general benefits and feasibility of automated visual inspection are also discussed. We present common approaches

Timothy S. Newman; Anil K. Jain

1995-01-01

482

AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR FABRIC INSPECTION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR FABRIC INSPECTION SYSTEM Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu, Thomas Kwan, Grantham is very low. However, the disadvantage is that the nature of work is very dull and repetitive, which leads to high inspection error. The automated inspection by machine, on the other hand, can solve

Pang, Grantham

483

30 CFR 585.820 - Will BOEM conduct inspections?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessment § 585.820 Will BOEM conduct inspections? BOEM will inspect OCS facilities and any...

2012-07-01

484

30 CFR 285.820 - Will MMS conduct inspections?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.820 Will MMS conduct inspections? The MMS will inspect OCS facilities and...

2010-07-01

485

30 CFR 285.820 - Will MMS conduct inspections?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.820 Will MMS conduct inspections? The MMS will inspect OCS facilities and...

2011-07-01

486

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16...LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection,...

2012-01-01

487

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16...LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection,...

2013-01-01

488

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

...2014-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16...LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection,...

2014-01-01

489

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16...LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection,...

2010-01-01

490

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16...LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection,...

2011-01-01

491

46 CFR 169.221 - Initial inspection for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...inspection for certification. (a) The initial inspection includes an inspection of the hull structure, yards, masts, spars, rigging, sails, machinery, and equipment, including unfired pressure vessels. (b) The initial inspection of a vessel...

2011-10-01

492

46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...inspection for renewal of a certificate of inspection includes an inspection of the structure, machinery, yards, spars, masts, rigging, sails, and equipment. The inspection ensures that the vessel is in satisfactory condition, fit for the service...

2011-10-01

493

46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inspection for renewal of a certificate of inspection includes an inspection of the structure, machinery, yards, spars, masts, rigging, sails, and equipment. The inspection ensures that the vessel is in satisfactory condition, fit for the service...

2010-10-01

494

49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section...Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in...

2010-10-01

495

7 CFR 868.63 - Certificating appeal inspection results.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certificating appeal inspection results. 868.63 Section 868.63 Agriculture...63 Certificating appeal inspection results. (a) General. An appeal inspection...b)(2) of this section, only the results of the appeal inspection or Board...

2010-01-01

496

40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...door latches, and lubricate as necessary; (d) Inspect dampers, fans, and blowers for proper operation; (e) Inspect HMIWI door and door gaskets for proper sealing; (f) Inspect motors for proper operation; (g) Inspect primary chamber...

2011-07-01

497

40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...door latches, and lubricate as necessary; (d) Inspect dampers, fans, and blowers for proper operation; (e) Inspect HMIWI door and door gaskets for proper sealing; (f) Inspect motors for proper operation; (g) Inspect primary chamber...

2010-07-01

498

40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...door latches, and lubricate as necessary; (d) Inspect dampers, fans, and blowers for proper operation; (e) Inspect HMIWI door and door gaskets for proper sealing; (f) Inspect motors for proper operation; (g) Inspect primary chamber...

2012-07-01

499

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.9 Report...ante-mortem inspection area of an exotic animal producer's...

2013-01-01

500

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.9 Report...ante-mortem inspection area of an exotic animal producer's...

2012-01-01