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Sample records for abattoir meat inspection

  1. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  2. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  3. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031

  4. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  5. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  6. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  7. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  8. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  9. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  10. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  11. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  12. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  13. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  14. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The full Committee...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. 75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment AGENCY...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) on June 19, 2010...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection provides advice and...

  16. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee...the safe food handling label on meat and poultry packages. With this input, the...

  17. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  18. Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?

    PubMed

    Abuseir, S; Epe, C; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Kühne, M

    2006-09-01

    A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and classified as viable or degenerating (dead). The DNA was extracted from these cysts and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for evaluation of the detection methods used and to make certain that the cysts did indeed belong to C. bovis, as indicated at the slaughterhouses. Two sets of primers were used with different sensitivity levels. The first, HDP1, was able to detect 200 fg of Taenia saginata DNA and 100 pg of C. bovis DNA. The other primer set, HDP2, was able to detect 1 pg of T. saginata DNA and 1 ng of C. bovis DNA. No more than 52.4% of the samples tested positive for C. bovis in the PCR using both primers, while 20% of the viable cysts and 49.2% of the degenerating cysts tested negative with both primers. PMID:16583204

  19. The generation time, lag time, and minimum temperature of growth of coliform organisms on meat, and the implications for codes of practice in abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847

  20. 75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Safety and Inspection Service The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re... of Agriculture signed the charter of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection... Poultry Inspection provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary on meat and poultry...

  1. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  2. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  3. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  4. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  5. Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis. PMID:22726722

  6. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...provide advice to the Secretary of Agriculture concerning State and Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg products inspection, food safety, and other matters that fall with the scope of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)...

  7. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  10. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  11. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  12. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final rule amended...: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA...-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce....

  13. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being..., poultry, and processed egg products, inspection, safety, and other matters that fall within the scope...

  14. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... on the Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection published January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4408... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Advisory Committee Act, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI)...

  15. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and... information is available on the Internet at the NACMPI Web site,...

  16. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry.... Department of Agriculture National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture intends to reestablish the National Advisory Committee on Meat and...

  17. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being convened to review two topics for FSIS. The first... committee to fully explore enhancing the safe food handling label on meat and poultry packages. With...

  18. [Guidelines for animal and meat inspection procedures in the slaughterhouse].

    PubMed

    Schnöller, A

    2006-08-01

    Over the last few decades there have been significant developments in livestock and meat inspection systems in slaughterhouses. The most highly developed countries have taken the lead in bringing about these changes by enacting new legislation. These new national laws have been reflected by the Codex Alimentarius in its Codes of Good Practice and this has served to harmonise world trade in foodstuffs. The author identifies the different aspects to be considered when carrying out a veterinary inspection of animals and animal products in the slaughterhouse, bearing in mind the need to protect public and animal health. Although this article only covers cattle, many of the concepts set forth can be applied to other livestock species. Information obtained from the slaughterhouse is useful to primary production; conversely, information compiled in the primary production process makes for more efficient use of slaughterhouse resources. This information makes it possible to carry out risk-based inspections, which will gradually replace traditional procedures. Conventional inspections are often very rigid and mechanical and incapable of measuring the seriousness of hazards or of determining the probability that they will occur. Emerging biological, physical and chemical hazards, as well as new technologies, mean that we cannot become complacent about inspection procedures but must continue to be alert and to keep pace with the constant changes in food safety sciences. Another new trend is the active participation of operators, who must shoulder primary responsibility in upholding the safety of the food they produce. Official veterinary inspection in the slaughterhouse plays several roles: the detection of animal diseases, the inspection of meat and meat products and the verification of audits carried out by the private sector. In recent years, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis and cases of dioxin poisoning have highlighted the need for traceability of foodstuffs, i.e. giving consumers the opportunity to obtain information about the origin of their food and the different stages of its production (commonly referred to as the 'farm-to-fork' chain). Finally, the slaughterhouse veterinarian, as a professional devoted to providing care to animals, is also responsible for ensuring animal welfare; this is an inherent part of his professional ethics. PMID:17094716

  19. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for... Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The full Committee consists of not more than 20 members, and each person... Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sally Fernandez, Program Specialist, Office...

  20. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products,'' 74 FR 47648). FSIS held two public meetings by teleconference on October 27, 2009, and November 4, 2009, to solicit comments on the proposed regulations (74 FR 54493). The... State-inspected meat plants to enlarge their area of sales while assuring that all meat and poultry...

  1. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  2. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  3. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  4. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  5. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  6. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of Draft Compliance Guide and PGA Message Set Pilot Program AGENCY... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  7. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  8. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  9. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  10. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  11. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection...may be applied by stamping, printing, using paper bands,...

  12. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  13. Speech input system for meat inspection and pathological coding used thereby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shozo

    Meat inspection is one of exclusive and important jobs of veterinarians though it is not well known in general. As the inspection should be conducted skillfully during a series of continuous operations in a slaughter house, development of automatic inspecting systems has been required for a long time. We employed a hand-free speech input system to record the inspecting data because inspecters have to use their both hands to treat the internals of catles and check their health conditions by necked eyes. The data collected by the inspectors are transfered to a speech recognizer and then stored as controlable data of each catle inspected. Control of terms such as pathological conditions to be input and their coding are also important in this speech input system and practical examples are shown.

  14. Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Geysen, Dirk; Kanobana, Kirezi; Victor, Bjorn; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; De Borchgrave, Jean; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor 3 to 10. Furthermore, the success of the method depends on the expertise of the meat inspector as well as on the stage of development of the cysticerci. The focus of this study was to develop and explore the usefulness of a PCR assay as an objective alternative to evaluate the meat inspector's visual inspection results. Hereto, a PCR was developed for the detection of T. saginata DNA in muscle lesions. Based on the laboratory classification of lesions, almost 97% of viable cysts were confirmed by PCR, while for dead cysts, the percentage was approximately 73%. Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17265888

  15. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  16. Bacteriological Survey of Frozen Meat and Gravy Produced at Establishments Under Federal Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Surkiewicz, Bernard F.; Harris, Marshall E.; Johnston, Ralph W.

    1973-01-01

    During visits to 34 federally inspected establishments producing frozen meat and gravy, 541 production line samples and 535 finished product units were collected for bacteriological analyses. It was found that more than 70% of the sets of finished product (10 units/set) produced under good manufacturing practices had: (i) four or fewer coliform-positive units, (ii) two or fewer Escherichia coli-positive units, (iii) three or fewer Staphylococcus aureus-positive units, and (iv) an aerobic plate count of fewer than 50,000/g (geometric mean of 10 units). All finished product units were negative for salmonellae. PMID:4584595

  17. Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 2005–2010 data from ten French slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer’s lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. PMID:23628140

  18. Abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections and its economic implications in the region of Trikala, Greece.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, G; Theodoropoulou, E; Petrakos, G; Kantzoura, V; Kostopoulos, J

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of carcasses and viscera during meat inspection, and their economic implication, was estimated in a year long abattoir survey of 10 277 slaughtered farm animals in the region of Trikala, Greece. The organs examined for the presence of parasitic lesions during meat inspection were: liver and lungs of all animals, rumen of cattle, small intestine of lambs and kids, and muscles of cattle and swine. The parasitic lesions observed in the lungs of cattle, sheep and goats were caused only by hydatid cysts. No hydatid cysts were observed in the lungs of swine. The parasitic lesions observed in the liver of cattle, sheep and goats were as a result of hydatid cysts and flukes of Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, while those of swine were due to milk spots only. Moniezia sp. proglottids were found in the small intestine of lambs only. The prevalence of parasites responsible for the condemnation of marketable organs was low (0.26%). Parasites were responsible for 22% of the total of condemned organs, and their annual cost was 99, 00 GDR (approximately 292 Euros). The parasites most contributing to marketable organ condemnation were hydatid cysts (26%) and D. dendriticum flukes (26%). PMID:12241028

  19. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety...establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The...Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The...

  20. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and...standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses,...

  1. Modified use of methylene blue in the tissue compression technique to detect sarcocysts in meat-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yit Han; Subramaniam, Vellayan; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-11-30

    Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: P<0.01). Test sensitivity was comparable to that of the gold standard for sarcocyst detection, nested polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that methylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs. PMID:26455572

  2. A survey of the causes of cattle organs and/or carcass condemnation, financial losses and magnitude of foetal wastage at an abattoir in Dodoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Wilfred; Nonga, Hezron E

    2015-01-01

    Slaughterhouses provide a safeguard that prevents the public from consuming meat of poor quality or meat which may be infected with zoonotic diseases. This work reviews a 3-year database of cattle that were slaughtered and inspected between 2010 and 2012 at Dodoma abattoir, Tanzania. In addition, meat inspection was undertaken for 1 month (December 2013). The aim of this study was to establish causes of organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications as well as the magnitude of slaughter of pregnant cows at Dodoma abattoir. During retrospective study, it was found that a total of 9015 (10.5%) lungs, 6276 (7.3%) intestines, 5402 (6.3%) livers, 3291 (3.8%) kidneys and 41 (0.05%) carcasses were condemned. Pulmonary emphysema (3.4%), fasciolosis (4.5%), pimply gut (5.7%), kidney congenital cysts (1.9%) and hydatidosis (3.1%) were major causes of organ condemnations. This large number of condemned edible organs and/or carcasses implies that public health considerations result in deprivation of valuable protein. Occurrence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, fasciolosis and tuberculosis illustrates the possible public health problem and presence of environmental infections. Of the 794 cows slaughtered in December 2013, 46% were pregnant. Financial loss as a result of organ and/or carcass condemnations was estimated at $9892. Condemnation of organs and/or carcasses and indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows represent a significant loss of meat and revenue and a reduction in growth of future herds, which has a negative effect on the livestock industry. This justifies appropriate surveillance and disease control programmes coupled with strict enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to curb the slaughter of pregnant animals. PMID:26017465

  3. Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

    The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

  4. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that informal slaughter can prejudice livestock welfare. It was concluded that the current situation is not acceptable in terms of meat safety. Thus, the Veterinary Public Health Directorate of the National Veterinary Services has prioritised the monitoring of butchers, registration of slaughter slabs and a general extension campaign to improve hygiene and animal welfare standards for slaughter in Lesotho. This paper highlights the major risks associated with meat consumption without Veterinary Public Health intervention in accordance with international standards. PMID:20458865

  5. Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Current EU regulation requires that every bovine carcass is examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC) at meat inspection. This is costly and might be superfluous at low BC prevalence. However, from a consumer view-point it may be important to identify and manage infected carcasses to avoid human infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish cattle population, (2) estimate the animal level prevalence (3) provide descriptive statistics of potential risk factors for BC, and (4) determine attributable risks and fractions of selected risk factors potentially useful for a future risk-based meat inspection system. In total, 348 cases of BC were recorded among all cattle slaughtered (n=4,090,661) in Denmark between 2004 and 2011. The true animal level prevalence of BC was estimated to be 0.06%. The herd of origin of the cases were defined as the herd in which the animals spent most of their lifetimes. The detected cases were found to originate from 328 herds, with a maximum of two cases per herd indicating sporadic occurrence. Even though organic farming was associated with a higher risk (RR=1.9 in univariable analysis) of BC-positive animals being detected at slaughter, the population attributable fraction showed that only 5% of the animals with BC could be attributed to organic farming practices at the level of organic farming practiced in Denmark in the study period. Thus, organic farming status was not a suitable risk factor to use to target future risk-based meat inspection. However, 54% of the animals with BC in the cattle population were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior to slaughter. The challenges and opportunities of this approach should be investigated further. PMID:23245844

  6. Prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C

    2010-09-01

    The prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. The effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. An attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. Samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the plant, plated out and selected organisms were typed using a commercial rapid identification system. It was indicated that the cold trim (mainly of bruises) of carcasses was advantageous in terms of microbiological meat quality. Results indicated pooled water in the abattoir as the most hazardous vector for carcass contamination and that contaminants from this source are mostly Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas and Shigella were frequently isolated from surface and air samples and indicated that the control of total plant hygiene is a requirement for producing ostrich meat that is safe to consume and has an acceptable shelf-life. PMID:21247040

  7. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  8. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

    2011-07-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  9. The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs’ Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region

    PubMed Central

    Olorode, Oluwayemisi A

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on  Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on  Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834

  10. Breed influences on in vitro development of abattoir-derived bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a discrepancy in the reproductive performance between different cattle breeds. Using abattoir-derived ovaries and data base information we studied the effects of breed on in vitro fertilization and early embryo development. Methods The in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from cattle (n?=?202) of Swedish Red (SR), Swedish Holstein (SH) and mixed beef breeds was compared, retrospectively tracing donors of abattoir-derived ovaries using a combination of the national animal databases and abattoir information. Age was significantly lower and carcass conformation score was higher in the beef breeds than in the dairy breeds. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n?=?1351) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries from animals of known breed (visual inspection confirmed through databases), age (databases), and abattoir information. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (frozen semen from two dairy bulls) and cultured according to conventional protocols. On day 8, blastocysts were graded and the number of nuclei determined. Results Cleavage rate was not different between the breeds but was significantly different between bulls. The percentage of blastocysts on day 8 was significantly higher when the oocyte donor’s breed was beef or SR than SH. There was no significant difference in blastocyst grades or stages between the breeds, but the number of nuclei in day 8 blastocysts was significantly lower in SH compared to the beef. Conclusions The use of abattoir-derived ovaries from animals whose background is traceable can be a valuable tool for research. Using this approach in the present study, oocyte donor breed was seen to affect early embryo development during in vitro embryo production, which may be a contributing factor to the declining fertility in some dairy breeds seen today. PMID:22682104

  11. Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

  12. Current status of bovine cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Nigatu; Tilahun, Getachew; Hailu, Asrat

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle. PMID:18551380

  13. Bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir, Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication.

    PubMed

    Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026

  14. A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions. Results A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung (“Rule of Tens”). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference. Conclusions The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors. PMID:24766795

  15. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  16. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  17. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  18. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  19. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  20. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  1. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  2. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  3. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  4. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  5. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  6. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  7. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  8. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat, meat-food products horse meat and horse meat-food products offered for entry into... section 306, Tariff Act of 1930. The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this...

  9. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Forms Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District ... USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product ...

  10. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  13. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  14. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  15. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  16. 9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...the official inspection legend to be applied to imported meat and meat food products shall be in the appropriate form 1...

  17. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress. PMID:26598787

  18. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  5. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  6. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  7. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  8. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  9. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  10. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  11. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  12. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  13. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  14. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  15. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  17. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  18. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  19. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  20. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  1. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  2. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  3. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  4. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  5. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  6. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  7. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  8. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  9. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  10. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  11. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  12. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  14. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  15. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  16. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  17. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  18. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING...

  19. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  20. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. Abattoir surveillance demonstrates contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is widespread in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Noah, Elly Yesse; Kimera, Sharazuli Iddi; Kusiluka, Lughano Jeremy Moses; Wambura, Philemon

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the presence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the slaughter facilities in 10 regions of Tanzania that reported pathological lesions suggestive of CBPP during meat inspection. The aim was to ascertain if slaughter facilities can be used to monitor the occurrence and spread of CBPP in the country. The study involved a questionnaire survey, clinical examination of animals for CBPP symptoms prior to slaughter and postmortem examination of the respiratory system in slaughtered cattle. A total of 12 slaughterhouses and 31 animal markets were involved in the study. A total of 2736 cattle were slaughtered comprising 1978 and 758 in slaughterhouses and animal markets, respectively. Of the total slaughtered stock, 351 of 2736 (12.8 %) had lesions suggestive of CBPP and of these, 236 (8.6 %) were from slaughterhouses and 115 (4.2 %) from animal markets. Acute CBPP cases were observed in 192 of the 236 (81.4 %) and 71 of the 115 (61.7 %) of the animals inspected in the slaughterhouses and markets, respectively. Chronic cases were encountered in 24 (10.2 %) of the animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses and 19 (16.5 %) at animal markets. This work has confirmed that targeted monitoring for CBPP lesions through meat inspection can be a useful tool for CBPP surveillance in endemic countries like Tanzania. PMID:26315150

  6. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    PubMed

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  7. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  8. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  10. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  11. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  13. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  14. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  15. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  16. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  17. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  18. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  19. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  20. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  1. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  2. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  3. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  4. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  5. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Forms Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District ... many questions received at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Hotline concerning the color of ...

  6. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  7. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  8. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  9. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  10. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  11. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  12. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  13. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  14. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  15. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

  16. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  17. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  18. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  19. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  2. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  4. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  6. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  7. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  8. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  9. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  10. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  11. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  12. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  13. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  14. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  15. 9 CFR 302.1 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION APPLICATION OF INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 302.1 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION APPLICATION OF INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  18. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  19. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  20. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  1. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  2. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  3. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  4. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  5. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  6. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  7. A Survey of Carcass Condemnation at a Poultry Abattoir and its Application to Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Ansong-Danquah, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    During a five year period, slaughter records were maintained on flocks of broiler chickens sent to a federally-inspected abattoir in New Brunswick. These records, including data regarding condemnation of both carcasses and portions of broilers, were maintained at the level of the individual producer. Annual meetings and ad hoc consultations with producers, a veterinary poultry specialist, and support groups in the poultry industry (feed mills, breeders, etc.) were used to relay to the various interested parties, information relating to disease conditions. Following the implementation of this system, condemnation rates dropped by one full percentage point during the first three years, with a slight increase observed during the last two years of the study. At the end of the survey, condemnation rates were 20% less than those of the national average. PMID:17422886

  8. An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.

    PubMed

    Whiting, T L; Tessaro, S V

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 North American elk (Cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. Abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. The prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. Lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tuberculous lesions in cattle. Lesions occurred predominantly in lymph nodes, and lungs were the only organs in which mycobacterial lesions were found. The distribution of lesions suggested that aerosol transmission was the most significant means of spread of the disease within the herd. Giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) were observed in approximately 80% of the adult elk. PMID:7954222

  9. An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Tessaro, S V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 North American elk (Cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. Abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. The prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. Lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tuberculous lesions in cattle. Lesions occurred predominantly in lymph nodes, and lungs were the only organs in which mycobacterial lesions were found. The distribution of lesions suggested that aerosol transmission was the most significant means of spread of the disease within the herd. Giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) were observed in approximately 80% of the adult elk. PMID:7954222

  10. 9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... inspection, an establishment shall have developed written sanitation Standard Operating Procedures,...

  11. 9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... inspection, an establishment shall have developed written sanitation Standard Operating Procedures,...

  12. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inauguration of Inspection §...

  13. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  14. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  15. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  16. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

  17. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

  18. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. Link to an amendment...

  19. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  20. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  1. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  2. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  3. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  4. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  8. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  9. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  12. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. The British pig health schemes: integrated systems for large-scale pig abattoir lesion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Strachan, W D; Armstrong, D; Nielen, M; Gunn, G J

    2011-10-15

    Pig health schemes based on abattoir inspections provide an integrated system to optimise the postmortem detection and the reporting of pathological lesions. In Great Britain, two initiatives have been implemented by the pig industry: Wholesome Pigs Scotland (WPS) and the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS). These schemes record the presence of a range of pathological lesions detected by means of detailed inspection of the pluck and the skin of the slaughtered pigs. The lesions are those associated with a reduction in performance traits or are indicators of animal welfare problems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the objectives behind the BPHS and their activities, outlining similarities and differences between WPS and BPHS on five main operational topics: the lesions monitored, the administration of the schemes, flow of the information, inspection strategies and the major idiosyncratic characteristics of the schemes. These initiatives inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their pig herds. Additionally, they offer the added value of providing nationwide disease monitoring information and have the potential to be a useful surveillance tool for emerging and enzootic conditions. PMID:21881022

  14. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  15. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G; Heuer, Cord

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%-31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%-19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

  16. Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

  17. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

  18. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  19. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a)...

  20. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  1. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  2. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  3. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

  4. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  5. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  6. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  7. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  9. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

  10. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

  11. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  12. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  13. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  14. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  15. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  16. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  17. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  18. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  19. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  20. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  1. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  2. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  3. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  4. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  5. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXEMPTIONS § 303.2...

  6. 9 CFR 381.182 - Reports of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  7. Causes and implications of bovine organs/offal condemnations in some abattoirs in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K

    2009-10-01

    Food animals though sources of protein and revenue to man, also serve as vehicles of disease transmission. This work reviews a three year record of slaughtered cattle in 12 abattoirs/slaughter slabs in western Nigeria to determine the economic and public health issues associated with their disease conditions. Out of 641,224 cattle slaughtered, 51,196 (7.98%) were attributable to 14 diseases/conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, fascioliasis, pimply gut, paramphistomosis, cysticercosis, dermatophilosis, tonsillitis, taeniasis, ascariosis, abscess, mange, mastitis and immature fetuses. Pneumonia (21.38%), fascioliasis (20.28%) and tuberculosis (7.95%) were major reasons for condemnations; least being ascariosis (0.01%). The lungs (45.66%) and liver (32.94%) accounted for most organ condemned while the heart (0.02%) was the least affected. The proportions of pneumonia, fascioliasis and immature fetuses observed were not statistically different (Mean = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3); however, a significant difference existed with other conditions (Mean(A) = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3; Mean(B) = 1359.7; 1057.7; 510.3). Organs/offal condemnations constituted loss of revenue and animal protein as 124,333 kilogrammes worth of meat valued in Naira at N41,613,043 ($332,904) was lost over the period giving an average of N13,871,014 ($110,968) annually. This, coupled with fetal wastage represented an economic loss; with associated public health implications. PMID:19333773

  8. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  12. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  13. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  7. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 9 CFR 352.4 - Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.4 Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the...

  9. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.3 Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection...

  10. 9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION...

  11. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat. PMID:22063167

  12. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  13. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

  14. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

  15. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

  18. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  19. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  20. Prevalence of Listeria spp. and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Broilers at the Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Bouayad, Leila; Hamdi, Taha M; Naim, Malek; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Products from three broiler abattoirs were sampled for Listeria species to evaluate the changes in the prevalence and contamination rates at two stages of processing. Sampling was performed at the evisceration stage and at the end of processing after packaging and refrigerating at 4°C for 24?h. A total of 212 samples were collected; 52 were from abattoir A, and 80 samples each were collected from abattoirs B and C. Among all samples, 99 (46.7%) tested positive for Listeria, including L. monocytogenes 19 (8.9%), L. innocua 69 (32.5%), L. grayi 10 (4.7%), and L. welshimeri 1 (0.5%). The L. monocytogenes contamination rate varied from 5% to 11.5% in the 3 abattoirs. L. innocua was the most common species identified and was found in 8.8% of the samples from abattoir A and 33.7% of the samples from both abattoirs B and C. Twenty-six of the L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from positive samples were subjected to serotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and characterization by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using two cutting enzymes, ApaI and AscI. Three molecular serogroups were identified: IIa, IIb, and IVb. Serogroup IIa was common to all abattoirs, and serogroups IIb and IVb were found only in abattoir C. The 10 different obtained PFGE profiles were grouped into 7 clusters; some of these clusters were common to the 3 abattoirs, and others were specific to the abattoirs in which they were identified. This study revealed a high prevalence of Listeria spp., particularly L. monocytogenes, in raw broilers. This high incidence presents a risk to consumers due to the potential occurrence of cross-contamination with other foods in domestic refrigerators and the ability of these microorganisms to survive in undercooked products. PMID:25942617

  1. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  2. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  3. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  4. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 203.2 - Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 9 CFR 203.2 - Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Jimma municipal abattoir, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Tigre, W; Teka, G; Dorny, P

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 512 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93%) and 161 (31.44%) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12%) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5%), heart (33.9%), neck muscle (13.8%), tongue (10.1%), masseter muscles (1.8%) and diaphragm (0.9%). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0%) were fertile, 505 (43.1%) sterile, 49 (29.8%) calcified and 94 (8.0%) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area. PMID:21105600

  9. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  10. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  11. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  12. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  13. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  14. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  15. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  16. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  17. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.8 Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal...

  3. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  4. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  5. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  6. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  7. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  8. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

  9. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

  10. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

  11. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

  12. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

  13. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

  14. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

  15. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR...

  16. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  17. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues. PMID:17133803

  18. 9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... sanitation Standard Operating Procedures, as required by part 416 of this chapter. (b) Before being...

  19. 9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... sanitation Standard Operating Procedures, as required by part 416 of this chapter. (b) Before being...

  20. Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Gun, H; Yilmaz, A; Turker, S; Tanlasi, A; Yilmaz, H

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The swabs from the carcasses and environmental samples (abattoir floor, benches including conveyors, knives, aprons, saws, hooks, hands) were taken at the abattoir immediately after slaughter using sterile cotton swabs. A sample from the wash water of the abattoir was also taken. Preenrichment, immunomagnetic separation and CT-SMAC agar were used for the isolation. The reaction of the isolates with anti-O157 and H7 antisera were also analysed. Twelve strains (3.6%) of E. coli O157 were isolated from the cattle carcasses and eight (2.4%) of them gave positive reaction with anti-H:7. Six strains of E. coli O157 were isolated from the environmental samples and all strains were positive for H7. The number of E. coli O157H:7 strains isolated from the environmental samples was two from the knife, two from the hands, one from the apron and one from the floor. No E. coli O157 was isolated from the abattoir water. PMID:12810296

  1. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  2. 9 CFR 325.1 - Transactions in commerce prohibited without official inspection legend or certificate when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... without official inspection legend or certificate when required; exceptions; and vehicle sanitation... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... inspection legend or certificate when required; exceptions; and vehicle sanitation requirements. (a)...

  3. 9 CFR 325.1 - Transactions in commerce prohibited without official inspection legend or certificate when...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... without official inspection legend or certificate when required; exceptions; and vehicle sanitation... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... inspection legend or certificate when required; exceptions; and vehicle sanitation requirements. (a)...

  4. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  5. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  6. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  7. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  8. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  9. 9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  10. 9 CFR 316.8 - Unmarked inspected products; moved between official establishments; moved in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND...

  11. 9 CFR 327.7 - Products for importation; movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  12. 9 CFR 327.7 - Products for importation; movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  13. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  14. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  15. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  16. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  17. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  18. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  19. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  20. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  1. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  2. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  3. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material...

  4. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material...

  5. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material...

  6. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material...

  7. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without opening the milk ducts or sinuses. If pus or other objectionable material...

  8. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41 Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. (a)(1) An..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  9. 9 CFR 302.1 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishments requiring inspection. 302.1 Section 302.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION APPLICATION...

  10. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post-mortem inspection. 352.11 Section 352.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  11. 9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 352.10 Section 352.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  12. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  13. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 317.3 - Approval of abbreviations of marks of inspection; preparation of marking devices bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING...

  19. 9 CFR 381.178 - Access to and inspection of records, facilities and inventory; copying and sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  20. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES...

  1. 9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.301 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a)...

  2. 9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.301 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a)...

  3. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  4. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient,...

  5. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  6. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. Link to an amendment published at 75...

  7. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  8. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  9. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  10. 9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.301 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a)...

  11. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient,...

  12. 9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.301 Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a)...

  13. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Pre-packaged Processed Meat and Poultry Products to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures for the irradiation of pre-packaged refrigerated and frozen processed meat and poultry products. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines "meat" (including poultry and game) as "the edible part of any mammal slaughtered in an abattoir," and "poultry meat" as "the edible part of slaughtered domesticated birds, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons." (CAC/RCP 13-1976) Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This guide addresses all refrigerated and frozen meat and poultry products NOT covered by Guide F 1356. 1.3 This guide provides information regarding absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load. Such doses are typically less than 10 kilogray (kGy).

  19. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Selected Industrial Sectors in the Lower Fraser Basin

    E-print Network

    operations of: Sand and Grave1 Pits Meat and Meat Products Industries (Abattoir) Fish Product Industry Canned............................................................................... 1 2 Meat and Meat Products Industries (Abattoir)............................................. 9 3

  20. Influenza Virus A (H10N7) in Chickens and Poultry Abattoir Workers, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Arzey, K. Edla; Frost, Melinda; Maywood, Patrick; Conaty, Stephen; Hurt, Aeron C.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Barr, Ian; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Ratnamohan, Mala; McPhie, Kenneth; Selleck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers. PMID:22516302

  1. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  2. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  3. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  4. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  5. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  7. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF...

  8. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF...

  9. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  10. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped products described in § 317.301. 317.345... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped products described in §...

  11. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  12. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped products described in § 317.301. 317.345... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped products described in §...

  13. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  14. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  15. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  16. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  18. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  19. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  20. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  1. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Zakri, Adel M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Hemeg, Hassan A; Ibrahim, Ihab M

    2015-11-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia "200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products". Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  2. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Zakri, Adel M.; El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Ibrahim, Ihab M.

    2015-01-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia “200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products”. Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  3. Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

  4. Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  5. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  6. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  7. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  8. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  9. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  12. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  14. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  15. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  18. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  19. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  20. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  1. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following agents are prescribed for denaturing carcasses, parts thereof, meat or meat food products which... denaturing substance may be obtained from the Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and... (5) of this section, the following agents are prescribed for denaturing other carcasses,...

  2. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following agents are prescribed for denaturing carcasses, parts thereof, meat or meat food products which... denaturing substance may be obtained from the Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and... (5) of this section, the following agents are prescribed for denaturing other carcasses,...

  3. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following agents are prescribed for denaturing carcasses, parts thereof, meat or meat food products which... denaturing substance may be obtained from the Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and... (5) of this section, the following agents are prescribed for denaturing other carcasses,...

  4. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following agents are prescribed for denaturing carcasses, parts thereof, meat or meat food products which... denaturing substance may be obtained from the Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and... (5) of this section, the following agents are prescribed for denaturing other carcasses,...

  5. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following agents are prescribed for denaturing carcasses, parts thereof, meat or meat food products which... denaturing substance may be obtained from the Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and... (5) of this section, the following agents are prescribed for denaturing other carcasses,...

  6. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... slaughter an injured ratite at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical...

  7. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... slaughter an injured ratite at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical...

  8. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... slaughter an injured ratite at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical...

  9. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... slaughter an injured ratite at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical...

  10. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... slaughter an injured ratite at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical...

  11. 9 CFR 203.7 - Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts. 203.7 Section...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 9 CFR 203.7 - Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts. 203.7 Section...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317.344 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient,...

  19. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  20. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  1. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  2. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  3. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  4. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  5. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with the Uniform Rules of Practice, 7 CFR Subtitle A, part 1, subpart H. ... REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES... chapter; (2) Does not have Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures as required by part 416 of...

  6. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with the Uniform Rules of Practice, 7 CFR Subtitle A, part 1, subpart H. ... REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES... chapter; (2) Does not have Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures as required by part 416 of...

  7. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  8. Hydatidosis of camel (Camelus dromedarius) at Jijiga municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, associated risk factors and financial implication.

    PubMed

    Debela, Etana; Abdulahi, Buckhary; Megersa, Bekele; Kumsa, Bersissa; Abunna, Fufa; Sheferaw, Desie; Regassa, Alemayehu

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011 to estimate the prevalence of camel hydatidosis, associated risk factors and financial loss in Jijiga municipal abattoir, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. Accordingly, of the total 400 inspected camel, 92 (23 %) camels and 109 organs were positive for hydatid cyst with the highest proportion recorded in lung (56 %) followed by liver (33.9 %), spleen (7.3 %) and kidneys (2.8 %). The prevalence of hydatidosis significantly varied among age categories (P < 0.05), sex (P < 0.05) and body condition score (P < 0.05) of camels. Hence, there is higher likelihood for occurrence of camel hydatidosis among the older age groups (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.3), in female camels (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7, 4.7) and in poor body conditioned camels (OR 4.1, 95 % CI 2.2, 7.9) than younger camels, males and camels with good body condition score, respectively. Of the total 288 examined cysts for fertility and viability, 59.7 % (172/288) were fertile while the rest 24.0 % (69/288) cysts were sterile. Of the 172 fertile cysts 69.8 % (n = 120) were viable and 30.2 % (n = 52) were non-viable. The rest 16.3 % (47/288) cysts were found dead. It was also observed that the pulmonary and hepatic cysts had fertility rate of 63.7 % (116/182) and 57.4 % (54/94), respectively. The total annual direct financial loss recorded in this study as result of organs condemnation due to hydatid cyst, was 12,147.75 Ethiopian birrs ($714.57 or $7.77/camel). If this value could be extrapolated to the infected camel population of the region, financial loss due to hydatidosis could be enormous. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of hydatidosis and the associated direct financial loss due to the condemnation of organs affected by hydatid cyst in the study area. PMID:26688643

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPATIALLY VALID SAMPLYING TECHNIQUE FOR THE ENUMERATION OF SALMONELLA IN THE SWINE ABATTOIR HOLDING PEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has indicated that the holding pens of swine abattoirs may be an important source of Salmonella infection in swine entering the food chain. The risk posed by this Salmonella source is difficult to gauge because little work has been done on how to properly measure the amounts of Salm...

  10. 9 CFR 354.34 - Application for inspection service in official plants; approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for inspection service in official plants; approval. 354.34 Section 354.34 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  11. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  12. The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Koenraad, P. M.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolates were speciated by PCR and subtyped by PCR/RFLP based on the flagellin PCR products. From all three reservoirs, no Campylobacter lari was isolated, and approximately 80% of the isolates could be identified as C. jejuni and the rest belonged to the C. coli species. The PCR/RFLP typing technique has a high discrimination level and was reproducible between two separate laboratories. The 182 isolates tested yielded 22 distinct Dde I profiles. The results indicate that strains with profiles found in poultry are also detectable in waste water presumed to be solely from domestic and human sources. In addition some strains were unique to the known poultry-related sources, suggesting that avian-specific strains, non-pathogenic to man, may exist in the environment. In contrast some strains were unique to human waste indicating the potential importance of non-poultry sources of infection. No seasonality was observed in the profile distribution. So, at least in the Netherlands, it is unlikely that infections caused by contaminated surface waters contribute to the seasonality of human campylobacteriosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8557080

  13. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ?1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  14. Enjoy Poultry Meat Safely 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Michael

    2006-03-24

    Poultry is a nutritious, economical and versatile food choice, but it requires careful handling, storage and cooking to prevent food poisoning. Two groups of bacteria can be found on raw poultry meat: bacteria that cause food to spoil and bacteria...

  15. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your local American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) ???? (Traditional Chinese) ???? ( ... other flavorings in cooking and at the table. Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils ...

  16. Usual Intake of Meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

  17. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    PubMed

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions. PMID:22062098

  18. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Hana; Omri, Ilhem; Chouari, Rakia; Khelifi, Eltaief; Keskes, Sajiaa; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-02-01

    The effect of increasing the organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of the anaerobic codigestion of olive mill (OMW) and abattoir wastewaters (AW) was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structure of the microbial community was also monitored. Increasing OLR to 9g of chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) affected significantly the biogas yield and microbial diversity at 35°C. However, at 55°C digester remained stable until OLR of 12g of CODL(-1)d(-1) with higher COD removal (80%) and biogas yield (0.52Lg(-1) COD removed). Significant differences in the bacterial communities were detected between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The dominant phyla detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic conditions. The Methanobacteriales and the Thermoplasmales were found as a high predominant archaeal member in the anaerobic sludge. PMID:26687494

  19. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  20. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  1. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  2. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  3. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may be... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  4. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  5. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  6. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  7. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  8. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  9. Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A study was performed to evaluate the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pig meat collected at slaughterhouses and its potential transmission to pigs via pig meat. A total of 1039 blood samples were collected from pigs upon their arrival at the abattoir. The following day, meat samples (n = 1027) were collected from the carcasses of these same pigs. Samples originated from 2 Canadian slaughterhouses, 1 situated in the province of Quebec and the other situated in the province of Manitoba. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to PRRSV and both serum and meat samples were also tested for PRRSV nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seropositivity to PRRSV for all serum samples was 74.3%. Furthermore 45 (4.3%) of the total serum samples and 19 (1.9%) of the 1027 meat samples were positive for PRRSV by PCR. Sequence analysis of open reading frame (ORF) 5 performed on 15 of the 19 PRRSV strains identified in pig meat indicated that 9 were field strains and 6 were vaccine-like (98% to 99.7% nucleotide homology with the Ingelvac RespPRRS/Repro vaccine). One of these 6 strains presented an intermediate 2-6-2 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) cut pattern and the others showed the characteristic 2-5-2 RFLP pattern of the vaccine strain. All strains sequenced were determined to be North American strains. In only 1 of the 19 PRRSV-positive meat samples could PRRSV be isolated. To test the potential infectivity of meat samples containing residual PRRSV, 11 of the PCR-positive meat samples (weighing 1.05 to 1.8 kg) were each used in feeding experiments of 2 PRRSV antibody-negative specific pathogen-free pigs of 9 wk of age. Samples were cut into several pieces and fed to each pair of pigs on 2 consecutive days. Each pig pair was housed in a separate cubicle and serum samples were collected at –7, 0, 7, 14, and 20 to 21 days post exposure. Seven pig pairs were found to be infected by PRRSV following ingestion of meat samples, including meat samples containing vaccine-like virus, as judged by the demonstration of PRRSV antibodies and/or PRRSV nucleic acid in the serum. In summary, the present study indicated that low residual quantities of PRRSV may be found in a small percentage of pig meat collected at slaugtherhouses. Furthermore, when this meat was fed raw to pigs in the experimental setting designed, pigs could be infected by PRRSV. PMID:15581220

  10. Sensory aspects of consumer choices for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Resurreccion, A V A

    2004-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are the changing demand for meat and the factors that influence this demand. These factors include increased health concerns, change in demographics, the need for convenience, changes in the distribution of meat, and price. Finally, the paper covers the meat industry's need for understanding the consumer and the measurement methods used to assess consumer preferences. PMID:22063927

  11. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  12. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  13. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  14. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  15. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  16. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  18. Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:25011474

  19. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  20. HELMINTHS IN MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne parasites have undoubtedly had an impact on human health throughout history. They are important from the standpoint of their direct effect on the well-being of humans, who almost universally consume animal meat as a source of protein and other nutrients. They also serve as a trade obstacl...