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Sample records for abattoir meat inspection

  1. Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

    2013-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k = 0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k = 0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In conclusion, relatively higher prevalence (6.12 %) was recorded in Woldiya municipal abattoir on the basis of detailed Abattoir inspection and RA meat inspection protocols currently utilized in Ethiopia which are insufficient to detect the majority (76.19 %) of TB lesions at the gross level, which indicates the magnitude of meat borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. Detailed abattoir inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately fourfold. In conclusion, routine meat inspections have limitations in detecting BTB-suggestive lesions which indicate the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. PMID:23080340

  2. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health. PMID:20691081

  3. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

  4. The distribution of Staphylococci in bioaerosols from red-meat abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Shale, K; Lues, J E R; Venter, P; Buys, E M

    2006-11-01

    The quality and shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs can be reduced by high concentrations in the processing environment of bioaerosols consisting of spoilage microbiota. A lack of documented literature on the distribution of such bioaerosols has, however, led to the underestimation of their impact. In the study reported here, the deboning rooms of selected South African red-meat abattoirs were investigated for airborne concentrations of staphylococci; the authors studied the distribution of Staphylococcus species in general, as well as the coagulase types of Staphylococcus aureus in particular. Average staphylococci bioaerosol concentrations varied considerably among the abattoirs investigated, with Abattoir B having the highest counts (3 x 10(2) CFUs/m3) and Abattoir A having the lowest (7.6 CFUs/m3). There was a significant link between bioaerosols and microbial loads from red meat in the same environment. The recorded levels were, however, well below the recommended maximum limits for bioaerosols suggested by various international and governmental authorities. Staphylococcus xylosus and S. saprophyticus were found to be the most abundant species in the air of the deboning rooms, while among S. aureus coagulase types, Type III and Type VIII were predominant. On the basis of the ecology of the bacterial groups, the authors suggest probable sources of staphylococcal bioaerosols and propose strategies that could be developed for red-meat abattoirs to reduce the levels of airborne pathogens. PMID:17091740

  5. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  6. Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-12-01

    Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

  7. Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution. PMID:19220989

  8. Clinically relevant multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica in swine and meat handlers at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrcia; Manageiro, Vera; Grtner, Ftima; Cania, Manuela; da Costa, Jos Manuel Correia; Peixe, Lusa

    2014-01-10

    The presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes in slaughtered swine, carcasses, meat and meat handlers is scarcely evaluated. Recently we demonstrated that diverse Salmonella serotypes are frequently present in swine, pork meat and carcasses, and meat handlers at Portuguese abattoirs. Here we have characterized their antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes, helping elucidate the flow of MDR Salmonella in the food chain. Testing 60 Salmonella isolates from different serotypes, the highest frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (T) [70% (n=42/60), tet(A)/tet(B)/tet(G)], streptomycin (S) [63% (n=38/60), aadA2/strA/strB], sulfamethoxazole (Sul) [62% (n=37/60), sul1/sul2/sul3] and ampicillin (A) [57% (n=34/60), blaPSE-1/blaTEM]. Thirty-seven percent (n=22/60) carried class 1 integrons and multidrug resistance was frequently observed (63% n=38/60), including those serotypes common to human infections [S. Typhimurium 78% n=25/32; S. 4,[5],12:i:- 67% n=2/3; S. Rissen 75% (n=3/4); S. London 67% n=2/3; S. Derby 55%; n=6/11)]. The emergent S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were mostly characterized by ASSuT phenotype [blaTEM/strA-strB/sul2/tet(B)], typical of the European clone, while for the first time the ST phenotype [strA-strB-tet(A)-tet(B)] was also observed. Moreover, we report a first finding of a MDR phenotype in S. London [ANSSuT; blaTEM-strA-strB-sul2-tet(A)]. Our findings suggest that the abattoir environment and the slaughter operations seem not only to harbor MDR serotypes that originated in the pig reservoir, but also propagate them through cross-contamination processes, involving meat handlers. The present study suggests a probable relationship between swine and human salmonellosis throughout the food chain, which is of interest for epidemiological, animal health and public health purposes. PMID:24239169

  9. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any...

  10. Wild ungulate slaughtering and meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Casoli, C; Duranti, E; Cambiotti, F; Avellini, P

    2005-08-01

    The different phases of production of farmed and hunted wild game fresh meat are described. The importance of reducing the stress resulting from handling procedures (capture, restraint, transport) before the slaughtering of animals is highlighted, due to its adverse effects on meat quality. The hygienic and animal welfare criteria to be adopted in the slaughtering of wild game are described. The importance of carcass inspection immediately after slaughtering is stated, so that meat can be destined for human consumption. Possible alterations occurring in fresh and refrigerated meat, that are capable of compromising its consumability, are presented. PMID:16244931

  11. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the pertinent regulations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service... carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection until there have been filed with the...

  12. Construction, management and cleanliness of red meat abattoir lairages in the UK.

    PubMed

    Small, A; James, C; James, S; Davies, R; Howell, M; Hutchison, M; Buncic, S

    2007-03-01

    A survey of a large number of UK abattoirs was conducted via a questionnaire designed to obtain information on (i) throughput and species slaughtered; (ii) construction materials used; (iii) use and type of bedding and (iv) details of cleaning/sanitation regimes. A representative group of abattoirs were selected on the basis of the responses to the questionnaire, and the lairage at these plants investigated through enumeration of Escherichia coli remaining after routine cleansing operations. The aim of this study was to enable identification of "common lairage practices" and to assess the general status of the lairage hygiene and effectiveness of lairage cleaning in commercial UK abattoirs. The study shows that microbial contamination often remains in UK lairage holding pens after routine cleaning operations. It would appear that there are significant differences in the effectiveness of lairage cleaning programmes at commercial abattoirs, and that the stun-box-roll-out areas are often cleaned to a better standard than the holding areas. As a result of persistence of microbial contamination in the lairage, there is a possible risk of foodborne pathogens persisting in the environment and potentially contaminating animals and carcasses processed on subsequent days. PMID:22063810

  13. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  14. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  15. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs' immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses were monitored. A general idea of the degree of disease coverage was analysed by examining organ lesions postmortem. Haptoglobin (Hp) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in meat juice samples. 72.13 per cent of pigs appeared to be seropositive for the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and almost 86.2 per cent of them had concomitant infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine circovirus type 2 or Swine influenza virus. Median Hp and CRP concentrations were significantly higher in diseased animals at different stages of the production chain, when compared with levels found in healthy finishing pigs (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest sensitivity-specificity pairs, nearly 80-90 per cent, at cut-off levels of 83 and 10 µg/ml for Hp and CRP determinations, respectively, with high AUCs 0.9. This cut-off could be useful for veterinary inspections at the time of slaughter, to differentiate between the carcase of a healthy animal and the carcase of an animal suffering from a systemic disease, which should be completely condemned. PMID:26101294

  17. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. 4.72 Section 4.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.72 Inspection of meat, meat-food products,...

  18. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  19. The generation time, lag time, and minimum temperature of growth of coliform organisms on meat, and the implications for codes of practice in abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847

  20. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.60.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.62.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.81.04%) values than castrates (35.10.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.61.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.31.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  1. Meat inspection in the Australian red-meat industries: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jj; Dobrenov, B; Lloyd, J; Jordan, D

    2012-09-01

    Postmortem inspection of carcases and offal has been a cornerstone of consumer protection in the red-meat industry for over a century. In 2011, there began strong moves to reform the traditional process of meat inspection applied to cattle, sheep and goats in Australia. A major motivation was the widespread acceptance that organoleptic inspection does little to control the most important hazards in meat products - microbial pathogens derived from gut flora. The watershed reforms in international trade provided another incentive by encouraging the application of a risk-based approach to food safety, which allows for the discontinuation of processes that do not enhance public health outcomes. As well, there was a strong imperative to ensure that resources allocated to quality assurance delivered maximum economic benefit for both consumers and processors. This review discusses how the role of meat inspection is likely to evolve into the future under the influence of these forces. It summarises how the current system was derived through repeated modification over time, mainly to satisfy the requirements of trading partners. Major developments are summarised, focusing especially on how the inclusion of particular organoleptic techniques was initially justified and the relevance of these to modern meat production. Overall, analysis of past and present practices suggests that in the future both public health and efficiency will be better served by strategically integrating the most effective elements of traditional organoleptic inspection with information from the preslaughter period and the use of modern technology for rapid and accurate detection of hazards. PMID:22928685

  2. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ..., ``Cooperative Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final... Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... small State-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in...

  3. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  4. Meat inspection: an overview of present practices and future trends.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Johnston, A M; Mead, G C

    1997-09-01

    This is a review of meat inspection literature, its history, current concerns and needs for the future. The value and limitations of meat inspection are discussed, along with the possible modifications or changes that are being developed to modernize an increasingly outdated method of safeguarding public health. The potential of on-farm risk assessment of slaughter animals and the practical considerations that need to be overcome are outlined. The needs of the consumer and subsequent challenges to the meat and farming industry are proposed as the driving force behind the changes occurring in veterinary public health. The current risk to consumers, from such microbial pathogens as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter infection, are highlighted. PMID:9308400

  5. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... on the Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection published January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4408... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Advisory Committee Act, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI)...

  6. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being..., poultry, and processed egg products, inspection, safety, and other matters that fall within the scope...

  7. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  9. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  10. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  11. Improving meat inspection and control in resource-poor communities: the Nepal example.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Durga Datt; Maharjan, Mahendra; Johansen, Maria Vang; Willingham, Arve Lee; Sharma, Minu

    2003-06-01

    Meat is an important source of protein and a valuable commodity in resource-poor communities. In many developing countries, lack of appropriate slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as invaluable by-products from animal carcasses. Slaughtering places are frequently contaminated and may not be protected against dogs, rodents and insects. Meat products coming from such conditions are often deteriorated due to bacterial infection or contaminated, which may cause food poisoning or diseases in consumers. In many developing countries, regulations concerning meat inspection and/or control are inadequate or non-existent allowing consumers to be exposed to pathogens including zoonotic parasites. In Nepal, buffaloes contribute about 64% of the meat consumed, followed by goat meat (20%), pork (7%), poultry (6%) and mutton (2%). Goat and poultry meat is acceptable to all castes of people while buffalo meat is consumed mainly by the Newar ethnic group. Previously, pork was consumed only by people belonging to low castes, however, in recent years, the consumption of pork has increased in higher castes as the caste system has become more relaxed. Until recently, there were no official meat inspection regulations in the country, however, in 1999, the national government legislated an as-yet-to-be implemented Animal Slaughtering and Meat Inspection Act which mandates slaughterhouse construction and meat inspection and control. Due to the lack of implementation of the Meat Inspection Act and resultant absence of meat inspection, meat from sick or parasite-infected animals is serving as a source of infection to humans as well as other animals. In addition, meat quality is adversely affected by careless handling conditions in the slaughtering places as well as in the meat markets or shops. For improvement in animal slaughtering and meat inspection in both rural and urban areas of Nepal, several strategies are to be recommended. Sustainable capacity building should be introduced including training of veterinarians, meat inspectors and butchers as well as building of slaughter facilities. Government policies on slaughter procedures including ante-mortem examination, meat inspection and stamping of meat should be implemented. Programmes should be instituted with strong focus on prevention and control of meat-borne diseases to reduce infection risk of consumers and meat handlers and to avoid contamination of the environment. Lastly, emphasis should be put on improving the animal husbandry system in Nepal. These same actions can be undertaken in other developing countries to assist with improving meat inspection and control, thus helping with prevention and control of cysticercosis as well as other important meat-borne diseases. PMID:12781386

  12. [Guidelines for animal and meat inspection procedures in the slaughterhouse].

    PubMed

    Schnller, A

    2006-08-01

    Over the last few decades there have been significant developments in livestock and meat inspection systems in slaughterhouses. The most highly developed countries have taken the lead in bringing about these changes by enacting new legislation. These new national laws have been reflected by the Codex Alimentarius in its Codes of Good Practice and this has served to harmonise world trade in foodstuffs. The author identifies the different aspects to be considered when carrying out a veterinary inspection of animals and animal products in the slaughterhouse, bearing in mind the need to protect public and animal health. Although this article only covers cattle, many of the concepts set forth can be applied to other livestock species. Information obtained from the slaughterhouse is useful to primary production; conversely, information compiled in the primary production process makes for more efficient use of slaughterhouse resources. This information makes it possible to carry out risk-based inspections, which will gradually replace traditional procedures. Conventional inspections are often very rigid and mechanical and incapable of measuring the seriousness of hazards or of determining the probability that they will occur. Emerging biological, physical and chemical hazards, as well as new technologies, mean that we cannot become complacent about inspection procedures but must continue to be alert and to keep pace with the constant changes in food safety sciences. Another new trend is the active participation of operators, who must shoulder primary responsibility in upholding the safety of the food they produce. Official veterinary inspection in the slaughterhouse plays several roles: the detection of animal diseases, the inspection of meat and meat products and the verification of audits carried out by the private sector. In recent years, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis and cases of dioxin poisoning have highlighted the need for traceability of foodstuffs, i.e. giving consumers the opportunity to obtain information about the origin of their food and the different stages of its production (commonly referred to as the 'farm-to-fork' chain). Finally, the slaughterhouse veterinarian, as a professional devoted to providing care to animals, is also responsible for ensuring animal welfare; this is an inherent part of his professional ethics. PMID:17094716

  13. Assessing animal welfare in sow herds using data on meat inspection, medication and mortality.

    PubMed

    Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Srensen, J T; Houe, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements. PMID:25385251

  14. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service. ACTION: Notice of Reestablishment of the U.S... Specialist, Office of Outreach, Employee Education and Training, Food Safety and Inspection Service...

  15. Meat safety consequences of implementing visual postmortem meat inspection procedures in Danish slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Mousing, J; Kyrval, J; Jensen, T K; Aalbaek, B; Buttenschn, J; Svensmark, B; Willeberg, P

    1997-05-01

    The consequences of a change from a traditional meat inspection procedure, including manual handling, palpation and incision, to an entirely visual postmortem meat inspection procedure in Danish slaughter pigs were assessed by a comparative study of the two methods in 183,383 slaughter pigs. Out of 58 lesion codes (selected with a prevalence > or = 5.5 x 10(-5)), 26 (45 per cent) were assessed either as merely aesthetic or as the healed stage of an earlier lesion and nine (15 per cent) as active, but local processes, occurring only in non-edible tissue. Five lesion codes (9 per cent) were assessed as active, non-abscessal processes occurring in edible tissue, caused by swine-specific pathogens and 10 (17 per cent) were abscessal or pyaemic lesions occurring in edible tissue. Seven lesion codes (12 per cent) may be associated with consumer health hazards (two frequently and five rarely), and one with occupational health hazards. It was estimated that per 1000 carcases, an additional 2.5 with abscessal or pyaemic lesions (in edible tissue) containing Staphylococcus aureus, 4 x 10(-4) containing ochratoxin, 0.2 with arthritis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 0.1 with caseous lymphadenitis, 0.7 faecally contaminated with Salmonella species, and 3.4 faecally contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica would remain undetected as a result of changing from the traditional to the visual inspection procedure. Two valuable reasons for implementing a visual control system are the potential for decreased cross-contamination (no handling, cutting and incision) and reduced inspection costs. The resources released as a result may be reallocated to hygiene and surveillance programmes. PMID:9160530

  16. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S... Fernandez, Program Specialist, Office of Outreach, Employee Education and Training, Food Safety...

  17. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety... access to selected food safety news and information. This service is available at...

  18. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Food Safety..., Keystone Foods LLC; Dr. Catherine N. Cutter, Pennsylvania State University; Nancy J. Donley, Safe...

  19. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified) need to be collected to help better estimate risk to consumers. This study provides useful baseline data to guide future studies, surveillance and control efforts. PMID:27008629

  20. The abattoir condemnation of meat because of parasitic infection, and its economic importance: results of a retrospective study in north-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, H; Parandeh, S

    2010-12-01

    In nine districts in the north of Khorasan province, in north-eastern Iran, a 5-year retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalences, in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs, of the parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of the animals' carcasses and viscera (and the economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal). Between 20 March 2005 and 19 March 2010, 436,620 animals (45,360 cattle, 275,439 sheep, 115,674 goats and 147 camels) were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 30,207 (6.9%), the lungs of 23,259 (5.3%) and the carcasses of 1072 (0.2%) of these animals were condemned. Almost all (92.4%) of the condemned livers, most (68.9%) of the condemned lungs but only 10.8% of the condemned carcasses were rejected because of parasitic infection. The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica and/or Dicrocoelium dendriticum (cattle, sheep and goats) or entirely to E. granulosus (camels). All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs (which also came from cattle, sheep, goats and camels) were attributed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis cysts and/or Taenia cysticerci were found in ovine muscle while only Taenia cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle (no parasitic lesions were observed in the muscles of the goats and camels). Parasites were responsible for 80.8% of the condemned organs or carcasses, and the value of the food lost because of parasite-related condemnation (based on market prices in 2010) was estimated to be U.S.$421,826 (U.S.$47,980 for cattle, U.S.$316,344.0 for sheep, U.S.$57,372 for goats and U.S.$130 for camels). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and muscles were E. granulosus (52.2%) and D. dendriticum flukes (29.5%). These parasites clearly remain too common and cause considerable economic loss in Khorasan and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:21144183

  1. Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.

    PubMed

    Leps, J; Fries, R

    2009-01-01

    Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects. PMID:22063958

  2. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely. PMID:20033872

  3. Speech input system for meat inspection and pathological coding used thereby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shozo

    Meat inspection is one of exclusive and important jobs of veterinarians though it is not well known in general. As the inspection should be conducted skillfully during a series of continuous operations in a slaughter house, development of automatic inspecting systems has been required for a long time. We employed a hand-free speech input system to record the inspecting data because inspecters have to use their both hands to treat the internals of catles and check their health conditions by necked eyes. The data collected by the inspectors are transfered to a speech recognizer and then stored as controlable data of each catle inspected. Control of terms such as pathological conditions to be input and their coding are also important in this speech input system and practical examples are shown.

  4. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  5. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  6. Patterns of condemnation rates in swine from a federally inspected abattoir in relation to disease outbreak information in Ontario (2005–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Martinez, Alejandro; Friendship, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Strong correlations between clinical signs on farms and the presence of lesions at slaughter have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in condemnation rates provide a data source for surveillance of disease outbreaks in pigs. The data were obtained from 1 abattoir in Ontario (2005–2007). The epidemiological relevance of the results was based on an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario in 2005. The total condemnations and condemnations due to arthritis and pneumonia patterns reflected the field infection of PCVAD in 2005 followed by the widespread use of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) vaccine in 2007. In contrast, increased rates of nephritis and enteritis suggested areas for enhanced surveillance for unexplained changes in disease patterns not identified through traditional passive surveillance. Further studies looking at the benefits of using abattoir data should compare condemnation patterns with multiple sources of swine health data. PMID:21461204

  7. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  8. Real time detection of farm-level swine mycobacteriosis outbreak using time series modeling of the number of condemned intestines in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Yasumoto; MAKITA, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaikes information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis. PMID:25913899

  9. Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 20052010 data from ten French slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmers lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. PMID:23628140

  10. Contribution of Meat Inspection to the surveillance of poultry health and welfare in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salan, A; Strk, K D C; Mateus, A; Lupo, C; Lindberg, A; LE Bouquin-Leneveu, S

    2015-08-01

    In the European Union, Meat Inspection (MI) aims to protect public health by ensuring that minimal hazardous material enters in the food chain. It also contributes to the detection and monitoring of animal diseases and welfare problems but its utility for animal surveillance has been assessed partially for some diseases only. Using the example of poultry production, we propose a complete assessment of MI as a health surveillance system. MI allows a long-term syndromic surveillance of poultry health but its contribution is lowered by a lack of data standardization, analysis and reporting. In addition, the probability of case detection for 20 diseases and welfare conditions was quantified using a scenario tree modelling approach, with input data based on literature and expert opinion. The sensitivity of MI appeared to be very high to detect most of the conditions studied because MI is performed at batch level and applied to a high number of birds per batch. PMID:25521240

  11. Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the...

  12. Sources and properties of some organisms isolated in two abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J T; Gibbs, P A

    1978-10-01

    A wide range of organisms was isolated and identified from a number of sites in two abattoirs. Heavily contaminated sites were the water supply to the lairage in one abattoir and animal hair, blood, rumen contents and soil and faecal material from hooves in both abattoirs. Few catalase negative organisms were isolated but other Gram positive organisms included Bacillus spp., coryneforms, M. thermosphactum and coagulase negative cocci. Gram negative organisms were widely distributed in the abattoirs, Pseudomonas spp. being present at most sites, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from all sites except carcass wash water and air samples in the lairages and a boning room. In pure culture 17 of 54 isolates spoiled meat in air at 4C and 47 at 15C but under simulated vacuum-package conditions only 7 of 28 at 4C and 14 of 28 at 15C gave some indication of spoilage abilities. None of the 10 isolates tested showed marked resistance to chlorine at 20 ppm. PMID:22055125

  13. Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

    2007-04-01

    Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of So Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

  14. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that informal slaughter can prejudice livestock welfare. It was concluded that the current situation is not acceptable in terms of meat safety. Thus, the Veterinary Public Health Directorate of the National Veterinary Services has prioritised the monitoring of butchers, registration of slaughter slabs and a general extension campaign to improve hygiene and animal welfare standards for slaughter in Lesotho. This paper highlights the major risks associated with meat consumption without Veterinary Public Health intervention in accordance with international standards. PMID:20458865

  15. Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

    The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a

  16. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products,'' 74 FR 47648). FSIS held two public meetings by teleconference on October 27, 2009, and November 4, 2009, to solicit comments on the proposed regulations (74 FR 54493)....

  17. Prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C

    2010-09-01

    The prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. The effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. An attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. Samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the plant, plated out and selected organisms were typed using a commercial rapid identification system. It was indicated that the cold trim (mainly of bruises) of carcasses was advantageous in terms of microbiological meat quality. Results indicated pooled water in the abattoir as the most hazardous vector for carcass contamination and that contaminants from this source are mostly Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas and Shigella were frequently isolated from surface and air samples and indicated that the control of total plant hygiene is a requirement for producing ostrich meat that is safe to consume and has an acceptable shelf-life. PMID:21247040

  18. Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

  19. Food Safety Hazards and Microbiological Zoonoses in European Meat Imports Detected in Border Inspection in the Period 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W; Grabowski, N; Gerulat, B; Klein, G

    2016-02-01

    Microbiological contaminations and other food safety hazards are omnipresent within the European Union (EU) and a considerable risk for consumers, particularly in imported meat and meat products. The number of rejections at external EU borders has been increasing in recent years. Official authorities in each member state are therefore obliged to notify border rejections of food and animal feed due to a direct or indirect risk to human or animal health. This study explored the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2008 and December 2013 with a special emphasis on microbiological zoonoses in meat and meat products including poultry at border checks resulting from the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF). Results indicated that border rejection notifications are increasing exponentially, frequently due to Salmonella in poultry and shiga-toxin-producing E.coli in meat and meat products. PMID:26032399

  20. The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs' Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region.

    PubMed

    Olorode, Oluwayemisi A; Okpokwasli, G Chijioke

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on  Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants' concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on  Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834

  1. A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions. Results A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung (“Rule of Tens”). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference. Conclusions The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors. PMID:24766795

  2. The prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in Kenya--an analysis of abattoir data.

    PubMed

    Kithuka, J M; Maingi, N; Njeruh, F M; Ombui, J N

    2002-12-01

    A retrospective study covering a period of 10 years (1990-1999) was carried out using post mortem meat inspection records at the Veterinary Department Headquarters at Kabete to determine the prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in Kenya. Meat inspection records from abattoirs in 38 districts distributed over seven out of the eight provinces of Kenya were examined. Prevalence of fasciolosis was calculated as the number of cattle found to be infected with Fasciola, expressed as a percentage of the total number of cattle slaughtered. Using the average weight and market price of a bovine liver, the monetary loss occasioned by condemnation of Fasciola infected livers was calculated. A survey was also carried out at Dagoretti slaughterhouse complex in Nairobi to determine the relative occurrence of F. gigantica and F. hepatica in slaughtered cattle. Cattle slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughterhouse originate from all parts of the country. A total of 5,421,188 cattle were slaughtered in the seven provinces of Kenya during the 10-year period and 427,931 (8%) of these cattle were infected with Fasciola. The region with the highest prevalence of fasciolosis was Western Province (16%) followed, in descending order, by Eastem Province (11%), Nyanza Province (9%), Rift Valley Province (8%), Central Province (6%), Nairobi Province (4%) and Coast Province (3.5%). The total economic loss incurred by the country during the 10-year period as a result of condemnation of the infected livers was approximately US$2.6 million. The total annual economic losses during this period ranged from approximately US$0.2-0.3 million. The highest total economic losses for the 10-year period were recorded in Western Province (US$0.8 million) and Central Province (US$0.7 million). A total of 1584 cattle originating from five provinces of Kenya were slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughterhouse over a period of two months of which 147 (9.3%) were infected with liver flukes. All the liver flukes obtained from the infected livers were identified as F. gigantica. It is concluded that fasciolosis is prevalent in cattle in all provinces of Kenya, that it causes great economic losses as a result of condemnation of infected livers, and that F. gigantica is the main species of liver flukes affecting cattle in Kenya. Local climatic factors, cattle trade, rustling and population numbers, and the presence of the snail intermediate hosts are probably the main factors influencing the incidence of the disease in the various regions of the country. PMID:12625377

  3. Breed influences on in vitro development of abattoir-derived bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a discrepancy in the reproductive performance between different cattle breeds. Using abattoir-derived ovaries and data base information we studied the effects of breed on in vitro fertilization and early embryo development. Methods The in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from cattle (n?=?202) of Swedish Red (SR), Swedish Holstein (SH) and mixed beef breeds was compared, retrospectively tracing donors of abattoir-derived ovaries using a combination of the national animal databases and abattoir information. Age was significantly lower and carcass conformation score was higher in the beef breeds than in the dairy breeds. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n?=?1351) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries from animals of known breed (visual inspection confirmed through databases), age (databases), and abattoir information. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (frozen semen from two dairy bulls) and cultured according to conventional protocols. On day 8, blastocysts were graded and the number of nuclei determined. Results Cleavage rate was not different between the breeds but was significantly different between bulls. The percentage of blastocysts on day 8 was significantly higher when the oocyte donors breed was beef or SR than SH. There was no significant difference in blastocyst grades or stages between the breeds, but the number of nuclei in day 8 blastocysts was significantly lower in SH compared to the beef. Conclusions The use of abattoir-derived ovaries from animals whose background is traceable can be a valuable tool for research. Using this approach in the present study, oocyte donor breed was seen to affect early embryo development during in vitro embryo production, which may be a contributing factor to the declining fertility in some dairy breeds seen today. PMID:22682104

  4. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  6. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  7. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  8. Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria - 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Kwaga, Jacob; Fasina, Folorunso; Lazarus, David; Suleman, Idris; Poggensee, Gabrielle; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis, a neglected debilitating zoonosis, is a recognized occupational hazard with a high prevalence in developing countries. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected animals or animal products. Brucellosis presents with fever. In Nigeria, there is a possibility of missed diagnoses by physicians leading to a long debilitating illness. We conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with Human Brucellosis (HB) among abattoir-workers in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and selected abattoir-workers using stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics and exposure-factors. We tested the workers serum-samples using Rose-Bengal (RBPT) and ELISA tests. A worker with HB was one whose serum tested positive to RBPT or ELISA. We tested differences in proportions between workers with HB and those without HB using odds-ratio and X2 tests. Results Of 224 workers, 172 (76.8%) were male and mean age was 30 + 9.0 years. Of 224 sera collected, 54 were positive giving a seroprevalence of 24.1%. Of these, 32 (59.3%) were butchers, and 11 (20.4%) were meat-sellers. Slaughtering animals while having open-wounds (Odds-ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.15-4.04); occupational-exposure of >5years (OR = 2.30, CI = 1.11-4.78) and eating raw meat (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.21-6.26) were significantly associated with HB. Multivariate analyses showed that occupational-exposure of >5years (Adjusted OR (AOR) =2.45, CI = 1.15 5.30) and eating raw-meat (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.14 - 6.14) remained significantly associated with HB. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HB among abattoir-workers in Abuja was high. Factors associated with HB were occupational-exposure of >5years and eating raw-meat. Abattoir-workers should be discouraged from eating raw-meat and educated on adherence to safe animal-product handling practices. PMID:24876892

  9. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  10. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  11. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other...

  12. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other...

  13. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other...

  14. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other...

  15. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statement. (a) Inspected and passed sausages and other products in casings or in link form, of the ordinary... near each end of the sausage or similar product prepared in casings when the product is of a size larger than that customarily sold at retail intact. (b) Inspected and passed sausage and other...

  16. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., the inspection mark applied to inspected and passed exotic animal carcasses, meat or meat...

  17. Salmonella Enteritidis in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003.

    PubMed

    White, Patricia L; Naugle, Alecia L; Jackson, Charlene R; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Rose, Bonnie E; Pritchard, Katrine M; Levine, Priscilla; Saini, Parmesh K; Schroeder, Carl M; Dreyfuss, Moshe S; Tan, Regina; Holt, Kristin G; Harman, Jane; Buchanan, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR-HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 through 2003, 293,938 samples collected for these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica serotypes. Of these samples, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella, and 167 (1.3%) of the positive samples (0.06% of all samples) contained Salmonella Enteritidis. The highest incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis was observed in ground chicken PR-HACCP samples (8 of 1,722 samples, 0.46%), and the lowest was found in steer-heifer PR-HACCP samples (0 of 12,835 samples). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were characterized by phage type, pulsed-field gel electrophoretic pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phage typing of 94 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates identified PT13 (39 isolates) and PT8 (36 isolates) as the most common types. One isolate from a ready-to-eat ham product was characterized as PT4. Electrophoretic analysis of 148 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates, with 28 unique XbaI electrophoretic patterns identified. Of these 148 isolates, 136 (92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin alone, and 10 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products. PMID:17388045

  18. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  19. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  20. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  1. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  2. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  3. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  4. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  7. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  8. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  9. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  10. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  11. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  12. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  13. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  14. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  15. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  16. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854

  17. MEATSTHE PRESENT ASPECT OF SUPPLY, CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, W. H.

    1919-01-01

    Eight million food animals die each year from disease and exposure on ranches and farms. A million more are condemned in the abattoirs. This waste calls for preventive work, which is under way, and for conservation through utilizing better the coarser meats and the fats. Here is advice for wasteful Americans, who usually take only the best. PMID:18010144

  18. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  19. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress. PMID:26598787

  20. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  3. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  4. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  5. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  6. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  7. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  8. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  9. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  12. A rapid low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test for routine inspection of meat species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun Chi; Fung, Lai Ling; Chan, Po Kwok; Lee, Cheuk Man; Chow, Kwok Fai; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2014-02-01

    The increasing occurrence of food frauds suggests that species identification should be part of food authentication. Current molecular-based species identification methods have their own limitations or drawbacks, such as relatively time-consuming experimental steps, expensive equipment and, in particular, these methods cannot identify mixed species in a single experiment. This project proposes an improved method involving PCR amplification of the COI gene and detection of species-specific sequences by hybridisation. Major innovative breakthrough lies in the detection of multiple species, including pork, beef, lamb, horse, cat, dog and mouse, from a mixed sample within a single experiment. The probes used are species-specific either in sole or mixed species samples. As little as 5 pg of DNA template in the PCR is detectable in the proposed method. By designing species-specific probes and adopting reverse dot blot hybridisation and flow-through hybridisation, a low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test suitable for routine inspection of meat species was developed. PMID:24211550

  13. Abattoir surveillance demonstrates contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is widespread in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Noah, Elly Yesse; Kimera, Sharazuli Iddi; Kusiluka, Lughano Jeremy Moses; Wambura, Philemon

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the presence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the slaughter facilities in 10 regions of Tanzania that reported pathological lesions suggestive of CBPP during meat inspection. The aim was to ascertain if slaughter facilities can be used to monitor the occurrence and spread of CBPP in the country. The study involved a questionnaire survey, clinical examination of animals for CBPP symptoms prior to slaughter and postmortem examination of the respiratory system in slaughtered cattle. A total of 12 slaughterhouses and 31 animal markets were involved in the study. A total of 2736 cattle were slaughtered comprising 1978 and 758 in slaughterhouses and animal markets, respectively. Of the total slaughtered stock, 351 of 2736 (12.8 %) had lesions suggestive of CBPP and of these, 236 (8.6 %) were from slaughterhouses and 115 (4.2 %) from animal markets. Acute CBPP cases were observed in 192 of the 236 (81.4 %) and 71 of the 115 (61.7 %) of the animals inspected in the slaughterhouses and markets, respectively. Chronic cases were encountered in 24 (10.2 %) of the animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses and 19 (16.5 %) at animal markets. This work has confirmed that targeted monitoring for CBPP lesions through meat inspection can be a useful tool for CBPP surveillance in endemic countries like Tanzania. PMID:26315150

  14. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term meat and meat-food products, for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  15. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term meat and meat-food products, for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  16. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term meat and meat-food products, for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  17. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  18. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    PubMed

    Ellstrm, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Sderstrm, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  19. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  20. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  1. 9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Application for Inspection; Grant or... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, to provide the Administrator with a...

  2. 9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Application for Inspection; Grant or... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, to provide the Administrator with a...

  3. 9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Application for Inspection; Grant or... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, to provide the Administrator with a...

  4. 9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Application for Inspection; Grant or... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, to provide the Administrator with a...

  5. 9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Application for Inspection; Grant or... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, to provide the Administrator with a...

  6. 9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 354.134 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Appeals ...

  7. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  8. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  9. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  10. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  11. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  12. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  13. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  14. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  15. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  16. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  17. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. Spaghetti Sauce with Meat shall...

  18. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. Spaghetti Sauce with Meat shall...

  19. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. Spaghetti Sauce with Meat shall...

  20. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  1. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  2. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

  3. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

  4. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. Control of trichinellosis by inspection and farm management practices.

    PubMed

    van Knapen, F

    2000-12-01

    The prevention of human trichinellosis by proper meat inspection is a classic example of successful veterinary public health measures. The microscopic methods which have been used for more than a century to test pigs for trichinae were intended to prevent human disease. However, the value of these relatively insensitive direct detection methods, including trichinoscopy and pooled sample digestion, was debated as soon as more sensitive indirect (serological) methods became available. Two issues related to testing were discussed. First, should public health authorities endeavour to prevent all infections of humans rather than simply prevent the occurrence of disease, and second, would epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of the pig population on farms not provide a better control system to prevent human infection. This latter issue is of particular importance for those countries in the world where human trichinellosis acquired from farmed animals is absent and examination of pigs at the abattoir only results in negative findings. In countries where domestic pig infections are virtually non-existent, monitoring of Trichinella infection in wildlife could also contribute to understanding the infection pressure from nature to livestock. Trichinella-free pig farming is a feasible option for controlling this zoonosis, even in endemic areas. This approach provides an opportunity to combine good veterinary practice, in order to prevent animal diseases, with the prevention of Trichinella infection. All animals with access to the environment, or animals which are fed with potentially Trichinella-infected feed (swill, carcasses) will always constitute a public health threat, and must be inspected individually at slaughter (swine, horses, wild boars). Finally, it is important to recognize that trichinellosis is a world-wide problem that needs continuous public health attention. If no control system exists, for whatever reason, the public should be educated not to consume improperly cooked meat. PMID:11099849

  8. An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Tessaro, S V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 North American elk (Cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. Abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. The prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. Lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tuberculous lesions in cattle. Lesions occurred predominantly in lymph nodes, and lungs were the only organs in which mycobacterial lesions were found. The distribution of lesions suggested that aerosol transmission was the most significant means of spread of the disease within the herd. Giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) were observed in approximately 80% of the adult elk. PMID:7954222

  9. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  10. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs custody prior to inspection by an inspector of the Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and... or an inspector of the Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection, with import... this paragraph unless the officer in charge of the local office of the Food Safety and...

  11. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals 352.7...

  12. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. PMID:21779942

  13. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat. PMID:22063167

  14. 9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection service. 354.10 Section 354.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection service. 354.10 Section 354.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection service. 354.10 Section 354.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection service. 354.10 Section 354.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 354.10 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection service. 354.10 Section 354.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  20. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  1. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  2. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  3. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  4. Label Authentication of Minced Meat by Automated Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inspections are needed for minced meat because physical characteristics cannot be used to identify its content in terms of meat species or part, i.e. pork, chicken, beef, bacon, shank or internal organs. In addition, a rapid technique to verify meat labels in the viewpoint of nutritional content and...

  5. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G; Heuer, Cord

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%-31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%-19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

  6. Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

  7. Microbiological contamination of cattle carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539

  8. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  9. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41 Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. (a)(1)...

  12. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frdric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  13. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    PubMed

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

  14. 75 FR 51437 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Collection (Advanced Meat Recovery) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... requirements associated with the production of meat from Advanced Meat Recovery systems because the OMB.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advanced Meat Recovery. OMB Number: 0583-0130. Expiration Date of Approval:...

  15. 9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 354.65 - Form of inspection mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of inspection mark. 354.65 Section 354.65 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  17. Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in joints with arthritis in abattoir baconers.

    PubMed

    Friis, N F; Hansen, K K; Schirmer, A L; Aabo, S

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae in synovial fluid of baconers with chronic arthritis was studied at an abattoir. Cultural examination of synovial fluid samples from diseased tarsal joints of 50 animals from 42 herds yielded M. hyosynoviae in 10 cases from 8 herds. Streptococci were found in 6 cases from 6 other herds. M. hyosynoviae antigen was found in 1 of 47 of the samples, and antibody to the mycoplasma was found in 14 of 40 of the samples by ELISA test. The presence of M. hyosynoviae in a joint was usually accompanied by the corresponding antibody. In joints with streptococcal infection antibody to M. hyosynoviae could not be found. PMID:1442367

  18. Bacteriological Quality of Abattoir Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nafarnda, W. D.; Ajayi, I. E.; Shawulu, J. C.; Kawe, M. S.; Omeiza, G. K.; Sani, N. A.; Tenuche, O. Z.; Dantong, D. D.; Tags, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 105 /100 mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 104 to 3.2 × 104/100 mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 104/100 mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 103/100 mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 105 to 6.0 × 105/100 mL of TC, 6.2 × 104 to 1.8 × 104/100 mL of FC, 1.8 × 104 to 6.0 × 103/100 mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 103 to 6.6 × 102/100 mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100 m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100 m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

  19. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically. PMID:22061323

  20. Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Jimma municipal abattoir, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Tigre, W; Teka, G; Dorny, P

    2009-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 512 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93%) and 161 (31.44%) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12%) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5%), heart (33.9%), neck muscle (13.8%), tongue (10.1%), masseter muscles (1.8%) and diaphragm (0.9%). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0%) were fertile, 505 (43.1%) sterile, 49 (29.8%) calcified and 94 (8.0%) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area. PMID:21105600

  1. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  2. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  3. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the point of consumption, food safety is improved by the provision of practical guidelines regarding the handling of meat and meat products. These are distributed at retail outlets and communicated to secondary schools via MLC's educational publications. PMID:10880189

  4. Authentication of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has increased. Many consumers are concerned about the meat they eat and accurate labelling is important to inform consumer choice. Authentication methods can be categorised into the areas where fraud is most likely to occur: meat origin, meat substitution, meat processing treatment and non-meat ingredient addition. Within each area the possibilities for fraud can be subcategorised as follows: meat origin-sex, meat cuts, breed, feed intake, slaughter age, wild versus farmed meat, organic versus conventional meat, and geographic origin; meat substitution-meat species, fat, and protein; meat processing treatment-irradiation, fresh versus thawed meat and meat preparation; non-meat ingredient addition-additives and water. Analytical methods used in authentication are as diverse as the authentication problems, and include a diverse range of equipment and techniques. This review is intended to provide an overview of the possible analytical methods available for meat and meat products authentication. In areas where no authentication methods have been published, possible strategies are suggested. PMID:20685045

  5. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  6. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  7. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  8. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  9. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  10. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  11. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  12. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  13. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  14. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  15. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  16. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  17. Abattoirs as non-hospital source of extended spectrum beta lactamase producers: confirmed by the double disc synergy test and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Iroha, Ifeanyi R; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers. PMID:24728403

  18. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking inspected products. 352.7 Section 352.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS...

  19. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  20. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  1. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  2. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  3. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  4. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-mortem inspection. 352.11 Section 352.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  5. 9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 352.10 Section 352.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  6. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post-mortem inspection. 352.11 Section 352.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  7. 9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 352.10 Section 352.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND...

  8. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants. 355.21 Section 355.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  9. 9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 354.90 Section 354.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY...

  10. 9 CFR 354.63 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking inspected products. 354.63 Section 354.63 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY...

  11. 9 CFR 302.1 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishments requiring inspection. 302.1 Section 302.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION APPLICATION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  13. 9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 354.90... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Report of inspection work. Reports of the work of inspection carried on within official plants shall...

  14. 9 CFR 381.182 - Reports of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of inspection work. 381.182... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY....182 Reports of inspection work. Reports of the inspection work carried on within...

  15. 9 CFR 381.38 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 381.38 Section 381.38 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  16. 9 CFR 307.5 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 307.5 Section 307.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  17. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... under the Act and regulations is required, the frequency with which and the manner in which meat food... by Program employees is to be based on considerations relevant to effective regulation of meat...

  18. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... under the Act and regulations is required, the frequency with which and the manner in which meat food... by Program employees is to be based on considerations relevant to effective regulation of meat...

  19. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... under the Act and regulations is required, the frequency with which and the manner in which meat food... by Program employees is to be based on considerations relevant to effective regulation of meat...

  20. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... under the Act and regulations is required, the frequency with which and the manner in which meat food... by Program employees is to be based on considerations relevant to effective regulation of meat...

  1. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... under the Act and regulations is required, the frequency with which and the manner in which meat food... by Program employees is to be based on considerations relevant to effective regulation of meat...

  2. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Johannes L.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Bekker, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers’ health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  3. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir ProcessingWorkers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  4. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section 381.68 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section 381.68 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  6. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section 381.68 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  7. Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Calleja, Jose M; Garca-Lpez, Isabel; Garca-Lpez, Mara-Luisa; Santos, Jess A; Otero, Andrs

    2006-05-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. PMID:16715811

  8. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  9. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food products prepared in casing or link form (whether...

  10. Meat products and consumption culture in the West.

    PubMed

    Swatland, H J

    2010-09-01

    Meat products and consumption culture in the West may be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The dominant cultural source was Greco-Roman, with evidence from archeology, surviving documents and the names of meat cuts. The initial uniformity of meat technology and language in the Roman Empire was lost as national boundaries and languages fragmented. More recently, however, there has been a strong trend back to uniformity in meat cutting and grading. This started in the USA to solve logistical problems associated with long-distance commerce and similar changes occurred with the formation of the EU. Issues such as meat inspection and animal transport have been strongly influenced by the effect of literature on public opinion, which then led to legislated improvements. Innovations in other areas such as meat distribution and preservation had military origins. Meat consumption culture was involved in the early development of language, social grouping and religions. PMID:20605689

  11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of related Escherichia coli O157 isolates associated with beef cattle and comparison with unrelated isolates from animals, meats and humans.

    PubMed

    Avery, S M; Liebana, E; Hutchison, M L; Buncic, S

    2004-04-15

    The pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) diversity of 51 related Escherichia coli O157 isolates, associated with beef cattle from a single-farm-to-single abattoir (SF-SA) chain of events was determined. The 51 related E. coli O157 isolates from hides, faeces or carcasses of SF-SA cattle produced 11 different PFGE profiles. Also, the PFGE diversity of 6 isolates, associated with a second cattle abattoir, was determined; only two PFGE profiles were found. On the other hand, the PFGE diversity of 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates (from healthy meat animals, retail meats and cases of human disease) was also determined. The 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates produced 78 different PFGE profiles, most of which (approximately 70%) comprised only one isolate. Overall, the results showed: (a) related E. coli O157 isolates (from both SF-SA events, and the second abattoir) had a markedly narrower clonal profile than the 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates; (b) the isolation of identical PFGE types from hide, lairage environment, and carcasses confirms the significance of cross-contamination (both pre-slaughter and during skinning) taking place at abattoirs; and (c) PFGE typing of isolates offers a good tool for tracking sources/routes of such cross-contamination. Such cross-contamination may lead to originally E. coli O157-free animals (and resultant carcasses) becoming contaminated during farm-slaughter-dressing chain of events, so development of efficient control strategies is required. PMID:15109793

  12. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

    2012-10-01

    A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697

  18. Potential for the spread of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in the lairage environment at abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Small, A; Reid, C A; Avery, S M; Karabasil, N; Crowley, C; Buncic, S

    2002-06-01

    Prevalences of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. were examined in 270 swabs taken from selected sites along the unloading-to-slaughter routes of animal movement in lairages of six commercial abattoirs, three for cattle and three for sheep. The overall prevalences of the pathogens in the respective lairage environments were compared with those for 270 swabs from the pelts of 90 lambs examined in the present study and 270 swabs from the hides of 90 cattle examined in a previous study that were slaughtered at the same abattoirs on the same days. Also, the results obtained were analyzed with the aim of identifying critical points at which animal-environment-animal transfer of the pathogens in lairages occurs. The results showed that (i) the overall prevalences of E. coli O157, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. were 27.2, 6.1, and 1.1%, respectively, in cattle lairages and 2.2, 1.1, and 5.6%, respectively, in sheep lairages; (ii) the overall prevalences of the three pathogens on cow hides (28.8, 17.7, and 0%, respectively) and sheep pelts (5.5, 7.8, and 0%, respectively) were higher than the overall prevalences in the respective lairage environments; (iii) the most frequently contaminated sites in cattle lairages were holding pen floors (50% of swabs positive for one or more pathogens), entrance gates of stun boxes (27.8% of swabs positive for one or more pathogens), and stun box floors (22.2% of swabs positive for one or more pathogens); (iv) the most frequently contaminated sites in sheep lairages were unloading ramp floors, holding pen floors, and water troughs (33.3, 22.2, and 22.2%, respectively); and (v) overall, cattle lairages and cow hides were more frequently contaminated with the pathogens than were lamb lairages and lamb pelts. Further research is needed to develop strategies for the incorporation of pathogen control in lairages into integrated microbial meat safety systems. PMID:12092725

  19. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  20. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moiss; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P???0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P?meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672

  1. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  2. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  3. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  4. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  5. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION..., and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low volume establishments,...

  6. 9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  7. 9 CFR 307.5 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 307.5 Section 307.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  9. 9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section 352.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  10. 9 CFR 354.90 - Report of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 354.90 Section 354.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  11. 9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  12. 9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  13. 9 CFR 310.19 - Inspection of kidneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of kidneys. 310.19 Section 310.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  14. 9 CFR 381.182 - Reports of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of inspection work. 381.182 Section 381.182 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  15. 9 CFR 310.19 - Inspection of kidneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of kidneys. 310.19 Section 310.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  16. 9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section 352.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  17. Prevalence and epidemiology of Salmonella spp. in small pig abattoirs of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Bas, Cdric; Tran, T Hanh; Nguyen, T Thanh; Dang, D Thuong; Ngo, C Thuy

    2006-10-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs was evaluated in a survey of small abattoirs in Hanoi, Vietnam. Cecal contents, carcass swabs, and tank water samples were collected for bacterial isolation in various media. Prevalence rates exceeded 50% in pig samples and 62% in water samples. This increased prevalence indicates the need for risk assessment evaluations along the entire production chain. PMID:17135524

  18. Influenza Virus A (H10N7) in Chickens and Poultry Abattoir Workers, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Arzey, K. Edla; Frost, Melinda; Maywood, Patrick; Conaty, Stephen; Hurt, Aeron C.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Barr, Ian; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Ratnamohan, Mala; McPhie, Kenneth; Selleck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers. PMID:22516302

  19. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and...

  20. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and...

  1. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and...

  2. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and...

  3. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  5. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  6. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  7. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  8. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  9. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  10. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Maritte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  11. Occurrence of cancer in women in the meat industry.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Fischman, H R; Matanoski, G M; Diamond, E

    1986-01-01

    A follow up study of 7261 white women from a meatcutters' union was conducted between July 1949 and December 1980. Proportional mortality ratio (PMR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses, using the United States general population mortality rates, were conducted for the group as a whole and for subgroups defined according to the four main job categories in the meat industry, and a fifth category of workers from outside the industry but belonging to the same union (control group). At least a threefold risk of death was observed both for myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among workers in the meat department of retail food stores. No excess risk from these diseases was observed in the control group. SMRs of 4.56, 4.02, and 1.95, which were statistically significant, were observed for lung cancer among workers in chicken slaughtering plants, meatpacking plants, and retail food stores respectively. The lung cancer SMR for abattoir workers was 1.41 (not significant) and 1.11 for workers in non-meat companies. The role of potentially harmful exposures within the industry in the occurrence of these excesses is discussed. PMID:3756110

  12. Occurrence of cancer in women in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Fischman, H R; Matanoski, G M; Diamond, E

    1986-09-01

    A follow up study of 7261 white women from a meatcutters' union was conducted between July 1949 and December 1980. Proportional mortality ratio (PMR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses, using the United States general population mortality rates, were conducted for the group as a whole and for subgroups defined according to the four main job categories in the meat industry, and a fifth category of workers from outside the industry but belonging to the same union (control group). At least a threefold risk of death was observed both for myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among workers in the meat department of retail food stores. No excess risk from these diseases was observed in the control group. SMRs of 4.56, 4.02, and 1.95, which were statistically significant, were observed for lung cancer among workers in chicken slaughtering plants, meatpacking plants, and retail food stores respectively. The lung cancer SMR for abattoir workers was 1.41 (not significant) and 1.11 for workers in non-meat companies. The role of potentially harmful exposures within the industry in the occurrence of these excesses is discussed. PMID:3756110

  13. Electrical stunning, hot boning, and quality of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Contreras, C C; Beraquet, N J

    2001-04-01

    The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying voltage, 20, 40, 80, and 100 V at 60 Hz, on stunning efficiency, blood loss, and carcass defects. In the second experiment, the same parameters were evaluated to determine the effects of varying frequency, 60, 200, 350, 500, and 1,000 Hz at 40 V. A control group for both experiments was not stunned. At 40V, 30 to 50 mA, 90% of the birds were unconscious, as shown by no response to comb piercing, and blood loss was maximized (55.3%). When varying the stunning frequency, maximum blood loss (73.1%), 90% of the birds were unconscious, and minimum carcass defects were observed at 1,000 Hz, 40 V. In the third experiment, birds were stunned at 40 V, 1,000 Hz and deboned immediately after defeathering (hot boning) and chilled or deboned after passing through all stages of a commercial abattoir operation (conventional boning). Control lots were unstunned and followed normal abattoir stages. Average shear value was significantly lower for stunned compared to unstunned birds (6.0 vs. 7.1 kg/g), although tenderness scores, as measured by a trained panel, were not significantly different (6.6 for stunned birds vs. 6.1 for unstunned). Scores for juiciness were also not significantly different (5.5 for stunned vs. 5.8 for unstunned). Average shear value was also significantly lower for conventionally boned birds (5.2 kg/g) than for hot boned birds (7.9 kg/g). Sensory analysis confirmed the shear value results. Conventionally boned breasts had an average tenderness score of 7.4 vs. an average of 5.3 for hot boned breast. No statistical differences were observed with respect to juiciness, although a score of 6.2 was observed for conventionally boned breast meat vs. a score of 5.1 for hot boned breast meat. PMID:11297290

  14. 9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements. 352.19 Section 352.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  16. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  17. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  18. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  19. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  20. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  3. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  4. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  5. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  7. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  9. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  10. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  11. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  12. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  13. 9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time of inspection in an official plant. 354.76 Section 354.76 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  14. 9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  15. 9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time of inspection in an official plant. 354.76 Section 354.76 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  16. 9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354.122 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  17. 76 FR 19952 - Not Applying the Mark of Inspection Pending Certain Test Results

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... determination as to whether meat and poultry products are not adulterated, and thus eligible to enter commerce...: Background FSIS is responsible for protecting the nation's meat and poultry supply by making sure that it is... provided by the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the Poultry...

  18. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... used on shipping containers, bond labels, artificial casings, and other articles with the approval...

  19. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... burlap, muslin, cheesecloth, heavy paper, or other acceptable material that encloses carcasses or...

  20. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., canned or otherwise prepared. In case of consignments arriving in the United States by water,...

  1. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., canned or otherwise prepared. In case of consignments arriving in the United States by water,...

  2. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., canned or otherwise prepared. In case of consignments arriving in the United States by water,...

  3. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., canned or otherwise prepared. In case of consignments arriving in the United States by water,...

  4. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY..., canned or otherwise prepared. In case of consignments arriving in the United States by water,...

  5. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Zakri, Adel M.; El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Ibrahim, Ihab M.

    2015-01-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products. Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  6. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Zakri, Adel M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Hemeg, Hassan A; Ibrahim, Ihab M

    2015-11-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia "200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products". Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  7. Pig meat quality from entire males.

    PubMed

    Lundström, K; Matthews, K R; Haugen, J-E

    2009-11-01

    This paper constitutes an updated review of the production and meat quality aspects of rearing entire male pigs. Since a major obstacle in rearing entire males is the incidence of boar taint, possible methods for detection are also summarised. Safe and fast methods for detection of boar taint would be valuable in avoiding complaints from consumers. Pig meat quality is determined by many aspects, among which odour and taste are the most important attributes. Odour may be negatively affected by the presence of a pheromonal steroid, androstenone, and a fermentation product of l-tryptophan, skatole. Male pigs are surgically castrated in many countries to minimise the risk of accumulation of high levels of androstenone and skatole. Raising entire male pigs is more profitable because they have superior production characteristics and improved meat quality due to leaner carcasses and higher protein content, as compared to castrated pigs. Furthermore, surgical castration is negative from an animal welfare point of view. In most studies, no differences in sensory quality have been found between lean meat from entire male pigs with low levels of androstenone and skatole and pork from castrates and females. The question that remains is: which substances are responsible for boar taint besides androstenone and skatole and whether they need to be considered? The threshold values used for androstenone and skatole might also be too high for highly sensitive persons. Recent research shows that a human odorant receptor, ORD7D4, is involved in sensitivity to androstenone. If the ORD7D4 genotypes of consumer and expert panels are known, this might facilitate consumer studies in the future. There is still a great need for rapid on/at-line detection methods in abattoirs for identifying carcasses with unacceptable levels of boar taint compounds. Several emerging rapid technologies with a potential for boar taint detection have been investigated. They represent various measurement principles such as chemical sensor arrays (electronic noses), mass-spectrometry fingerprinting, ultra-fast gas chromatography, gas-phase spectrometry and biosensors. An industrial detection method should allow 100% correct classification of both acceptable and not-acceptable samples with regard to boar taint sorting criteria. There are, however, still too high a percentage of false negatives ranging from 5% to 20%. In addition, these methods do not yet seem to fulfil the industrial specifications with regard to cost efficiency, simplicity and analysis time. There is still no dedicated measurement technology available for on/at-line detection of boar-tainted carcasses that measures both androstenone and skatole. PMID:22444983

  8. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  9. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n?=?49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n?=?56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 2155 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.626.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.568.5), and worked within 010 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.280.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFN?) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0.001). Discussion This novel polyradiculoneuropathy was associated with removing porcine brains with compressed air. An autoimmune mechanism is supported by higher levels of IFN? in cases than in controls consistent with other immune mediated illnesses occurring in association with neural tissue exposure. Abattoirs should not use compressed air to remove brains and should avoid procedures that aerosolize CNS tissue. This outbreak highlights the potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting. PMID:20333310

  10. Increased risks of soft tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia in abattoir workers.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N; Smith, A H; Reif, J S

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review and further analysis of a series of New Zealand case-control studies which have found elevated risks for soft tissue sarcoma (STS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in abattoir workers. The first published study involved 82 cases of STS (ICD 171) and found a relative risk of 2.8 (90% confidence interval 1.3-6.3). Interviews with an additional 51 cases reported here revealed a relative risk of 1.6 (90% confidence interval 0.9-3.0). Two further studies involved interviews with 100 cases of the category of NHL involving lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma (ICD 200) and 83 cases of other NHL (ICD 202). Relative risk estimates were 1.8 (90% confidence interval 1.1-2.9) and 1.7 (90% confidence interval 1.0-2.8), respectively. A study of 150 cases of AML (ICD 205.0) found a relative risk of 2.5 for abattoir workers (90% confidence interval 1.3-4.7). Finally, a United States cohort study found a standardized mortality ratio of 2.4 (90% confidence interval 0.8-5.4) for Hodgkin's disease (ICD 201) and 2.2 (90% confidence interval 0.8-4.5) for cancer of other lymphatic tissue (ICD 202, 203, 208) among abattoir workers. Abattoir workers are potentially exposed to oncogenic viruses, including bovine leukemia virus. Some workers may also be exposed to the animal carcinogen 2,4,6-trichlorophenol when treating pelts. PMID:3165602

  11. Human and canine echinococcosis infection in informal, unlicensed abattoirs in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia P; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H; Santivaez, Saul J

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  12. Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivaez, Saul J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  13. Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

  14. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  20. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  1. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaapan, R M; Ghazy, A A

    2007-01-01

    Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked. PMID:19070010

  2. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, cross-over, clinical trial of Q fever vaccine in selected Queensland abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, R. A.; Siskind, V.; Schofield, F. D.; Stallman, N.; Worswick, D. A.; Marmion, B. P.

    1990-01-01

    A limited, randomized, blind, placebo-controlled trial of Q fever and influenza vaccines has been conducted in three Queensland abattoirs on a sequential analysis design. Ninety-eight subjects were given Q fever vaccine and 102 influenza vaccine. Q fever cases were observed in unvaccinated workers in all three abattoirs during the period of observation. A total of seven Q fever cases in one group, one more than the number required to achieve statistical significance between the two vaccine groups, was reached after 15 months with the cases coming from two of the abattoirs. These Q fever cases were in the group which had been given influenza vaccine and none in that given Q fever vaccine. Symptomless seroconversion rates of 24% were found in the remaining influenza virus vaccinees, and those without immunity were given Q fever vaccine. PMID:2182329

  3. Multiple sites of exposure in an outbreak of ornithosis in workers at a poultry abattoir and farm.

    PubMed

    Tiong, A; Vu, T; Counahan, M; Leydon, J; Tallis, G; Lambert, S

    2007-10-01

    Cases of ornithosis amongst workers on a rural duck abattoir and farm were notified from late 2003 to health authorities in Victoria, Australia. In May 2004 we conducted a serological survey to identify the extent of exposure to Chlamydophila psittaci amongst workers and a case control study to identify high-risk work areas for ornithosis-related pneumonia. Some workers in all occupational groups showed serological evidence of exposure, while those with pneumonia were more likely to have worked in the slaughtering area of the abattoir (adjusted odds ratio 16.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-207). High exposure to blood and feathers from recently killed birds is likely to represent an occupational hazard to workers, but pneumonia did occur in workers without these exposures. We recommended respiratory protection for all abattoir workers and improvements to airflow and reduction of environmental contamination in high-risk work areas to prevent further cases. PMID:17274860

  4. Changes in the Carriage of Campylobacter Strains by Poultry Carcasses during Processing in Abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Newell, D. G.; Shreeve, J. E.; Toszeghy, M.; Domingue, G.; Bull, S.; Humphrey, T.; Mead, G.

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of simple, rapid genotyping techniques for Campylobacter species has enabled investigation of the determinative epidemiology of these organisms in a variety of situations. In this study we have used the technique of fla typing (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA and flaB genes) to identify the sources of strains contaminating the carcasses of five campylobacter-positive and two campylobacter-negative broiler flocks during abattoir processing. The results confirmed that, in the United Kingdom, individual broiler flocks are colonized by a limited number of subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli. In some but not all cases, the same subtypes, isolated from the ceca, contaminated the end product as observed in carcass washes. However, the culture methodology, i.e, use of direct plating or enrichment, affected this subtype distribution. Moreover, the number of isolates analyzed per sample was limited. fla typing also indicated that some campylobacter subtypes survive poultry processing better than others. The extent of resistance to the environmental stresses during processing varied between strains. The more robust subtypes appeared to contaminate the abattoir environment, surviving through carcass chilling, and even carrying over onto subsequent flocks. From these studies it is confirmed that some campylobacter-negative flocks reach the abattoir but the carcasses from such flocks are rapidly contaminated by various campylobacter subtypes during processing. However, only some of these contaminating subtypes appeared to survive processing. The sources of this contamination are not clear, but in both negative flocks, campylobacters of the same subtypes as those recovered from the carcasses were isolated from the crates used to transport the birds. In one case, this crate contamination was shown to be present before the birds were loaded. PMID:11375174

  5. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  6. Online inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An online line-scan imaging system capable of both hyperspectral and multispectral visible/near-infrared reflectance imaging was developed to inspect freshly slaughtered chickens on a processing line for wholesomeness. In-plant testing results indicated that the imaging inspection system achieved o...

  7. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your local American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Espaol (Spanish) ???? (Traditional Chinese) ???? ( ... other flavorings in cooking and at the table. Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils ...

  8. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    PubMed

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions. PMID:22062098

  9. Cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from various municipal abattoirs in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Kitani, Fadya; Baqir, Senan; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Roberts, Derek

    2014-12-01

    A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. PMID:25096054

  10. Cancer mortality among workers in abattoirs and meatpacking plants: an update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Dalmas, D; Noss, J; Matanoski, G M

    1995-03-01

    Workers in abattoirs and meatpacking plants have potential for exposure to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine papilloma viruses (BPV), which are oncogenic in cattle. These workers also have increased exposure to human papilloma viruses (HPV) and certain chemical carcinogens. We investigated whether such a group showed increased risk of cancers. We report mortality results after an additional 9-year follow-up of a previously studied group of 5,522 workers in abattoirs and 4,589 workers in meatpacking plants. Excess risk of all cancers combined, cancers of the lung, buccal cavity and pharynx, esophagus, colon, bladder, kidney, and bone was observed. Since factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol, and diet, which have known associations with some of these cancers, were not taken into account, the significance of these findings is not known, except for lung cancer, for which occupational factors are probably involved. Because some of these findings have been consistently reported before, studies that will control for confounding factors as well are now urgently needed. PMID:7747745

  11. Hydatidosis of camel (Camelus dromedarius) at Jijiga municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, associated risk factors and financial implication.

    PubMed

    Debela, Etana; Abdulahi, Buckhary; Megersa, Bekele; Kumsa, Bersissa; Abunna, Fufa; Sheferaw, Desie; Regassa, Alemayehu

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011 to estimate the prevalence of camel hydatidosis, associated risk factors and financial loss in Jijiga municipal abattoir, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. Accordingly, of the total 400 inspected camel, 92 (23%) camels and 109 organs were positive for hydatid cyst with the highest proportion recorded in lung (56%) followed by liver (33.9%), spleen (7.3%) and kidneys (2.8%). The prevalence of hydatidosis significantly varied among age categories (P<0.05), sex (P<0.05) and body condition score (P<0.05) of camels. Hence, there is higher likelihood for occurrence of camel hydatidosis among the older age groups (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2, 3.3), in female camels (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7, 4.7) and in poor body conditioned camels (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2, 7.9) than younger camels, males and camels with good body condition score, respectively. Of the total 288 examined cysts for fertility and viability, 59.7% (172/288) were fertile while the rest 24.0% (69/288) cysts were sterile. Of the 172 fertile cysts 69.8% (n=120) were viable and 30.2% (n=52) were non-viable. The rest 16.3% (47/288) cysts were found dead. It was also observed that the pulmonary and hepatic cysts had fertility rate of 63.7% (116/182) and 57.4% (54/94), respectively. The total annual direct financial loss recorded in this study as result of organs condemnation due to hydatid cyst, was 12,147.75 Ethiopian birrs ($714.57 or $7.77/camel). If this value could be extrapolated to the infected camel population of the region, financial loss due to hydatidosis could be enormous. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of hydatidosis and the associated direct financial loss due to the condemnation of organs affected by hydatid cyst in the study area. PMID:26688643

  12. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF...

  13. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance.... Ground meat must be shaped into patties no larger than 5 inches in diameter and 1-inch thick. Each...

  14. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

  15. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  16. The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Koenraad, P. M.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolates were speciated by PCR and subtyped by PCR/RFLP based on the flagellin PCR products. From all three reservoirs, no Campylobacter lari was isolated, and approximately 80% of the isolates could be identified as C. jejuni and the rest belonged to the C. coli species. The PCR/RFLP typing technique has a high discrimination level and was reproducible between two separate laboratories. The 182 isolates tested yielded 22 distinct Dde I profiles. The results indicate that strains with profiles found in poultry are also detectable in waste water presumed to be solely from domestic and human sources. In addition some strains were unique to the known poultry-related sources, suggesting that avian-specific strains, non-pathogenic to man, may exist in the environment. In contrast some strains were unique to human waste indicating the potential importance of non-poultry sources of infection. No seasonality was observed in the profile distribution. So, at least in the Netherlands, it is unlikely that infections caused by contaminated surface waters contribute to the seasonality of human campylobacteriosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8557080

  17. The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Koenraad, P M; Ayling, R; Hazeleger, W C; Rombouts, F M; Newell, D G

    1995-12-01

    In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolates were speciated by PCR and subtyped by PCR/RFLP based on the flagellin PCR products. From all three reservoirs, no Campylobacter lari was isolated, and approximately 80% of the isolates could be identified as C. jejuni and the rest belonged to the C. coli species. The PCR/RFLP typing technique has a high discrimination level and was reproducible between two separate laboratories. The 182 isolates tested yielded 22 distinct Dde I profiles. The results indicate that strains with profiles found in poultry are also detectable in waste water presumed to be solely from domestic and human sources. In addition some strains were unique to the known poultry-related sources, suggesting that avian-specific strains, non-pathogenic to man, may exist in the environment. In contrast some strains were unique to human waste indicating the potential importance of non-poultry sources of infection. No seasonality was observed in the profile distribution. So, at least in the Netherlands, it is unlikely that infections caused by contaminated surface waters contribute to the seasonality of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:8557080

  18. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  19. Isolation and multilineage differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells localized in the stromal compartment of the bone marrow (BM). The potential of MSC for mesenchymal differentiation has been well documented in different animal models predominantly on rodents. However, information regarding bovine MSC (bMSC) is limited, and the differentiation potential of bMSC derived from fetal BM remains unknown. In the present study we sought to isolate bMSC from abattoir-derived fetal BM and to characterize the multipotent and differentiation potential under osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic conditions by quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. These cells expressed high levels of MSC surface markers (CD73, CD90, and CD105) and low levels of hematopoietic surface markers (CD34 and CD45). Culture of bMSC under osteogenic conditions during a 27-day period induced up-regulation of the osteocalcin (OC) gene expression and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity, and promoted mineralization of the matrix. Increasing supplementation levels of ascorbic acid to culture media enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bMSC; whereas, reduction of FBS supplementation compromised osteogenesis. bMSC increased expression of cartilage-specific genes aggrecan (ACAN), collagen 2A1 (COL2A1) and SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9) at Day 21 of chondrogenic differentiation. Treatment of bMSC with adipogenic factors increased levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (AP2) mRNA and accumulation of lipid vacuoles after 18days of culture. NANOG mRNA levels in differentiating bMSC were not affected during adipogenic culture; however, osteogenic and chondrogenic conditions induced higher and lower levels, respectively. Conclusions Our analyses revealed the potential multilineage differentiation of bMSC isolated from abattoir-derived fetal BM. NANOG mRNA pattern in differentiating bMSC varied according to differentiation culture conditions. The osteogenic differentiation of bMSC was affected by ascorbic acid and FBS concentrations in culture media. The simplicity of isolation and the differentiation potential suggest that bMSC from abattoir-derived fetal BM are appropriate candidate for investigating MSC biology and for eventual applications for regenerative therapy. PMID:23826829

  20. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:

  1. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  2. Screening for Zoonotic Fascioliasis in Slaughtered Large Ruminants in Abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Azmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim Noor; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis, or trematode infestation, is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Both species are hepatic parasites that affect humans. We have examined the zoonotic aspects of fascioliasis. A total of 80 fresh liver samples were collected from 67 Kedah-Kelantan crossbred cattle and 13 Murrah buffalo at 4 local abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia. The samples were examined macroscopically to detect the presence of Fasciola spp. The results show 7.50% (6 of 80) of the animals were diagnosed with fascioliasis. Overall, 7.46% (5 of 67) and 7.69% (1 of 13) of cattle and buffalo samples were positive, respectively. There were only F. gigantica species identified in the samples. Our findings suggest that precautions should be taken because the disease has a zoonotic impact on public health. PMID:26868715

  3. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Hana; Omri, Ilhem; Chouari, Rakia; Khelifi, Eltaief; Keskes, Sajiaa; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-02-01

    The effect of increasing the organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of the anaerobic codigestion of olive mill (OMW) and abattoir wastewaters (AW) was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structure of the microbial community was also monitored. Increasing OLR to 9g of chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) affected significantly the biogas yield and microbial diversity at 35C. However, at 55C digester remained stable until OLR of 12g of CODL(-1)d(-1) with higher COD removal (80%) and biogas yield (0.52Lg(-1) COD removed). Significant differences in the bacterial communities were detected between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The dominant phyla detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic conditions. The Methanobacteriales and the Thermoplasmales were found as a high predominant archaeal member in the anaerobic sludge. PMID:26687494

  4. High voltage electrical stimulation: its effect on microbial contamination of lamb carcases in a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S

    1999-08-01

    This study was designed to establish the effect of an abattoir's commercial high voltage electrical stimulator on lamb carcase microbial contamination, including TVC, coliform and Campylobacter colony counts. Over eight visits, batches of six lamb carcases were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique both before and after passage through a high voltage electrical stimulator. On each visit three of the carcases were sent through the electrical stimulator while it was operational (the treatment group) and three carcases were sent through when the electrical stimulator had its power turned off (the control group). The swabs were placed into maximum recovery diluent, transported 'on-ice' and held at 0°C overnight before dilutions and plating out the following day. Too few coliform colonies were recovered for a meaningful analysis and no campylobacters were recovered. The total viable counts of the electrically stimulated and the control carcases were found not to be significantly different. PMID:22062701

  5. Microbial monitoring by molecular tools of an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Omri, Ilhem; Jabari, Linda; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-08-01

    The performance of anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewaters (AW) in an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) was investigated under mesophilic (37C) and thermophilic (55C) conditions. The effects of increasing temperature on the performance of the UAF and on the dynamics of the microbial community of the anaerobic sludge were studied. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for organic loading rates (OLRs) up to 4.5g CODL(-1)d(-1) in mesophilic conditions, while in thermophilic conditions, the highest OLRs of 9 g CODL(-1)d(-1) led to the efficiency of 72%. The use of molecular and microbiological methods to recover microbial populations involved in this process showed that fermentative bacteria were the prominent members of the sludge microbial community. Three novel strains were identified as Macellibacteroides fermentans, Desulfotomaculum peckii and Defluviitalea saccharophila. PMID:23743432

  6. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  7. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  8. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  9. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  10. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  11. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  12. An investigation of Escherichia coli O157 contamination of cattle during slaughter at an abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fegan, Narelle; Higgs, Glen; Vanderlinde, Paul; Desmarchelier, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    The extent of contamination with Escherichia coli O157 was determined for 100 cattle during slaughter. Samples from 25 consecutively slaughtered cattle from four unrelated groups were collected from the oral cavity, hide, rumen, feces after evisceration, and pre- and postchill carcass. Ten random fecal samples were collected from the pen where each group of animals was held at the abattoir. E. coli O157 was detected using automated immunomagnetic separation (AIMS), and cell counts were determined using a combination of most probable number (MPN) and AIMS. E. coli O157 was isolated from 87 (14%) of the 606 samples collected, including 24% of 99 oral cavity samples, 44% of 100 hides, 10% of 68 fecal samples collected postevisceration, 6% of 100 prechill carcass swabs, and 15% of 40 fecal samples collected from holding pens. E. coli O157 was not isolated from rumen or postchill carcass samples. E. coli O157 was isolated from at least one sample from each group of cattle tested, and the prevalence in different groups ranged from less than 1 to 41%. The numbers of E. coli O157 differed among the animals groups. The group which contained the highest fecal (7.5 x 10(5) MPN/g) and hide (22 MPN/cm2) counts in any individual animal was the only group in which E. coli O157 was isolated from carcasses, suggesting a link between the numbers of E. coli O157 present and the risk of carcass contamination. Processing practices at this abattoir were adequate for minimizing contamination of carcasses, even when animals were heavily contaminated with E. coli O157. PMID:15771165

  13. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  14. Hadza meat sharing.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F.; Blurton Jones, N G.

    2001-03-01

    In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills made by other hunters. If hunting and its associated risks of failure have great antiquity, then meat sharing might have been the evolutionary foundation for many other distinctively human patterns of social exchange. Here we use previously unpublished data from the Tanzanian Hadza to test hypotheses drawn from a simple version of this argument. Results indicate that Hadza meat sharing does not fit the expectations of risk-reduction reciprocity. We comment on some variations of the "sharing as exchange" argument; then elaborate an alternative based partly on the observation that a successful hunter does not control the distribution of his kill. Instead of family provisioning, his goal may be to enhance his status as a desirable neighbor. If correct, this alternative argument has implications for the evolution of men's work. PMID:11282309

  15. Effects of scalding and dehairing of pig carcasses at abattoirs on the visibility of welfare-related lesions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions, tail lesions and loin bruising (P<0.05). In addition, as the batch-level frequency of each lesion type increased, average cold carcass weight decreased (P<0.001). These findings suggest that severe skin lesions, tail lesions and loin bruising are more visible on pig carcasses after they have been scalded and dehaired, and that this is when abattoir-based lesion scoring should take place. The high prevalence of all three lesion types, and the links with economically important production parameters, suggests that more research into identifying key risk factors is warranted. PMID:26412112

  16. Microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two European Union-approved abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Spescha, C; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2006-11-01

    At sequential steps of slaughter (scalding, dehairing, singeing, polishing, trimming, washing, and chilling), 200 pig carcasses from two abattoirs were examined for total viable bacteria count (TVC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) by the wet-dry double-swab technique at the neck, belly, back, and ham. Before scalding, mean TVCs ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU cm(-2), and Enterobacteriaceae and CPS were detected on all carcasses. At abattoir A, mean TVCs and the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 12%, respectively), singeing (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 66%, respectively), and blast chilling (2.3 log CFU cm(-2) and 17%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after dehairing (3.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 100%, respectively) and polishing (2.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The proportion of CPS-positive samples decreased to < or = 10% after scalding and remained at this level. At abattoir B, mean TVCs and the percentages of Enterobacteriaceae- and CPS-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (2.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 29 and 20%, respectively), polishing (3.7 log CFU cm(-2)), and chilling (2.6 log CFU cm(-2) and 55 and 77%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after the combined dehairing-singeing (4.7 log CFU cm(-2) and 97 and 100%, respectively). Among sites, the neck tended to yield higher levels of contamination from trimming to chilling at both abattoirs (P < 0.05). Consequently, scalding, singeing, and chilling may be integrated in a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for pig slaughter. As indicated by the higher levels of contamination on carcasses after dehairing-singeing and the following stages at abattoir B, each abattoir should develop its own baseline data and should customize HACCP systems to match process- and site-specific circumstances. PMID:17133797

  17. Ofsted Inspected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank

    2009-01-01

    One of the most radical actions one can take is to describe, without exaggeration or bias, exactly what is happening. The author has been reading the "Handbook for the inspection of further education and skills from September 2009." The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills' (Ofsted's) new handbook promises a "fresh

  18. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  19. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with meat, and... shall contain not less than 12 percent meat computed on the weight of the uncooked fresh meat prior...

  20. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with meat, and... shall contain not less than 12 percent meat computed on the weight of the uncooked fresh meat prior...

  1. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with meat, and... shall contain not less than 12 percent meat computed on the weight of the uncooked fresh meat prior...

  2. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product 355.41 Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. (a)(1) An... hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

  3. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  4. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  6. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  7. 9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services. 352.3 Section 352.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  8. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  9. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84 Stat... water quality standards. No grant of inspection can be issued after April 3, 1970 (the date of...

  10. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84 Stat... water quality standards. No grant of inspection can be issued after April 3, 1970 (the date of...

  11. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84 Stat... water quality standards. No grant of inspection can be issued after April 3, 1970 (the date of...

  12. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84 Stat... water quality standards. No grant of inspection can be issued after April 3, 1970 (the date of...

  13. 9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... States is required by subsection 21(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (84 Stat... water quality standards. No grant of inspection can be issued after April 3, 1970 (the date of...

  14. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED...

  15. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED...

  16. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED...

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  18. Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (α1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P < 0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage-specific markers and the production of functional metabolites support the potential for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bMSC isolated from BM of abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:25011474

  19. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

  20. Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidified sodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A

    2010-11-01

    A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry. PMID:21083814

  1. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION.... Rejected. (4) The U.S. Passed for Cooking mark is applied on products passed for cooking as...

  2. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION.... Rejected. (4) The U.S. Passed for Cooking mark is applied on products passed for cooking as...

  3. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION.... Rejected. (4) The U.S. Passed for Cooking mark is applied on products passed for cooking as...

  4. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION.... Rejected. (4) The U.S. Passed for Cooking mark is applied on products passed for cooking as...

  5. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  6. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  7. Detection of asymptomatic renal Leptospira infection in abattoir slaughtered cattle in southeastern Georgia, United States

    PubMed Central

    Ilha, Marcia; Woldemeskel, Moges; Berghaus, Roy D; Pence, Mel E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. Several animal species, including cattle, can act as potential asymptomatic carriers facilitating zoonotic transmission of Leptospira. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of asymptomatic renal Leptospira carriers among cattle slaughtered in southeastern Georgia, United States. Methods: A battery of diagnostic tests, including dark field microscopy, direct fluorescent antibody staining, polymerase chain reaction, and culture, were performed on a set of bovine kidneys (n?=?37) collected from an abattoir in southeastern Georgia, United States. Virulence of a field isolate obtained from this study was tested in a hamster experimental model. Results: Motile spirochete-like structures were observed by dark field microscopy in 23 (59%) out of 37 kidney samples tested. In all, 29 samples (78%) were positive by direct fluorescent antibody staining. Only 11 (29.7%) samples by polymerase chain reaction and 3 (8.1%) by culture were positive for Leptospira sp. The isolates obtained by culture were confirmed as Leptospira borgpetersenii. Hamsters experimentally infected with one of the Leptospira field isolates obtained from this study did not show clinical signs but developed renal infection with interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Conclusions: This study confirms that asymptomatic Leptospira renal infection is present among cattle in the region. Our findings underscore the need for future studies to assess the potential environmental contamination and transmission to humans in contact with infected cattle.

  8. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep: An abattoir study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Kumar, P.; Singh, M.; Vasishta, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% were grossly normal and 19.47% had one or more genital abnormalities. Genital abnormalities were categorized as ovarian (5.26%), uterine (10.53%) and miscellaneous (3.68%). Amongst ovarian abnormalities are follicular cysts (3.16%) and ovaro-bursal adhesions (2.10%), which were recorded in Gaddi ewes. Uterine abnormalities include hydrometra (4.74%), pyometra (2.63%), mucometra (2.10%), endometritis (0.53%) and mummification (0.53%). Miscellaneous abnormalities include parovarian cysts (2.10%), parasitic cysts (1.05%) and nodules on both uterine horns (0.53%). Among the genital abnormalities in sheep, highest incidence (24.32%) was observed with hydrometra and lowest (2.7%) with each of endometritis, mummification and nodular growth on both uterine horns. Thus the uterus (54.07%) was most commonly affected, followed by the ovary (27.02%) and miscellaneous (18.91%) in ewes. In present study, 8.95% pregnant sheep were also slaughtered, with fetal age in majority of cases two months or less on the basis of CRL measurement which represents a huge economic loss. PMID:26623348

  9. Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

  10. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., Beef Extract) shall contain not more than 25...

  11. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., Beef Extract) shall contain not more than 25...

  12. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., Beef Extract) shall contain not more than 25...

  13. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... percent of meat of the species named on the label, computed on the weight of the fresh meat....

  14. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... percent of meat of the species named on the label, computed on the weight of the fresh meat....

  15. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... percent of meat of the species named on the label, computed on the weight of the fresh meat....

  16. Iron, Meat and Health

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary of the publication Iron and Health by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

  17. Trends in the microbial contamination of bovine, ovine and swine carcasses in three small-scale abattoirs in central Italy: A four-year monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Osimani, Andrea; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca; Vetrano, Vittorio; Paolini, Francesca; Foglini, Martina; Micci, Eleonora; Paoloni, Alberto; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The microbial contamination of animal carcasses with respect to the limits established by Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 was investigated. Bovine, ovine, and swine carcasses (n=536 samples) from three small-scale abattoirs were sampled using abrasive sponges and tested for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae in the period 2010-2013. Mean ACC values reached 1.96 log cfu/cm(2) on bovine carcasses and 2.27 log cfu/cm(2) on both swine and ovine carcasses; Enterobacteriaceae counts of 0.01, 0.20 and 0.27 log cfu/cm(2) were found for bovine, swine and ovine carcasses, respectively. Abattoir 1 showed the highest values of ACC; no differences among abattoirs were highlighted for Enterobacteriaceae. Compared with swine and ovine carcasses, bovine carcasses showed significantly lower means for both ACC and Enterobacteriaceae. The data collected indicated that the management of the three abattoirs met high quality standards, thereby proving that it is feasible to achieve good microbiological quality in abattoirs when adequate Good Hygiene Practices are applied. PMID:26340741

  18. A microbiological survey of fresh meat in the supermarket trade. Part 1: Carcasses and contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nortj, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Naud, R T; Holzapfel, W H; Grimbeek, R J

    1989-01-01

    Sanitary conditions were monitored at eleven supermarkets (from two major chains, Sup groups A & B) in the South African butcher industry. The variables measured were the temperature of carcasses and environments, the muscle pH of carcasses and the microbiological status of carcasses and human or personal and equipment contact surfaces (chillers-three surfaces, delivery trucks-five surfaces, cutting rooms-16 surfaces). All supermarkets, except one, received beef carcasses, distributed by one of two wholesale organizations from the same abattoir. No consistency was found in the contamination level of different parts of carcasses at different supermarkets, although there was a tendency for fore quarters to be more contaminated than hind quarters. Chiller surfaces, delivery truck surfaces and equipment had significantly different microbial counts at the different supermarkets. Sup group B received carcasses with higher mean surface temperatures and microbial counts than those of the carcasses received by Sup group A, but the mean microbial count of equipment was lower than that encountered at Sup group A. The result was less contaminated meat at the supermarkets in Sup group B, illustrating how a combination of the microbial quality of carcasses received by such supermarkets, and the sanitary programme in operation at such supermarkets affects the contamination level of retail premises. It could furthermore be shown that personnel surfaces (hands and clothes) and equipment like saws and mincers are consistent contributors to contamination at the retail level of the meat industry. PMID:22056158

  19. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  20. 9 CFR 203.7 - Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts. 203.7 Section 203.7 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNDER THE PACKERS...

  1. [Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157 in bovine meat products and cattle in the province of Tucuman].

    PubMed

    Jure, María A; Condorí, Marina S; Pérez Terrazzino, Gabriela; Catalán, Mariana G; López Campo, Alejandro; Zolezzi, Gisella; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; Castillo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is an emergent pathogen associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Meat products constitute an important transmission source of this microorganism. The aims of this study were to characterize E. coli O157 isolated from cattle and meat products collected from abattoirs and retail stores, to establish the clonal relatedness among regional isolates and to compare them with those in the national database. Between 2004 and 2013, 169 minced meat, 35 sausage and 216 carcass samples were analyzed. Thirteen E. coli O157 isolates were identified; 6 of which were O157:H7 and characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA (n = 5) and stx2/eae/ehxA (n = 1). The 7 remaining isolates were non-toxigenic E. coli strains, and serotyped as O157:NT (n = 4), O157:NM (n = 1), O157:ND (n = 1) and O157:H16 (n = 1). The strains yielded different XbaI-PFGE patterns. Compared to the E. coli O157 isolates in the National Database, none of these patterns have been previously detected in strains of different origin in Argentina. PMID:26026230

  2. Compact Multifunction Inspection Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Ivlev, Robert; Ohm, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-sensor inspection head designed to be mounted at tip of robot arm for performing multiple automated and/or remotely controlled inspection functions. Inspection head houses optoelectronic sensors, electrochemical sensor, sources of illumination, and parallel-jaw gripper.

  3. 9 CFR 94.21 - Importation of meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND..., and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. 94.21 Section... bovines from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. Meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products,...

  4. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  5. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  6. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  7. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as Beef Pie, Veal Pie, and Pork Pie shall contain...

  8. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as Beef Pie, Veal Pie, and Pork Pie shall contain...

  9. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as Beef Pie, Veal Pie, and Pork Pie shall contain...

  10. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frdric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  11. Meat cooking shrinkage: Measurement of a new meat quality parameter.

    PubMed

    Barbera, S; Tassone, S

    2006-07-01

    A parameter, meat cooking shrinkage (MCS), has been introduced based on investigations carried out on meat shrinkage caused by heat during cooking. MCS is the difference between the raw and cooked areas of the meat sample, expressed as a percentage of the raw area. The method uses a disk of meat (10mm thick and 55mm wide) measured before and after cooking in a hot air oven at 165C for 10min, the meat having reached an internal temperature of 70C. Video image analysis was used to measure the meat sample area. The proposed MCS protocol permits us to measure cooking loss and to reduce cost and variability, moreover it could be improved to obtain color and marbling measurements by developing the image analysis software. Analysing two or more parameters on the same sample, the correlations among them should improve analysis efficacy. A detailed description of the measurement protocol of MCS is reported as well as its application to beef and pork. PMID:22062485

  12. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Mirad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines. PMID:16022764

  13. 9 CFR 331.4 - Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control and disposal of non-federally-inspected products in States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act. 331.4 Section 331.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. Inspection and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and

  15. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  16. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040

  17. Abattoir based surveillance of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Sultanate of Oman during 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Al Kitani, Fadya Abdullah; Al Riyami, Shumoos; Al Yahyai, Sabra; Al Awahi, Abdulmajeed Hamood; Al Aawali, Mahir; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad

    2015-07-30

    A passive surveillance was conducted in 8 selected abattoirs belonging to 8 governorates of Oman. Routine slaughtering of 282.020 animals was observed during 2010-2013 by duty veterinarians and suspected samples (n=1440) for cystic echinococcosis (CE) from camels (n=292), cattle (n=303), goats (n=682) and sheep (n=163) were collected. In total, 587 (40.8%) samples were found positive for CE and the highest percentage (64.2%) of positive samples belonged to Dhofar (Salalah) as compared to other governorates, p<0.01. The infection rate of CE was calculated as 5.3, 0.6, 0.07 and 0.03 in camel, cattle, sheep and goats respectively. Fertile cysts were found in 30.7% of positive samples and camels (52%) were found as major source of these followed by cattle (14.1%) and goats (9.7%). Percentage of positive to submitted samples was higher in females (67.9%) than males (29.8%). The fertility of cyst increased with age and the highest percentage of fertile cysts were collected from animals above 5 years of age (54.4%) followed by between 3 and 5 years (36.7%) and below 3 years of age (8.9%). For different breeds, 478 (62.7%) samples from local breeds of livestock were positive for CE as compared to 108 (15.9%) from imported animals (OR 8.92), p<0.01. The highest percent of positive samples was observed in cysts from lungs (54.4%) followed by those from liver (25.7%), liver and lungs (14.1%) and others (3.8%). Molecular investigations indicated that G1 and G6/7 were the two strains of CE circulating in camels and cattle while G1 was the only strain found in samples from small ruminants. Results indicated that CE is endemic in the livestock of Oman and further molecular epidemiological work in different host species is required for the conceptualization of a comprehensive control program. PMID:26116457

  18. Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

    2012-07-01

    The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 10(6) to 2.85 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

  19. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Samples Collected at an Abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at Different Points in the Surrounding Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouses effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145

  20. Modelling the effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses at study, abattoir and batch levels by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Cadavez, Vasco; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis

    2013-05-15

    The effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses was investigated at study, abattoir and batch level by meta-analysis. Both the fixed-effects and random-effects model confirmed (p<0.05) the significant effect of chilling in decreasing Salmonella occurrence on pig carcasses; although the random-effects solution was preferred to account for the significant variability in effect size (p<0.001) estimated from the 13 primary studies considered, the 32 abattoirs surveyed, and the 51 sampled batches. Conservatively, it can be said that chilling reduces the Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses by a mean ratio of ~1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.6). Multilevel meta-analysis models investigating study characteristics that could explain the heterogeneity (?(2)) in the true effect size among primary studies (?(2)=0.578), among surveyed abattoirs (?(2)=0.431), and among sampled batches (?(2)=0.373), revealed that study size (represented by the moderating variables of 'total sample size' and 'number of batches sampled in an abattoir') and 'carcass swabbed area' have a significant impact (p<0.05) on the measured effect size of chilling. The fact that swabbed area explained between 56 and 62% and total sample size between 23 and 38% of the total heterogeneity in the chilling true effect size, indicates that differences in experimental design greatly affect our substantive conclusion about the effect of chilling on Salmonella occurrence. This inconsistency to elucidate the effect of chilling arises because of the many factors influencing both the performance of the chilling operation and the measurement itself. Meta-analysis was not only instrumental to show that small-size studies (i.e., only one batch sampled per abattoir, total number of sampled carcasses per batch<50) and small swabbed areas (<100 cm(2)) lead to imprecise and even conflicting conclusions, but most importantly, enabled definition of the characteristics of a well-designed study having a minimum statistical power to produce precise results. A sound experimental design derived by multilevel meta-analysis consists of swabbing carcass areas of at least 500 cm(2) from 25 pre-chill and 25 post-chill carcasses from a single production batch, with a minimum of two batches sampled per surveyed abattoir. If the survey were to be conducted in more than one abattoir, the total sample size should not be less than 400. Two methods to test for publication bias, a common problem in meta-analysis, suggested that whilst the presence of unpublished small-size studies is probable, it is not likely that this would significantly bias the overall chilling effect estimated in this study. PMID:23558193

  1. Radiation preservation of meat and meat products: A review.

    PubMed

    Dempster, J F

    1985-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980 clarified the position regarding the medical acceptability of irradiated foods when it said'no health hazard results from consuming any food irradiated up to a dose of one megarad (1 Mrad)'. This resulted in renewed interest in irradiation as a cost-effective alternative to traditional preservation methods such as canning and freezing. Thus, radurisation (the application of ionising radiation at a dose level which substantially reduces the microbial population) increases the shelf life of poultry, comminuted meat and meat dishes significantly. Low dose irradiation, or radicidation, eliminates parasites such as Trichinae and cysticerci in pork and, very importantly, salmonella organisms in poultry and red meat. Therefore, irradiation has an important rle to play in public health protection. High dose irradiation, or radappertisation ('cold sterilisation'), uses doses in excess of 1 Mrad and is analogous to retorting as understood in the canning industry. However, it can adversely affect quality in producing 'free radicals' in high protein foods such as meat. To prevent this, special precautions are necessary, e.g. irradiation is conducted at very low temperatures and the product is usually vacuum packed. A further potential use of irradiation is its ability to reduce the quantity of nitrite necessary in cured meats. This may become of practical significance if legislation further reduces the amount of nitrite permitted in these products. PMID:22055162

  2. Factors associated with fatigued, injured, and dead pig frequency during transport and lairage at a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J; Matthews, J O; Schultz Kaster, C M; Johnson, A K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify environmental and management factors that are associated with the frequency of fatigued, injured, and dead pigs on arrival and in resting pens during lairage at a commercial Midwest abattoir. The terms transport losses or total losses refer to pigs that die or become nonambulatory at any stage of the marketing process. In this study, fatigued, injured, and dead pigs were summed into a variable termed total losses. Relative humidity (%), temperature ( degrees C), wind speed (m/s), and dew point ( degrees C) data were collected on 12,333 trailer loads of pigs. Week, sort from barn (first or third pig removal from barn), farm, normal vs. split load type (from 1 or multiple barns), load crew, driver, trailer, and wind direction were used as fixed effects in the model for the analysis of losses per load using generalized mixed models for Poisson distributions. Seven temperature-humidity indices (THI) were calculated and compared as model covariates. Load time per pig, trailer density (pigs per trailer x average BW/trailer space; kg/m(2)), wait time before unloading at the abattoir, and wind speed were used as model covariates. The log of the number of hogs per trailer was used to standardize the response variable. The linear covariate density accounted for the greatest portion of variance (based on F-value) followed by the fixed effect sort from barn, the fixed effect load type (pigs from 1 or multiple barns within a farm), load time per pig linear covariate, and THI. Pigs transported to the abattoir from June through July experienced fewer losses (P < 0.001) when compared with pigs that were transported from November through December. Keeping other factors constant, the log of total losses (%) per load increased by 0.0102x + 0.000541x(2) per unit of THI and 0.0191 kg/m(2) of density. Similarly, of 9 farms, the poorest-performing farm in regards to total loss percentage experienced 0.93% more losses per load when compared with the farm with the least loss percentage. This study demonstrates that multiple environment and management factors influence the incidence of market hog transport losses. PMID:19028860

  3. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10C for 50 min, or at 0C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10C and -5C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5C and -1C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10C to -lC.

  4. Red meat, processed meat and cancer in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies around the world were analysed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, demonstrating a positive correlation between consumption of red meat and processed meat and colorectal cancer. In South Africa (SA) there is a great variation in the incidence of this type of cancer between various ethnic groups, related to diet and other risk factors. Strengthening the SA cancer registry and co-ordinated research on diet and cancer are required to provide specific answers for our population. PMID:26792320

  5. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    PubMed

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Rgis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio. PMID:20377948

  6. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  7. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  8. The role of equipment that has direct contact with the carcase in the spread of Salmonella in a beef abattoir.

    PubMed

    Smeltzer, T I; Peel, B; Collins, G

    1979-06-01

    Counts of Salmonella were performed by the most probable number technique on 16 articles of abattoir equipment having direct contact with the carcase. Forty samples were collected from each article over 21 months. The contamination rate of these articles with salmonellae varied from nil % for a saw used to quarter the sides to 47.5% for stainless steel tables and hooks. Mesh gloves were also highly contaminated, salmonellae being isolated from 32.5% of gloves on the slaughter floor and 40% of those in the boning room. Salmonella counts ranged from 1.0 to 3,663 organisms per article. Mesh gloves, cutting boards and stainless steel tables were found to have counts that were at times greater than 1,000 salmonellae per article. PMID:518420

  9. Implementation of a validated HACCP system for the control of microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at a small abattoir.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A; Gill, Colin O

    2003-01-01

    To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556

  10. Risk of carcase contamination with Campylobacter in sheep sent for slaughter into an abattoir in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Garcia, A B; Steele, W B; Reid, S W J; Taylor, D J

    2010-06-01

    Campylobacter species have been identified as the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis in the UK. However, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that the role of sheep in the epidemiology of Campylobacter has been underestimated. The objective of the present study was to assess the infection risk of Campylobacter in sheep meat as a potential risk for human campylobacteriosis and to establish any possible associations between the epidemiological factors considered in the study and the presence of Campylobacter on lamb carcases. The prevalence of Campylobacter obtained from faecal samples and swabs from fleeces and carcases was presented in a previous paper. Epidemiological data was collected through questionnaires in order to identify risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter on the carcases and to make recommendations, based on the results obtained, to prevent human campylobacteriosis. PMID:20381181

  11. Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.

    PubMed

    Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

    2013-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

  12. A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged 3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences. PMID:23569835

  13. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  14. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Borch, E; Kant-Muermans, M L; Blixt, Y

    1996-11-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens. The main defects in meat are off-odours and off-flavours, but discolouration and gas production also occur. Bacteria associated with the spoilage of refrigerated meat products, causing defects such as sour off-flavours, discolouration, gas production, slime production and decrease in pH, consist of B. thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp. Luctobacillus spp. Leuconostoc spp. and Weissella spp. Analysis of spoilage as measured by bacterial and chemical indicators is discussed. It is concluded that a multivariate approach based on spectra of chemical compounds, may be helpful in order to analyse spoilage, at least for spoilage caused by lactic acid bacteria. The consequences of bacteria bacteria interactions should be evaluated more. PMID:8913812

  15. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... document (77 FR 26706). FSIS proposed to remove sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and benzoic acid from... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to remove sodium benzoate, sodium... phydroxybenzoate), calcium propionate, sodium propionate, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate. In 2006, Kraft...

  16. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  17. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. 94.4 Section 94.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  18. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  19. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. 94.4 Section 94.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  20. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may...

  1. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may...

  2. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may...

  3. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may...

  4. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 319.10 Section 319.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B, may...

  5. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Nutrition....301. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat products...

  6. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Nutrition....301. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat products...

  7. Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Cureux, James

    1974-01-01

    Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.

  8. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  9. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  10. Microbiology of fresh and restructured lamb meat: a review.

    PubMed

    al-Sheddy, I A; Fung, D Y; Kastner, C L

    1995-01-01

    Microbiology of meats has been a subject of great concern in food science and public health in recent years. Although many articles have been devoted to the microbiology of beef, pork, and poultry meats, much less has been written about microbiology of lamb meat and even less on restructured lamb meat. This article presents data on microbiology and shelf-life of fresh lamb meat; restructured meat products, restructured lamb meat products, bacteriology of restructured meat products, and important foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in meats and lamb meats. Also, the potential use of sodium and potassium lactates to control foodborne pathogens in meats and restructured lamb meat is reviewed This article should be of interest to all meat scientists, food scientists, and public health microbiologists who are concerned with the safety of meats in general and lamb meat in particular. PMID:7576150

  11. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  12. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems.

    PubMed

    Demirok, E; Veluz, G; Stuyvenberg, W V; Castañeda, M P; Byrd, A; Alvarado, C Z

    2013-04-01

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high-quality meat and to meet the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in 2 replications were randomly selected from a commercial processor and subjected to 3 systems: immersion chill (IC), air chill (AC), and combi in-line air chill (CIAC). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter were determined on pre- and postchilled carcasses. Quality of the meat was evaluated by carcass yield, drip loss, cook loss, texture, moisture content, sensory qualities, and color (L*, a*, and b*) of boneless skinless breast fillets and skin-on drums. Shelf life of whole carcasses, breast fillets, and drums was also determined. The IC resulted in the most reduction of Salmonella (39.7%) and Campylobacter (43%) incidence due to the washing effect and presence of chlorine in the chilled water. There was no significant difference in shelf-life when comparing the chilling methods. The IC had the highest (P < 0.05) carcass yield (6.5%), followed by CIAC (+1.98.0%) and then AC (-1.10%). Drip loss, cook loss, and moisture content of breast fillets were not significantly different for all the chilling systems, but higher L* value was observed for breast fillets at 24 h postmortem treated with IC and CIAC. However, IC exhibited the lightest color and AC was darkest in the drum samples. Shear force of breast meat was significantly more tender for AC and CIAC. There were no differences in the sensory qualities of breast fillets and drums among the 3 chilling systems. PMID:23472036

  13. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

  14. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased worldwide meat consumption; higher numbers of consumers at-risk for infection; and, increased interest, awareness and scrutiny by consumers, news media, and consumer activist groups. Issues such as bovine sponginform encephalopathy will continue to be of interest mostly as a target for eradication, while viral agents affecting food animals, such as avian influenza, will always need attention for prevention or containment. PMID:22062090

  15. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  16. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  17. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  18. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  19. Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products. PMID:24915324

  20. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

  1. Green offal inspection of cattle, small ruminants and pigs in the United Kingdom: Impact assessment of changes in the inspection protocol on likelihood of detection of selected hazards.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Dadios, Nikolaos; Reinmann, Karin; Guitian, Javier; Strk, Katharina D C

    2015-06-01

    The changes in detection of selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards due to the change in current inspection of green offal in cattle, small ruminants and pigs were assessed. With respect to public health and animal health, the conditional likelihood of detection with the current green offal inspection was found to be low for eleven out of the twenty-four selected hazard-species pairings and very low for the remaining thirteen pairings. This strongly suggests that the contribution of current green offal inspection to risk mitigation is very limited for public and animal health hazards. The removal of green offal inspection would reduce the detection of some selected animal welfare conditions. For all selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards, the reduced detection could be compensated with other pre-harvest, harvest and/or post-harvest control measures including existing meat inspection tasks. PMID:25882639

  2. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    PubMed

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food. PMID:24293684

  3. Improve storage tank inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, D.E. ); Carucci, V.A. )

    1995-01-01

    Using industry-developed standards such as API 653, operators and owners can prevent catastrophic tank failures from aboveground, atmospheric-storage tanks. Improved tank-inspection programs confirm that (1) a tank isn't leaking, and (2) it will not leak before the next inspection. These guidelines use stress thickness-measurements to evaluate corroded and pitted areas. Core inspection areas are: tank roof, shell, bottom and foundation. Because of confusion over how and why to use API 653, many operators have delayed including these engineering-based directives into their inspection programs. A better understanding of API 653 and its uses can cancel some user fears and improve plant inspection and maintenance programs. This paper describes the elements of an API 653 tank inspection.

  4. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  5. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  6. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  7. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Abattoirs of the Littoral and Western Highland Regions of Cameroon: A Cause for Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Awah Ndukum, J.; Kudi, A. Caleb; Bradley, G.; Ane-Anyangwe, I. N.; Fon-Tebug, S.; Tchoumboue, J.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread but poorly controlled in Africa and M. bovis is posing threats to human health. The risk of cattle handlers to M. bovis prevalence and public health significance of BTB in Cameroon were assessed. Slaughter inspection records from major cities revealed that BTB detection rates in cattle from 0.18% to 4.25% and BTB lesions were most common. Analyses of tissues and sera confirmed BTB in 31% (Ziehl-Neelsen), 51% (culture), and 60% (antibody detection) of test cattle. Among cattle handlers, 81.9% were aware of BTB, 67.9% knew that BTB is zoonotic, and 53.8% knew one mode of transmission but over 27% consumed raw meat and/or drank unpasteurized milk. Respondents who had encountered tuberculosis cases were more informed about zoonotic BTB (P < .05). Tuberculosis is prevalent in cattle destined for human consumption in Cameroon with serious public health implications. Targeted monitoring of infected animal populations and concerted veterinary/medical efforts are essential for control. PMID:20613999

  8. Manipulating meat quality and composition.

    PubMed

    Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Sheard, P R

    1999-05-01

    Meat quality describes the attractiveness of meat to consumers. The present paper focuses on two major aspects of meat quality, tenderness and flavour. Both aspects of quality can be influenced by nutrition, principally through its effects on the amount and type of fat in meat. In several countries, high levels of intramuscular fat (marbling fat), i.e. above 30 g/kg muscle weight in longissimus, are deemed necessary for optimum tenderness, although poor relationships between fat content and tenderness have generally been found in European studies, where fat levels are often very low, e.g. below 10 g/kg in UK pigs. Muscle lipid may be a marker for red oxidative (type 1) muscle fibres which are found at higher concentrations in tender muscles and carcasses. Nutritional treatment can be used to manipulate the fatty acid content of muscle to improve nutritional balance, i.e. increase the polyunsaturated (PUFA): saturated fatty acid value and reduce the n-6:n-3 PUFA value. Increasing PUFA levels may also change flavour because of their greater susceptibility to oxidative breakdown and the generation of abnormal volatile compounds during cooking. This situation particularly applies to the n-3 PUFA which are the most unsaturated meat lipids. In pigs, a concentration of 3 mg alpha-linolenic acid (18:3)/100 mg in muscle and fat tissue fatty acids can easily be achieved by including whole linseed in the diet. This level has led to abnormal odours and flavours in some studies, but not in others. In cattle and sheep, feeding whole linseed raised 18:3 concentrations in muscle fatty acids from about 0.7 mg/100 mg to > 1 mg/100 mg. As with pigs, this diet also increased levels of long-chain n-3 PUFA formed from 18:3, including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5). Although this increase led to greater oxidative breakdown of lipids during storage and the generation of large quantities of lipid-derived volatile compounds during cooking, there were no deleterious effects on odour or flavour. When 18:3 levels are raised in lamb and beef because of grass feeding, the intensity of the flavours increases in comparison with grain-fed animals which consume and deposit relatively more linoleic acid (18:2). In ruminants, very high levels of 18:2 produced by feeding protected oil supplements cause the cooked beef to be described as oily, bland or pork-like. PMID:10466178

  9. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting. PMID:25954058

  10. [Meat as component of a balanced diet].

    PubMed

    Hamm, M

    1991-05-30

    From the point of view of the nutritionist, meat has an important role to play in supplying the body with proteins (essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals). There is no doubt that meat is the most valuable source of dietary iron. These facts make meat an important constituent of a balanced diet in a range of age and performance groups, including children and adolescents, pregnant women and nursing mothers, senior citizens and athletes. In the discussion about the nutritional/physiological quality of meat and meat products, total fat, cholesterol and purines must also be considered. About 80 g of lean meat per day, or a portion of about 150 g three times a week in patients with disorders of fat metabolism or elevated uric acid levels complies with the recommendations for low-fat and low-cholesterol alimentation, and helps ensure a balanced diet. PMID:1855760

  11. Inspection information model

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, J.

    1989-12-01

    This document establishes information structures and semantics used for the electronic communication of Product Definition Data (PDD) which supports dimensional inspection using contact Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM). Included are attributes of CMMs for support of generative process planning functions for dimensional inspection.

  12. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to

  13. National monitoring of Ascaris suum related liver pathologies in English abattoirs: a time-series analysis, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-02-28

    Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Rahahlah, Majdi

    2013-03-01

    Cattle are the main asymptomatic reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 which can cause illness to human. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir, detect virulence factors in the isolates, determine antibacterial resistance of the isolates, and know how the isolates are different or similar when compared to characterized isolates from developed countries. A total of 540 samples (feces, hide, and carcass) were tested for E. coli O157:H7 using the method of ISO 16654:(E). Conventional and multiplex PCR assays were used for serotype confirmation and virulence factor detection, respectively. Fifty E. coli O157:H7 isolates were identified and virulence factors eaeA and hlyA were present in all of the isolates. 60%, 12%, and 22% of the isolates harbored stx(1), stx(2), and stx(1) and stx(2), respectively. The prevalence rates of enterotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (n=47) were 8.3%, 10%, and 7.8% in feces, hides and carcasses, respectively. The antimicrobial profiles of the isolates showed an extensive resistance to erythromycin, neomycin and vancomycin and high sensitivity to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. PMID:23273451

  15. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat. PMID:21682287

  16. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  17. Meat consumption, meat cooking and risk of lung cancer among Uruguayan men.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Mara

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Uruguay, including 876 male cases of lung cancer and 876 male hospitalized controls, frequency matched for age (ten-year intervals), residence and hospital. The following explanatory variables were included in the study: fried red meat, barbecued red meat, boiled red meat, and salted red meat. These items were log transformed and energy-adjusted by the residuals method. The following potential confounders were included into the models: age, residence, hospital, education, family history of lung cancer, body mass index, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy intake, non-meat fatty foods and total fruits. The main objective was to estimate the odds ratios associated with lung cancer risk. Whereas fried meat, barbecued meat, and salted meat were positively associated with risk (OR of the highest quartile of salted meat versus the lowest, 2.90, 95 % CI 1.99-4.25, p-value for trend<0.0001), boiled red meat was mainly protective. We conclude that salted meat was the main risk factor. The mechanisms could be related to the content of N-nitroso compounds in salted meat. PMID:21338220

  18. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  19. USDA regulation of residues in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Cordle, M K

    1988-02-01

    The National Residue Program conducted by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the USDA includes a comprehensive testing program for residues of pesticides, drugs and other chemical contaminants in meat and poultry. Prevention strategies encourage producers to adopt quality control measures in their production management to prevent illegal residues in food. These activities have been effective in reducing the occurrence of violative residues and the potential for adverse health effects. Overall, the number of domestic monitoring samples containing violative residues is low-about 1% of samples tested. Violative residues are found less frequently in poultry than in livestock. More occur in swine than in other species; the least number occur in fed cattle and broilers. Testing results over the last 10 yr show that most drugs and pesticides used to enhance agricultural productivity are not causing a residue problem in meat and poultry. However, the FSIS cannot be complacent about its program achievements. Unacceptably high incidences of violative residues of certain drugs, namely, sulfonamides and antibiotics, still occur in particular production classes. For example, the incidence of violative sulfonamide residues in liver samples from swine slaughtered in 1985 was about 6%, with significant differences between geographical areas. An estimated 2.5% of market hogs had violative sulfamethazine residues in the muscle tissue. The FSIS is taking steps to correct this and other residue problems by strengthening the link between residue detection and enforcement and by expanding its analytical capability to monitor for residues. PMID:3372385

  20. Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

  1. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15% levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10%, 10% and 5% for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90% level, potato starch 3% and refined wheat flour 7% along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10%), barnyard millet flour (10%) and TSGP (5%) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  2. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for

  3. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  4. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  5. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the

  6. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  7. Decontamination technologies for meat products.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, T; Picouet, P A; Monfort, J M

    2008-01-01

    Consumers demand high quality, natural, nutritious, fresh appearance and convenient meat products with natural flavour and taste and an extended shelf-life. To match all these demands without compromising safety, in the last decades alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as HHP, irradiation, light pulses, natural biopreservatives together with active packaging have been proposed and further investigated. They are efficient to inactivate the vegetative microorganisms, most commonly related to food-borne diseases, but not spores. The combination of several non-thermal and thermal preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated in order to increase their efficiency. Quick thermal technologies such as microwave and radiofrequency tunnels or steam pasteurization bring new possibilities to the pasteurization of meat products especially in ready to eat meals. Their application after final packaging will prevent further cross-contamination during post-processing handling. The benefits of these new technologies and their limitations in an industrial application will be presented and discussed. PMID:22062101

  8. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  9. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  10. Remote surface inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

  11. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  12. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  13. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  14. Source Inspection Scheduling Calendar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brayden

    2011-01-01

    Quality is an essential component for creating flight hardware travelling through space since the hardware is extremely expensive and cannot be reworked or repaired once launched. An important step in this process is ensuring the quality of hardware procured from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) suppliers. An important element of determining supplier quality is source inspection. Source inspections are performed at suppliers' facilities by JPL employeesto ensure that hardware characteristics are acceptable before being covered up and/or delivered to JPL.

  15. The effect of hazard analysis critical control point programs on microbial contamination of carcasses in abattoirs: a systematic review of published data.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D; Waddell, Lisa; Harris, Janet

    2011-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs have been endorsed and implemented globally to enhance food safety. Our objective was to identify, assess, and summarize or synthesize the published research investigating the effect of HACCP programs on microbial prevalence and concentration on food animal carcasses in abattoirs through primary processing. The results of microbial testing pre- and post-HACCP implementation were reported in only 19 studies, mostly investigating beef (n=13 studies) and pork (n=8 studies) carcasses. In 12 of 13 studies measuring aerobic bacterial counts, reductions were reported on beef (7/8 studies), pork (3/3), poultry (1/1), and sheep (1/1). Significant (p<0.05) reductions in prevalence of Salmonella spp. were reported in studies on pork (2/3 studies) and poultry carcasses (3/3); no significant reductions were reported on beef carcasses (0/8 studies). These trends were confirmed through meta-analysis of these data; however, powerful meta-analysis was precluded because of an overall scarcity of individual studies and significant heterogeneity across studies. Australia reported extensive national data spanning the period from 4 years prior to HACCP implementation to 4 years post-HACCP, indicating reduction in microbial prevalence and concentration on beef carcasses in abattoirs slaughtering beef for export; however, the effect of abattoir changes initiated independent of HACCP could not be excluded. More primary research and access to relevant proprietary data are needed to properly evaluate HACCP program effectiveness using modeling techniques capable of differentiating the effects of HACCP from other concurrent factors. PMID:21568689

  16. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  17. Meat consumption, diabetes, and its complications.

    PubMed

    Feskens, Edith J M; Sluik, Diewertje; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J

    2013-04-01

    Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding meat consumption and the risk of diabetes, both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM and their macro- and microvascular complications, is reviewed. For T2DM, we performed a new meta-analysis including publications up to October 2012. For T1DM, only a few studies have reported increased risks for meat consumers or for high intake of saturated fatty acids and nitrates and nitrites. For T2DM, CHD, and stroke, the evidence is strongest. Per 100 g of total meat, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM is 1.15 (95 % CI 1.07-1.24), for (unprocessed) red meat 1.13 (95 % CI 1.03-1.23), and for poultry 1.04 (95 % CI 0.99-1.33); per 50 g of processed meat, the pooled RR is 1.32 (95 % CI 1.19-1.48). Hence, the strongest association regarding T2DM is observed for processed (red) meat. A similar observation has been made for CHD. For stroke, however, a recent meta-analysis shows moderately elevated risks for meat consumers, for processed as well as for fresh meats. For the microvascular complications of diabetes, few prospective data were available, but suggestions for elevated risks can be derived from findings on hyperglycemia and hypertension. The results are discussed in the light of the typical nutrients and other compounds present in meat--that is, saturated and trans fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, protein and amino acids, heme-iron, sodium, nitrites and nitrosamines, and advanced glycation end products. In light of these findings, a diet moderate to low in red meat, unprocessed and lean, and prepared at moderate temperatures is probably the best choice from the public health point of view. PMID:23354681

  18. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat. PMID:24338447

  19. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted. PMID:20619800

  20. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053