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1

Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k?=?0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k?=?0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In conclusion, relatively higher prevalence (6.12 %) was recorded in Woldiya municipal abattoir on the basis of detailed Abattoir inspection and RA meat inspection protocols currently utilized in Ethiopia which are insufficient to detect the majority (76.19 %) of TB lesions at the gross level, which indicates the magnitude of meat borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. Detailed abattoir inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately fourfold. In conclusion, routine meat inspections have limitations in detecting BTB-suggestive lesions which indicate the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. PMID:23080340

Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

2013-03-01

2

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

2012-01-01

3

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

2012-01-01

4

Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

2013-01-01

5

Meat inspection education in Finnish veterinary curriculum.  

PubMed

This article describes the Finnish meat-inspection curriculum and presents an expert-panel evaluation of meat-inspection education. The work tasks of the meat-inspection veterinarian are challenging and include classical meat inspection, meat hygiene, hygiene control, and animal disease and welfare. The meat-inspection veterinarian is not only an inspector, which by itself is very demanding, but also an expert or "consultant" on food safety. The significant role of the meat-inspection veterinarian in society puts high demands on meat-inspection education, which should provide veterinary students with sufficient tools to perform meat inspection and hygiene control in slaughterhouses, cutting premises, and further processing plants. To be of high quality, such education must be evaluated from time to time. An expert panel evaluated Finnish undergraduate meat-inspection education and found that it provides veterinary students with good knowledge of meat inspection. The structure of the curriculum, with theoretical studies followed by four weeks of practice in a slaughterhouse, was considered vital for learning and for creating interest in meat inspection. The evaluation also revealed that certain subjects should receive greater emphasis and some new subjects should be introduced. Hygiene-control tasks, in particular, have increased and should receive more emphasis in education. Personnel management and interaction skills should be introduced into the curriculum as these skills influence all the duties of the meat-inspection veterinarian. This article outlines the subjects to be included in the modern, high-quality meat-inspection curriculum recommended by the expert panel. PMID:17446650

Lundén, Janne; Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu

2007-01-01

6

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

2010-04-01

7

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

2012-04-01

8

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

2014-04-01

9

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

2011-04-01

10

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

2013-04-01

11

Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2) identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This study also demonstrated that animals shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs come from relatively local farms, which is important when considering the use of spatial surveillance methods for these data. PMID:20704738

2010-01-01

12

At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

13

Automatic Inspection System for Quality Evaluation of Fresh Tuna Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an automated visual inspection system SIVATUNtrade for quality control of tuna meat which automate manual inspection operation. Depending on whether tuna are reared in cages or in the open sea and depending on the method of capture (electroslaughtering, shooting, etc.), differences are observed and changes take place in the organic nature of blue fin tuna (Thunnus Thynnus)

A. Mateo; F. Soto; J. A. Villarejo; C. Fernandez

2007-01-01

14

At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms.\\u000a Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry\\u000a as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling\\u000a pathogens and may become

Daniel Y. C. Fung; Jessica R. Edwards; Beth Ann Crozier-Dodson

15

The generation time, lag time, and minimum temperature of growth of coliform organisms on meat, and the implications for codes of practice in abattoirs.  

PubMed Central

The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847

Smith, M. G.

1985-01-01

16

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

2013-01-01

17

Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis. PMID:22726722

2012-01-01

18

The occurrence and importance of residues in meat and their evaluation within official meat inspection.  

PubMed

Food of animal origin is an important factor in protecting the consumer from health risks emanating from the environment. This is why chemical and drug residues in food animals have been included in the Meat Inspection Act in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following substances are subject to regulation: Drugs; Feed additives; Pesticides; Toxic substances from the environment. While drugs may give rise to resistance of infective agents to them, feed additives may accumulate in the organism and have a toxic effect. Pesticides themselves may not be harmful in the amounts, which accumulate in meat, however, their metabolic products in the human body may be toxic. Radioactive substances and radioactive fall-out as well as cadmium and mercury are dangerous when accumulating in meat. Therefor, fixation of tolerance levels for defined residues has been started to be set according to the new Foods Act, including their toxicological evaluation. Condemnation of organs of slaughter animals in which these chemicals accumulate is obligatory. PMID:756161

Grossklaus, D

1978-01-01

19

VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State

Donna M. Kocak; Frank M. Caimi; Rick L. Flick; Abdelmoula Elharti

2003-01-01

20

Speech input system for meat inspection and pathological coding used thereby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat inspection is one of exclusive and important jobs of veterinarians though it is not well known in general. As the inspection should be conducted skillfully during a series of continuous operations in a slaughter house, development of automatic inspecting systems has been required for a long time. We employed a hand-free speech input system to record the inspecting data because inspecters have to use their both hands to treat the internals of catles and check their health conditions by necked eyes. The data collected by the inspectors are transfered to a speech recognizer and then stored as controlable data of each catle inspected. Control of terms such as pathological conditions to be input and their coding are also important in this speech input system and practical examples are shown.

Abe, Shozo

21

A survey of pre-slaughter conditions, halothane gene frequency, and carcass and meat quality in five Spanish pig commercial abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 15,695 commercial pigs delivered to five abattoirs, were surveyed during winter and summer. Information about on-farm fasting, transport duration and stocking density, and lairage time was collected. Cortisol, creatine phospho-kinase (CPK), and lactate, and DNA for halothane genotype were analysed in a subsample of pigs at exsanguination in every journey. Electrical conductivity (PQM) in

M. Gispert; L. Faucitano; M. A. Oliver; M. D. Guàrdia; C. Coll; K. Siggens; K. Harvey; A. Diestre

2000-01-01

22

Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing  

PubMed Central

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

23

VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

2003-02-01

24

[Proposals for designing the food chain information for the implementation of the risk-oriented ante- and post-mortem meat inspection].  

PubMed

The recent crises in the meat industry due to meat-associated risks such as salmonella, nitrofen and dioxin prove that the traditional ante- and post mortem inspection of slaughter animals and carcasses is not any longer able to recognise and prevent the risks of today. Therefore, the EU Commission has issued Reg. (EC) 853/2004 and Reg. (EC) 854/2004 that regulate the transition of the traditional meat inspection, which demands inspecting each individual carcass in the same way, to a risk-based meat inspection, which is using relevant pieces of information about the previous production stages for making risk-based decisions on the intensity of the inspection of slaughter pig batches. The new EU legislation is not any longer prescribing exactly the inspection procedure, but defines the food safety goals. The consequence is that there are still various ideas and opinions on how to implement a reasonable risk-based meat inspection, and, in particular, on how to design the "relevant food chain information". The present paper is describing the legal framework and the objectives of the risk-based meat inspection, and proposals for designing the food chain information for the implementation of the risk-based ante- and post-mortem meat inspection are made and discussed. PMID:17763633

Blaha, T; Meemken, D; Dickhaus, C P; Klein, G

2007-08-01

25

A survey of abattoir data in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of the abattoirs in 10 selected towne in Nigeria showed that about 41.9 per cent of whole carcasses condemned between 1975 and 1977 were due to tuberculosis and 22.2 per cent to beef cysticercosis. Seventy per cent of organ condemnations, mainly of livers, were due to fascioliasis. Other major causes of organ condemnations were hydatid cysts, tuberculosis and pneumonia of various causes. An estimated 500 tonnes of meat valued at about 1.25 million Naira (US $1.8 million) are condemned each year throughout Nigeria. The use of abattoirs as monitoring stations in national animal disease eradication programmes is highlighted. PMID:442214

Alonge, D O; Fasanmi, E F

1979-02-01

26

Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726

Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

2009-01-01

27

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. “Potted Meat Food Product” and...

2011-01-01

28

Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the...

29

Characterization of the Effluent Wastewater from Abattoirs for Land Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627?mg\\/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099?mg\\/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content

Gauri S. Mittal

2004-01-01

30

Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.  

PubMed

Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

2007-04-01

31

Meat as a vector of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans in Spain: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

If we consult current treatises that address tuberculosis infection by Mycobacterium bovis, we find that they neglect meat or accord it very little importance as a vector of transmission of tuberculosis to humans. However, several decades ago, the books of Veterinary Inspection concerning food dedicated numerous pages to tuberculosis in meat and the seizure of consumptive animals. The criteria or attitudes concerning meat from tuberculosis-infected animals have fluctuated over time, from rigorous extremes that, on one hand, required the seizure and destruction of the food products obtained from infected animals from a strictly hygienic measure, to other more practical considerations applying economic arguments, and which accepted the conditional use of these products due to the universal shortage of animal proteins. Consequently, the use or non-use of meat from animals infected with tuberculosis became one of the questions that prompted the greatest concern amongst researches and technicians. It is for these reasons that this paper addresses the history of meat as a vehicle of zoonotic transmission, highlighting its importance and repercussions on health inspections of meat in abattoirs. PMID:17147299

Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

2006-05-01

32

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, or other equines that has all bone removed and is cut into pieces or trimmings, frozen into a compact block of any shape and suitable for slicing or chopping in the manufacturing of meat food products....

2010-01-01

33

Quality analysis of tuna meat using an automated color inspection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on whether they are reared in cages or in the open sea and depending on the method of capture (electroslaughtering, shooting, etc.), differences are observed and changes take place in the organic nature of Blue Fin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) meat, affecting appearance and quality. These changes are caused by an increase and accumulation of lactate, which negatively affects the

A. Mateo; F. Soto; J. A. Villarejo; J. Roca-Dorda; F. De la Gandara; A. García

2006-01-01

34

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves  

PubMed Central

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

2011-01-01

35

Prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.  

PubMed

The prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. The effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. An attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. Samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the plant, plated out and selected organisms were typed using a commercial rapid identification system. It was indicated that the cold trim (mainly of bruises) of carcasses was advantageous in terms of microbiological meat quality. Results indicated pooled water in the abattoir as the most hazardous vector for carcass contamination and that contaminants from this source are mostly Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas and Shigella were frequently isolated from surface and air samples and indicated that the control of total plant hygiene is a requirement for producing ostrich meat that is safe to consume and has an acceptable shelf-life. PMID:21247040

Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C

2010-09-01

36

Pathogen testing of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1990 to 1999.  

PubMed

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted microbiological testing programs for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products produced at approximately 1,800 federally inspected establishments. All samples were collected at production facilities and not at retail. We report results here for the years 1990 through 1999. Prevalence data for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or staphylococcal enterotoxins in nine different categories of RTE meat and poultry products are presented and discussed. The prevalence data have certain limitations that restrict statistical inferences, because these RTE product-testing programs are strictly regulatory in nature and not statistically designed. The cumulative 10-year Salmonella prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.31%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 0.10%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 0.07%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 0.20%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 0.22%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 0.05%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 0.22%. The cumulative 3-year Salmonella prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 1.43%. The cumulative 10-year L. monocytogenes prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.52%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 2.12%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 1.31%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 3.56%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 3.09%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 3.03%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 5.16%. The cumulative 3-year L. monocytogenes prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 3.25%. None of the RTE products tested for E. coli O157:H7 or staphylococcal enterotoxins was positive. Although FSIS and the industry have made progress in reducing pathogens in these products, additional efforts are ongoing to continually improve the safety of all RTE meat and poultry products manufactured in federally inspected establishments in the United States. PMID:11510658

Levine, P; Rose, B; Green, S; Ransom, G; Hill, W

2001-08-01

37

Occurrence of organochlorine residues in Australian meat.  

PubMed

In spite of several quality control procedures used by Australia to ensure the wholesomeness of export meat, a number of pesticide residue violations were identified in the Australian product exported to the USA in May 1987. The pesticides involved were the organochlorines, dieldrin and heptachlor. The problems were caused by the persistence of organochlorines in soils and their illicit use or contamination of storage facilities. Animals grazing contaminated pasture, ingesting contaminated feed or held in contaminated yards over a period, bioaccumulated residues in their adipose tissues which eventually exceeded maximum residue limits (MRL) and caused violations. Though there was no immediate public health risk, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE), acted expeditiously to determine and eliminate the factors causing these problems, which threatened Australia's beef export industry worth in excess of two billion dollars annually. An overall strategic plan, "The Integrated Action Plan", was formulated and implemented by AQIS with the assistance of the relevant Departments of the States and the Northern Territory (NT), meat processing and export industries and livestock producer bodies. As a result of this action, the likely sources of contamination were identified and controlled. The National Residue Survey (NRS) was enhanced, a National Residue Data Base (NRDB) was established and a centralised computer system interactive with abattoirs, laboratories and animal health authorities developed. The cattle farm identity tail tag system already in place, capable of tracing cattle to the farm of origin was refined and trace back systems for sheep and pigs were utilised.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2344338

Corrigan, P J; Seneviratna, P

1990-02-01

38

Classification of grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions seen at postmortem in Canadian poultry abattoirs according to a hazard identification decision tree.  

PubMed

This study was designed to review all grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions (GDACs) encountered in poultry in Canadian abattoirs to determine which have potential to cause adverse health effects for the consumer. Review of the literature and consultation with scientists in the field of microbiology, epidemiology, poultry pathology, chemistry, and meat inspection served to generate an inventory of GDACs, and a decision tree containing algorithms was developed to identify GDACs potentially representing a health hazard to consumers. Through the use of the decision tree, GDACs were classified into different categories with regard to the risk they represent to humans. A number of GDACs were identified as being of potential concern from a food safety perspective, namely Erysipelas, fowl cholera, Campylobacteriosis, clostridial diseases, hepatitis/enteritis associated with Helicobacter, Listeriosis, Salmonella infections (nontyphoid infections, Salmonella arizonae, pullorum disease, and fowl typhoid), Staphylococcosis, and Toxoplasmosis. Further characterization--i.e., hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization--is required to quantify or better characterize the probability that products derived from affected carcasses may affect the consumer as well as the resulting consequences. Risk assessment is a dynamic process. Results presented in this paper are based on available information and expert opinion. As new information is obtained, the inventory of GDACs and their classification may be modified. PMID:11770626

Bisaillon, J R; Feltmate, T E; Sheffield, S; Julian, R; Todd, E; Poppe, C; Quessy, S

2001-12-01

39

A rapid low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test for routine inspection of meat species.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of food frauds suggests that species identification should be part of food authentication. Current molecular-based species identification methods have their own limitations or drawbacks, such as relatively time-consuming experimental steps, expensive equipment and, in particular, these methods cannot identify mixed species in a single experiment. This project proposes an improved method involving PCR amplification of the COI gene and detection of species-specific sequences by hybridisation. Major innovative breakthrough lies in the detection of multiple species, including pork, beef, lamb, horse, cat, dog and mouse, from a mixed sample within a single experiment. The probes used are species-specific either in sole or mixed species samples. As little as 5 pg of DNA template in the PCR is detectable in the proposed method. By designing species-specific probes and adopting reverse dot blot hybridisation and flow-through hybridisation, a low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test suitable for routine inspection of meat species was developed. PMID:24211550

Lin, Chun Chi; Fung, Lai Ling; Chan, Po Kwok; Lee, Cheuk Man; Chow, Kwok Fai; Cheng, Shuk Han

2014-02-01

40

Electronic Inspection of Beef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

1987-01-01

41

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2010-01-01

42

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

43

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

44

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

45

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

46

Diversity of culturable psychrophilic and psychrotrophic anaerobic bacteria isolated from beef abattoirs and their environments.  

PubMed

This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., -1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765

Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J; McDowell, D A; Sheridan, J J

2011-07-01

47

Diversity of Culturable Psychrophilic and Psychrotrophic Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated from Beef Abattoirs and Their Environments ?  

PubMed Central

This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and “blown packs” of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n = 315), Clostridium estertheticum (n = 17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n = 52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., ?1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765

Moschonas, G.; Bolton, D. J.; McDowell, D. A.; Sheridan, J. J.

2011-01-01

48

Antibiotic susceptibility of campylobacter isolates from sewage and poultry abattoir drain water.  

PubMed

In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of 209 campylobacter strains to the quinolones nalidixic acid, flumequine, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and to ampicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin was tested by the disk diffusion method. The strains were isolated from poultry abattoir effluent (DWA) and two sewage purification plants (SPA and SPB). Sewage purification plant SPA received mixed sewage, including that from a poultry abattoir, whereas SPB did not receive sewage from any meat-processing industry. The quinolone resistance of the DWA isolates ranged from 28% for enrofloxacin to 50% for nalidixic acid. The strains isolated from the sewage purification plants were more susceptible to the quinolones with a range of 11-18% quinolone resistance for SPB isolates to 17-33% quinolone resistance for SPA isolates. The susceptibility criteria as recommended by National Committee Clinical Laboratory Standards (USA) cannot readily be employed for campylobacter isolates. This investigation shows that the resistance of campylobacter bacteria is highest in the plant receiving sewage from a poultry slaughterhouse. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance of aquatic Campylobacter spp. is important, as surface waters are recognized as possible sources of infection. PMID:8557079

Koenraad, P M; Jacobs-Reitsma, W F; Van der Laan, T; Beumer, R R; Rombouts, F M

1995-12-01

49

Major causes of organ/carcass condemnation and financial loss estimation in animals slaughtered at two abattoirs in Bursa Province, Turkey.  

PubMed

An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa Province, Turkey. The result of this abattoir study provided regional information on major causes of organ and carcass condemnation in sheep and cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs as well as giving an estimation of the direct financial losses. PMID:25481623

Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram

2015-01-01

50

Vaccine prophylaxis of abattoir-associated Q fever: eight years' experience in Australian abattoirs.  

PubMed Central

During the period 1981-8 a clinical trial of a Q fever vaccine (Q-vax; Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Melbourne) has been conducted in abattoir workers and other at-risk groups in South Australia. Volunteers in four abattoirs and visitors to the abattoirs were given one subcutaneous dose of 30 micrograms of a formalin-inactivated, highly-purified Coxiella burnetii cells, Henzerling strain, Phase 1 antigenic state, in a volume of 0.5 ml. During the period, over 4000 subjects have been vaccinated and the programme continues in the abattoirs and related groups. 'Common' reactions to the vaccine comprised tenderness and erythema, rarely oedema at the inoculation site and sometimes transient headache. Two more serious 'uncommon' reactions, immune abscess at the inoculation site, were observed in two subjects, and two others developed small subcutaneous lumps which gradually dispersed without intervention. Protective efficacy of the vaccine appeared to be absolute and to last for 5 years at least. Eight Q fever cases were observed in vaccinees, but all were in persons vaccinated during the incubation period of a natural attack of Q fever before vaccine-induced immunity had had time (greater than or equal to 13 days after vaccination) to develop. On the other hand, 97 Q fever cases were detected in persons working in, or visiting the same abattoir environments. Assays for antibody and cellular immunity showed an 80-82% seroconversion after vaccination, mostly IgM antibody to Phase 2 antigen, in the 3 months after vaccination. This fell to about 60%, mostly IgG antibody to Phase 1 antigen, after 20 months. On the other hand, 85-95% of vaccinees developed markers of cell mediated immunity as judged by lymphoproliferative responses with C. burnetii antigens; these rates remained elevated for at least 5 years. The Q fever vaccine, unlike other killed rickettsial vaccines, has the property of stimulating long-lasting T lymphocyte memory and this may account for its unusual protective efficacy as a killed vaccine. PMID:2323360

Marmion, B. P.; Ormsbee, R. A.; Kyrkou, M.; Wright, J.; Worswick, D. A.; Izzo, A. A.; Esterman, A.; Feery, B.; Shapiro, R. A.

1990-01-01

51

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2010-01-01

52

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2010-01-01

53

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2010-01-01

54

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

55

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

56

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

57

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

58

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

59

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

60

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

61

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2014-01-01

62

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

63

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

64

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

65

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

66

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...a certification that meat or meat food products described on the form is...inspected and passed as provided by law and the regulations of the...

2010-01-01

67

The British pig health schemes: integrated systems for large-scale pig abattoir lesion monitoring.  

PubMed

Pig health schemes based on abattoir inspections provide an integrated system to optimise the postmortem detection and the reporting of pathological lesions. In Great Britain, two initiatives have been implemented by the pig industry: Wholesome Pigs Scotland (WPS) and the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS). These schemes record the presence of a range of pathological lesions detected by means of detailed inspection of the pluck and the skin of the slaughtered pigs. The lesions are those associated with a reduction in performance traits or are indicators of animal welfare problems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the objectives behind the BPHS and their activities, outlining similarities and differences between WPS and BPHS on five main operational topics: the lesions monitored, the administration of the schemes, flow of the information, inspection strategies and the major idiosyncratic characteristics of the schemes. These initiatives inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their pig herds. Additionally, they offer the added value of providing nationwide disease monitoring information and have the potential to be a useful surveillance tool for emerging and enzootic conditions. PMID:21881022

Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Strachan, W D; Armstrong, D; Nielen, M; Gunn, G J

2011-10-15

68

The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of electrical and percussive captive bolt stunning both on initial and up to 14 days post mortem meat quality of Friesian young bulls were studied. The first group (NS; n=10) were slaughtered without stunning under Turkish slaughter procedure (these animals were slaughtered under conditions acceptable to the appropriate ethics committee) in a modern abattoir. In the second group

A. Önenç; A. Kaya

2004-01-01

69

Label Authentication of Minced Meat by Automated Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inspections are needed for minced meat because physical characteristics cannot be used to identify its content in terms of meat species or part, i.e. pork, chicken, beef, bacon, shank or internal organs. In addition, a rapid technique to verify meat labels in the viewpoint of nutritional content and...

70

9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...which and the manner in which meat food products made from livestock previously...relevant to effective regulation of meat food products and protection...

2010-01-01

71

Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord

2014-01-01

72

Microbiological contamination of cattle carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two abattoirs.  

PubMed

Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539

Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger

2014-10-01

73

Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 4. Correlations among animal, carcass, and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef cattle data from temperate (TEMP, n = 3947) and tropically adapted (TROP, n = 4137) breeds were analysed to compute estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations between animal, abattoir carcass, and meat quality measures. Live animal traits included: liveweight (S2LWT), scanned subcutaneous rump fat depth (S2P8), scanned eye muscle area (S2EMA), flight time (S1FT), and finishing average daily gain

A. Reverter; D. J. Johnston; D. M. Ferguson; D. Perry; M. E. Goddard; H. M. Burrow; V. H. Oddy; J. M. Thompson; B. M Bindon H

2003-01-01

74

Causes and implications of bovine organs/offal condemnations in some abattoirs in Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Food animals though sources of protein and revenue to man, also serve as vehicles of disease transmission. This work reviews a three year record of slaughtered cattle in 12 abattoirs/slaughter slabs in western Nigeria to determine the economic and public health issues associated with their disease conditions. Out of 641,224 cattle slaughtered, 51,196 (7.98%) were attributable to 14 diseases/conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, fascioliasis, pimply gut, paramphistomosis, cysticercosis, dermatophilosis, tonsillitis, taeniasis, ascariosis, abscess, mange, mastitis and immature fetuses. Pneumonia (21.38%), fascioliasis (20.28%) and tuberculosis (7.95%) were major reasons for condemnations; least being ascariosis (0.01%). The lungs (45.66%) and liver (32.94%) accounted for most organ condemned while the heart (0.02%) was the least affected. The proportions of pneumonia, fascioliasis and immature fetuses observed were not statistically different (Mean = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3); however, a significant difference existed with other conditions (Mean(A) = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3; Mean(B) = 1359.7; 1057.7; 510.3). Organs/offal condemnations constituted loss of revenue and animal protein as 124,333 kilogrammes worth of meat valued in Naira at N41,613,043 ($332,904) was lost over the period giving an average of N13,871,014 ($110,968) annually. This, coupled with fetal wastage represented an economic loss; with associated public health implications. PMID:19333773

Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K

2009-10-01

75

[Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].  

PubMed

In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

1987-09-15

76

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

2012-01-01

77

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

2013-01-01

78

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2013-01-01

79

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and...

2014-01-01

80

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2014-01-01

81

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2012-01-01

82

Bacteriological Quality of Abattoir Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Abuja, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 105 /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 104 to 3.2 × 104/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 104/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 103/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 105 to 6.0 × 105/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 104 to 1.8 × 104/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 104 to 6.0 × 103/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 103 to 6.6 × 102/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

Nafarnda, W. D.; Ajayi, I. E.; Shawulu, J. C.; Kawe, M. S.; Omeiza, G. K.; Sani, N. A.; Tenuche, O. Z.; Dantong, D. D.; Tags, S. Z.

2012-01-01

83

Abattoirs as Non-Hospital Source of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producers: Confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test and Characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers. PMID:24728403

Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Iroha, Ifeanyi R.; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey

2014-01-01

84

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2013-01-01

85

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2012-01-01

86

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2010-01-01

87

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2014-01-01

88

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41...encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp...

2011-01-01

89

Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

90

Meat Preparation  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

91

DIPTERAN FAUNA OF AN ABATTOIR AND ITS CONTIGUOUS FALLOW PLOT IN A GUINEA SAVANNA ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

The pitfall trap was used in the study of the dipteran populations of an abattoir and a contiguous fallow plot, in relation to their relative abundance and distribution. A total number of 140 adult species of Synydas and Stomorhina cribrata, and 400 dipteran larvae were captured at the abattoir using pitfall techniques, with correspondingly fewer species of similar dipterans trapped at the contiguous fallow plot. Significant difference existed in the trapping of the Diptera larvae with more trapped at the abattoir than the fallow plot using Student t-test. There was also a preponderance of calliphorid species at the abattoir when the sweep net was used, with these species implicated as being potential pests of medical and forensic importance. The presence of Sarcophaga sp. and Fannia canicularis in the sweep net collection at the abattoir was also traced to the presence of decaying fall-offs from carcass. Other possible implications of the collected dipteran species at the abattoir and its vicinity were also discussed.

Ewuim Sylvanus Chima

92

9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 318... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...will ensure that only safe and stable product...

2011-01-01

93

9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 318... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...will ensure that only safe and stable product...

2013-01-01

94

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 381... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...only product that is safe and stable is...

2011-01-01

95

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 381... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...only product that is safe and stable is...

2013-01-01

96

9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 318... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...will ensure that only safe and stable product...

2010-01-01

97

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 381... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...only product that is safe and stable is...

2010-01-01

98

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 381... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...only product that is safe and stable is...

2012-01-01

99

9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 318... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...will ensure that only safe and stable product...

2012-01-01

100

9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 318... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...will ensure that only safe and stable product...

2014-01-01

101

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Finished product inspection. 381... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...only product that is safe and stable is...

2014-01-01

102

Prevalence study on bovine tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa municipal abattoir, Central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and characterize its causative agents. Postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, region of difference-4 (RD4)-based PCR and spoligotyping were applied. The prevalence of BTB was 5 % on the basis of postmortem inspection alone but 1.2 % based on molecular confirmation. Factors including age, sex, and breed showed statistically significant association with BTB (p?abattoir and highlights the need for control of bovine tuberculosis in the country. PMID:23065393

Mekibeb, Abraham; Fulasa, Tadele Tolosa; Firdessa, Rebuma; Hailu, Elena

2013-03-01

103

Occurrence of Granulomas in Bovines: An Abattoir-Based Study  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to record the occurrence of naturally occurring granulomas in cattle and buffaloes. Tissues grossly suspected for granulomas were collected from 336 out of 1600 (21%) abattoir cases. The gross features ranged from focal necrosis to large caseated masses, hard nodules, growths and abscesses. Histopathologically, 102 tissue samples (6.38%) were ascertained as granulomas. Majority of the granulomas were found in the liver 42 (41.18%), followed by lungs 22 (20.59%), lymph nodes 11 (10.78%), kidneys 6 (5.88%) and 14 (13.73%) as subcutaneous nodules/growths. Solitary cases were found in tongue, muscle, and urinary bladder, whereas 4 granulomas (3.92%) were found in body cavities. Based on the cellular component, the granulomas were categorized as epithelioid (53%), eosinophilic (37%) and suppurative (10%). Employing special staining techniques, the possible etiology of 75 granulomas could be identified. Among these, 70 granulomas (68.63%) were of infectious nature (parasitic 37 (36.28%), bacterial 32 (31.37%), and fungal 1(0.98%)). Non-infectious granulomas 5 cases (4.90%) included two lipid granulomas (1.96%), two granulomas (1.96%) associated with neoplasms and one (0.31%) associated with renal calculi. In 27 (26.47%) cases, the etiology of the granuloma could not be established and were categorized as granulomas of unknown etiology. PMID:23738114

Uma, Sambath; Nair, Madhavan Gopalakrishnan; Varshney, Khub Chandra

2011-01-01

104

Survey of Brucella infection and malaria among Abattoir workers in Kampala and Mbarara Districts, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Brucellosis is among the most widespread zoonotic infections estimated at 14% in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the sero-prevalence, risk factors of Brucella infection and malaria among abattoir workers. Methods A survey was conducted among 232 abattoir workers in main abattoirs of Kampala and Mbarara districts in February 2007. A pre-tested questionnaire captured socio-demographic and occupational data. Brachial vein blood was tested for Brucella using Microplate Agglutination Test (MAT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) with a cut off titre of 1:160, and giemsa stained blood slides for malaria. Data was analyzed in SPSS 17.0. Results Seven males (3%, n?=?232) had malaria and dual brucella and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was found in one person. Brucella sero-positivity was 10% (95% CI 6 – 16; n?=?232) with 12% (n?=?161) in Kampala and 7% (n?=?71) in Mbarara district. Non-use of protective gear Odds ratio (OR 3.3, 95% CI (1.25 – 50) and working in the abattoir beyond 5 years OR 2.4 95% CI (1.4 – 5.6) were associated with increased risk of Brucella infection. Age, sex, religion, keeping animals and consumption of raw milk or products were not significant. Conclusions Brucella infection is a real risk among abattoir workers and use of full protective gear reduced risk significantly. Sensitization and public health care programs are needed to control this emerging problem. PMID:24079448

2013-01-01

105

Total Lipids of Sarda Sheep Meat that Include the Fatty Acid and Alkenyl Composition and the CLA and Trans -18:1 Isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle were analyzed from commercial adult Sarda sheep in Sardina taken from local abattoirs, and in the subsequent year\\u000a from three local farms in the Sassari region that provided some information on the amount and type of supplements fed to the\\u000a pasture-fed sheep. The complete lipid analysis of sheep meat included the fatty

Viviana Santercole; Rina Mazzette; Enrico P. L. De Santis; Sebastiano Banni; Laki Goonewardene; John K. G. Kramer

2007-01-01

106

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standardized meat food products named by use of an... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...this part, except that safe and suitable...

2010-01-01

107

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standardized meat food products named by use of an... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...this part, except that safe and suitable...

2013-01-01

108

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...standardized meat food products named by use of an... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...this part, except that safe and suitable...

2014-01-01

109

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standardized meat food products named by use of an... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...this part, except that safe and suitable...

2011-01-01

110

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standardized meat food products named by use of an... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...this part, except that safe and suitable...

2012-01-01

111

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2014-01-01

112

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2011-01-01

113

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2013-01-01

114

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2012-01-01

115

9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

2010-01-01

116

Ambivalence towards meat.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

2004-02-01

117

9 CFR 203.7 - Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts. 203.7 Section...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

2010-01-01

118

Lawful Inspections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sanitarian often spends much of his working day performing, reviewing, or supervising inspections. It is important that the sanitarian realize the legal implications of inspections and be prepared to perform them in accordance with the law. (RE)

Sikora, Vincent A.

1979-01-01

119

Meat analog: a review.  

PubMed

The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

2015-07-29

120

9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...vehicle is not adequate or safe to perform...

2012-01-01

121

9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...vehicle is not adequate or safe to perform...

2010-01-01

122

9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...vehicle is not adequate or safe to perform...

2011-01-01

123

9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...vehicle is not adequate or safe to perform...

2014-01-01

124

9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...vehicle is not adequate or safe to perform...

2013-01-01

125

An outbreak of campylobacter enteritis among the staff of a poultry abattoir in Sweden.  

PubMed

In the middle of June 1980 an explosive outbreak of campylobacter enteritis occurred among the staff of a poultry abattoir in southern Sweden. In all 37 cases of acute gastroenteritis originating from the abattoir were reported and Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stools in 24 of them. When the outbreak occurred, a large proportion of the ordinary staff had been replaced by inexperienced teenagers working during their holidays. A specially big slaughter had also taken place the same week as these inexperienced workers had started. The holiday workers contracted the disease to a greater extent (71%) than the ordinary staff (29%). An overall screening revealed 5 asymptomatic carriers among the ordinary staff. In 3 cases secondary spread was found. PMID:6879114

Christenson, B; Ringner, A; Blücher, C; Billaudelle, H; Gundtoft, K N; Eriksson, G; Böttiger, M

1983-01-01

126

Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

2014-01-01

127

Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

2012-01-01

128

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

129

Meat sharing for coalitional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review hypotheses about why hunters share meat, and I use quantitative data on meat transfers between households of Achuar, Quichua, and Zapara speakers in Conambo, an indigenous community of horticultural foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to test them. I show that meat is distributed to political allies in Conambo and argue that meat is strategically transferred

John Q. Patton

2005-01-01

130

Food Safety and Meat Microbiology  

E-print Network

Food Safety and Meat Microbiology School July 17-19, 2012 Master Meat Crafter Program Department of Animal Sciences UW-Meat Sci. and Muscle Biology Lab Food Research Institute Madison, Wisconsin- Adjunct Professor of Meat Science FoodSafetyandMicrobiologySchool UniversityofWisconsin-Madison Microbial

Sheridan, Jennifer

131

Enjoy Poultry Meat Safely  

E-print Network

Poultry is a nutritious, economical and versatile food choice, but it requires careful handling, storage and cooking to prevent food poisoning. Two groups of bacteria can be found on raw poultry meat: bacteria that cause food to spoil and bacteria...

Davis, Michael

2006-03-24

132

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

133

Chemical safety of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

2010-09-01

134

Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2012-07-01

135

DEVELOPMENT OF A SPATIALLY VALID SAMPLYING TECHNIQUE FOR THE ENUMERATION OF SALMONELLA IN THE SWINE ABATTOIR HOLDING PEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research has indicated that the holding pens of swine abattoirs may be an important source of Salmonella infection in swine entering the food chain. The risk posed by this Salmonella source is difficult to gauge because little work has been done on how to properly measure the amounts of Salm...

136

Ofsted Inspected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most radical actions one can take is to describe, without exaggeration or bias, exactly what is happening. The author has been reading the "Handbook for the inspection of further education and skills from September 2009." The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills' (Ofsted's) new handbook promises a "fresh…

Coffield, Frank

2009-01-01

137

Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

138

Effect of electrical and mechanical stunning on bleeding, instrumental properties and sensory meat quality in rabbits.  

PubMed

Different voltage and frequency (T-1=49V, 250Hz; T-2=130V, 172Hz; T-3=22V, 833Hz) combinations of electrical stunning and cervical dislocation (T-4) were studied in 101 commercial rabbits in an industrial abattoir. Electrical stunning accelerated the early muscular acidification, providing lower pH-45 and pH-2h values on Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris and higher pH-24h on Biceps femoris than cervical dislocation (P<0.02). Furthermore, meat from rabbits stunned with electrical methods showed more redness (a* with mean values 1.17-1.30 vs. 0.66, P<0.02), although this cannot be associated to low exsanguination levels because electrical methods tend to produce even higher bleeding percentage than mechanical stunning (P=0.063). Haematin content in muscle, water-holding capacity and cooking losses were similar in all treatments. Shear force did not change because of the stunning methods, but the members of experienced panel found the meat coming from electrical stunning T-1 (with intermediate voltages and frequencies) tougher and less juicy than the meat obtained with other electrical applications or with cervical dislocation (P<0.05). PMID:24973775

Lafuente, R; López, M

2014-10-01

139

Shedding and Seroprevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Sheep and Cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ?1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

2015-06-01

140

Penetration of bacteria into meat.  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are confined to the surface of meat during the logarithmic phase of growth. When proteolytic bacteria approach their maximum cell density, extracellular proteases secreted by the bacteria apparently break down the connective tissue between muscle fibers, allowing the bacteria to penetrate the meat. Non-proteolytic bacteria do not penetrate meat, even when grown in association with proteolytic species. Images PMID:406846

Gill, C O; Penney, N

1977-01-01

141

Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

2014-09-01

142

Performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor for the aerobic treatment of abattoir wastewater.  

PubMed

The performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) has been investigated for abattoir wastewater (AW) treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of permeate has not exceeded 25 mg L(-1) providing an average COD removal of 98%. Microbiological analysis showed that the SMBR has allowed a complete removal of fecal coliforms, Listeria and Salmonella. A significant reduction in the excess biomass production was also observed. In fact, the yield of biomass production (Yobs) ranged between 0 and 0.106 g suspended solids/g COD removed. The study of the dynamic of bacterial communities using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method showed a significant change in the population structure and revealed a correlation between the sludge production yield and the bacterial communities. PMID:22055096

Keskes, Sajiâa; Hmaied, Fatma; Gannoun, Hana; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar

2012-01-01

143

Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

2014-09-01

144

Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.  

PubMed

The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

2014-01-01

145

Microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two European Union-approved abattoirs.  

PubMed

At sequential steps of slaughter (scalding, dehairing, singeing, polishing, trimming, washing, and chilling), 200 pig carcasses from two abattoirs were examined for total viable bacteria count (TVC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) by the wet-dry double-swab technique at the neck, belly, back, and ham. Before scalding, mean TVCs ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU cm(-2), and Enterobacteriaceae and CPS were detected on all carcasses. At abattoir A, mean TVCs and the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 12%, respectively), singeing (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 66%, respectively), and blast chilling (2.3 log CFU cm(-2) and 17%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after dehairing (3.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 100%, respectively) and polishing (2.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The proportion of CPS-positive samples decreased to < or = 10% after scalding and remained at this level. At abattoir B, mean TVCs and the percentages of Enterobacteriaceae- and CPS-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (2.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 29 and 20%, respectively), polishing (3.7 log CFU cm(-2)), and chilling (2.6 log CFU cm(-2) and 55 and 77%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after the combined dehairing-singeing (4.7 log CFU cm(-2) and 97 and 100%, respectively). Among sites, the neck tended to yield higher levels of contamination from trimming to chilling at both abattoirs (P < 0.05). Consequently, scalding, singeing, and chilling may be integrated in a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for pig slaughter. As indicated by the higher levels of contamination on carcasses after dehairing-singeing and the following stages at abattoir B, each abattoir should develop its own baseline data and should customize HACCP systems to match process- and site-specific circumstances. PMID:17133797

Spescha, C; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

2006-11-01

146

Mitochondrial and nuclear markers for the authentication of partridge meat and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Two PCR assays for the identification of partridge meat (red-legged partridge, chukar partridge, barbary partridge, and gray partridge species) and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products were developed based on species-specific primers targeting the 12S ribosomal RNA mitochondrial gene. Moreover, various PCR techniques based on the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and nuclear growth hormone and rhodopsin genes were tested to find a method for the differentiation between pure and hybrid red-legged partridges. Among these techniques, the PCR method based on the amplification and sequencing of a nuclear rhodopsin gene fragment was selected as a suitable tool for the discrimination among meats from pure and hybrid red-legged partridge individuals. The PCR assays reported in this work could be useful in inspection programs to verify the correct labeling of raw and heat-treated partridge meat products. PMID:21177462

Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M Á; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

2011-01-01

147

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

148

Potential of chlorophyll-rich feed ingredients to improve detection of fecal contamination in the abattoir.  

PubMed

The use of fecal fluorescence to improve detection of contamination of carcasses in the abattoir was previously reported. However, incidents of false negatives can result when animals are offered diets that contain little chlorophyll (e.g., concentrate). Here, we investigated the potential of incorporating a high-chlorophyll-containing feed ingredient (concentrated alfalfa extract; CAE) into the diets of sheep and cattle to improve fecal fluorescence intensity. The sheep experiment evaluated the fecal fluorescence of animals from pasture, when fed a concentrate-barley straw diet and when the concentrate diet incorporated CAE (100 g of dry matter a day). Fecal chlorophyll and metabolite content was highest on the pasture-fed animals and increased significantly over the concentrate diet when CAE was included. Subsequently fluorescent intensity was increased from 15,000 to 36,000 arbitrary units for concentrate and CAE-concentrate diets, respectively, compared with 59,000 for the pasture-fed animals. The cattle experiment investigated the potential of CAE to improve fluorescence of feces from a concentrate diet as well as a silage diet at two levels of incorporation (75 and 150 g CAE/kg of dry matter intake). This study also determined the fluorescence of digesta and carcass contamination in the abattoir on a subset of carcasses. In agreement with the sheep study, CAE significantly improved fluorescence of feces and digesta when added to a concentrate diet, but had little effect on improving fecal fluorescence from the silage-fed animals. This was thought to be related to greater chlorophyll degradation in the rumen or/and the dark nature of the silage feces acting as a quencher of emitted fluoresced light. Incorporating high-chlorophyll-containing plant ingredients into ruminant concentrate diets will improve detection of fecal contamination by reducing false-negative readings. However, they will have little effect on false-positive readings due to the range of wavelengths emitted by natural chlorophyll and its metabolites. Implications and potential solutions for this are discussed. PMID:23462091

Lee, Michael R F; Scott, Mark B; Veberg-Dahl, Annette; Evans, Phil R; Theobald, Vince J; Lundby, Frank; Scollan, Nigel D; Wold, Jens-Petter

2013-03-01

149

Cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora export Abattoir, northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional and retrospective studies were conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir in northern Ethiopia. Out of the 308 cattle examined for the presence of hydatid cysts, 63 (20.5 %) of them were found harboring hydatid cysts in one or more of their internal organs. Results of the study showed higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in adult (22.4 %; 49/219) than in young (15.7 %; 14/89) cattle. Lowest prevalence of hydatid cysts was observed in cattle from Debark (7.7 %; 2/26) whereas highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in cattle from Fogera (28.2 %; 11/39). The lungs (69.3 %; 61/88) were the most affected organs followed by the livers (28.4 %; 25/88). A total of 230 hydatid cysts from different internal organs of 63 infected cattle were differentiated into 60.4 % calcified, 30 % fertile and 9.6 % sterile cysts. Likewise, a total of 13 % (30/230) small, 15.6 % (36/230) medium, and 10.9 % (25/230) large hydatid cysts were recorded. Lung harbored the highest overall count (76.9 %; 177/230) and greatest proportion of large size cysts (13.5 %; 103/177) than all the other organs. Liver harbored the highest proportion of calcified cysts (68 %; 34/50). An overall proportion of 30 % (69/230) fertile cysts were recorded. The greatest proportion of fertile cysts (33.3 %; 59/177) was recorded in lungs followed by the livers (20 %; 10/50). A retrospective data of 5 years (2004/5-2009/10) revealed an overall prevalence of 30.4 % (9,106/29,951) and highest overall prevalence of 65.5 % hydatid cysts in the lungs followed by livers (33.5 %) and least in spleen (0.04 %). In conclusion the findings reported herein show that cystic echinococcosis is widespread in cattle slaughtered in Gondar export Abattoir and suggests that the lung is the most important source of hydatid cysts for definitive hosts in the area. PMID:25320493

Abebe, Abebaw; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

150

Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products.The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens. The

Elisabeth Borch; Marie-Louise Kant-Muermans; Ylva Blixt

1996-01-01

151

Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  

PubMed

This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

152

Abnormalities of the testes and epididymis in bucks and rams slaughtered at Debre Zeit abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study was conducted at Debre Zeit export abattoir on 404 bucks belonging to four breeds and 167 rams of two breeds. The animals were selected from the slaughter flock using stratified sampling based on breed. Ante-mortem and post-mortem examinations were carried out after each animal was carefully identified. Various genital abnormalities were observed, among which testicular atrophy and epididymitis were the predominant genital problems in both bucks and rams. The prevalence of cryptorchidism was higher (p<0.05) in bucks than in rams, while epididymitis (p<0.05), sperm granuloma (p<0.01) and epididymal cysts (p<0.05) were more frequent in rams. In bucks, none of these abnormalities was significantly associated with age (p>0.05). However, testicular atrophy (p<0.01), epididymitis (p<0.01) and haemorrhagic lesions (p<0.05) were associated with breed, the prevalence being higher in Woito-Guji and Boran bucks than in the Arsi-Bale and Afar breeds. In rams, age affected (p<0.05) the incidence of testicular atrophy, epididymitis and sperm granulomas. Epididymitis, sperm granuloma and epididymal cysts were more frequent (p<0.01) in Adal rams than in Black Head Somalis. PMID:14690091

Regassa, F; Terefe, F; Bekana, M

2003-12-01

153

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

154

Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

2009-01-01

155

Managing Code Inspection Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection data is difficult to gather and interpret. At AT&T Bell Laboratories, the authors have defined nine key metrics that software project managers can use to plan, monitor, and improve inspections. Graphs of these metrics expose problems early and can help managers evaluate the inspection process itself. The nine metrics are: total noncomment lines of source code inspected in thousands

H. Jack Barnard; Arthur L. Price

1994-01-01

156

Walnut shell and meat classification using texture analysis and SVMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classification of walnuts shell and meat has a potential application in industry walnuts processing. A dark-field illumination method is proposed for the inspection of walnuts. Experiments show that the dark-field illuminated images of walnut shell and meat have distinct text patterns due to the differences in the light transmittance property of each. A number of rotation invariant feature analysis methods are used to characterize and discriminate the unique texture patterns. These methods include local binary pattern operator, wavelet analysis, circular Gabor filters, circularly symmetric gray level co-occurrence matrix and the histogram-related features. A recursive feature elimination method (SVM-RFE), is used to remove uncorrelated and redundant features and to train the SVM classifier at the same time. Experiments show that, by using only the top six ranked features, an average classification accuracy of 99.2% can be achieved.

Jin, Fenghua; Qin, Lei; Rao, Xiuqin; Tao, Yang

2007-09-01

157

Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli in healthy, pasture-raised sheep on farms and at the abattoir in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985

Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

2014-02-21

158

High Pressure Processing of Meat, Meat Products and Seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure processing (HPP) allows the decontamination of foods with minimal impact on their nutritional and sensory features.\\u000a The use of HPP to reduce microbial loads has shown great potential in the meat, poultry and seafood industry. HPP has proven\\u000a to be a promising technology, and industrial HPP applications have grown rapidly, especially in the stabilization of ready-to-eat\\u000a meats and

Marco Campus

2010-01-01

159

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for...meat food products intended for human consumption and offered...

2013-01-01

160

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for...meat food products intended for human consumption and offered for...

2010-01-01

161

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for...meat food products intended for human consumption and offered...

2014-01-01

162

Control of Thermal Meat Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

163

Bioencapsulation Technology in Meat Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation process has long been used as a method of meat preservation. In order to eliminate batch to batch variation\\u000a the fermentation process must be standardised. This, combined with problems associated with emerging pathogens such as enterohaemorrhagic\\u000a Escherichia coli has led to a re-examination of the process of fermented meat production in order to ensure the production of a

S. M. Cahill; M. E. Upton; A. J. Mcloughlin

164

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

165

Piping inspection instrument carriage  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

1993-09-20

166

Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance.

Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

2015-01-01

167

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

168

Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Samples Collected at an Abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at Different Points in the Surrounding Environment  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse’s effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145

Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano

2015-01-01

169

Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.  

PubMed

The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

2012-07-01

170

Bruising on ostrich carcasses and the implications on the microbiology and losses in utilizable meat when removing them post-evisceration or post-chilling.  

PubMed

Bruising on ostrich carcasses reduces meat yield. These bruises are usually removed as part of the primary meat inspection, performed directly after evisceration. Three separate studies were conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of removing the bruises at primary meat inspection or after overnight cooling of the ostrich carcasses (0-4 degrees C). The bruised areas were also investigated to determine their frequency and distribution and to establish the most obvious causes and possible preventative measures. The neck bruises represented 52.58% of all bruises; the high side railings of the transport vehicles being the most probable cause. Large and multiple bruising were probably from the trampling of birds lying down. It was established that trimming bruises on warm carcasses caused higher total aerobic viable counts on the trimmed surfaces than cold trimming. Cold trimming together with better management of trimming practices also led to a decrease in meat yield losses. PMID:20591576

Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C

2010-10-01

171

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

172

[Formation of IQ-compounds in meat and meat products].  

PubMed

During meat processing mutagenic imidazoquinolines and imidazoquinoxalines ("IQ-compounds") may be formed by Maillard reaction of reducing sugars, amino acids, and creatine/creatinine. IQ-compounds isolated from low-moisture model systems and meat extract by liquid-liquid-distribution were fractionated on a cation exchanger and separated on an RP phase. After acetylation the separated compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based on their characteristic mass fragment ions. During heating the model systems at 100 degrees C the formation of IQ-compounds begins and greatly increases by further raising the temperature. In different amounts IQ-compounds could also be detected in commercially available meat extracts. PMID:1858429

Schuirmann, E; Eichner, K

1991-02-01

173

Thermal inactivation of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in chicken meat.  

PubMed

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) and Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) of high pathogenicity cause severe systemic disease with high mortality in chickens and can be isolated from the meat of infected chickens. Although AIV and NDV strains of low pathogenicity are typically not present in chicken meat, virus particles in respiratory secretions or feces are possible sources of carcass contamination. Because spread of AIV and NDV is associated with movement of infected birds or their products, the presence of these viruses in chicken meat is cause for concern. This study presents thermal inactivation data for two viruses of high pathogenicity in chickens (AIV strain A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 and NDV strain APMV-1/ chicken/California/S0212676/2002) and two viruses of low pathogenicity in chickens (AIV strain A/chicken/Texas/298313/ 2004 and NDV strain APMV-1/chicken/Northern Ireland/Ulster/1967). Under the conditions of the assay, high-pathogenicity AIV was inactivated more slowly in meat from naturally infected chickens than in artificially infected chicken meat with a similar virus titer. In contrast, high-pathogenicity NDV was inactivated similarly in naturally and artificially infected meat. Linear regression models predicted that the current U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service time-temperature guidelines for cooking chicken meat to achieve a 7-log reduction of Salmonella also would effectively inactivate the AIV and NDV strains tested. Experimentally, the AIV and NDV strains used in this study (and the previously studied H5N1 high-pathogenicity AIV strain A/chicken/Korea/ES/2003) were effectively inactivated in chicken meat held at 70 or 73.9 degrees C for less than 1 s. PMID:18592748

Thomas, Colleen; King, Daniel J; Swayne, David E

2008-06-01

174

Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

175

75 FR 14361 - Notification, Documentation, and Recordkeeping Requirements for Inspected Establishments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FSIS, Room...601-695), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA...meat and poultry is safe, not adulterated...poultry, or poultry product received by or originating...notify the Secretary of Agriculture of that belief....

2010-03-25

176

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs Table B13. Meat, poultry, and eggs: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation

177

Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems.  

PubMed

Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high-quality meat and to meet the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in 2 replications were randomly selected from a commercial processor and subjected to 3 systems: immersion chill (IC), air chill (AC), and combi in-line air chill (CIAC). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter were determined on pre- and postchilled carcasses. Quality of the meat was evaluated by carcass yield, drip loss, cook loss, texture, moisture content, sensory qualities, and color (L*, a*, and b*) of boneless skinless breast fillets and skin-on drums. Shelf life of whole carcasses, breast fillets, and drums was also determined. The IC resulted in the most reduction of Salmonella (39.7%) and Campylobacter (43%) incidence due to the washing effect and presence of chlorine in the chilled water. There was no significant difference in shelf-life when comparing the chilling methods. The IC had the highest (P < 0.05) carcass yield (6.5%), followed by CIAC (+1.98.0%) and then AC (-1.10%). Drip loss, cook loss, and moisture content of breast fillets were not significantly different for all the chilling systems, but higher L* value was observed for breast fillets at 24 h postmortem treated with IC and CIAC. However, IC exhibited the lightest color and AC was darkest in the drum samples. Shear force of breast meat was significantly more tender for AC and CIAC. There were no differences in the sensory qualities of breast fillets and drums among the 3 chilling systems. PMID:23472036

Demirok, E; Veluz, G; Stuyvenberg, W V; Castañeda, M P; Byrd, A; Alvarado, C Z

2013-04-01

178

Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.  

PubMed

Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

1998-11-10

179

Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…

Le Cureux, James

1974-01-01

180

Review article Lipids in monogastric animal meat  

E-print Network

. For a long time, pig meat has been presented as a fatty meat because of the importance of subcutaneous eaten as fresh meat and without transformation, such as roasts, contain less then 2% total lipids in genetics and a better knowledge of dietary needs has allowed to improve growth performances, to increase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

Influences on meat consumption in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health\\/nutrition\\/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others

E. Lea; A. Worsley

2001-01-01

182

Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

183

Conjugated linoleic acid in meat and meat products: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid to which anticancerogenic, antidiabetic, and antiatherogenic effects, as well as effects on immune system, bone metabolism, and body composition are attributed. CLA is found predominantly in milk and meat of ruminants due to the importance of rumen micro-organism in the formation of CLA and

A. Schmid; M. Collomb; R. Sieber; G. Bee

2006-01-01

184

Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

2013-02-01

185

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOEpatents

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05

186

Lavoisier and meat stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier published his results on ‘meat stock’ preparation in 1783. Measuring density, he stated that ‘food principles’ were better extracted using a large quantity of water. This result was checked. To cite this article: H. This et al., C. R. Chimie 9 (2006).

Hervé This; Robert Méric; Anne Cazor

2006-01-01

187

MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice  

E-print Network

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, there will be some texture and Clavor loss. Discard DAIRY Still contains ice crystals and feels Ice cream, frozen yogurt Discard Discard Cheese (soft and semi-soft) Refreeze. May

Liskiewicz, Maciej

188

Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

189

Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.  

PubMed

The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products. PMID:24915324

Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

2015-08-24

190

Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.  

PubMed

Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

2015-01-01

191

Building Inspection Technology Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Debra Anderson's building inspection technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The main goal of the course is to teach students the building inspection review process, code requirements and evaluating the adequacy of structural elements. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Anderson, Debra

192

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is disclosed for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers

R. H. Sturges; A. Taleff; R. S. Wilks

1982-01-01

193

Pellet inspection apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with

Robert S. Wilks; Alexander Taleff; Sturges Jr. Robert H

1982-01-01

194

Video Demonstration: Borescope Inspection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, provides a video demonstration of the Everest XLG3 video probe used to inspect a wind turbine gearbox. This would be useful for students who are learning the visual inspection process and want to see how this specific technology works. Running time for the video is 2:59.

195

Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

196

Color of Meat and Poultry  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

197

The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted

Abdul Salam Babji

198

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2010-01-01

199

Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

2012-09-01

200

Dietary lean red meat and human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular\\u000a disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern\\u000a domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower

Neil Mann

2000-01-01

201

Zoonotic parasites from exotic meat in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found. PMID:24189683

Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P

2013-09-01

202

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

203

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

204

Guidelines for software inspections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

1983-01-01

205

Remote surface inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

1993-01-01

206

Nuclear Plant Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

1983-01-01

207

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend...carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in animal...

2012-01-01

208

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend...carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in animal...

2014-01-01

209

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend...carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in animal...

2011-01-01

210

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend...carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in animal...

2013-01-01

211

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals...products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend...carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in animal...

2010-01-01

212

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir.  

PubMed

Cattle are the main asymptomatic reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 which can cause illness to human. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir, detect virulence factors in the isolates, determine antibacterial resistance of the isolates, and know how the isolates are different or similar when compared to characterized isolates from developed countries. A total of 540 samples (feces, hide, and carcass) were tested for E. coli O157:H7 using the method of ISO 16654:(E). Conventional and multiplex PCR assays were used for serotype confirmation and virulence factor detection, respectively. Fifty E. coli O157:H7 isolates were identified and virulence factors eaeA and hlyA were present in all of the isolates. 60%, 12%, and 22% of the isolates harbored stx(1), stx(2), and stx(1) and stx(2), respectively. The prevalence rates of enterotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (n=47) were 8.3%, 10%, and 7.8% in feces, hides and carcasses, respectively. The antimicrobial profiles of the isolates showed an extensive resistance to erythromycin, neomycin and vancomycin and high sensitivity to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. PMID:23273451

Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Rahahlah, Majdi

2013-03-01

213

National monitoring of Ascaris suum related liver pathologies in English abattoirs: a time-series analysis, 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266

Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I

2012-02-28

214

Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.  

PubMed

It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

2015-04-01

215

Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

216

Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

1976-01-01

217

Exposure assessment of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases/AmpC beta-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli in meat in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Introduction Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) are of concern for veterinary and public health because of their ability to cause treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. The main objective was to assess the relative contribution (RC) of different types of meat to the exposure of consumers to ESBL/AmpC and their potential importance for human infections in Denmark. Material and methods The prevalence of each genotype of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in imported and nationally produced broiler meat, pork and beef was weighted by the meat consumption patterns. Data originated from the Danish surveillance program for antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (DANMAP) from 2009 to 2011. DANMAP also provided data about human ESBL/AmpC cases in 2011, which were used to assess a possible genotype overlap. Uncertainty about the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in meat was assessed by inspecting beta distributions given the available data of the genotypes in each type of meat. Results and discussion Broiler meat represented the largest part (83.8%) of the estimated ESBL/AmpC-contaminated pool of meat compared to pork (12.5%) and beef (3.7%). CMY-2 was the genotype with the highest RC to human exposure (58.3%). However, this genotype is rarely found in human infections in Denmark. Conclusion The overlap between ESBL/AmpC genotypes in meat and human E. coli infections was limited. This suggests that meat might constitute a less important source of ESBL/AmpC exposure to humans in Denmark than previously thought – maybe because the use of cephalosporins is restricted in cattle and banned in poultry and pigs. Nonetheless, more detailed surveillance data are required to determine the contribution of meat compared to other sources, such as travelling, pets, water resources, community and hospitals in the pursuit of a full source attribution model. PMID:24511370

Carmo, Luís P.; Nielsen, Liza R.; da Costa, Paulo M.; Alban, Lis

2014-01-01

218

Piping inspection round robin  

SciTech Connect

The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-04-01

219

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

2011-04-01

220

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2012-04-01

221

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2011-04-01

222

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

2014-04-01

223

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

2012-04-01

224

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2010-04-01

225

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

2010-04-01

226

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2014-04-01

227

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2013-04-01

228

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

2013-04-01

229

Advances in inspection automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

2013-01-01

230

Ball screw inspection setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following paper we describe arrangements of laser interferometer for investigation of screws and for inspection of ball screws. We have constructed two of them, namely: the technological setup for investigations of screw in process of production and the ball screw inspection setup. The former one is used to measure the pitch of screws. The data gathered during measurement is used to calculate the parameters for grinding machine. The later setup is used for testing parameters of complete ball screws. The software supporting this setup makes calculation of parameters of tested ball screw and creation of reports possible. Additionally, the inspection setup is the one that the torque measuring arrangements have been integrated on. Both the arrangements and the software allow for measurements of all parameters during movement of nut in full travel length of the ball screw and make charts and reports.

Janusz, Rzepka; Sambor, Slawomir; Pienkowski, Janusz; Bielenin, Marcin

2003-05-01

231

Microstructure inspection endoscope design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microstructure inspection endoscope, based on directly imaging, is proposed. It is designed for detecting defects on the surface of optical fiber end. It is matched with FC or SC female fiber connector. The inspection head of the endoscope can be put into a 2.5-millimeter-diameter micro-pore. Its numerical aperture is not restricted by tiny dimension of object lenses. System resolution is increased to 600 line-pairs per millimeter. The endoscope consists of object lenses, scanner slab and kohler illumination system. The design provides possibility of various utilities such as aiming at a smaller subject by micro optical scanner and modeling the surface by tri-dimensional vision. And the optical system includes low-magnification lenses and high-magnification zoom lenses. Rough observation at low-magnification and particularly inspection at high-magnification are provided. The instrument has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration and flexible manipulation.

Liu, Na; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai; Zhou, Ge

2005-02-01

232

Computer vision barrel inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) ongoing tasks is the storage and inspection of a large number of waste barrels containing a variety of hazardous substances. Martin Marietta is currently contracted to develop a robotic system -- the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) -- for the automatic monitoring and inspection of these barrels. The IMSS is a mobile robot with multiple sensors: video cameras, illuminators, laser ranging and barcode reader. We assisted Martin Marietta in this task, specifically in the development of image processing algorithms that recognize and classify the barrel labels. Our subsystem uses video images to detect and locate the barcode, so that the barcode reader can be pointed at the barcode.

Wolfe, William J.; Gunderson, James; Walworth, Matthew E.

1994-02-01

233

Predictors of Bovine TB Risk Behaviour amongst Meat Handlers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Guided by the Health Belief Model  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. Results Just over a quarter (28.1%) of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p?=?0.03), not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p?=?0.001), and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p?=?0.001). Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value?=?0.021). Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively). Conclusion Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM. PMID:23409127

Hambolu, Dupe; Freeman, Jenny; Taddese, Henock B.

2013-01-01

234

Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.  

PubMed

Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP embryos, should be disease-free. PMID:17462725

Perry, G H

2007-07-01

235

An outline of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance and its future prospects.  

PubMed

Discussed are the outlines of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance to replace the current meat inspection. An example of a system that uses the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)-principles in the entire production chain from stable to table is also given. Continuous evaluation of risks is the main driving force of the new system. Only then the system has the means to remain flexible and provide for the data necessary to convince trade partners that the products they buy are safe. A monitoring system that keeps track of the important health hazards in the entire chain from stable to table is therefore necessary. This includes monitoring of cases of disease in the human population caused by the hazardous agents of concern. Coordination of the monitoring and control and processing of the information is done by an independent body. Furthermore, the system demands a production from stable to table that is based on the ideas of Integrated Quality Control (IQC), HACCP, and certification of production processes and quality control procedures. Clear legislation provides for criteria about acceptable or unacceptable health risks for the consumer and determines at what moments which risks should be controlled by the producers. Simultaneously, the legislation has to be flexible enough to be able to adapt quickly to any changes in risks, or in the way risks should be controlled. In the new system current meat inspection can easily be carried out by employees of the slaughter houses and is no longer a direct responsibility of the authorities. The authorities only demand certain safety levels and verify whether producers stick to these. Producers remain fully responsible for the safety and quality of their products, and fully liable in case of any damage to the consumers' health. However, it is to be expected that some EU Member-States miss the organizational and agricultural basis for a successful application of the new system. Consequences are that two parallel flows of meat and meat products may come to existence. One flow will exist of meat produced according to the new, and with respect to safety assurance, superior system. The other flow will consist of meat produced and inspected in the traditional way. However, this meat will contain all the flaws that required a revision of the system in the first place. This, and the fact that EU policy ordains that part-taking in an alternative meat inspection system should be voluntary, may very well result in a very slow start-up of the new system. One of the easiest solutions, however, would be to implement a decontamination step in the slaughtering process, provided that this is accompanied by strict codes of hygienic practices and good manufacturing practices. Not only would this lead to safer meat, but also result in the two separate flows of meat becoming one flow again as well as an easier to organize livestock production according to HACCP-principles. PMID:10568002

Berends, B R; van Knapen, F

1999-10-01

236

Remote Inspection Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

Roman, Harry T.

2013-01-01

237

Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

Gaddy, Darrell

2014-01-01

238

Interfaces for stack inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack inspection is a mechanism for programming secure applications in the presence of code from various protection domains. Run-time checks of the call stack allow a method to obtain information about the code that (directly or indirectly) invoked it in order to make access control decisions. This mechanism is part of the security architecture of Java and the .NET Common

Frédéric Besson; Thomas De Grenier De Latour; Thomas P. Jensen

2005-01-01

239

Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

240

46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107...Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

2010-10-01

241

10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Additional Protocol, inspections may be ad hoc, routine, special, or a complementary...of inspections are as follows: (1) Ad hoc inspections to verify information...Safeguards Agreement may be present; (2) Ad hoc inspections to identify and, if...

2010-01-01

242

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

243

Multi-Sensor Inspection Telerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a telerobotic multi-sensor inspection system for space platforms developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A multi-sensor inspection end-effector incorporates cameras and lighting for visual inspection, as well as temperature and gas leak-detection sensors.

Balaram, J.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.

1994-01-01

244

Attitudes towards meat and meat-eating among adolescents in Norway: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the concept of disgust in relation to meat and meat-eating. A sample of 30 high school students (aged 16 to 17 years), 10 urban females, 10 rural females, and 10 rural males, participated in the study. The participants' attitudes towards meat and meat-eating were investigated through interviews of a semi-structured nature and a short, confidential questionnaire. The study showed that disgust was solely related to red meat varieties and not to chicken. There were no vegetarians in our consumer sample, but red meat-eating was more common among males than females. Sensory attributes that were drivers of liking for meat were good taste, good smell and juiciness; these were described by both genders. All the females tended to characterise meat and meat-eating experiences negatively. Their associations were based on disgust, rather than distaste as found among males. Offensive attributes that the females attributed to meat were linked to the animals and their body parts, blood and raw meat, fibrous and chewy texture, fatty feeling in the mouth, and visible fat. Subjects with regular contact with farm animals displayed more relaxed attitudes towards animal production and showed no such disgust reactions. Females also tended to associate meat with "heavy" food that had negative impact on their bodies. They were also less content with their body appearance, dieted more than males, and tended to associate health (in the sense of fat consumption) and food intake to the wish for slim bodies. PMID:11883918

Kubberød, Elin; Ueland, Øydis; Tronstad, Asne; Risvik, Einar

2002-02-01

245

Incidence and enterotoxigenic profile of Bacillus cereus in meat and meat products of Uttarakhand, India.  

PubMed

The present investigation was undertaken to study the incidence and enterotoxigenicity of Bacillus cereus in raw meat and meat products. B. cereus was isolated from 29 (30.9 %) of the 94 samples analyzed. Recorded incidences of B. cereus from raw meat and meat products samples were 27.8 and 35 %, respectively. A high level of organism was found in cooked-meat (35 %) than raw meat samples (27.78 %) from 40 cooked-meat products and 54 raw meat samples analyzed. Screening of isolates by multiplex polymerase chain reaction revealed the overall distribution of various enterotoxin genes hblDAC complex, nheABC complex, cytK and entFM as 55.2, 89.7, 41.4 and 93 %, respectively. The level of contamination with B. cereus was moderately higher in some samples but did not exceed the level which is sufficient to induce food poisoning. A relatively higher incidence of B. cereus in meat products, with the majority of isolates harboring all the enterotoxin genes can pose a potential public health threat. PMID:25745259

Tewari, Anita; Singh, S P; Singh, Rashmi

2015-03-01

246

Determination of sex origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.  

PubMed

Sex determination of domestic animal's meat is of potential value in meat authentication and quality control studies. Methods aiming at determining the sex origin of meat may be based either on the analysis of hormone or on the analysis of nucleic acids. At the present time, sex determination of meat and meat products based on hormone analysis employ gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the hormone-based methods proved to be highly specific and sensitive but were not performed on a regular basis for meat sexing due to the technical limitations or the expensive equipments required. On the other hand, the most common methodology to determine the sex of meat is unquestionably traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that involves gel electrophoresis of DNA amplicons. This review is intended to provide an overview of the DNA-based methods for sex determination of meat and meat products. PMID:24915321

Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Malav, Omprakash; Sharma, Deepak

2015-08-24

247

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and “Pork Pie” shall contain meat of the species specified on the label, in an amount not less than 25 percent of all ingredients including crust and shall be computed on the basis of the fresh uncooked...

2010-01-01

248

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and “Pork Pie” shall contain meat of the species specified on the label, in an amount not less than 25 percent of all ingredients including crust and shall be computed on the basis of the fresh uncooked...

2011-01-01

249

Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968

Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira

2013-01-01

250

Characterisation of E. coli O157 isolates from bovine hide and beef trimming in Irish abattoirs by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157 isolates from bovine hide (n=117) and beef trimmings (n=32) from a single abattoir were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using BioNumerics software, dendrograms of isolates from each sample type (i.e. hide and beef trimming) were produced. In assessing the genetic relatedness of isolates, a similarity criterion of 80% was applied. The 117 E. coli O157 hide isolates were grouped into 14 clusters, comprising of 109 different PFGE profiles. Of the 109 different PFGE profiles, 8 were common to multiple isolates (i.e. shared 100% similarity by PFGE). The 32 E. coli O157 beef trimming isolates produced 28 different PFGE profiles and 2 clusters. Of the 28 PFGE profiles, 2 were common to multiple isolates and the remaining 26 were distinct. On a number of sampling occasions, isolates displaying identical PFGE patterns were recovered from multiple isolates collected from a single sample type (i.e. hides or trimmings), suggesting cross contamination from contaminated hides/animals to uncontaminated hides/animals and from contaminated beef trimmings to uncontaminated beef trimmings during abattoir operations. PMID:15649539

Duffy, G; O'Brien, S B; Carney, E; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S

2005-03-01

251

Utilities Inspection Technologies  

E-print Network

, natural gas, steam, and hot water. Technologies include: ? Enhanced optical methods (infrared thermography, boroscopes, and fiberscopes) ? Acoustic emissions and vibration signature analysis ? Locating and quantifying methods (deep probe... description of each inspection technolo , and discusses particular applications within utilJ" systems. Utility systems considered include compressed air, natural gas, hot water, electrici , and steam. References used for this paper are provided at the end...

Messock, R. K.

252

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

Bernardi, R.T.

1995-12-01

253

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

254

Inspection tester for explosives  

SciTech Connect

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

255

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

256

Code inspection instructional validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option will produce the most effective results.

Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

1992-01-01

257

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

258

Pre-inspection degreasing  

SciTech Connect

Degreasing is the process of removing contaminants from the part. Examples of contaminants are oxides, paint, scale, slag, oil, grease, water, etc. These contaminants can interfere with the subsequent penetrant inspection by either preventing the penetrant from entering the flaws, or by absorbing the penetrant on the surface and then producing either objectionable background levels, or even a ``false call``. Properly degreased parts will have no contaminants on the surface and no contaminants in the flaws. Degreasing operations can be broadly divided into two types: Shop degreasing, and Field degreasing. Shop degreasing is performed in fixed installations, and is usually associated with a production line penetrant inspection system. The degreasing operation takes place after the parts have been prepared by grinding, acid etching, neutralization, rinsing, drying, etc. Field degreasing is performed when a fixed installation is unavailable, when parts are too large to process in the fixed installation, or when the inspector is ``in the field`` and has only portable materials to work with. Field degreasing may also be done after some surface preparation, such as grinding. One might then ask, ``What is the ideal precleaning or degreasing solvent?`` The answer is that there is no single ideal solvent, except in fixed installations. But for other inspections, the main characteristics should be that it: meets contaminant specifications (halogens, sulfur, other elements); be efficient in removing oils, grease, and water (which requires that it contain both polar and non polar solvents); be volatile; and be composed of ingredients which present a low health hazard.

Dubosc, P. [Babb Co., Villepreux (France)

1993-12-31

259

Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet.  

PubMed

Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet. PMID:23273468

Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar

2013-03-01

260

Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.  

PubMed

Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication. PMID:24426061

Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

261

The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a

Jean-Pierre Garnier; Ronald Klont; Graham Plastow

2003-01-01

262

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from prepacked meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four strains of lactic acid bateria isolated from refrigerated, prepacked meat and meat products were together with 59 reference strains of Brochothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus phenotypically classfied, using 96 unit characters. Data were examined using Simple Matching (SSM) or Jaccard coefficient (SJ), and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. Twenty-three clusters with two or more members were

Elisabeth Borch; Göran Molin

1988-01-01

263

Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module l.0: Meat Grades and Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on meat grades and classes is the first of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop trade-related Spanish/English…

Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

264

Ostrich meat: Physicochemical characteristics and comparison with turkey and bovine meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several European countries ostrich breeding has now become quite common. In Italy this has also given rise to the need for regulations for the slaughtering of Ratites. The present work studies and compares the physico-chemical characteristics of the meat from the thigh of the ostrich with the same anatomical cuts of turkey and bovine. The ostrich meat muscle of

Maria Antonietta Paleari; Stefano Camisasca; Giuseppe Beretta; Pietro Renon; Pietro Corsico; Gianni Bertolo; Giuseppe Crivelli

1998-01-01

265

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

266

Effects of litter size and sex on meat quality traits of kid meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of litter size and sex on meat quality traits was investigated using 40 Nebrodi kids slaughtered at 47 days of age. Carcass measurements (body components, carcass joints, pelvic limb tissue composition, meat fatty acid composition and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) colour), body weight at birth and at slaughter were evaluated. Nebrodi kids had a low body weight at

M Todaro; A Corrao; M. L Alicata; R Schinelli; P Giaccone; A Priolo

2004-01-01

267

Calorific value and cholesterol content of normal and low-fat meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the topic of fat and cholesterol intakes derived from the consumption of meat and meat products and the impact that the development of low-fat products might have. The relationships between fat and cholesterol intake and blood cholesterol levels are discussed in the light of the most recent findings.The calorific value and the cholesterol content and, therefore,

R. Chizzolini; E. Zanardi; V. Dorigoni; S. Ghidini

1999-01-01

268

Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. PMID:25282670

De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

2015-01-01

269

Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.  

PubMed

Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. PMID:25017317

Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

2014-11-01

270

Serotype Distribution of Salmonella Isolates from Turkey Ground Meat and Meat Parts  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey. PMID:23936785

Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Bilir Ormanci, Fatma Seda; Iseri Kangal, Ozlem

2013-01-01

271

A portable device for rapid nondestructive detection of fresh meat quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality attributes of fresh meat influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. In order to meet the demand of inspection department for portable device, a rapid and nondestructive detection device for fresh meat quality based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) processor and VIS/NIR technology was designed. Working principal, hardware composition, software system and functional test were introduced. Hardware system consisted of ARM processing unit, light source unit, detection probe unit, spectral data acquisition unit, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) touch screen display unit, power unit and the cooling unit. Linux operating system and quality parameters acquisition processing application were designed. This system has realized collecting spectral signal, storing, displaying and processing as integration with the weight of 3.5 kg. 40 pieces of beef were used in experiment to validate the stability and reliability. The results indicated that prediction model developed using PLSR method using SNV as pre-processing method had good performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 and root mean square error of 1.56 for validation set for L*, 0.95 and 1.74 for a*?0.94 and 0.59 for b*, 0.88 and 0.13 for pH, 0.79 and 12.46 for tenderness, 0.89 and 0.91 for water content, respectively. The experimental result shows that this device can be a useful tool for detecting quality of meat.

Lin, Wan; Peng, Yankun

2014-05-01

272

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

273

Laser Safety Inspection Criteria  

SciTech Connect

A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

Barat, K

2005-06-13

274

Acoustic inspection device  

DOEpatents

An ultrasound inspection apparatus particularly adapted to examine containers (sealed or unsealed) containing a liquid or solid bulk material. The apparatus has an overall configuration of a hand held pistol with a front transducer contact surface that is positioned against a front wall of the container. An ultrasound pulse is transmitted from the apparatus to be reflected from a back wall of a container being investigated. The received echo pulse is converted to a digital waveform. The waveform is analyzed relative to temperature, travel distance of the pulse(s), and time of travel to ascertain characteristics of the liquid or other materials and to provide identification of the same.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Pappas, Richard A.; Mullen, O. Dennis; Samuel, Todd J.; Reid, Larry D.; Harris, Joe C.; Valencia, Juan D.; Smalley, Jonathan T.; Shepard, Chester L.; Taylor, Theodore T.

2005-09-06

275

Visual Inspection of Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation evaluates the parameters that affect visual inspection of cleanliness. Factors tested include surface reflectance, surface roughness, size of the largest particle, exposure time, inspector and distance from sample surface. It is concluded that distance predictions were not great, particularly because the distance at which contamination is seen may depend on more variables than those tested. Most parameters estimates had confidence of 95% or better, except for exposure and reflectance. Additionally, the distance at which surface is visibly contaminated decreases with increasing reflectance, roughness, and exposure. The distance at which the surface is visually contaminated increased with the largest particle size. These variables were only slightly affected the observer.

Hughes, David; Perez, Xavier

2007-01-01

276

Ceramic inspection system  

DOEpatents

A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

Werve, Michael E. (Modesto, CA)

2006-05-16

277

Electrostatic Levitator Inspected  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larry Savage, Dr. Jan Rogers, Dr. Michael Robinson (All NASA) and Doug Huie (Mevatec) inspect the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

278

Thermographic Inspection of Aerospace Tankage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermography has been shown to be the ideal technical and economic inspection method for two applications - post-machining evaluations and for field inspections of damage and repair. For most manufacturing applications ultrasonic inspections are already available and established. There is no question about the detectability or cost when inspecting hardware out of the autoclave. But when the part is too large to bring to the scanning inspection system or you do not want to remove the hardware from its current setup then a more portable or field applicable inspection is required. This paper will describe two applications of thermography on composite inspections. The NASA NDE Team and Lockheed Martin conducted the work at NASA s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first application was inspecting machined hardware. The technique and example data will be presented along with the advantages of thermography. Examples of drilling holes and trimming the edges will be discussed. The second application will be the evaluation of damage in a composite part and the subsequent repair of the region will be presented. The technique, data, and benefits of this application will also be presented along with the follow-up inspection of the post- repaired hardware.

Bouvier, Carl; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James; Wilkerson, Chuck

2003-01-01

279

Inspection system performance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system.

Jensen, C.E.

1995-01-17

280

Optimal allocation of inspection resources  

SciTech Connect

Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references.

Markin, J.T.; Chambers, W.H.; Vaccaro, H.S.

1984-01-01

281

Automated Telerobotic Inspection Of Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of automated telerobotic inspection of surfaces undergoing development. Apparatus implementing method includes video camera that scans over surfaces to be inspected, in manner of mine detector. Images of surfaces compared with reference images to detect flaws. Developed for inspecting external structures of Space Station Freedom for damage from micrometeorites and debris from prior artificial satellites. On Earth, applied to inspection for damage, missing parts, contamination, and/or corrosion on interior surfaces of pipes or exterior surfaces of bridges, towers, aircraft, and ships.

Balaram, J.; Prasad, K. Venkatesh

1996-01-01

282

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications for percent light meat and percent dark meat set forth in said table. Table...terminology Percent light meat Percent dark meat Natural proportions 50-65 50-35. Light or white meat 100 0. Dark meat 0 100. Light and dark...

2010-01-01

283

The Texas Retail Meat Industry -- Structure, Operational Characteristics, and Competitive Practices.  

E-print Network

Type of Meat Supplier ...................................... 21 Form of Meat Purchases and Sales .............................. 24 ............................................. Meat Purchases 24 Meat Sales... ranged from 10 to 30 percent. Over four- fifths of the retailers interviewed found that specials increased total meat sales from 20 to 40 percent. The effect of meat promotions and specials on total retail sales brought varied responses from retailers...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1975-01-01

284

7 CFR 52.49 - Charges for copies of inspection documents and/or inspection data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for copies of inspection documents and/or inspection...Governing Inspection and Certification Fees and Charges § 52.49 Charges for copies of inspection documents and/or...

2010-01-01

285

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology

2003-09-22

286

Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk Key Points Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals formed when muscle meat, including beef, pork, fish, ...

287

Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.  

PubMed

Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results. PMID:25474205

Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

2014-12-31

288

Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.  

PubMed

Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

2015-09-19

289

Semiautomated inspection versus fully automated inspection of lyophilized products.  

PubMed

The development of fully automated inspection systems for parenteral products has created a situation of high expectations regarding productivity and quality improvements. However, not all products and production situations are suited for automation. A guideline for inspection and automation strategies will be discussed, structuring the field of lyophilized products according to the critical decision parameters. PMID:7850452

Seidenader, N W

1994-01-01

290

Preservice inspection for inservice inspection of nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to successfully carry out inservice inspection of a nuclear ; reactor coolant system in accordance with the ASME code section-XI, it is ; necessary to give sufficient consideration to the design and arrangement of the ; system components, with emphasis on plans for access, accumulation of ; experimental data on non-destructive inspection, and the development of automatic ;

K. Ishikawa; E. Ando; T. Wakabayashi; T. Sasahara

1973-01-01

291

LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By: __________________________  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By lasers and all lasers made or modified on campus been registered with the University's Laser Safety, and alignment procedures kept with laser equipment? yes no 3. Have all commercially produced Class 3b and 4

Bolch, Tobias

292

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

1994-12-31

293

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Mr. Hjorten

2006-02-03

294

Quality tracing in meat supply chains.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

2014-06-13

295

Meat handling practices in households of Mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study revealed that domestic meat handling practices of Mainland China involved serious food safety risks. Of the 1393 respondents, 89.8% did not use cooler bags to transport raw meat home, 62.3% failed to thaw raw meat properly, 40.4% did not wash hands with detergents after raw meat preparation, 44.8% cleaned cutting boards in ways that allowed cross-contamination, 73.6% marinated

S. L. Gong; Y. S. Yang; Hua Shen; X. Y. Wang; H. P. Guo; Li Bai

2011-01-01

296

The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

2009-05-01

297

A Prospective Study of Meat and Meat Mutagens and Prostate Cancer Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature cooked meat contains heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). In rodents, a high intake of PhIP induces prostate tumors. We prospectively investigated the association between meat and meat mutagens, specifically PhIP, and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Diet was assessed using a 137-item food

Amanda J. Cross; Ulrike Peters; Victoria A. Kirsh; Gerald L. Andriole; Douglas Reding; Richard B. Hayes; Rashmi Sinha

298

The development of aromas in ruminant meat.  

PubMed

This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability. PMID:23749162

Resconi, Virginia C; Escudero, Ana; Campo, María M

2013-01-01

299

Backyard Production of Meat Rabbits in Texas  

E-print Network

tablespoons worcestershire sauce 1 /2 cup vegetable oil 1 /4 teaspoon chili powder 2 tablespoons brown sugar 1 cup tomato juice 1 tablespoon paprika 1 /4 cup chili sauce or catsup 1 teaspoon dry mustard 1 /2 chopped onion Cayenne pepper, to taste Roll the meat... a small amount of water. Season to taste. Barbecued Rabbit 3 pounds rabbit meat, cut into serving-size pieces Salt and pepper, to taste Flour 3 tablespoons vegetable oil Sauce: 1 cup cider vinegar 2 teaspoons hot red pepper sauce 1 teaspoon salt 2...

Lukefahr, Steven D.; Paschal, Joseph C.; Ford, John E.

1998-06-11

300

Utilization of microbes to process and preserve meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how, and to what extent, the addition of microorganisms to meats helps to meet the needs of consumers and industry. Lactic acid bacteria adapted to meats improve the safety of fermented sausages by means of acid formation. Using selected strains, the safety of certain non-fermented, perishable meat products may be improved without affecting their shelf life. Certain

Friedrich-Karl Lücke

2000-01-01

301

Microbiological conditions of meats from large game animals and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large game animals and birds used for the commercial production of meat include deer of various species, wild boar and feral pigs, ostriches, emus and rheas, crocodiles and alligators, bison, and kangaroos. Meat from feral pigs and kangaroos is obtained from wild animals only, but much or most meat from the other game animals or birds is obtained from farmed

C. O. Gill

2007-01-01

302

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2010-01-01

303

Significance of Porcine Fat Quality in Meat Technology: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pork is the most important meat product globally. The aim of this review was to assess whether fat quality of pork is important in meat processing. Good quality backfat can be defined as firm and white. Problems associated with the use of poor fat quality (soft fat) in meat products were found to be insufficient drying, oily appearance, rancidity development,

Arno Hugo; Eileen Roodt

2007-01-01

304

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2012-01-01

305

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2010-01-01

306

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2011-01-01

307

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2013-01-01

308

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

2014-01-01

309

Modeling pathogen growth in meat products: future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat products are perishable foods and unless stored under proper conditions spoil quickly. In addition, if pathogens are present, meat products may become hazardous for consumers. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. can grow and cause illness by the ingestion of the bacterial cells, therefore, assurance of meat safety and quality is of utmost importance.

Eyal Shimoni; Theodore P. Labuzay

2000-01-01

310

Fluorescence based spectral assessment of pork meat freshness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of sensitive, nondestructive measurement methods for meat freshness is necessary to ensure safe distribution of meat products in the continually growing meat market. Fluorescence spectral technology has been shown to be a promising measurement method for quality and safety evaluation of ...

311

The future of meat consumption — Expert views from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat consumption with large environmental and ethical implications is expected to grow in the future. Some studies, however, take the opposite view, that meat consumption is at a turning point because of a growing number of vegetarians and other factors in industrialized countries. This paper examines thirty nine Finnish experts' views on the development of meat consumption and analyses the

Markus Vinnari

2008-01-01

312

China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.  

PubMed

From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. PMID:22608925

Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

2012-11-01

313

ORGANIC MEAT: MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview on the evolution of global market demand for organic meat and factors affecting it. Future prospects for development of organic meat consumptions and possible problems concerning trading are analysed. The price that people are willing to pay is the major determinant of the market share of organic meat. Although intent to purchase depends upon the

Michael Nelson; Ivan Artamova; Fabio Napolitano; Antonio Girolami; Ada Braghieri

314

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

315

How to Handle 'Routine' Inspections  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive examination (NDE) utilized for preservice or inservice inspection provides valuable information relating to the quality and integrity of fabricated components. This document describes the importance of detailed preparation for nondestructive examination regardless of the complexity, periodicity or routine nature of the examinations/inspections being performed.

Chris T. Brown

2013-04-01

316

Pipe inspection and repair system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

2004-01-01

317

TELEVISION INSPECTION CAMERA MOBILITY EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of cloged-circuit television in the inspection of ; nuclear aircraft is under study at ConvairFort Worth. Previous testing ; demonstrated that televised viewing of aircraft components is a satisfactory ; substitute for normal viewing. A continuation of the experimental investigation ; of remote inspection is described. These tests were performed to resolve only ; the uncertainties connected with

Marjon

1959-01-01

318

7 CFR 51.53 - Continuous inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuous inspections. 51.53 Section 51...Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.53 Continuous inspections. Continuous...

2010-01-01

319

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2010-10-01

320

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2014-10-01

321

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2013-10-01

322

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2012-10-01

323

46 CFR 107.275 - Other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...107.275 Section 107.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.275 Other inspections....

2011-10-01

324

46 CFR 107.275 - Other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...107.275 Section 107.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.275 Other inspections....

2013-10-01

325

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2011-10-01

326

46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

2010-10-01

327

49 CFR 396.17 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 396.17 Section 396...REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.17 Periodic inspection. (a) Every commercial... (f) Vehicles passing roadside or periodic inspections performed under the...

2010-10-01

328

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2011-01-01

329

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspections. 76.121 Section 76.121 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections. (a) The Corporation shall afford to the Commission...

2013-01-01

330

46 CFR 185.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TONS) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.722 Monthly inspections. Each survival craft, rescue boat, and launching appliance on a vessel must be inspected monthly, using the...

2010-10-01

331

46 CFR 122.722 - Monthly inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.722 Monthly inspections. Each survival craft, rescue boat, and launching appliance on a vessel must be inspected monthly, using...

2010-10-01

332

10 CFR 30.52 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Inspections. 30.52 Section 30.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.52 Inspections. (a)...

2010-01-01

333

Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry. PMID:23267400

Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

2012-01-01

334

Thermographic inspection of massive structures  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2014-02-18

335

Device for inspecting vessel surfaces  

DOEpatents

A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

336

Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

Michaels, Jennifer E. (Ithaca, NY); Michaels, Thomas E. (Ithaca, NY); Mech, Jr., Stephen J. (Pasco, WA)

1984-01-01

337

QIs it feasible to develop a small meat processing curriculum AAdvancing a small meat processing curriculum in Iowa has  

E-print Network

QIs it feasible to develop a small meat processing curriculum in Iowa? AAdvancing a small meat processing curriculum in Iowa has the potential to positively impact the viability and number of small meat to the finances and stakeholder support for such a program, and · create a realistic and actionable curriculum

Debinski, Diane M.

338

Grain quality inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

1979-01-01

339

Optical inspection device  

SciTech Connect

A telescopic device is disclosed for conducting inspections of the interior of a boiler furnace for the presence of fuel oil prior to ignition of the furnace. The device includes an elongated furnace tube having a pair of opposed light sources for illuminating areas of the furnace interior and a 90 deg reflecting prism mounted in radial alignment with the light sources at the outer end of the tube for collecting reflected light from the illuminated areas. An optical tube coaxially coupled to the inner end of the furnace tube is provided with an arrangement of achromatic lenses for focusing the collected light with maximum color differentiation so that the true color of the illuminated furnace interior may be viewed. Both tubes together are rotatably coupled to an eye piece assembly including an achromatic ocular lens so that a field of view is provided through 360 deg of rotation.

Izzi, E.P. Jr

1983-03-03

340

Inspection system calibration methods  

DOEpatents

An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

2004-12-28

341

An evaluation of strontium chloride, Rappaport and strontium selenite enrichment for the isolation of salmonellas from man, animals, meat products and abbattoir effluents  

PubMed Central

Strontium chloride enrichment broth was found to be comparable to Rappaport broth for the recovery of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes from man, animals, meat products and effluents. With the exception of cloacal samples from reptiles, both procedures were superior to selenite F. The performance of strontium chloride Mand selenite F enrichment was improved when effluent samples were incubated at 43° C. Strontium chloride M and Rappaport enrichment were superior to selenite F for the isolation of Arizona species from reptiles. Strontium chloride B, strontium selenite and Rappaport broths were found suitable for the isolation of multiple Salmonella serotypes from sea water contaminated with abattoir effluents. The strontium chloride B and strontium selenite enrichment media were superior to Rappaport broth when samples were incubated at 43° C. Modified bismuth sulphite agar was found superior to Salmonella—Shigella agar as a solid subculture medium. The investigation of a food poisoning outbreak due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 21 is reported. The significance of the choice of sampling and isolation techniques in salmonellosis in man and animals is discussed. PMID:4503874

Iveson, J. B.; Mackay-Scollay, E. M.

1972-01-01

342

7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.17 Inspection agency. Inspection agency...

2010-01-01

343

Pasteurization of Ready-to-Eat Meats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microwave heating system was developed for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats. Frankfurters, inoculated and vacuum-sealed in plastic packages, were subjected to heating, with the package surface temperature increased to and maintained at three temperature set points for dif...

344

Meat enhances nonheme iron absorption in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human subjects absorb heme iron (Fe) more efficiently than nonheme Fe under most conditions. Meat enhances nonheme Fe absorption from most diets. It is not known whether these effects also occur in the pig, a promising model for human Fe absorption studies. The objective of this study was to compare Fe bioavailability from diets containing nonheme Fe (NHI), nonheme Fe

Paul K. South; Xingen Lei; Dennis D. Miller

2000-01-01

345

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

SciTech Connect

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2008-05-01

346

Original article Growth, carcass and meat quality  

E-print Network

by a single parameter, difference in crossbreeding (!;yls_LW)! which measures the difference between MS and LW breeds used as dam breeds. Differences in crossbreeding were unfavourable to MS for all growth, differences in crossbreeding for meat quality traits were in favour of MS, with an advantage of 1.1t 0.4 point

Boyer, Edmond

347

Red Discoloration of Fully Cooked Poultry Meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a quality defect perceived as a food safety issue. Experiments were conducted to determine incidence rate, cause, and control methods for red discoloration. Breasts, thighs, and legs from four commercial products were evaluated for red disco...

348

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF PALE BROILER BREAST MEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four replicate trials were conducted to determine the functional and physical properties of pale broiler breast meat. A total of 50 normal and 40 pale boneless, skinless, 24h post-mortem whole breast fillets (right and left sides, n=180) were collected from the deboning line of two commercial proces...

349

Meat Processor. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for meat processing occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

350

Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

Litchfield, J. H.

1978-01-01

351

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

ScienceCinema

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2009-09-01

352

Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

353

Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

354

Metrics for Food Preparation, Baking, Meat Cutting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food preparation, baking, meat cutting students, this instructional package is one of five for the home economics occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

355

New developments in meat starter cultures.  

PubMed

Meat starter cultures containing one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria,Actinobacteria, staphylococci,Halomonas elongata, Aeromonas spec., and moulds or yeasts are widely in practical use. The progress in microbial systematic has led to changes in the taxonomy of familiar bacterial species which are described. Studies of flavour genesis led to the identification of the contribution of the enzyme activities endogenously present in the meat matrix as well as of those exerted by the starter cultures. Characteristic compounds of the aroma of fermented meat products originating from the starter organisms were also described. New knowledge was accumulated on the physiology and genetics of starter bacteria and some insight has been gained in the regulation of the expression of genes encoding important properties such as bacteriocin production or catalase activity. The applicability of gene technology to starter strains has been shown and strains have been constructed that have the potential to further improve the technological and hygienic suitability of starter cultures. New applications of the micro-organisms as protective or probiotic cultures have been developed for application in meat science. PMID:22060705

Hammes, W P; Hertel, C

1998-01-01

356

Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

357

Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

2014-12-01

358

Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation  

PubMed Central

Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

2014-01-01

359

The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

360

Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were up 5% in value to 1.7 billion with a volume of 704,138 mt. However, with increasing production also comes increasing product recalls, averaging 4,536 mt of meat and poultry every year since 1997 (Teratanavat &Hooker, 2004). For example, in September 2007, a major meat processing company recalled up to 9,843 mt (21.7 million pounds) of ground beef due E. coli O157:H7 contamination, one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history.

Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

361

Visual inspection for CTBT verification  

SciTech Connect

On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

1997-03-01

362

Fully Employing Software Inspections Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

2009-01-01

363

Meat standards and grading: a world view.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure both carcass yield and eating quality have the potential to underpin the development and implementation of transparent value-based payment systems which will encourage improved production efficiency throughout the supply chain. PMID:20541325

Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

2010-09-01

364

Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend ?=?0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

2015-04-15

365

Final inspection of photomask blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the quality in manufacturing of future photon mask generations Schott Lithotec is brought in a brand new, much increased automatic laser inspection system into a new manufacturing line of photo mask blanks. It is in a position to detect additionally to the standard defect types further defect types like dim- and bright-chrome defects. The resolution of the system is less than 100 nm. With a quickly inspecting time per blank of less than three minutes and for the first time in the world used automatic SMIF-pod-handling this is a tool for the 100 percent final inspection in the manufacturing of photo mask blanks.

Schubert, Fredi; Sauerbrei, Hartmut; Aschke, Lutz; Knapp, Konrad

2001-04-01

366

Ultrasonic Inspection Near Small Bores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable ultrasonic probe makes it possible to inspect for hidden cracks near insides of narrow tubes. Using pulse-echo technique, instrument detects cracks as small as 0.015-in. (0.38-mm) deep. Used for nondestructive inspection of other hard-to-reach places where conventional large transducers will not fit or where difficult to apply coupling liquid for contact ultrasonic testing. Inspects bore of tubelike fitting. Instrument makes it unnecessary to disassemble fitting to check for cracks. Precise orientation of transducer with respect to part not necessary for detecting cracks.

Parent, R. G.

1986-01-01

367

77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The resume or curriculum vitae must be limited to five one-sided pages and should include nominee's educational background...expertise. For submissions received that are more than five one-sided pages in length, only the first five pages will be...

2012-05-21

368

78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environment (ACE). ACE is the Web- based portal for the collection and use of...methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: This Web site provides the ability to...with CBP's ACE system, the Web-based portal for the collection and use...

2013-03-29

369

75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NACMPI/index.asp. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tiffanie Newman, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and...by phone at (202) 720-3897 or by e-mail at Tiffanie.Newman@fsis.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2010-07-23

370

75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...courier-delivered items: Deliver to Tiffanie Newman at 14th & Independence Avenue, SW...720-9113. Facsimile: Send to Tiffanie Newman, (202) 720-5704. All submissions...stull@fsis.usda.gov, and Tiffanie Newman for general meeting and logistical...

2010-09-16

371

78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...committee to fully explore enhancing the safe...group requires special accommodations. Submit registrations...request reasonable accommodations to participate in this...gov. All reasonable accommodation requests are managed...email-subscription-service. Options range from recalls to...

2013-12-24

372

77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the NACMPI are: Patricia K. Buck, Center for Foodborne Illness Research and Prevention; Dr. Fur-Chi Chen, Tennessee...Pennsylvania State University; Nancy J. Donley, STOP Foodborne Illness; Veneranda Gapud, Fieldale Farms...

2012-03-07

373

76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...must not provide an unfair advantage to small companies that...alternative measures proposed by an exporting country if the country provides...standards provides a marketing advantage and that appearance...establishments the option to take advantage of the program when it...

2011-05-02

374

76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Covington, Keystone Foods LLC; Dr. Catherine N...Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry; Dr...Department of Agriculture and Rural Development; Carol L...over 37 million pounds of raw ground beef and ground...customized access to selected food safety news and...

2011-09-09

375

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12...Inspection of crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side,...

2013-10-01

376

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12...Inspection of crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side,...

2014-10-01

377

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12...Inspection of crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side,...

2010-10-01

378

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12...Inspection of crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side,...

2012-10-01

379

49 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Inspection Requirements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...signal equipment.* 10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel. 11. Inspection of foundation brake gear. 12...Inspection of crossheads and guides. 16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners. 17. Inspection of main, side,...

2011-10-01

380

49 CFR 229.23 - Periodic inspection: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection: General. 229.23 Section... Inspections and Tests § 229.23 Periodic inspection: General. (a) Each...steam generator shall be inspected at each periodic inspection to determine whether...

2010-10-01

381

7 CFR 75.30 - Who shall perform appeal inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS FOR INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Appeal Inspection § 75.30 Who shall perform appeal inspection. An appeal inspection...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 75.22 - Form of inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS FOR INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF QUALITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND VEGETABLE SEEDS Inspection § 75.22 Form of inspection certificate. Inspection certificates shall be...

2010-01-01

383

Myoglobin as marker in meat adulteration: a UPLC method for determining the presence of pork meat in raw beef burger.  

PubMed

The identification of meat animal species used in raw burgers is very important with respect to economic and religious considerations. Therefore, international supervisory bodies have implemented procedures to control the employed meat species. In this paper we propose myoglobin as a powerful molecular marker to evaluate the presence of non-declared meat addition in raw beef burgers by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the separation and identification of edible animal species (beef, chicken, horse, ostrich, pig and water buffalo). Meat samples were pre-treated with sodium nitrite to transform oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin to the more stable metmyoglobin. The developed method was validated, preparing mixtures with different percentages of pork and beef minced meat. The obtained results show that using myoglobin as marker, 5% (25 mg/500 mg) of pork or beef meat can be detected in premixed minced meat samples. PMID:23870895

Giaretta, Nicola; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Lippert, Martina; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

2013-12-01

384

Additives In Meat and Poultry Products  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

385

Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

386

F Reactor Inspection  

SciTech Connect

Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

2014-10-29

387

Industrial Color Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a very important property of many products and an essential feature of some. The commercial value of color is evident in the fact that customers reject product that is satisfactory in every other way, but is not the right color. Color isrumerically specified, measured, and controlled just as length or weight are. It has three dimensions: Hue, Value, and Chroma, and may be represented in a three-dimensional space. Colors of objects depend on the illumination and pairs of colors may match in one light but not in another. Controlled illumination is required for color matching. Illuminants were standardized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). As a basis for color measurement, the CIE adopted three spectral sensitivity functions representing a standard observer. Color may be measured by instruments using standard illumination and simulating the standard observer. It is better to measure spectral reflectance or transmittance and compute colorimetric quantities. Color may be inspected on a production line and the data obtained can be used to control the process. When production cannot be controlled as precisely as required, product may be sorted by color.

McCamy, C. S.

1986-10-01

388

F Reactor Inspection  

ScienceCinema

Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

2014-11-24

389

Diversity in underwater inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater nondestructive testing (NDT) of deepwater structures provides a diverse, hostile, and challenging means to implement NDT. Given a warm, shallow water with good visibility, working underwater approaches the category of ``I get paid for this.`` This environment allows for identical reliability as ``topside`` NDT. Underwater visual, magnetic particle, and ultrasonic testing have been in place since the early 1980s, with equipment modified for submergence and closely resembling topside NDT tools. However, deepwater structures represent the most unique of NDT considerations. In the Gulf of Mexico, there are approximately 15 fixed structures installed at a depth of 243--400 m. This article describes safety, technical, and commercial issues relating to inspecting deepwater structures and focuses especially on a comparison of remote operated vehicles (ROVs) and atmospheric diving suits (ADSs). Deepwater structures have excellent records of structural integrity with an extremely low incidence of corrosion or fatigue cracking problems. The primary reason for developing deepwater NDT capabilities is contingency for damage during installation impact damage from dropped objects. There are three means used for underwater NDT: diving, atmospheric diving suits (ADSs), and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs).

Goldberg, L. [Sea Test Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)

1996-03-01

390

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-print Network

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling...

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01

391

Inspecting the reactor vessel penetrations  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of Alloy 600 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) continues to plague nuclear power plants. Recently, the problem of PWSCC cracking has manifested itself in Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) head penetrations in nuclear plants in Europe. Framatome has been extensively involved in the performance of both inspections and repairs of CRDM head penetrations at Electricite de France (EdF) plants. B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT), building on Framatome technology, has developed a fully integrated service package and robotic manipulator to inspect and repair CRDM head penetrations for US utilities. Reactor vessel bottom penetration are also made of Alloy 600 and to tackle this potential PWSCC problem at EdF plants, Framatome has been performing specific inspections in order to detect the appearance of the phenomenon. This paper describes the overall range of inspection techniques and toolings developed to address these issues.

Bodson, F. [Framatome, Chalon-Sur-Saone (France); Fleming, K.W. [BWNT, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1995-08-01

392

Multirobot inspection of industrial machinery  

E-print Network

Inspection of aircraft and power generation machinery using a swarm of miniature robots is a promising application both from an intellectual and a commercial perspective. Our research is motivated by a case study concerned ...

Correll, Nikolaus

393

CRACKSCOPEAUTOMATIC PAVEMENT CRACKING INSPECTION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

0-5708-P4 CRACKSCOPEAUTOMATIC PAVEMENT CRACKING INSPECTION SYSTEM Authors: Bugao Xu, Ph.D. and PScope .................................................................................................................. 11 3.2 Camera connection.................................................................................................................14 3.4 Camera control

Texas at Austin, University of

394

Proceedings: EPRI Second Phased Array Inspection Seminar  

SciTech Connect

The Second EPRI Phased Array Inspection Seminar focused on industrial applications of phased array technology that have been achieved to date or are planned for the near future. Presentations were made by developers of inspection techniques, inspection services vendors, and utility personnel who have performed inspections using arrays.

None

2001-11-01

395

Your Global Inspection Solution 2 Glossary............................................................3  

E-print Network

Your Global Inspection Solution 2 SEAFOOD INSPECTION PROGRAM Contents Glossary......................................................... 9 VI.Choose Seafood With Confidence Mark ...10 VII. Voluntary Retail Services Mark..............11 in the USDC seafood inspection program must be reviewed and approved by the Seafood Inspection Program. 2

396

Visualising automatic product inspection of PCB units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how the inspection of a printed circuit board (PCB) was conducted automatically by using a machine. PCB comprises of sensitive electronic components and could be easily destructed upon inspection for quality control purposes. Therefore a machine is used instead of depending on human in conducting the inspection to minimise human error and inspection time, maintain quality level

H. M. Judi; K. Kapoyah; N. S. Ashaari

2009-01-01

397

Assessment of human health risk associated with pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs when conducting visual-only inspection of the lungs.  

PubMed

The most important lesion to be overlooked when performing visual-only inspection of the lungs is embolic pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional human health risk represented by overlooking cases of pyaemia represented by embolic pneumonia in finisher pigs, when conducting visual-only compared to palpation of the lungs, as is the traditional meat inspection procedure. An examination of bacteria isolated from 19 finisher pigs identified with embolic pneumonia at traditional meat inspection was undertaken. From each pig samples were taken from various organs (lungs, spleen, heart, liver and kidney), from the carpal joints (A. carpi) and flexor muscle (M. flexor digitorum superficialis) on the right foreleg. These data were included in a risk assessment following OIE guidelines. Bacteria were isolated from 78 out of 127 tissue and swap samples taken (61% positive samples). Staphylococcus aureus (N=37) was the most frequently isolated bacterium. The predominant site of S. aureus was the lung. S. aureus was detected although less frequently in low numbers in some organs (<100CFU/sample) and muscle samples (<10CFU/sample). Only one MRSA isolate was found. Staphylococcus warneri (N=24) was the second most commonly found bacterium. There was no predominant site and the number of S. warneri was less than 50CFU per sample. The risk of a food-borne intoxication from S. aureus in relation to pyaemia in pigs was considered very low due to the low quantitative numbers of S. aureus in muscle tissue samples. Implementing visual-only inspection will reduce the exposure of S. aureus due to less cross-contamination and handling of the plucks by the meat inspectors. The human health risk associated with S. warneri was considered very low, due to the limited zoonotic potential of this bacterium. In conclusion, the additional human health risk in relation to possibly overlooking pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs was considered negligible when conducting visual-only compared to traditional meat inspection. PMID:25514754

Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Skou, Peter Bæk; Alban, Lis

2015-03-01

398

Surface inspection: Research and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

Batchelder, J. S.

1987-01-01

399

Efforts to overcome vegetarian-induced dissonance among meat eaters.  

PubMed

Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency ("I eat meat; I don't like to hurt animals"), aversive consequences ("I eat meat; eating meat harms animals"), or threats to self image ("I eat meat; compassionate people don't hurt animals"). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions. PMID:24727102

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-08-01

400

Meat tenderization by proteolytic enzymes after osmotic dehydration.  

PubMed

The treatment of proteolytic enzymes is one of the popular methods for meat tenderization. In this case, it is very important how to introduce the enzymes into the meat cut. This paper describes meat tenderization by dipping the meat cut in a solution containing proteolytic enzymes after contact-osmotic dehydration. After the dehydration of each piece of meat from culled cow for 18 h by contact-dehydration sheet, each sample was dipped for 3 h in a solution containing papain or proteinases from Aspergillus traditionally used for soysauce production in Japan. It was stored at 3?4°C for 24, 48 and 168 h, and subjected to texture measurement, sensory evaluations, biochemical analysis and histological observations. The penetration efficiency of the enzyme solution (of around 80%) after the contact-osmotic dehydration seemed to be sufficient. A marked decrease in hardness by texture measurements was observed in the meats treated with proteolytic enzymes and higher sensory scores for tenderness were observed in the meats treated with enzymes as compared with the untreated meat. The papain-treated meat received the highest score in tenderness, but the scores given to juiciness and taste were lower than that of the control. The rapid increases of the fragmentation of myofibrils from the enzyme-treated meat were observed at first 24 h of storage as compared with that of the control. Remarkable degradation of myosin molecule in the myofibrils from the enzyme-treated meats was observed on SDS-PAGE profiles. Considerable degradation of myofibrilar structure especially due to proteolytic removal of Z-lines, was observed among the myofibrils from enzyme-treated meats by electronmicroscopy. The remarkable deformation and disruption of honeycomb-like structure of endomysium were also observed in the meats treated with enzymes. From these results, it was shown that treatment after osmotic dehydration, was effective in tenderizing. PMID:22062083

Gerelt, B; Ikeuchi, Y; Suzuki, A

2000-11-01

401

Microbial characterization of fermented meat products on some selected markets in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented meat products are defined as meat that is inoculated with a microbial starter culture during processing under controlled condition, or meat allowed to ferment by natural fermentation meat microbial flora to give desirable characteristics. Fermentation of meat is mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Their biochemical characteristics project them as sugar fermentative, catalase and nitration reduction negative bacteria. This

H. D. Zakpaa; C. M. Imbeah; E. E. Mak-Mensah

402

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form  

E-print Network

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Fair Dairy & Meat Goat Entry Form Entry Deadline ___________________________________________________________ # Pens Needed _______ Class/ Department Dairy Breed/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag/ Meat Goat Date of Birth Name of Animal Meat Goat Tag # #12;

Liskiewicz, Maciej

403

The kinetics of cooked meat haemoprotein formation in meat and model systems.  

PubMed

The rate of cooked meat haemoprotein formation (measured as the rate of loss of myoglobin solubility) was found, at least initially, to obey first order kinetics in meat, aqueous muscle extracts and mixtures of myoglobin and bovine serum albumin. In meat at 60 °C the rate was dependent on the species, (the pigment was formed significantly faster in lamb m. longissimus dorsi than in beef m. longissimus dorsi) and anatomical location (cooked meat haemoprotein was formed in beef m. 1. dorsi about twice as rapidly as in both beef shin and chuck (shoulder) muscle of similar pH). The rate of formation was similar in aqueous muscle extracts to that found in meat and in these systems increased with decreasing pH. The activation energies for all beef systems studied were similar and typical of those associated with protein denaturation (~300 KJ mol(-1)); however, that from lamb appeared to be lower (~200 KJ mol(-1)). The problems of using colour as an index of temperature reached, either for microbial safety (E. Coli 0157:H7 destruction) or quality are discussed in the light of these results. PMID:22063067

Geileskey, A; King, R D; Corte, D; Pinto, P; Ledward, D A

1998-03-01

404

Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

2013-01-01

405

Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 ?A/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

2014-05-01

406

Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics.

Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

2015-01-01

407

Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

Williams, John L.

408

Horizontal hostility among non-meat eaters.  

PubMed

The present study examined intergroup judgments made between four groups of non-meat eaters: health vegetarians; ethical vegetarians; health vegans, and ethical vegans. Consistent with hypotheses based on horizontal hostility and the need to maintain ingroup distinctiveness, ethical vegetarians gave unfavorable evaluations to health vegetarians relative to vegans, especially when the mainstream omnivore group was made salient. Contrary to expectations, vegans gave relatively more favorable evaluations to ethical vegetarians than health vegetarians when mainstream salience was low. This was especially true for vegans who were motivated primarily by ethical concerns. When mainstream salience was high, vegans did not distinguish between the vegetarian subgroups. Results suggest that one's motives for abstaining from meat often play a larger role in this type of intergroup perceptions than one's dietary practices. PMID:24809342

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-01-01

409

Horizontal Hostility among Non-Meat Eaters  

PubMed Central

The present study examined intergroup judgments made between four groups of non-meat eaters: health vegetarians; ethical vegetarians; health vegans, and ethical vegans. Consistent with hypotheses based on horizontal hostility and the need to maintain ingroup distinctiveness, ethical vegetarians gave unfavorable evaluations to health vegetarians relative to vegans, especially when the mainstream omnivore group was made salient. Contrary to expectations, vegans gave relatively more favorable evaluations to ethical vegetarians than health vegetarians when mainstream salience was low. This was especially true for vegans who were motivated primarily by ethical concerns. When mainstream salience was high, vegans did not distinguish between the vegetarian subgroups. Results suggest that one’s motives for abstaining from meat often play a larger role in this type of intergroup perceptions than one’s dietary practices. PMID:24809342

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-01-01

410

Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

411

Biofunctional properties of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

2015-03-01

412

A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

SciTech Connect

The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

2010-03-12

413

Gravity Probe B Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

414

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01

415

Text Detectives Investigate Meat Eating Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify the text features of non-fiction books and use several informational texts on meat-eating plants to answer text dependent questions. Students will become "text detectives" and learn how to use the text to find the evidence to prove that their answers to questions are right. The students will learn to use evidence from informational texts to write explanatory paragraphs.

2013-01-13

416

Prevalence of Arcobacter in meat and shellfish.  

PubMed

Arcobacter is considered an emergent foodborne and waterborne enteropathogen. However, its prevalence in foods of animal origin is only partially known, because most studies have been concentrated on poultry, pork, and beef, and methods applied do not allow identification of all currently accepted Arcobacter species. We investigated the prevalence of Arcobacter in 203 food samples, 119 samples of seven different types of meats and 84 samples of four types of shellfish. Isolates were identified in parallel by using a published multiplex PCR method and a recently described 16S rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism method that allows all currently accepted Arcobacter species to be characterized. The global prevalence of Arcobacter was 32%; it was highest in clams (5 of 5 samples, 100%) and chicken (9 of 14 samples, 64.3%) followed by pork (9 of 17 samples, 53.0%), mussels (23 of 56 samples, 41.1%), and duck meat (2 of 5 samples, 40.0%). Turkey meat and beef had a similar recovery rate (10 of 30 samples, 33.3%; 5 of 16 samples, 31.3%; respectively), and rabbit meat had the lowest rate (1 of 10 samples, 10.0%). No arcobacters were found in oysters, frozen shrimps, or sausages. This food survey is the first in which five of the seven accepted Arcobacter species have been isolated. Arcobacter butzleri was the most prevalent species (63.0% of isolates) followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus (26.6%), Arcobacter mytili (4.7%), Arcobacter skirrowii (3.1%), and Arcobacter nitrofigilis (3.1%). Three (4.7%) of the isolates were classified as belonging to three potentially new phylogenetic lines. Our results indicated that Arcobacter species are widely distributed in the food products studied. PMID:19517742

Collado, Luis; Guarro, Josep; Figueras, Maria José

2009-05-01

417

Hydroperoxide formation in different lean meats.  

PubMed

Peroxide is one of the compounds that are indicated to be toxic in the human digestion system. Lean fresh meat samples were collected from beef, lamb, pork and chicken to investigate their hydroperoxide formation potential. Total peroxides of fresh comminuted raw meat were determined by analysing protein-bound peroxides and hydroperoxide compounds in water-methanol and chloroform extracted phases. The amount of total peroxides was ranked as: beef>pork>lamb>chicken. Hydroperoxide formation was examined at different pH values and at different incubation times, using beef and chicken samples. All peroxides were transient, with a maximum value after 2-4 h of incubation at 37 °C. When pH fell from 7 to 1.5, the different peroxides fell by 10-20%. Non-polar peroxide formation could largely (70%) be described by variation in fatty acid composition and hemin content of the meat, while protein-bound peroxide variation was less explained by these variables. Liposome addition increased (40%) the amount of protein-bound peroxides. PMID:23871008

Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nyquist, Nicole Frost; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

2013-12-01

418

Red meats: time for a paradigm shift in dietary advice.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests dietary advice to limit red meat is unnecessarily restrictive and may have unintended health consequences. As nutrient-rich high quality protein foods, red meats can play an important role in helping people meet their essential nutrient needs. Yet dietary advice to limit red meat remains standard in many developed countries, even though red meat intakes appear to be within current guidelines. Meanwhile, energy intakes from processed foods have increased dramatically at the expense of nutrient-rich foods, such as red meat. Research suggests these food trends are associated with the growing burden of obesity and associated diseases in recent decades. It is time for dietary advice that emphasizes the value of unprocessed red meat as part of a healthy balanced diet. PMID:25041653

Binnie, Mary Ann; Barlow, Karine; Johnson, Valerie; Harrison, Carol

2014-11-01

419

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA for authentication of meats from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica), and mouflon (Ovis ammon) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

The prevention of fraudulent labeling of game meat constitutes an important part of food regulatory control and quality assurance systems. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis based on mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was developed for authentication of meats from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica), and mouflon (Ovis ammon). Amplification and restriction site analysis of a DNA fragment about 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of all analyzed species permitted the selection of Msel and Apol endonucleases for meat speciation. The 12S rRNA restriction profiles obtained allowed the unequivocal identification of chamois, pyrenean ibex, and mouflon/sheep and their differentiation from meats of domestic species such as cattle, goat, and swine. The highly variable mitochondrial D-loop gene was also targeted to attempt discrimination between mouflon and sheep meats. A D-loop region (700-1000 bp) was amplified and sequenced in all game and domestic species analyzed, and a primer set was designed for the selective amplification of a 370 bp DNA fragment from mouflon and sheep. PCR-RFLP analysis with the selected Maell enzyme generated a single electrophoretic profile characteristic for sheep, whereas 3 different fragment patterns were obtained for mouflon meats. Consequently, the PCR-RFLP technique developed can be routinely applied in inspection programs in order to verify the correct labeling of game species. PMID:17373450

Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; López-Calleja, Inés; Martin, Irene; Rojas, Maria; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

2007-01-01

420

Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat  

E-print Network

Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

Pike, Merritt Ivan

1974-01-01

421

Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in meat fatty acid composition stems mainly from the need to find ways to produce healthier meat, i.e. with a higher ratio of polyunsaturated (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids and a more favourable balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. In pigs, the drive has been to increase n-3 PUFA in meat and this can be achieved by feeding sources

J. D Wood; R. I Richardson; G. R Nute; A. V Fisher; M. M Campo; E Kasapidou; P. R Sheard; M Enser

2004-01-01

422

To meat or not to meat? New perspectives on Neanderthal ecology.  

PubMed

Neanderthals have been commonly depicted as top predators who met their nutritional needs by focusing entirely on meat. This information mostly derives from faunal assemblage analyses and stable isotope studies: methods that tend to underestimate plant consumption and overestimate the intake of animal proteins. Several studies in fact demonstrate that there is a physiological limit to the amount of animal proteins that can be consumed: exceeding these values causes protein toxicity that can be particularly dangerous to pregnant women and newborns. Consequently, to avoid food poisoning from meat-based diets, Neanderthals must have incorporated alternative food sources in their daily diets, including plant materials as well. PMID:25407444

Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Henry, Amanda G; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Blasco, Ruth; Picin, Andrea; Wroe, Stephen; Kullmer, Ottmar

2015-02-01

423

Ultrasound in the meat industry: general applications and decontamination efficiency.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the findings of research focused on ultrasound as a "green", nonchemical technology in the meat industry to improve meat quality and safety. An overview of the importance of the decontamination in meat processing and microbial inactivation using ultrasound combined with some other applications is provided along with results of high power ultrasound studies which have been applied and adapted in the meat industry. The research results revealed that ultrasound by itself or in combination with other processing and/or preservation methods has a potential for improving the general quality, marination and tenderness of meat, preventing microbial growth and recontamination in meat and meat products as well as for the determination of defects in carcasses and cleaning process equipment. This review will provide an interpretation of ultrasound applications, an up-to-date summary of published articles, and an overview of the microbial inactivation in meat and poultry and their products by ultrasound. Since there is a need for not only a pathogen-free product but also a quality product; this review also can be accepted as a report on the results of research in the field of meat quality improvements with ultrasound applications. PMID:25613122

Turanta?, Fulya; K?l?ç, Gülden Ba?yi?it; K?l?ç, Birol

2015-04-01

424

Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review  

PubMed Central

Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food. PMID:25557827

Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

2015-01-01

425

21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.168...168 Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...

2010-04-01

426

21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.180...Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176...176 Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...

2010-04-01

428

21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.170...170 Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless...part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...

2010-04-01

429

21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.174...Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or...

2010-04-01

430

40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES...PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...Alaskan Crab Meat Processing...resulting from the processing, in remote...king crab meat. The effluent...

2010-07-01

431

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General...in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems) that,...

2011-01-01

432

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General...in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems) that,...

2014-01-01

433

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General...in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems) that,...

2010-01-01

434

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General...in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems) that,...

2012-01-01

435

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. 318.24 Section...using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control. (a) General...in mechanical meat/bone separation machinery (i.e., AMR systems) that,...

2013-01-01

436

D.E. Corpet / Meat Science 2011 -doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.009 Red meat and colon cancer  

E-print Network

D.E. Corpet / Meat Science 2011 - doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.009 . 1 Red meat and colon cancer consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units” (Appendix A). Existing...

2013-10-01

438

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units” (Appendix A). Existing...

2014-10-01

439

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units” (Appendix A). Existing...

2012-10-01

440

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units” (Appendix A). Existing...

2011-10-01

441

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units” (Appendix A). Existing...

2010-10-01

442

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION...Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision....

2010-01-01

443

Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks  

SciTech Connect

Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

Choset, Howie

2003-09-11

444

Guided acoustic wave inspection system  

DOEpatents

A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

Chinn, Diane J.

2004-10-05

445

Unleaded fuel: tests and inspections  

SciTech Connect

Section 80.4 of Chapter I, Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations concerning the regulation of unleaded fuels and fuel additives is amended in regard to right of entry, tests, and inspections by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Administrator, the Regional Administrator, or his authorized representative, upon presentation of appropriate credentials, shall have the right to enter upon or through any retail outlet or the premises or property of any distributor and shall have the right to make inspections, take samples, and conduct tests to determine compliance with this part of the Act.

Quarles, J.

1974-10-03

446

Molecular methods for microbiological quality control of meat and meat products: a review.  

PubMed

Achieving food safety is a global health goal and the food-borne diseases take a major check on global health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods and immunology-based methods may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield a result. Obviously, this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid diagnostic methods. The advent of molecular techniques has led to the development of a diverse array of assay for quality control of meat and meat products. Rapid analysis using DNA hybridization and amplification techniques offer more sensitivity and specificity to get results than culture based methods as well as dramatic reduction in the time to get results. Many methods have also achieved the high level automation, facilitating their application as routine sample screening assays. This review is intended to provide an overview of the molecular methods for microbiological quality control of meat and meat products. PMID:24915322

Gokulakrishnan, P; Vergis, Jess

2015-08-24

447

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...29, 2010. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided...products intended for human consumption and offered...follows: § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and...food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided...products intended for human consumption and...

2011-01-01

448

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...9, 2011. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided...products intended for human consumption and offered...follows: § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and...food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided...products intended for human consumption and...

2012-01-01

449

Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives: One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves...

450

Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat.  

E-print Network

,. I. Chicken Fajitas I tablespoon oil or liquid margarine 4 chicken breast or thigh filets 1 bell pepper, cut in julienne strips 1 onion, cut in julienne strips Guacamole 1 avocado 1f2 teaspoon lime juice (approx.) 2 sprigs fresh parsley... the meat is white throughout the filet. When cooking in the kitchen, vegetables may be added to the skillet the last few minutes before the chicken is done. Add more oil if necessary and saute the onions and peppers until they are tender...

Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

1987-01-01

451

7 CFR 989.102 - Inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.102 Inspection service. Inspection...

2013-01-01

452

7 CFR 29.71 - Mandatory inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 2 ? 2012-01-01 ? 2012-01-01 ? false ? Mandatory inspection. ? 29.71 ? Section 29.71 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture ? AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ? COMMODITY STANDARDS...

2012-01-01

453

30 CFR 912.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...inspections conducted pursuant to this section to the Office of the Idaho Attornery General upon...

2013-07-01

454

30 CFR 912.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...inspections conducted pursuant to this section to the Office of the Idaho Attornery General upon...

2011-07-01

455

30 CFR 912.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...inspections conducted pursuant to this section to the Office of the Idaho Attornery General upon...

2010-07-01

456

30 CFR 912.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...inspections conducted pursuant to this section to the Office of the Idaho Attornery General upon...

2014-07-01

457

30 CFR 912.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of this...inspections conducted pursuant to this section to the Office of the Idaho Attornery General upon...

2012-07-01

458

40 CFR 265.403 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.403 Inspections. (a) The owner...treatment facility must inspect, where present: (1) Discharge control and safety equipment (e.g., waste feed cut-off...

2011-07-01

459

Formal Inspection: A Tool for TQM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Formal Inspection Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to support projects wishing to use Formal Inspections to improve the quality of software and system level engineering products.

Welz, L.; Kelly, J.

1995-01-01

460

7 CFR 331.18 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.18 Inspections. (a) Without prior...

2010-01-01

461

9 CFR 121.18 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS...AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.18 Inspections....

2010-01-01

462

46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic...

2011-10-01

463

42 CFR 73.18 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Without prior notification, the HHS Secretary, shall be allowed to inspect any site at which activities regulated by this part are conducted and shall be allowed to inspect and copy any records relating to the activities covered by this...

2010-10-01

464

21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections. (a) An establishment covered...

2010-04-01

465

7 CFR 654.17 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sponsor(s) are to make periodic and special inspections of installed project measures as provided in the plan of O&M. For structural measures, inspections are to be...adversely affect the project measures. At the discretion...

2010-01-01

466

30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part...inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community...

2012-07-01

467

30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part...inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community...

2013-07-01

468

30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part...inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community...

2011-07-01

469

30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part...inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community...

2014-07-01

470

30 CFR 933.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part...inspection report written pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community...

2010-07-01

471

Automatically Inspecting Thin Ceramics For Pinholes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus for inspecting prefired ceramic materials detects minute flaws that might escape ordinary visual inspections. Method detects flaws and marks locations. Intended for such thin ceramic parts as insulation in capacitors and some radio-frequency filters.

Honaker, James R.

1988-01-01

472

9 CFR 146.11 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Inspections. 146.11 Section 146.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...if a State Inspector determines that a breach of testing has occurred for the Plan programs for which...

2011-01-01

473

9 CFR 146.11 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Inspections. 146.11 Section 146.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...if a State Inspector determines that a breach of testing has occurred for the Plan programs for which...

2012-01-01

474

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2011-07-01

475

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2013-07-01

476

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2012-07-01

477

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2010-07-01

478

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2014-07-01

479

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2010-07-01

480

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

481

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%

482

EFFECTS OF HARVEST AND TRANSPORT ENVIRONMENT ON CATFISH MEAT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stress and activity associated with harvest, transport, and slaughter have negative impact on meat quality in livestock species. The negative impacts on meat quality are generally attributed to increased anaerobic metabolism associated with stress and exercise which lead to increased muscle lac...

483

Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.  

PubMed

Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle. PMID:24022219

Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

2013-11-01

484

Meat hygiene in developing tropical and subtropical countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and up-to-date standard of meat hygiene is a basic requirement for the health and prosperity of any country. To achieve this objective animal diseases must be eradicated, meat production plants modernised, and public health propaganda and instruction greatly extended.

A. Ginsberg

1969-01-01

485

The use of predictive microbiology by the Australian meat industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia, the key regulatory body, the Meat Standards Committee (MSC) of the Agricultural and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ) and the Export Meat Industry Advisory Council (EMIAC) have accepted in principle the usefulness of predictive microbiology for science-based regulation. The predictive microbiology approach is being used in a range of areas including hot-boning, distribution of

John Sumner; Karen Krist

2002-01-01

486

Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

487

UPGRADING MEAT PACKING FACILITIES TO REDUCE POLLUTION. WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

;Contents: Micro-organisms and their role in waste treatment; Waste loads from the meat packing industry; Procedures in the planning, design, and construction of a wastewater-treatment system; Wastewater-treatment methods for the meat packing industry; Operation and maintenance o...

488

Biosurveillance at the United States Meat Animal Research Center  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...

489

Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.  

PubMed

This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented. PMID:22061129

Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

2004-05-01

490

Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

491

MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: APPLICATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. Tenderization occurs in fractions of a millisecond. When energy, space, and labor costs a...

492

The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.  

PubMed

Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

Tucker, Corrina A

2014-10-01

493

Genome Sequences of Two Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Meat  

PubMed Central

Lactococcus garvieae is an important fish pathogen and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, as well as a component of natural microbiota in dairy and meat products. We present the first report of genome sequences of L. garvieae I113 and Tac2 strains isolated from a meat source. PMID:23405320

Ferrario, Chiara; Borgo, Francesca; Eraclio, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

2013-01-01

494

Genome Sequences of Two Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Meat.  

PubMed

Lactococcus garvieae is an important fish pathogen and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen, as well as a component of natural microbiota in dairy and meat products. We present the first report of genome sequences of L. garvieae I113 and Tac2 strains isolated from a meat source. PMID:23405320

Ricci, Giovanni; Ferrario, Chiara; Borgo, Francesca; Eraclio, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

2013-01-01

495

BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation  

E-print Network

BUILDING INSPECTION Building, Infrastructure, Transportation City of Redwood City 1017 Middlefield Sacramento, Ca 95814-5514 Re: Green Building Ordinance and the Building Energy Efficiency Standards Per of Redwood City enforce the current Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards as part

496

Mine Inspection Data Analysis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, the U.S. Bureau of Mines developed the Mine Inspection Data Analysis System. It is a computerized industrial hygiene database capable of statistically analyzing Mine Safety and Health Administration compliance data collected in coal and noncoal mines and mills. Data are collected by inspectors and mine operators, and are provided to the Bureau annually on magnetic tape. The Bureau

Winthrop F. Watts Jr; Douglas R. Parker

1995-01-01

497

Automated Inspection of Electronic Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant technological advances in the design and production of electronic assemblies have sizably increased their reliability and durability while greatly reducing their physical size. New manufacturing technologies have been developed which markedly increase the speed and accuracy of production. Such advances in production greatly complicate the inspection of these devices by humans. Essentially, the techniques used 10 years ago are

Charles A. Harlow; Scott E. Henderson; Dennis A. Rayfield; R. J. Johnston

1975-01-01

498

Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

1992-01-01

499

Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)

Buckley, James F.

1987-01-01

500

FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

2000-08-02