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1

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health.

2010-01-01

2

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

2012-01-01

3

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

2012-01-01

4

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for

Demelash Biffa; Asseged Bogale; Eystein Skjerve

2010-01-01

5

Evaluating the prevalence of tail biting and carcase condemnations in slaughter pigs in the Republic and Northern Ireland, and the potential of abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

Despite extensive utilisation in epidemiological investigations of animal health, to date there has been little consideration of the value of abattoir meat inspection as a pig welfare surveillance tool. This study measured the prevalence of tail-docking, tail biting, carcase condemnations and associated financial losses of the latter (Northern Ireland only) in 36,963 pigs slaughtered in six abattoirs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in July and August 2010. Over 99 per cent of inspected pigs had been tail-docked, while 58.1 per cent and 1.03 per cent had detectable and severe tail lesions, respectively. Producer losses resulting from carcase condemnation were estimated to be €0.37 per pig slaughtered. Enhanced capture and utilisation of meat inspection data for use in animal welfare surveillance schemes has the potential to drive improvements in production efficiency and animal welfare. However, significant differences were detected in the prevalence of carcase condemnation conditions between abattoirs and judiciaries (Republic and Northern Ireland). This reflects variation in the criteria and methods of data capture used in meat inspection in different abattoirs. Thus, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised and reformed before it can be reliably utilised in large-scale pig welfare surveillance schemes. PMID:23248113

Harley, S; More, S J; O'Connell, N E; Hanlon, A; Teixeira, D; Boyle, L

2012-12-15

6

Meat inspection costs - a charge too far?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the recent case of Woodspring District Council v. Bakers of Nailsea Ltd which has highlighted several contentious points of EU legislation for the meat industry, especially the cost of abattoir inspections. EU law states that these inspections should be carried out by official veterinary surgeons thus incurring great cost. Bakers of Nailsea contended that these inspections could have been

Katharine Thompson; Joan Upson

1996-01-01

7

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and

S. Abuseir; C. Epe; T. Schnieder; G. Klein; M. Kühne

2006-01-01

8

Increased sensitivity for the diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection by additional heart examination compared to the EU-approved routine meat inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the statutory meat inspection at abattoirs, Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle remains an economically important parasitic disease for the livestock industry by affecting food safety. The routinely performed standard meat inspection protocol has a low diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of T. saginata cysticerci infections. Therefore, an abattoir trial aiming to increase the detection level was

Ramon Marc Eichenberger; Roger Stephan; Peter Deplazes

2011-01-01

9

Prevalences of welfare-related lesions at post-mortem meat-inspection in Danish sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the prevalences and intercorrelations of all daily meat-inspection recordings at four Danish sow abattoirs in the year 2000 from 23,794 sows coming from 207 sow or farrow-to-finisher herds. The meat-inspection data were obtained from databases at the Danish Bacon and Meat Council (DBMC). Prevalences generally were low—but large herd-to-herd variations were seen. Despite low prevalences, many slaughtered sows

A. Cleveland-Nielsen; G. Christensen; A. K. Ersbøll

2004-01-01

10

A comparison of microbial contamination on sheep\\/goat carcasses in a modern Indian abattoir and traditional meat shops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial load on sheep\\/goat carcasses was investigated in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 96 swab samples from carcass sites were collected and analysed from the abattoir, while 144 swab samples from carcass sites were analysed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. T. Sherikar; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

2007-01-01

11

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination in an abattoir and the meat shops in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination was carried out in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 54 swab samples from different environmental contaminants were collected and analyzed from the abattoir, while 81 swab samples were analyzed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

12

Hydatidosis of slaughtered cattle in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir, southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle.\\u000a Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita\\u000a Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that\\u000a 74 visceral

Nigatu Kebede; Habtamu Mekonnen; Abebe Wossene; Getachew Tilahun

2009-01-01

13

Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic

Marianne Bonde; Nils Toft; Peter T. Thomsen; Jan Tind Sørensen

2010-01-01

14

A prevalence study of bovine tuberculosis by using abattoir meat inspection and tuberculin skin testing data, histopathological and IS6110 PCR examination of tissues with tuberculous lesions in cattle in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mortem surveillances, for the detection of tuberculous lesions in particular depend on the work load time and the diligence of the inspector conducting the examination. The first aim of the study was to determine the trend of occurrence of tuberculous lesions in two abattoirs in Addis Ababa and Debre-Zeit (Ethio - pia). The second aim of the study was

J. E. SHITAYE; B. GETAHUN; T. ALEMAYEHU; M. SKORIC; F. TREML; P. FICTUM; V. VRBAS; I. PAVLIK

15

Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution,

Gillian D Alton; David L Pearl; Ken G Bateman; W Bruce McNab; Olaf Berke

2010-01-01

16

Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.  

PubMed

Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

2013-12-01

17

Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.  

PubMed

Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031

Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

2013-03-01

18

[Legal fundamentals and practical accomplishments of abattoir and meat research in mammalian game animals].  

PubMed

Meat regulations also involve game inspection. The previous publication mainly dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter. The following publication deals with game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mufflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit) and also game such as the badger and the raccoon. PMID:3222786

Hadlok, R M; Bert, F

1988-01-01

19

Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar Abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted from May 2005 to December 2006 in Bahir Dar Abattoir to assess the current status of hydatidosis in\\u000a cattle and sheep. Hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted based on routine meat inspection. Of the total 420\\u000a cattle and 340 sheep slaughtered in Bahir Dar Abattoir 143 (34.05%) and 36 (10.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid

Nigatu Kebede; Abebe Mitiku; Getachew Tilahun

2009-01-01

20

User-Fee Financing of USDA's Meat and Poultry Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report surveys the application of user-fees for financing meat and poultry inspection programs in other countries; reviews user-fee systems in other Federal agencies, particularly those with food and agricultural missions or regulatory responsibiliti...

F. Kuchler F. Lee J. Buzby J. MacDonald L. Aldrich

1999-01-01

21

A study of haptoglobin levels in groups of cattle and pigs with and without abnormalities at meat inspection.  

PubMed

A total of 96 bovines originating from 36 farms and 97 pigs from five farms were slaughtered in two multispecies abattoirs and subjected to official meat inspection and haptoglobin (Hp) testing using a single radial immunodiffusion method. No direct correlation between Hp level and specific postmortem abnormalities was found at individual cattle/pig level. However, at animal group level, the mean of Hp values (in both cattle and pigs) were statistically significantly higher in animals with abnormalities than in those without. The study indicated that the mean Hp value in groups of cattle or pigs can be useful as an overall objective indicator of the overall status of cattle/pig batches when analyzing the food chain information as a part of the antemortem inspection at abattoirs, but related specific Hp criteria are currently missing. Because of the large variability and nonspecific nature of Hp-related responses in cattle and pigs, establishing a single, reliable cutoff Hp value differentiating batches that may pose public health risks does not appear as a realistic approach presently. Rather, establishing wider, unsatisfactory/marginal/satisfactory ranges of batch-based Hp values indicating general appropriateness of the cattle/pigs source appears more promising. For that, wider Hp baseline studies are necessary at abattoir. PMID:21682593

Blagojevic, Bojan; Antic, Dragan; Ducic, Miroslav; Buncic, Sava

2011-10-01

22

User-Fee Financing of USDA Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) finances about 13.5 percent of its budget outlays through user fees for overtime and unscheduled meat and poultry inspections. User fees play an increasingly important role in financing government programs, and FSIS has frequently requested expanded authority to charge user fees for more of its operations. Congress has consistently rejected the FSIS requests

James M. MacDonald; Fred Kuchler; Jean C. Buzby; Fitzroy Lee; Lorna M. Aldrich

1999-01-01

23

Hydatidosis of sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October\\u000a 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine\\u000a meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid\\u000a cysts were

Kebebe Erbeto; Girma Zewde; Bersissa Kumsa

2010-01-01

24

Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between\\u000a 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating\\u000a to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P?

Nma Bida Alhaji

2011-01-01

25

Bovine fetal wastage in Southwestern Nigeria: a survey of some abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant\\u000a animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation\\u000a of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection\\u000a records was

Simeon I. B. Cadmus; Hezekiah K. Adesokan

2010-01-01

26

Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis.  

PubMed

Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat inspectors and researchers were estimated without the assumption of an available gold standard. The Se for the regular meat inspection was found to be 0.92, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.49 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Se for the researchers was found to be 0.81, 0.96, 0.91 and 0.68 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Sp for the regular meat inspection was found to be between 0.98 and 1.00 for the four categories. The Sp for the researchers was found to be 0.83, 0.94, 0.76 and 0.99 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The low Se of ordinary meat inspection for parasitic, intestinal and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. PMID:20132995

Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Jan Tind

2010-05-01

27

[Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].  

PubMed

An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely. PMID:20033872

Häsler, S

2010-01-01

28

Small/Very Small Plant Guide. Applying for a Federal Grant of Inspection for Meat and Poultry Establishments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Meat inspection became law under the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906, which requires inspection of red meat products sold in interstate and foreign commerce. The Act established strict sanitation requirements for plants and calls for examination of al...

2006-01-01

29

Meat inspection in the Australian red-meat industries: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Postmortem inspection of carcases and offal has been a cornerstone of consumer protection in the red-meat industry for over a century. In 2011, there began strong moves to reform the traditional process of meat inspection applied to cattle, sheep and goats in Australia. A major motivation was the widespread acceptance that organoleptic inspection does little to control the most important hazards in meat products - microbial pathogens derived from gut flora. The watershed reforms in international trade provided another incentive by encouraging the application of a risk-based approach to food safety, which allows for the discontinuation of processes that do not enhance public health outcomes. As well, there was a strong imperative to ensure that resources allocated to quality assurance delivered maximum economic benefit for both consumers and processors. This review discusses how the role of meat inspection is likely to evolve into the future under the influence of these forces. It summarises how the current system was derived through repeated modification over time, mainly to satisfy the requirements of trading partners. Major developments are summarised, focusing especially on how the inclusion of particular organoleptic techniques was initially justified and the relevance of these to modern meat production. Overall, analysis of past and present practices suggests that in the future both public health and efficiency will be better served by strategically integrating the most effective elements of traditional organoleptic inspection with information from the preslaughter period and the use of modern technology for rapid and accurate detection of hazards. PMID:22928685

Webber, Jj; Dobrenov, B; Lloyd, J; Jordan, D

2012-09-01

30

Occupational Education for Meat Inspection and Laboratory Animal Caretaker Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine educational requirements and opportunities for employment, 60 representatives of animal laboratories and meat inspection agencies were interviewed in a 30-county area in northern Illinois. The chi-square test, analysis of variance test, and Pearson product moment correlation were utilized to conclude that: (1) Substantial…

Mayer, Leon Albert

31

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

2013-01-01

32

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

2013-10-01

33

Hydatidosis of slaughtered cattle in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle. Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 74 visceral organ were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. The infection of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were found to be 45.94% 45.94%, 6.75% and 1.35% respectively. From the total of 283 hydatid cysts counted 153(54.06%), 17(6.00%), 5(1.76%), 108(38.16%) were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 170(60.28%), 5(1.76%) and 108(38.16%) were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung. Hydatid cyst viability rate of 40% was observed. PMID:18787969

Kebede, Nigatu; Mekonnen, Habtamu; Wossene, Abebe; Tilahun, Getachew

2009-04-01

34

Analysis of the variation in meat inspection of pigs using variance partitioning.  

PubMed

According to legal regulations, all slaughtered pigs in the European Union are subject to routine meat inspection at the slaughterhouses. The resulting post-mortem findings are valuable indicators that help improve slaughterhouse and farm management and can be used to establish a feedback system regarding animal health. A sufficiently high quality of meat inspection is therefore imperative, which implies that the results of the inspection must not depend on the person carrying out the examination. The objective of the study at hand is the estimation of the amount of variation in these post-mortem findings that can be attributed to the official meat inspectors. In order to reduce the influence of the heterogeneity in the health state of the pigs, the variation due to the farms of origin was considered in the statistical model as well. The analyzed meat inspection data were recorded by 12 official meat inspectors under real working conditions at an Austrian slaughterhouse. Logistic Multilevel Models with cross-classified random effects were applied to 20 post-mortem findings. On the basis of these models, variance partitioning coefficients (VPCs) were used to estimate the amount of variation in the probabilities of these findings due to meat inspector and farm levels. The estimated VPCs suggest that especially meat inspection of blood aspiration, scalding water lungs, skin lesions and hepatitis can be deemed as not sufficiently standardized. Hardly any variation in meat inspection could be identified for other post-mortem findings, such as pericarditis, peritonitis, arthritis and milkspots. PMID:23809773

Schleicher, C; Scheriau, S; Kopacka, I; Wanda, S; Hofrichter, J; Köfer, J

2013-09-01

35

Some Causes of Organ and Carcass Condemnations in Ostriches Slaughtered at the Only Ostrich Abattoir in Zimbabwe from 1999-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Zimbabwe for the period 1999-2005. Records of meat inspection available at the single ostrich abattoir in Zimbabwe were used in this study. The number of ostriches slaughtered for the whole study period was 55 957. The total number of ostriches slaughtered decreased by 84.8%

S. Mukaratirwa; B. M. Dzoma; C. Matongo; M. Nyahuma

2009-01-01

36

A review of some animal diseases encountered at meat inspections in England and Wales, 1969 to 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condemnation of meat and offal in 65 selected abattoirs in England and Wales is reviewed. Returns cover about 14 per cent of animals slaughtered for food. In the decade under review, a marked reduction in losses caused by fascioliasis was noted in cattle and sheep, while other parasitic conditions show no decrease. Abscesses continue to be substantial cause of loss

RV Blamire; RH Goodhand; KC Taylor

1980-01-01

37

Hydatidosis: Prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997–2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence

A. Getaw; D. Beyene; D. Ayana; B. Megersa; F. Abunna

2010-01-01

38

Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.  

PubMed

Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects. PMID:22063958

Leps, J; Fries, R

2009-01-01

39

A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Shiraz, Iran, based on abattoir data during 1999–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat inspection records in an abattoir located in Shiraz, a city in southwest Iran and the capital of Fars province, during a 5-year period from 20 March 1999 to 19 March 2004 were used to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in sheep, cattle, and goats in the region. A total of 844,039 animals (cattle 131,716; sheep 577,090; goats 135,233) slaughtered

Maryam Ansari-Lari

2005-01-01

40

A retrospective survey of liver fluke disease in livestock based on abattoir data in Shiraz, south of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat-inspection records in an abattoir located in the Fars province (southern part of Iran) from 20 March 1999 to 19 March 2004 were used to determine the prevalence and long-term trend of liver fluke disease in sheep, cattle and goats in the region. A total of 844,039 animals (cattle 131,716; sheep 577,090; goats 135,233) slaughtered in the 5-year period and

Maryam Ansari-Lari; Mohammad Moazzeni

2006-01-01

41

Hydatidosis of sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid cysts were found in 206 (19.94%) and 102 (16%) of the sheep and goats inspected, respectively. Statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the two species. Likewise, there was significant difference in infection rates between the two sexes and different age groups in both sheep and goats (P < 0.5). The study showed that hydatidosis is prevalent in Ethiopia. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures to minimize the rate of infection and reduce the ensuing economic losses. PMID:19911295

Erbeto, Kebebe; Zewde, Girma; Kumsa, Bersissa

2010-06-01

42

Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar Abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was conducted from May 2005 to December 2006 in Bahir Dar Abattoir to assess the current status of hydatidosis in cattle and sheep. Hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted based on routine meat inspection. Of the total 420 cattle and 340 sheep slaughtered in Bahir Dar Abattoir 143 (34.05%) and 36 (10.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts respectively. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 202 and 54 visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts in cattle and sheep respectively. Differences in prevalence rates between the two species of animals were highly significant (P < 0.001). The infection of the lung, liver, kidney, spleen and heart were found to be 57.9% , 36.6% , 3% , 1.5% , 1% in cattle and 50%, 48.1% and 1.9% in sheep respectively. From the total of 864 in cattle and 138 in sheep hydatid cysts counted 315 (36.4%), 268 (31.0%), 65 (7.5%), 216 (25.0%) in cattle and 92 (66.7%), 20 (14.5%), 1 (0.7%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 484 (56.0%), 164 (18.9%), 216 (25%) in cattle and 35 (25.4%), 78 (56.5%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. Viability rates of 62.2% in cattle and 78.2% in sheep were observed. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung for both cattle and sheep. PMID:19052901

Kebede, Nigatu; Mitiku, Abebe; Tilahun, Getachew

2009-01-01

43

Herd-related risk factors for decubital ulcers present at post-mortem meat-inspection of Danish sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified risk factors for the prevalence of decubital ulcers (noted in meat-inspection records) in the shoulder region of Danish cull sows. The potential risk factors (herd-owner characteristics, production facilities and management) were obtained through telephone interviews based on a questionnaire. Meat-inspection records were obtained from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council (DBMC). The prevalence of decubital ulcers was investigated

A. Cleveland-Nielsen; P. Bækbo; A. K. Ersbøll

2004-01-01

44

Speech input system for meat inspection and pathological coding used thereby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat inspection is one of exclusive and important jobs of veterinarians though it is not well known in general. As the inspection should be conducted skillfully during a series of continuous operations in a slaughter house, development of automatic inspecting systems has been required for a long time. We employed a hand-free speech input system to record the inspecting data because inspecters have to use their both hands to treat the internals of catles and check their health conditions by necked eyes. The data collected by the inspectors are transfered to a speech recognizer and then stored as controlable data of each catle inspected. Control of terms such as pathological conditions to be input and their coding are also important in this speech input system and practical examples are shown.

Abe, Shozo

45

The abattoir condemnation of meat because of parasitic infection, and its economic importance: results of a retrospective study in north-eastern Iran.  

PubMed

In nine districts in the north of Khorasan province, in north-eastern Iran, a 5-year retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalences, in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs, of the parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of the animals' carcasses and viscera (and the economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal). Between 20 March 2005 and 19 March 2010, 436,620 animals (45,360 cattle, 275,439 sheep, 115,674 goats and 147 camels) were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 30,207 (6.9%), the lungs of 23,259 (5.3%) and the carcasses of 1072 (0.2%) of these animals were condemned. Almost all (92.4%) of the condemned livers, most (68.9%) of the condemned lungs but only 10.8% of the condemned carcasses were rejected because of parasitic infection. The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica and/or Dicrocoelium dendriticum (cattle, sheep and goats) or entirely to E. granulosus (camels). All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs (which also came from cattle, sheep, goats and camels) were attributed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis cysts and/or Taenia cysticerci were found in ovine muscle while only Taenia cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle (no parasitic lesions were observed in the muscles of the goats and camels). Parasites were responsible for 80.8% of the condemned organs or carcasses, and the value of the food lost because of parasite-related condemnation (based on market prices in 2010) was estimated to be U.S.$421,826 (U.S.$47,980 for cattle, U.S.$316,344.0 for sheep, U.S.$57,372 for goats and U.S.$130 for camels). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and muscles were E. granulosus (52.2%) and D. dendriticum flukes (29.5%). These parasites clearly remain too common and cause considerable economic loss in Khorasan and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:21144183

Borji, H; Parandeh, S

2010-12-01

46

Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing  

PubMed Central

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

47

Risk assessment of organoleptic postmortem inspection procedures for pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic quantification of foodborne hazards in abnormal and normal tissues of pig carcases was undertaken to provide a risk-based assessment of the effectiveness of traditional organoleptic meat inspection. A total of 36,059 pigs, representing all major pig-producing areas and systems in Australia, were inspected on a seasonal basis at three abattoirs over 12 months. The prevalence of grossly detectable

A. M. Pointon; V. Kolega; S. C. Hathaway

2000-01-01

48

Bovine fetal wastage in Southwestern Nigeria: a survey of some abattoirs.  

PubMed

As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection records was carried out with a view to determining the level of fetal wastage in this part of the country. A total of 321,448 cows were slaughtered, out of which, 16,092 (5.01%) were pregnant. The fetal wastages across the four seasons of the study period were statistically significant (P < 0.05); the late dry season showing the highest percentage. There was a downward trend across the years, and this was considerably lower in 2007 than the other 2 years which were not statistically different from each other (X (A2005) = 224.33; X (A2006) = 216.38; X (B2007) = 126.38). Our results indicated a considerable level of slaughtering of pregnant cows in the abattoirs studied. Hence, we advocate stepping up routine veterinary checks and interventions among trade animals in order to salvage the high level of fetal wastage in the region and the country at large. PMID:19821049

Cadmus, Simeon I B; Adesokan, Hezekiah K

2010-04-01

49

76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety...establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The...Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The...

2011-12-28

50

Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P<0.05) high during the early rainy season (April to June). There was no significant difference observed across the years. The economic impact of the wastage is estimated at N8, 353,800.00 ($56,828.57) which is a great loss to the livestock industry. With these findings, there is the need to advocate for adequate enforcement of legislations on routine veterinary examinations at the slaughter houses in Nigeria. Also, livestock owners should be educated on the seasonal breeding patterns of cattle in order to avoid selling cows during the calving season to salvage high level of calf foetal wastage. PMID:21080227

Alhaji, Nma Bida

2011-03-01

51

Q fever vaccination in Queensland abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of Q fever continue to be recorded in abattoirs despite a protective vaccine being available. All accredited abattoirs in Queensland were surveyed to ascertain the number that conducted Q fever vaccination programs. Only ten of the 30 abattoirs had vaccination pro- grams. Vaccination programs were present at all abattoirs with more than 360 employees. Thirty-seven per cent of abattoir

Morton Bell; Mahomed Patel; John Sheridan

52

Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.  

PubMed

The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment. PMID:1146147

Watson, W A

1975-04-26

53

An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.  

PubMed

Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that informal slaughter can prejudice livestock welfare. It was concluded that the current situation is not acceptable in terms of meat safety. Thus, the Veterinary Public Health Directorate of the National Veterinary Services has prioritised the monitoring of butchers, registration of slaughter slabs and a general extension campaign to improve hygiene and animal welfare standards for slaughter in Lesotho. This paper highlights the major risks associated with meat consumption without Veterinary Public Health intervention in accordance with international standards. PMID:20458865

Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

2009-12-01

54

Hydatidosis: prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997-2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence of the parasite during this period. A total of 1152 ruminants (852 cattle, 92 sheep and 208 goats) were inspected following slaughter. Hydatidosis was prevalent in 46.8% cattle, 29.3% sheep, and 6.7% goats. In cattle, 326 (55.2%) of the lung, 219 (37.1%) of the liver, 21 (3.6%) of the spleen, 15 (2.5%) of the heart and 10 (1.7%) of the kidney were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. In sheep, hydatid cysts were recovered from 22 (55.0%) of the lung, 16 (40.0%) of the liver and 2 (5.0%) of the spleen while none of the heart and kidney were recorded positive. In goats, the degree of infection was 6 (33.3%) of lung, 10 (55.6%) of liver, 1 (5.6%) of spleen and kidney each. According to the retrospective data, a total of 107,333 cattle were slaughtered and during this period 13,519 of the liver, 18,304 of the lung, 1142 of the kidneys, 537 of the hearts and 150 of the spleens were found to be infected with hydatidosis. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir was estimated to be to 52,828 ETB (5869.8 USD). The current results suggest that a thorough investigation that leads to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of hydatidosis. PMID:19883622

Getaw, A; Beyene, D; Ayana, D; Megersa, B; Abunna, F

2010-03-01

55

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

2011-07-01

56

Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

57

Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.  

PubMed

Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

2007-04-01

58

Pathogen Control in Meat and Poultry Production: Implementing the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service’s Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foodborne illness is the major public health concern for both the meat and the poultry industries in the United States and\\u000a the U.S. Department of Agriculture” Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), the agency that regulates the industry. FSIS\\u000a introduced the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Program as a means to allow flexibility in process design\\u000a and control

Moshe S. Dreyfuss; Gerri M. Ransom; Kristina E. Barlow; Denise R. Eblen; Parmesh K. Saini; Nisha D. O. Antoine; Bonnie E. Rose; Mindi D. Russell; Katrine M. Pritchard; Celine A. Nadon; Gerald W. Zirnstein

59

Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.  

PubMed

Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

2013-05-01

60

A further survey of neoplasms in abattoir sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractIn a previous communication (Webster, 1966) it was reported that, in the course of official routine meat inspection at a large meat export works during the 1964 and 1965 killing seasons, unprecedented numbers of tumours had been found in aged ewes.

W. M. Webster

1967-01-01

61

Bayesian network as an aid for Food Chain Information use for meat inspection.  

PubMed

Current ante mortem inspection involves a check of relevant Food Chain Information (FCI) transmitted by the farmer to the slaughterhouse on a regulatory FCI document. Since 2000, a farm sanitary form with FCI data has been used for all consignments of broiler chickens in France. However, the FCI needs to be standardized for the collection and interpretation of data. A study was conducted to develop an expert system, undertaken to elaborate on a simple decision support system capable of predicting whether the flocks will present a high condemnation risk, based on FCI. For this, 'optimal' (i.e. on-farm survey data) and 'worthy' (i.e. farmers' declaration on existing farm sanitary form) data quality conditions were considered to estimate the lower and upper reference bounds of the confidence that the decision-makers could have in such a tool. Chicken broiler flocks (404) were randomly selected in 15 slaughterhouses located in Western France in 2005. Condemnation proportion and farm sanitary form were collected for each selected flock. Information about health history and technical performances were also specifically collected on farm. Condemnation risk category was modelled from the on-farm collected information, using a Bayesian network and assuming this represented the optimal data quality conditions. Corresponding information declared by the farmer on the existing farm sanitary form was secondly used in the network to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty of such information on the condemnation classification obtained with the expert system. The learnt Bayesian network had 16 explanatory variables pertaining to technical characteristics and sanitary features of the flock. Using a threshold of 1% of condemned carcases to define high risk, the network sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 93%, respectively, corresponding to positive and negative predictive values of 70% and 87%. When declared existing information was used in the network, the sensitivity and specificity were 16% and 96%, respectively, corresponding to positive and negative predictive values of 57% and 80%. Results suggested that the predictive network developed may be insufficient for correctly classifying chicken flocks for targeting of management procedures, and in its current form, the expert system may be unlikely to be implemented in the field. However, it could help to improve the standardization of both form design and FCI interpretation at a national level. PMID:23044473

Lupo, C; Le Bouquin, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Péraste, J; Petetin, I; Colin, P; Jouffe, L; Chauvin, C

2013-04-01

62

A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions. Results A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung (“Rule of Tens”). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference. Conclusions The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors.

2014-01-01

63

Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.  

PubMed

Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, p<0.001). These results open new possibilities for the assessment of animal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality. PMID:19395045

Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

2009-10-01

64

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 ...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule...

2009-01-01

65

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 ...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Mule Meat and Animal Food, Mule...

2010-01-01

66

Issues Impacting the Development of Risk-Based Inspection at Meat and Poultry Processing Establishments. Audit Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), began the process of developing a risk-based inspection program that would assign more inspection resources at processing establishments that posed a greater fo...

2007-01-01

67

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2013-02-01

68

Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product ...

69

Survey of cattle fascioliasis in Tsuyama Abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of fascioliasis in slaughtered cattle in order to provide breeders with\\u000a feedback which may prevent cattle fascioliasis, as well as human fascioliasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The results of meat inspection and the information extracted from the Discriminative Data Base on Individual Livestock in\\u000a Japan were analyzed statistically in 6,224 cattle slaughtered at the

Masahiko Kato; Yasuyuki Murakami; Motota Shimizu; Hideki Yamamoto; Yumi Yonemoto; Ken-ichi Ishii; Shohei Kira

2005-01-01

70

A note on the frequency of gastric ulcers detected during post-mortem examination at a pig abattoir.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in using findings from post-mortem meat inspection as indicators of on-farm and preslaughter animal welfare. This study considered whether oesophago-gastric ulcers might be a useful feature in pigs. The stomachs of 9827 finishing pigs from 60 farms were examined to provide an estimate of the frequency of oesophago-gastric ulcers in England. Stomachs were graded using a four-point scale ranging from normal, hyperkeratotic, eroded or ulcerated with or without stenosis. Over 79% of stomachs had either an oesophago-gastric ulcer or visible pre-ulcerative changes, including hyperkeratosis of the epithelium lining the pars oesophagea. The frequency of severe ulceration (Grade 3) was 6%, and mild ulcers (Grades 1 and 2) 73%. There was a significantly higher frequency of oesophago-gastric lesions in the groups of pigs that were held at the abattoir overnight, compared with those slaughtered on the day of arrival. This could have been due to the combined effect of overnight fasting plus stress in an unfamiliar environment. However, the exact fasting times of the animals were unknown and so it was not possible to provide a precise assessment of the effect of feed withdrawal. PMID:21733635

Swaby, H; Gregory, N G

2012-01-01

71

Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs.  

PubMed

Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was determined through meat juice ELISA (MJE), and the health conditions were assessed by postmortem inspection. The final dataset contained 873 slapmarks, with an average of 215 samples tested by MJE, and 355 pigs that were assessed for health conditions, per slapmark. Each of the health assessment conditions was individually analysed by regression models to investigate associations with the MJE results, accounting for clustering at the slapmark level and also for seasonality. A multivariable model was also used to estimate the strength of association with MJE results when all the health conditions were entered into the model. The results showed positive associations between Salmonella and enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, milk spots, peritonitis and pericarditis. PMID:21493572

Smith, R P; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Cook, A J C; Edwards, S A

2011-03-01

72

Bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir, Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026

Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B

2008-01-01

73

Novel approach for detecting prohibited species-specific central nervous system tissue contamination in meat by one-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.  

PubMed

The dissemination of prohibited species-specific central nervous system (CNS) tissue contamination in meat must be tracked to mitigate human health risk associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The efficiency of compliance monitoring and risk control measures taken by concerned regulatory authorities at meat production facilities to avoid such contamination depends on the ability to detect CNS tissue with a reliable and adequately sensitive quantitative method. A rapid and convenient one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed based on the absolute quantification of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA as a marker for CNS tissue contamination in meat. The GFAP RNA quantity corresponding to a percentage of CNS tissue in artificially spiked meat was determined using an appropriate in vitro transcribed target GFAP RNA as a calibration standard in the assay. The assay had a linear dynamic range of 10(2) to 10(9) copies of target RNA and was able to detect 0.01% CNS contamination in meat. Further evaluation consisted of an analysis of 272 random meat cuts from carcasses and 109 ground meat samples received from a federally inspected abattoir and two meat processing facilities, respectively, over a 5-month period. The analyzed samples were all negative for CNS tissue contamination at an arbitrarily set lower threshold of 0.025%. Overall, the newly developed one-step qRT-PCR may be useful as an objective quantitative compliance monitoring tool and for setting an acceptable low tolerance threshold for such contamination in meat. PMID:19517735

Nagarajan, M M; Longtin, D; Simard, C

2009-05-01

74

Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria - 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brucellosis, a neglected debilitating zoonosis, is a recognized occupational hazard with a high prevalence in developing countries. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected animals or animal products. Brucellosis presents with fever. In Nigeria, there is a possibility of missed diagnoses by physicians leading to a long debilitating illness. We conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with Human Brucellosis (HB) among abattoir-workers in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and selected abattoir-workers using stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics and exposure-factors. We tested the workers’ serum-samples using Rose-Bengal (RBPT) and ELISA tests. A worker with HB was one whose serum tested positive to RBPT or ELISA. We tested differences in proportions between workers with HB and those without HB using odds-ratio and X2 tests. Results Of 224 workers, 172 (76.8%) were male and mean age was 30 + 9.0 years. Of 224 sera collected, 54 were positive giving a seroprevalence of 24.1%. Of these, 32 (59.3%) were butchers, and 11 (20.4%) were meat-sellers. Slaughtering animals while having open-wounds (Odds-ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.15-4.04); occupational-exposure of >5years (OR = 2.30, CI = 1.11-4.78) and eating raw meat (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.21-6.26) were significantly associated with HB. Multivariate analyses showed that occupational-exposure of >5years (Adjusted OR (AOR) =2.45, CI = 1.15 – 5.30) and eating raw-meat (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.14 - 6.14) remained significantly associated with HB. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HB among abattoir-workers in Abuja was high. Factors associated with HB were occupational-exposure of >5years and eating raw-meat. Abattoir-workers should be discouraged from eating raw-meat and educated on adherence to safe animal-product handling practices.

Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Kwaga, Jacob; Fasina, Folorunso; Lazarus, David; Suleman, Idris; Poggensee, Gabrielle; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter

2013-01-01

75

Meats and Meat Cookery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

76

Electronic Inspection of Beef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

1987-01-01

77

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305.4...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

78

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

79

9 CFR 354.140 - Forms of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Forms of inspection certificates. 354.140 Section...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

80

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

81

9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Refusal of inspection. 381.21 Section 381.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

82

Color of Meat and Poultry  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... many questions received at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Hotline concerning the color of ...

83

A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs.  

PubMed

The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13%) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. PMID:21247016

Spencer, B T; Veary, C M

2010-06-01

84

A manpower planning decision support system for MQM Meat Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

MQM Meat Services is a New Zealand government agency carrying out meat inspection throughout New Zealand. Owing to legislative changes the agency is moving towards competing in a contestable environment. This paper describes a planning model that was developed to help the agency's regional centre at Ruakura decide on staffing levels for service delivery to 14 meat plants. Each meat

Chuda Basnet; Paul Ellison

1998-01-01

85

Structural Change in Meat Demand: The End of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat consumption patterns have changed in the United States. A cursory inspection of the disappearance statistics for meat in the United States reveals that generally, the consumption of red meats has decreased or remained constant while the consumption of poultry and other meats has increased. Economists have had only modest success in developing cogent explanations for these changed consumption patterns,

Stanley R. Johnson

1987-01-01

86

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381.72 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

87

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent. 381.70...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

88

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

89

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304.2...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

90

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

91

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109 Section...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

92

9 CFR 352.19 - Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection and applicable requirements. 352...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

93

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section 381...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

94

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection. 354.123 Section 354.123 ...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

95

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354.122 ...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

96

9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and the slaughter plant must be approved to export poultry meat and other poultry products...processed, the poultry meat or other poultry products...inspected processing plant that is under the direct... (c) The poultry meat or other poultry...

2009-01-01

97

9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and the slaughter plant must be approved to export poultry meat and other poultry products...processed, the poultry meat or other poultry products...inspected processing plant that is under the direct... (c) The poultry meat or other poultry...

2010-01-01

98

Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

2009-12-01

99

Diversity of culturable psychrophilic and psychrotrophic anaerobic bacteria isolated from beef abattoirs and their environments.  

PubMed

This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., -1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765

Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J; McDowell, D A; Sheridan, J J

2011-07-01

100

Using national microbiological data to set meaningful performance criteria for slaughter and dressing of animals at Australian export abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slaughter establishments in Australia that export meat to the USA are required by the controlling authority, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS), to test carcases under the Escherichia coli and Salmonella monitoring (ESAM) program and to use statistical process control techniques to ensure meat is produced hygienically. However, analysing the ESAM database for E. coli using standard statistical techniques

Paul Vanderlinde; Ian Jenson; John Sumner

2005-01-01

101

The effect of stunning method on the incidence of PSE meat and haemorrhages in pork carcasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercial pig abattoirs (A and B) equipped with a head-only and head-to-chest electrical stunning systems, and two (C and D) equipped with compact carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning systems, were visited during 3 days to evaluate the effects of the stunning system on meat quality and haemorrhages. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring muscle electrical conductivity (PQM) and colour (Minolta

A Velarde; M Gispert; L Faucitano; X Manteca; A Diestre

2000-01-01

102

48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chops, hamburger, are considered meats, not meat food products. (5) Bacon, smoked...specified herein. (2) Sausage and meat food products.* (i) This product...prepared in a federally inspected plant and bear the USDA...

2013-10-01

103

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%-38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%-8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%-14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%-66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%-19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?(2) = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3-7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats. PMID:23213629

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

104

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

105

9 CFR 94.21 - Importation of meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of...  

...from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. 94.21 Section...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from regions of undetermined risk for BSE. Meat, meat byproducts...from regions of undetermined risk for BSE, as defined in §...

2014-01-01

106

9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices. 381.204 Section...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

107

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance.

2014-01-01

108

[Legal regulations and practical application of studies of slaughtered game animals and their meat].  

PubMed

Meat regulations also involve game inspection. The previous publications on the one hand dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. On the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (Deer: Red deer, Sika deer, Fallow deer, Roe deer; Horned ungulates: European mouflon, Chamois; Wild boar; European hare; European rabbit; game such as Badger and Raccoon) and regulations to be observed by hunters, mainly for the gaining of meat were discussed. The recent publication regarded meat inspection (routine inspection) of slaughter game. The following publication deals with meat inspection (routine inspection) of game hunted for food and with meat inspection (additional inspection) of slaughtered game as well as game hunted for food. PMID:2617520

Hadlok, R M; Bert, F

1989-01-01

109

Electrolyzed oxidizing anode water as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing anode (EOA) water (oxidation-reduction potential, 1,120 mV; pH 2.0) as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs was compared with the iodophor (IOD) Mikroklene (25 ppm), a sanitizer approved for use by regulatory authorities in Canada and the United States. A total of 240 swab (100 cm2) samples were obtained from 4 sites on the kill floor and 16 sites in the secondary processing areas, during two visits within a 4-week period to each of three meat packing plants, processing < or =50 animals per week. Swabs were obtained 12 h after the application of IOD and EOA and were analyzed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and total Escherichia coli. Total aerobic bacteria (log CFU/ 100 cm2) recovered from the 20 sample sites were lower (P < 0.0001) in EOA as compared with IOD (2.94 +/- 0.12 versus 3.75 +/- 0.12, respectively). Plant A was 1.5 times more likely (P < 0.0001) to have a sampling site positive for the presence of coliforms and E. coli than plants B and C. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatment IOD or EOA in the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for the presence of total coliforms or E. coli among the three plants. When the kill floor and secondary processing areas are compared, the likelihood of obtaining a sample positive for coliforms or E. coli was similar (P > or = 0.05). Results indicate that EOA was more effective than IOD in reducing populations of total aerobic bacteria on equipment surfaces in the three meat packing plants studied. Because the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for coliforms or E. coli in EOA as compared with IOD was similar, EOA may be a suitable alternative or complement to IOD as a sanitizer in small- to medium-sized abattoirs. Additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOA to sanitize processing equipment on the basis of subsequent isolation of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli from meat products. PMID:16865895

Bach, S J; Jones, S; Stanford, K; Ralston, B; Milligan, D; Wallins, G L; Zahiroddini, H; Stewart, T; Giffen, C; McAllister, T A

2006-07-01

110

Molecular tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant.  

PubMed

The environment and products from an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant were sampled to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes. The organism was not detected in the pig carcasses prior to processing. Fresh and dry-cured pork did show detectable levels, always ranging below 100CFU per gram. A total of 163 L. monocytogenes isolates collected during one year were characterized by PCR-based serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) restriction analysis. Three predominant PFGE types or pulsotypes seemed to persist in the plant. The pulsotype S1 (serotype group 1/2a, 53% of the isolates) was mostly recovered from whole pieces of meat and environmental sites, while pulsotypes S2 (1/2a, 17%) and S4 (1/2b, 21%) were more frequently associated with ground pork products. The pulsotype S4 was also found in a grinding machine, suggesting a possible association of this machine with the contamination of the ground meat products. PMID:22062102

López, Victoria; Villatoro, David; Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Pilar; Navas, Jaime; Dávila, J Carlos; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

2008-01-01

111

Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

2014-01-01

112

Military Standard: Sanitary Standards for Meat Processing Plants in Overseas Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard establishes the general sanitary requirements for overseas area meat processing plants that do not have an active U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) foreign meat inspection program. This standard is intended to insure clean, wholesome foo...

1982-01-01

113

Spread of marker bacteria from the hides of cattle in a simulated livestock market and at an abattoir.  

PubMed

The spread of microbial contamination on the hides of beef was investigated at two stages in the meat chain: (i) in a simulated livestock market ("the market") using 33 animals, and (ii) in the unloading-to-skinning area of a commercial abattoir using 18 animals. At both stages, harmless bacterial markers (nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12; rifampicin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens; and a tetracycline-resistant E. coli) were inoculated on the hides of a small number of selected animals, and their transfer to other animals and the environment was examined. At the market, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide markers (9.1% in each phase) introduced in the presale pen, sale ring, and postsale pen changed to 39.4, 15.1, and 54.5%, respectively, by the end of the market process. In addition, widespread contamination of the market environment with the hide markers was observed. At the abattoir, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide marker (11.1%) inoculated at unloading increased to 100% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). In addition, another marker inoculated on environmental surfaces in lairage pens, races, and stunning box was detected on 83.3% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). These results, although obtained with a relatively small number of animals, demonstrate that both the livestock market process and the unloading-to-skinning process at abattoirs can facilitate the extensive spread of microbial contamination on hides not just within, but also between, batches of animals. PMID:15553619

Collis, V J; Reid, C-A; Hutchison, M L; Davies, M H; Wheeler, K P A; Small, A; Buncic, S

2004-11-01

114

Recent bruising in cattle at abattoirs.  

PubMed

In two surveys of a total of over 16,000 cattle carcases, animals from live auctions had more bruising and more meat rejected for bruising than animals from dealers and farms. The proportion of carcases with stick-markings was higher in market cattle (2.5 per cent) than in cattle from farms (0.9 per cent). The amount of bruising was much higher in animals which were stick-marked (35 per cent) than in the whole population surveyed (6.5 per cent). Young bulls had the lowest percentage of bruising and the least amount of meat rejected of all the categories of animals surveyed. There was less "important' bruising in animals travelling less than 50 miles from markets, but over 50 miles the amount of "important' bruising did not increase. However, the incidence of all bruising increased with the distance travelled and with the time the animal spent in the lairage. More than half the carcases surveyed (59 per cent) had some degree of bruising caused by preslaughter handling. The areas most frequently bruised were the butt and hip, loin, shoulder/foreleg and neck, hind leg and flank/brisket. The number of carcases with an ultimate pH (pHu) of over 5-8 and the average pHu of the muscle increased with the amount of carcase bruising. PMID:8650914

McNally, P W; Warriss, P D

1996-02-10

115

Red meat production and meat losses in Burkina Faso (1987-1997).  

PubMed

Based on monthly recorded data collected from 1987 to1997 in all official slaughter houses across the country, this study analyzes the trends of ruminant meat production and importance of meat condemnations by veterinary inspection in Burkina Faso. The average beef production per year is estimated at 6.717.5 + or - 2.969.1 tons, nd for small ruminant meat it is 8,715.5 + or - 4,161.3 tons. During the ten-year period (1987-1997) it appears that a large drop in production (up to 18%) occurred in 1994-1995 consistent with monetary devaluation. The average amount of red meat theoretiacally available for each inhabitant is estimated at 2.14 + or - 0.27 kg per year. Approximately 10 to 16 tons of diseased red meat is condemned every year by veterinary inspection. This is very important for a country where malnutrition and undernutrition is quasi endemic. PMID:11193701

Tamboura, H H; Kaboré, H

2000-01-01

116

Muscle and meat: new horizons and applications for proteomics on a farm to fork perspective.  

PubMed

Meat consumption is an important part of human diet with strong implications in health, economy and culture worldwide. Meat is a proteinaceous product and therefore proteomics holds a considerable value to the study of the protein events underlying meat production and processing. In this article we will review this subject in an integrated "farm to fork" perspective, i.e. focusing on all the major levels of the meat producing chain: farm, abattoir and transformation industry. We will focus on the use, importance and applications of proteomics, providing clear examples of the most relevant studies in the field. A special attention will be given to meat production, as well as quality control. In the latter, a particular emphasis will be given to microbial safety and the detection of frauds. PMID:23403256

Paredi, Gianluca; Sentandreu, Miguel-Angel; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Fadda, Silvina; Hollung, Kristin; de Almeida, André Martinho

2013-08-01

117

9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...  

...importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products...bovines from regions of negligible risk for BSE. Meat, meat...

2014-01-01

118

An abattoir-based study on the prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock in Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

A 6-year (2004-2010) retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock slaughtered in Mashhad abattoir, Mashhad, in north-eastern Iran and the capital of Khorasan province. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 5,131,485 animals (411,163 cattle; 4,547,618 sheep; 172,704 goats) were slaughtered in the study area and 388,399 (7.5%) livers and 1,139,529 (22.2%) lungs were discarded. Hydatidosis was responsible for 4% and 6.5% of total livers and lungs inspected, respectively. Of the cattle livers and lungs inspected over the survey period, 5.5% and 7.9% were condemned, respectively, because they held hydatid cysts. The corresponding values for livers and lungs of sheep (2%, 4%) and of goats (4.5%, 7.8%), respectively, were also condemned due to hydatidosis. Data showed a prominent seasonal pattern for hydatidosis. Liver condemnations due to hydatidosis were higher in winter and autumn for cattle and sheep, respectively, whereas lung condemnations were higher in summer for sheep and cattle. In goats, liver and lung condemnations were higher in winter. This could be attributed to various factors, such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21729380

Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A

2012-06-01

119

Causes and implications of bovine organs/offal condemnations in some abattoirs in Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Food animals though sources of protein and revenue to man, also serve as vehicles of disease transmission. This work reviews a three year record of slaughtered cattle in 12 abattoirs/slaughter slabs in western Nigeria to determine the economic and public health issues associated with their disease conditions. Out of 641,224 cattle slaughtered, 51,196 (7.98%) were attributable to 14 diseases/conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, fascioliasis, pimply gut, paramphistomosis, cysticercosis, dermatophilosis, tonsillitis, taeniasis, ascariosis, abscess, mange, mastitis and immature fetuses. Pneumonia (21.38%), fascioliasis (20.28%) and tuberculosis (7.95%) were major reasons for condemnations; least being ascariosis (0.01%). The lungs (45.66%) and liver (32.94%) accounted for most organ condemned while the heart (0.02%) was the least affected. The proportions of pneumonia, fascioliasis and immature fetuses observed were not statistically different (Mean = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3); however, a significant difference existed with other conditions (Mean(A) = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3; Mean(B) = 1359.7; 1057.7; 510.3). Organs/offal condemnations constituted loss of revenue and animal protein as 124,333 kilogrammes worth of meat valued in Naira at N41,613,043 ($332,904) was lost over the period giving an average of N13,871,014 ($110,968) annually. This, coupled with fetal wastage represented an economic loss; with associated public health implications. PMID:19333773

Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K

2009-10-01

120

FSIS Risk Assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in Deli Meats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This risk assessment was initiated in February 2002 in response to public comments on the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) proposed rule: Performance Standards for the Production of Processed Meat and Poultry Products (66 FR 12589, February 27, 2...

D. L. Gallagher E. D. Ebel J. R. Kause

2003-01-01

121

Incidence of aeromonads in samples from an abattoir processing lambs.  

PubMed

Two hundred and thirty three samples of lamb carcasses, livers, kidneys and faeces, collected at a local abattoir, were examined to determine the incidence of motile Aeromonas spp. Wash water from the abattoir was also tested. Direct plating on starch ampicillin agar and enrichment in alkaline peptone water were used. The incidence of aeromonads was low. They were detected only after enrichment in 5/47 faecal samples and 11/50 carcass samples. The 41 strains of Aeromonas isolated were identified to species level and 93% of them were able to grow at 5 degrees C. The ability to produce both haemolysin and enterotoxin was species-related and was more common in Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains than in A. caviae strains. PMID:2613594

Majeed, K N; Egan, A F; Mac Rae, I C

1989-12-01

122

Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%-31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%-19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G; Heuer, Cord

2014-02-01

123

Manual of Meat Processing Plants (Manual de Plantas Procesadoras de Carne).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual was prepared by specialists on meat inspection from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture as an aid in training inspectors for meat processing industries. It focuses on the sanitary aspects of meat work and follows the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recomm...

1980-01-01

124

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis\\u000a due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were

Fufa Abunna; Loma Asfaw; Bekele Megersa; Alemayehu Regassa

2010-01-01

125

Meat Preparation  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety Fact Sheets / Meat Preparation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

126

Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The

H. Gun; A. Yilmaz; S. Turker; A. Tanlasi; H. Yilmaz

2003-01-01

127

Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.  

PubMed

Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. PMID:16715811

Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; García-López, Isabel; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

2006-05-01

128

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were positive for fasciolosis. The most common liver fluke species affecting the cattle was Fasciola gigantica, 9.1% of cattle were infected with F. gigantica while, Fasciola. hepatica, mixed infections and unidentified or immature forms of Fasciola spp. were present in 3.2 %, 0.7% and 1 % of cattle, respectively. A retrospective abattoir survey revealed that the prevalence of fasciolosis was 12.7%. The prevalence of fasciolosis recorded in this study was lower than that reported by other researchers in this country. There was a strong relationship between fecal examination and postmortem findings of liver lesions, (K = 0.23) but under local conditions, postmortem examination was considered a better diagnostic tool for fasciolosis. Fasciolosis is of significant economic importance as the resultant liver condemnations caused an average loss of 4000 USD per annum. Hence, this disease deserves serious attention by the various stakeholders in order to promote the beef industry in the study area in particular and in the country in general. PMID:19680772

Abunna, Fufa; Asfaw, Loma; Megersa, Bekele; Regassa, Alemayehu

2010-02-01

129

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of related Escherichia coli O157 isolates associated with beef cattle and comparison with unrelated isolates from animals, meats and humans.  

PubMed

The pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) diversity of 51 related Escherichia coli O157 isolates, associated with beef cattle from a single-farm-to-single abattoir (SF-SA) chain of events was determined. The 51 related E. coli O157 isolates from hides, faeces or carcasses of SF-SA cattle produced 11 different PFGE profiles. Also, the PFGE diversity of 6 isolates, associated with a second cattle abattoir, was determined; only two PFGE profiles were found. On the other hand, the PFGE diversity of 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates (from healthy meat animals, retail meats and cases of human disease) was also determined. The 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates produced 78 different PFGE profiles, most of which (approximately 70%) comprised only one isolate. Overall, the results showed: (a) related E. coli O157 isolates (from both SF-SA events, and the second abattoir) had a markedly narrower clonal profile than the 136 unrelated E. coli O157 isolates; (b) the isolation of identical PFGE types from hide, lairage environment, and carcasses confirms the significance of cross-contamination (both pre-slaughter and during skinning) taking place at abattoirs; and (c) PFGE typing of isolates offers a good tool for tracking sources/routes of such cross-contamination. Such cross-contamination may lead to originally E. coli O157-free animals (and resultant carcasses) becoming contaminated during farm-slaughter-dressing chain of events, so development of efficient control strategies is required. PMID:15109793

Avery, S M; Liebana, E; Hutchison, M L; Buncic, S

2004-04-15

130

[Legal foundation and practical execution of slaughtering and meat examination of game animals].  

PubMed

Meat regulations also involve game inspection. On the one hand the previous publications dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. On the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: European mufflon, chamois; wild boar; European hare; European rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by hunters, mainly for the gaining of meat were discussed. At the beginning the following publication completes the previous ones concerning game hunted for food and later deals with the meat inspection of slaughtered game. PMID:2763282

Bert, F; Hadlok, R M

1989-01-01

131

Gross and histopathological studies on pulmonary lesions of camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of identifying types of gross and histopathological lesions in lungs of camels slaughtered between October 2009 and April 2010 at Addis Ababa abattoir enterprise, Ethiopia. All camels were originated from Borana and Kereyu areas. A total of 387 slaughtered camel lungs were inspected during the study period. Of which, one or more gross lesions were encountered on 300 lungs. Lesions were further subjected for detail gross and histopathological examinations. The occurrence of pulmonary lesions was 77.5%. The gross and histopathological examination of these lesions had revealed 60.2% emphysema, 21.2% hydatidosis, 18.6% pneumonia, 10.6% atelectasis, 4.9% aspiration of blood, 3.9% pneumoconiosis, 2.6% pulmonary edema and congestion, 1.6% abscess, 1% pleurisy, and 0.8% granulomatous pneumonia. Most camels had one or more pulmonary lesions on postmortem examination, but they were apparently healthy during antemortem inspection. Therefore, the prevailing stressful environmental condition coupled with the existing poor level of veterinary service in camel-rearing areas of the country might reverse these hidden inactive lesions and thereby contributed for the higher occurrence of respiratory diseases in camels. PMID:21909867

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Awol, Nesibu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Abie, Getnet

2012-04-01

132

Effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils was investigated under natural environment\\u000a in pot experiment at Ambrose Alli University Teaching and Research farm, Ekpoma, Nigeria. A composite soil sample was used\\u000a in the experiment. The soil was treated to seven rates of abattoir effluent (viz. 0, 25, 50, 100, 125 and 150 ml\\/kg soil).\\u000a The

Osadebamwen Ikpotokin Osemwota

2010-01-01

133

Radiographic Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment has several objectives which will familiarize the students with the use of a radiographic inspection system, the method of taking a radiograph, darkroom developing procedures, and inspection of a radiograph. The equipment consists of a Fax...

S. Sastri

1990-01-01

134

Inspection Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inspections of nuclear power plants make it possible to achieve and maintain high levels of plant reliability and availability. The Corporation is developing robots to perform inspection tasks. The benefits of robot use include maintaining higher surveill...

T. Takenaka T. Oya

1990-01-01

135

Lawful Inspections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sanitarian often spends much of his working day performing, reviewing, or supervising inspections. It is important that the sanitarian realize the legal implications of inspections and be prepared to perform them in accordance with the law. (RE)

Sikora, Vincent A.

1979-01-01

136

Radiographic inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This experiment has several objectives which will familiarize the students with the use of a radiographic inspection system, the method of taking a radiograph, darkroom developing procedures, and inspection of a radiograph. The equipment consists of a Faxitron model 8075 radiographic inspection system. Detailed step-by-step procedures are described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

137

Explaining Plant Exit in the U.S. Meat and Poultry Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent U.S. pathogen reduction and HACCP food safety regulations, which increased the costs of producing meat and poultry products, may have affected the rate of plant exit during the 1996 to early 2000 time period over which the regulations were implemented. We estimate and compare probit models for U.S. federally inspected meat slaughter (920 plants), poultry slaughter (280 plants), and

Mary K. Muth; Michael K. Wohlgenant; Shawn A. Karns; Donald W. Anderson

2003-01-01

138

Effect of method of analysis on iron content of beef from advanced meat recovery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted by the USDA, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to provide analytical data on meat obtained from beef cervical vertebrae processed by advanced meat recovery (AMR) systems. As a result, an added iron performance standard was proposed to limit the amount of marrow in AMR products. The performance standard was based on iron content of hand

W. R Windham; R. A Field

2000-01-01

139

A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.  

PubMed

A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697

Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

2012-10-01

140

Transmission of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pigs during transportation from farm to abattoir.  

PubMed

The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pigs at abattoirs is higher than in pigs sampled on farms. This study investigated whether MRSA negative pigs can become MRSA positive during transportation from the farm to the abattoir after exposure to other pigs and environmental sources of MRSA. Nasal swabs were collected from four batches of pigs during loading at the farm, on arrival at the abattoir and after stunning. Environmental wipes were taken from lorries after transporting pigs and from lairages after holding pigs. All pigs (n=117) tested MRSA negative before transportation. On arrival at the abattoir, 12/117 (10.3%) pigs in two batches tested MRSA positive. In lorries that tested positive after transportation, the prevalence of MRSA positive pigs was 21.1%, whereas no MRSA was detected in pigs that had been transported in lorries that tested negative after transportation. At stunning, all batches and 70/117 (59.8%) pigs tested MRSA positive. Pigs can become MRSA positive in the short period of time during transportation from the farm to stunning at the abattoir. PMID:20850359

Broens, Els M; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Van der Wolf, Peter J; Van de Giessen, Arjen W; De Jong, Mart C M

2011-09-01

141

Low shear meat analog  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for producing meat analog as well as formulations are disclosed. The novel production method uses a device designed to texturize the product while providing superior heat transfer for cooking. The device includes a helical compression conveyer with internal and external heating sources that delivers a high ratio of surface area for heat transfer to product volume. This results in the device being capable of heating of the emulsion volume as it is moved from the inlet to the outlet of the device to form a meat analog within the device in which the meat analog is formed in multiple segments to result in the meat analog having a defined surface texture.

2014-01-14

142

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

143

OSHA Inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requires that every worker be provided with a safe and healthful workplace and authorizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to conduct workplace inspections. OSHA conducts workplace inspections in hospitals and checks for compliance with the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, the Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis, and the

August J. Valenti; Michael D. Decker

1995-01-01

144

First-time detection of mycobacterium species from goats in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonosis affecting a wide range of hosts. An abattoir study was conducted on 1,536 randomly\\u000a selected male goats slaughtered at Modjo Modern Export Abattoir to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered\\u000a goats. Carcasses and organs of all the study animals were first examined by routine meat inspection followed by detailed meat\\u000a inspection. Samples from

Adem Hiko; Getahun Ejeta Agga

2011-01-01

145

Red meat plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A postal survey of a representative sample of UK red meat plants was undertaken during 1992 to collect data on average energy consumption and production. The survey covered sites that produced beef, pig meat and lamb products. The survey has shown that if...

1993-01-01

146

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

147

Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In

Naima Sahraoui; Borna Müller; Djamel Guetarni; Fadéla Boulahbal; Djamel Yala; Rachid Ouzrout; Stefan Berg; Noel H Smith; Jakob Zinsstag

2009-01-01

148

Impact of abattoir wastes based on some physicochemical parameters on Woji Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the environmental and health impacts of abattoir wastes due to unhygienic disposal methods and inadequate slaughtering facilities as it affects some physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Woji Creek and its environs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study involved the choice of five sampling stations for two different seasons: wet and dry. Standard

Umunnakwe Johnbosco Emeka; Solomon A. Braide; Alex C. Chindah

2009-01-01

149

Current research in meat color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveyed recent literature focused on factors that affect myoglobin chemistry, meat color, pigment redox stability, and methodology used to evaluate these properties. The appearance of meat and meat products is a complex topic involving animal genetics, ante- and postmortem conditions, fundamental muscle chemistry, and many factors related to meat processing, packaging, distribution, storage, display, and final preparation for

R. A. Mancini; M. C. Hunt

2005-01-01

150

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness is reviewed, where the meat structural origin of variation in meat tenderness is tried to be elucidated. Processes, such as rigor development and ageing, known to influence the properties of the structural components, is covered, and variables that influence those processes, such as chilling, electrical stimulation and stress ante-mortem, are discussed. Meat tenderness can be

E. Tornberg

1996-01-01

151

Meat sharing for coalitional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review hypotheses about why hunters share meat, and I use quantitative data on meat transfers between households of Achuar, Quichua, and Zapara speakers in Conambo, an indigenous community of horticultural foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to test them. I show that meat is distributed to political allies in Conambo and argue that meat is strategically transferred

John Q. Patton

2005-01-01

152

Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry\\/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full

John Sumner; Geoff Raven; Rod Givney

2004-01-01

153

9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (f) Data...biological product in meat animals is not likely...concerning each group of meat animals involved prior...commission firm or abattoir. (h) Any...

2010-01-01

154

9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (f) Data...biological product in meat animals is not likely...concerning each group of meat animals involved prior...commission firm or abattoir. (h) Any...

2009-01-01

155

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

156

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

157

Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain  

PubMed Central

Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n?=?49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n?=?56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004–November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 21–55 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–26.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.5–68.5), and worked within 0–10 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–80.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFN?) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0.001). Discussion This novel polyradiculoneuropathy was associated with removing porcine brains with compressed air. An autoimmune mechanism is supported by higher levels of IFN? in cases than in controls consistent with other immune mediated illnesses occurring in association with neural tissue exposure. Abattoirs should not use compressed air to remove brains and should avoid procedures that aerosolize CNS tissue. This outbreak highlights the potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting.

Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

2010-01-01

158

Chemical safety of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

2010-09-01

159

Ofsted Inspected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most radical actions one can take is to describe, without exaggeration or bias, exactly what is happening. The author has been reading the "Handbook for the inspection of further education and skills from September 2009." The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills' (Ofsted's) new handbook promises a "fresh…

Coffield, Frank

2009-01-01

160

Microbiological contamination of cattle and pig carcasses at five abattoirs determined by swab sampling in accordance with EU Decision 2001\\/471\\/EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 800 cattle carcasses (abattoir A: n=200; B: n=150; C: n=150; D: n=150, E: n=150) and 650 pig carcasses (abattoir A: n=200; B: n=150; C: n=150; D: n=150) were examined at five Swiss abattoirs with an annual slaughtering capacity >10 million kg. Weekly, 10 cattle and 10 pig carcasses were sampled at four sites by the wet–dry double

C. Zweifel; D. Baltzer; R. Stephan

2005-01-01

161

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products § 319.260 Luncheon meat. âLuncheon Meatâ is a cured, cooked meat food product made from comminuted meat. Mechanically Separated (Species) may be used in...

2010-01-01

162

Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. PMID:22718334

Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E

2012-01-01

163

Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2012-07-01

164

Ratio between carcass-and skin-microflora as an abattoir process hygiene indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two abattoirs, each slaughtering both cattle and pigs, 100 cattle and 100 pigs were randomly selected and sampled. From each animal, two samples were taken: a) immediately after sticking of bovines or stunning of pigs, approximately 2000cm2 hide (cattle) or 1500cm2 skin (pigs) areas were sponge-swabbed; and b) at the end of slaughter line but before chilling, the same

B. Blagojevic; D. Antic; M. Ducic; S. Buncic

2011-01-01

165

Microbiological contamination of pig and cattle carcasses in different small-scale Swiss abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 750 pig carcasses and 535 cattle carcasses from 17 small-scale abattoirs were sampled by excision at four sites (pig: neck, belly, back, ham; cattle: neck, brisket, flank, rump). Samples were examined for total viable counts (TVC) and Enterobacteriaceae. Mean TVCs ranged from 2.4 to 4.2 log10CFUcm?2 on pig carcasses and from 2.7 to 3.8 log10CFUcm?2 on cattle

C. Zweifel; R. Fischer; R. Stephan

2008-01-01

166

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

167

Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

168

Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders recorded at postmortem inspection in white veal calves and associated risk factors.  

PubMed

The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of poor rumen development, presence of rumen plaques, rumen papillae hyperkeratinization, and abomasal lesions in veal calves and to investigate risk factors for their occurrence at the farm level. Within a wide cross-sectional study, a sample of 170 veal farms representative of the European veal meat production systems was considered in the 3 major producing countries (99 in the Netherlands, 47 in France, and 24 in Italy). An average of 59 ± 10 (SD) rumens and abomasa belonging to calves from a single batch per farm were inspected at the abattoir by trained observers to assess the incidence of these gastrointestinal disorders. Potential risk factors for their occurrence related to farm management, housing, and to the feeding plan were obtained by a questionnaire submitted to the stockperson. Prevalence of poor rumen development (almost no papillae present), rumen plaques, and hyperkeratinization were 60.4, 31.4, and 6.1% of rumens, respectively, whereas abomasal lesions in the pyloric area were recorded in 74.1% of abomasa. Independent variables related to the feeding system confirmed to be the main risk factors for the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders in veal calves. However, additional risk sources for each given problem were identified among housing and management variables. The provision of a low amount of solid feed (? 50kg of dry matter/head per cycle) was a relevant risk for rumen underdevelopment. Rumen wall alterations (plaques and hyperkeratinization) and abomasal lesions were instead associated with the administration of large quantities of solids (151-300 kg of dry matter/head per cycle) in calves receiving milk replacer during the entire fattening cycle. Among the types of solid feed, cereal grain acted as a preventive measure for low rumen development, whereas it was a risk factor for the occurrence of rumen plaques, papillae hyperkeratinization, and abomasal lesions. Some housing and management options adopted to improve veal calf welfare (i.e., higher space allowance and use of heating) were associated with lower risk for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21257054

Brscic, M; Heutinck, L F M; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; Stockhofe, N; Engel, B; Visser, E K; Gottardo, F; Bokkers, E A M; Lensink, B J; Cozzi, G; Van Reenen, C G

2011-02-01

169

[Erysipelas of the skin in fattening swine: assessment from the view of meat hygiene].  

PubMed

Nine pigs with acute erysipelas in skin manifestation have been subjected in 1998 to a bacteriological examination. Eight animals proved to have Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in muscles and/or organs. In the part of the well-defined rhomboid, bluish-red skin lesions, histology showed a disseminated acute vasculitis and a perivascular suppurating dermatitis and panniculitis. The actually valid Swiss Meat Inspection Ordinance which in case of erysipelas in skin manifestation requires only the elimination of the skin and admits the consumption of the meat, is not warrantable from the point of view of meat hygiene. PMID:10624152

Stephan, R; Sydler, T; Bürgi, E; König, M

1999-01-01

170

Top-to-Bottom Review. (Food Safety and Inspection Service). Preliminary Report. Volume 2. FSIS Regulatory Roles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review is part of the overall initiative of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to improve the safety of meat and poultry products and better protect consumers. It encompasses the Agency's regulatory roles, resource allocation, and organizat...

1995-01-01

171

Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

2014-09-01

172

Control of trichinellosis by inspection and farm management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of human trichinellosis by proper meat inspection is a classic example of successful veterinary public health measures. The microscopic methods which have been used for more than a century to test pigs for trichinae were intended to prevent human disease. However, the value of these relatively insensitive direct detection methods, including trichinoscopy and pooled sample digestion, was debated

F. van Knapen

2000-01-01

173

Pigs' aggressive temperament affects pre-slaughter mixing aggression, stress and meat quality.  

PubMed

Pre-slaughter stress has a negative impact on animal welfare and on meat quality. Aggressive behaviour when pigs are mixed together for transportation to, or on arrival at, the abattoir is an important factor in pre-slaughter stress. Aggressiveness of pigs varies between individuals in the population, and this study investigated its effects on stress and meat quality at slaughter. We mixed pigs at a young age to identify individuals of high (H) or low (L) aggressive temperament using the previously validated approach of lesion scoring. To contrast extremes of social stress single-sex groups of eight pigs were mixed according to their aggressiveness in HH, HL or LL combinations or left unmixed (U) prior to transport and slaughter (n = 271). Each treatment was replicated in at least two groups in each of four slaughter batches. Mixing per se had little effect, but mixed groups composed of aggressive pigs (HH) had more carcass skin lesions and higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter and had loin muscle samples with higher pH at 24 h, and lower redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) compared to the other treatments. Females had higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter, a more rapid decline in pH post-slaughter and greater lean content of meat. Lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels and meat pH were affected by the interaction of sex and treatment. Genetic factors, dam and sire line composition, and halothane locus (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1) genotype, also affected a number of production and meat quality parameters as expected. Additionally, 'commercially normal' levels of social stress were studied in four further slaughter batches with no manipulation of group composition (n = 313). In these pigs, the proportion of unfamiliar pigs and group size of lairage groups explained limited variation in lesion scores at slaughter, but earlier aggressiveness did not. High numbers of skin lesions on the carcass were associated with high levels of cortisol and lactate and low glucose at slaughter, but not with meat quality measures. When stress and meat quality measures were compared for all pigs, high lactate was associated with low early pH and high drip loss, while high cortisol and CK were associated with high pH at 24 h and changes in meat colour. In conclusion, mixing pigs of above average aggressiveness resulted in greater aggression and stress, and changes in meat quality parameters, consistent with the effects of pre-slaughter stress on muscle chemistry. PMID:22444048

D'Eath, R B; Turner, S P; Kurt, E; Evans, G; Thölking, L; Looft, H; Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Klont, R; Foury, A; Ison, S H; Lawrence, A B; Mormède, P

2010-04-01

174

Functionality of Poultry Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Functional foods are foods enriched with single ingredients, which influence 1 or more functions of the consumer in a favorable way, exceeding the effects of normal adequate nutrition. Consumers can expect health benefits from these products. The production of functional poultry meat is a promising future perspective, although the market share of such products will be small. The objective

M. A. Grashorn

2007-01-01

175

Dehydrated Fried Meat Cakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dehydrated hamburger cakes, pork sausage patties, fish cakes and the like may be prepared by the process. It may be reconstituted by hot water. The comminuted meat product is mixed with a starchy vegetable component such as corn meal. The product is prefr...

R. Buscemi J. M. Tuomy

1964-01-01

176

Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.  

PubMed

The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

2014-01-01

177

Effect of electrical and mechanical stunning on bleeding, instrumental properties and sensory meat quality in rabbits.  

PubMed

Different voltage and frequency (T-1=49V, 250Hz; T-2=130V, 172Hz; T-3=22V, 833Hz) combinations of electrical stunning and cervical dislocation (T-4) were studied in 101 commercial rabbits in an industrial abattoir. Electrical stunning accelerated the early muscular acidification, providing lower pH-45 and pH-2h values on Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris and higher pH-24h on Biceps femoris than cervical dislocation (P<0.02). Furthermore, meat from rabbits stunned with electrical methods showed more redness (a* with mean values 1.17-1.30 vs. 0.66, P<0.02), although this cannot be associated to low exsanguination levels because electrical methods tend to produce even higher bleeding percentage than mechanical stunning (P=0.063). Haematin content in muscle, water-holding capacity and cooking losses were similar in all treatments. Shear force did not change because of the stunning methods, but the members of experienced panel found the meat coming from electrical stunning T-1 (with intermediate voltages and frequencies) tougher and less juicy than the meat obtained with other electrical applications or with cervical dislocation (P<0.05). PMID:24973775

Lafuente, R; López, M

2014-10-01

178

Mitochondrial and nuclear markers for the authentication of partridge meat and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Two PCR assays for the identification of partridge meat (red-legged partridge, chukar partridge, barbary partridge, and gray partridge species) and the specific identification of red-legged partridge meat products were developed based on species-specific primers targeting the 12S ribosomal RNA mitochondrial gene. Moreover, various PCR techniques based on the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and nuclear growth hormone and rhodopsin genes were tested to find a method for the differentiation between pure and hybrid red-legged partridges. Among these techniques, the PCR method based on the amplification and sequencing of a nuclear rhodopsin gene fragment was selected as a suitable tool for the discrimination among meats from pure and hybrid red-legged partridge individuals. The PCR assays reported in this work could be useful in inspection programs to verify the correct labeling of raw and heat-treated partridge meat products. PMID:21177462

Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M Á; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

2011-01-01

179

Optical Fiber Inspection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being insp...

F. W. Moore

1985-01-01

180

Compact Multifunction Inspection Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple-sensor inspection head designed to be mounted at tip of robot arm for performing multiple automated and/or remotely controlled inspection functions. Inspection head houses optoelectronic sensors, electrochemical sensor, sources of illumination, and parallel-jaw gripper.

Volpe, Richard A.; Ivlev, Robert; Ohm, Timothy

1995-01-01

181

Variations in land requirements for meat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land requirements for meat production. Meat production by Dutch broilers, pigs and beef

E. V. Elferink; S. Nonhebel

2007-01-01

182

Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.  

PubMed

From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P?

Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-10-01

183

An abattoir-based study on the prevalence and economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered herbivores in Ahwaz, south-western Iran.  

PubMed

A 10-year (1998-2008) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and long-term trend of hydatid disease in slaughtered herbivores in the large complex abattoir of Ahwaz (the capital of Khuzestan province, south-western Iran). A total of 3,583,417 animals including 2,815,982 sheep, 427,790 goats and 339,645 cattle were inspected macroscopically for hydatid cysts in the 10-year period, and overall 155,555 (4.24%) livers and 228,172 (6.37%) lungs were condemned. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) was responsible for 36.08% and 48.04% of total liver and lung condemnations, respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary hydatid disease in sheep, goats and cattle was 2.22, 5.43 and 6.99%, respectively; on the other hand, the prevalence of hepatic hydatid disease for those animals was 1.26, 2.57 and 2.80%, respectively. Data showed an overall downward long-term trend for CE in all livestock slaughtered during the study period (P < 0.01). Lung condemnation due to CE was significantly more common than liver condemnation for each animal separately (P < 0.001). The prevalence of liver and lung hydatidosis in sheep was significantly lower than that in other livestock (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hydatid disease recovered from the sheep, cattle and goats varied in different seasons, but there was no statistical difference between various seasons. The odds ratio of lung and liver condemnations due to hydatidosis showed a slightly different pattern in some years; however, the overall declining trend was still observed. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in all ruminants slaughtered at Ahwaz municipal abattoir was estimated to be US$459,659.6, based on the market prices in the year 2008. This number corresponds to a loss of US$300,620.4 for cattle, US$123,490.0 for sheep and US$35,549.2 for goats. The current results provide baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important disease in the region, and also suggest that a thorough investigation leading to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of CE. PMID:20398435

Ahmadi, N A; Meshkehkar, M

2011-03-01

184

Amino acid analysis for meat protein evaluation.  

PubMed

The Food Safety and Inspection Service procedure for determination of essential amino acid content of mechanically processed products from red meat animals and poultry is based on hydrolysis of a powder prepared by blending samples in acetone-chloroform. The hydrolysis procedure incorporates thioglycolic acid to prevent loss of tryptophan. Aliquots of prepared hydrolysates are injected into a liquid chromatographic system, using gradient elution on an ion-exchange column for separation. The system also uses post-column hypochlorite oxidation coupled with orthophthalaldehyde reagent and fluorescence detection. Modification of the elution program allows concurrent determination of tryptophan with minimal added cost. Chromatograms from beef, pork, and poultry products show adequate separation and quantitation of beta-alanine, 1-methyl-histidine, and 3-methyl-histidine, indicating that the procedure could be used to estimate muscle content of products. A colorimetric procedure for assay of hydroxyproline was introduced and validated as an adjunct method for protein quality estimation. PMID:3558283

Ashworth, R B

1987-01-01

185

Red meat in global nutrition.  

PubMed

The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E

2012-11-01

186

Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses are established causative agents of hemorrhagic fevers and renal diseases amongst other clinical manifestations in humans, with most diagnosis based on serological assays. The disease, which is rodent-borne, has been reported in numerous countries worldwide but information about the disease is scanty in the Caribbean. The objective of this investigation is to determine the frequency of exposure to hantaviruses in a selected apparently healthy human population associated with abattoirs and livestock farms in Trinidad using a hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of a total of 236 individuals tested, 27 (11.4%) were seropositive for hantavirus infection. Amongst abattoir workers the frequency of infection was 9.4% (6 of 64) compared with seropositivity rate of 12.4% (18 of 145) and 11.1% (3 of 27) amongst livestock farm workers and office workers and other individuals with minimal animal contact respectively. The differences were, however, not statistically significant (p > .05; ?(2) test). Age, gender, and race did not significantly affect the infection rate by hantavirus in the workers studied. This is considered the first documented evidence of hantavirus infection in Trinidad and Tobago. It is imperative for local physicians to consider hantavirus as a differential diagnosis in patients with hemorrhagic fever and renal diseases, since there may be a number of undiagnosed cases of hantavirus disease in the human population in the country. PMID:21728870

Adesiyun, Abiodun; Dookeran, Shakti; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Thompson, Nadin

2011-01-01

187

Detection of Adulteration of Meat and Meat Products with Buffalo Meat Employing Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primer pair was designed based on mitochondrial d-loop gene for detection of adulteration of buffalo meat in admixed meat and meat products by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)\\u000a assay. Amplification of 537-bp DNA fragments was observed from buffalo, without any cross-reaction with cattle, sheep, goat,\\u000a pig, and chicken. The amplification was further confirmed by BamHI restriction enzymes. No adverse effect

B. G. Mane; S. K. Mendiratta; A. K. Tiwari; K. N. Bhilegaokar

188

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from

Nigatu Kebede

2008-01-01

189

Bovine and buffalo in vitro embryo production using oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries or collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of oocyte source (live animals and abattoir ovaries) on subsequent embryo development in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Cow ovaries were also collected as oocyte donors for in vitro embryo production (IVEP).Three hundred thirty-eight oocytes were recovered by ovum pick up (OPU, Group A) from 8 pluriparous buffalo cows, while 1127 and

Gianluca Neglia; Bianca Gasparrini; Viviana Caracciolo di Brienza; Rossella Di Palo; Giuseppe Campanile; Giorgio Antonio Presicce; Luigi Zicarelli

2003-01-01

190

Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was

R. P. Smith; M. J. Sanchez-Vazquez; A. J. C. Cook; S. A. Edwards

2011-01-01

191

Number and distribution of bacteria on some beef carcasses at selected abattoirs in some member states of the European communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seven member countries of the European Communities, three abattoirs were visited on three occasions in each of two surveys and at each visit ten beef carcasses were sampled, before chilling, at defined sites on the neck, brisket, forerib and medially on the round. In Survey I, samples were plated for total viable count (TVC) at 30° (ISO 2293) and

J. M. A. Snijders; B. Simonsen; K. Olgaard; H. Labots; J. van Hoof; J. Debevere; J. F. Dempster; J. Devereux; L. Leistner; H. Gehra; J. Gledel; J. Fournaud

1984-01-01

192

Regulations governing the use of soy protein in meat and poultry products in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much interest today in a greater use of vegetable protein in the human diet. Soy protein products currently are approved\\u000a for use at low levels in over 30 different kinds of meat and poultry foods in the U.S. Recognizing a need for more flexibility\\u000a in formulation of products under its jurisdiction, the Federal Meat and Poultry Inspection Program

Harry C. Mussman

1974-01-01

193

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

194

Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

2010-11-01

195

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

196

Top-to-Bottom Review. (Food Safety and Inspection Service). Preliminary Report. Volume 4. FSIS Resource Allocation and Other Administrative Subjects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review is part of the overall initiative of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to improve the safety of meat and poultry products and better protect consumers. It encompasses the Agency's regulatory roles, resource allocation, and organizat...

1995-01-01

197

Treatment of Cured Meat Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to a treatment of cured meat products to reduce their water activities to a level below 0.92 to produce a product which does not permit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Cured meat products which do not permit the growth of Clos...

C. N. Huhtanen W. I. Kimoto

1978-01-01

198

A European perspective on wild game meat and public health.  

PubMed

This paper presents information on wild game meat from the public health and inspection perspectives, taking as a starting point the preparation and final adoption of European Union Directive 92/45/EEC on public health and animal health problems relating to the killing of wild game and the marketing of wild game meat. National definitions of small and large 'game' and the distribution and population levels of the different species can vary enormously. The vast majority of hunted game is killed with a firearm; other hunting methods (bow-hunting, trapping, capturing with decoys, etc.) are less significant. The importance of trade in wild game among the different Member States of the European Union is not well known and those statistics which are available are often incomplete, so that an evaluation is not possible. Wild game meat is the result of a process of natural selection and not of human 'production'. Veterinary health and hygiene legislation should cover and concentrate on the handling, processing, transport and storage of the meat of wild game. PMID:9501371

Lecocq, Y

1997-08-01

199

Plant-based alternatives to meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the plant-based alternatives to meat. Looks at the production and uses of a range of meat alternatives from different sources including: soya beans; wheat protein; pea and wheat protein; and myco-protein. Compares the nutrient profiles with those of meat. Concludes that the way forward is to create new products based on plant proteins and to veganise existing vegetarian meat

Jill Davies; Helen Lightowler

1998-01-01

200

Antibiotic Synergy Interaction against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from an Abattoir Effluent Environment  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen in environmental waters with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. In this study the synergistic efficacy of synergy antibiotic combinations in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from an abattoir effluent was investigated. Water samples were processed using membrane filtration; Pseudomonas was isolated with Pseudomonas Isolation Agar and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with specie-specific primer. Susceptibility studies and in vitro synergy interaction testing were carried out, employing agar dilution and Etest procedure, respectively. Resistance was noted for clinically relevant antipseudomonal agents tested. Finding from antibiotic synergy interaction studies revealed that cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem combined with amikacin resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in vitro antibiotics synergy interaction, indicating the possible use of this regimen in treatment of pseudomonal infections.

Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Orhue, Phillips O.; Omoigberale, May N. O.; Amhanre, Napoleon I.

2012-01-01

201

Microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced at an export-approved South African abattoir.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced in a South African export-approved ostrich abattoir. Ninety surface samples were collected from 30 ostrich carcasses at three processing points in the abattoir: after skinning, after evisceration, and after chilling. Samples were evaluated for aerobic plate counts, for levels of Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus, and for the presence of Escherichia coli. Surface counts (means +/- standard deviations) at postskinning, postevisceration, and postchilling processing points were, respectively, 4.32 +/- 0.62, 4.21 +/- 0.63, and 4.57 +/- 0.48 log CFU/cm2 for total aerobes; 2.82 +/- 1.65, 2.86 +/- 1.53, and 3.75 +/- 0.94 log CFU/ cm2 for Pseudomonas spp.; 2.89 +/- 0.78, 2.90 +/- 0.53, and 2.38 +/- 0.67 log CFU/cm2 for S. aureus; and 2.55 +/- 1.53, 2.78 +/- 1.31, and 2.73 +/- 1.46 log CFU/cm2 for Enterobacteriaceae. Statistically significant differences were detected between the counts for the postskinning and postchilling processing points and between the counts for the postevisceration and postchilling processing points for total aerobes, Pseudomonas spp., and S. aureus. Of practical significance was the increase in Pseudomonas spp. counts on samples collected after chilling. Seventeen of 90 samples (18.8%) tested positive for E. coli. Counts for E. coli-positive samples ranged from 1.0 to 3.79 log CFU/cm2, with a mean count of 2.15 +/- 0.94 log CFU/cm2. The majority of the samples testing positive for E. coli were collected after evisceration. PMID:12747700

Karama, M; de Jesus, A E; Veary, C M

2003-05-01

202

Phenotypic Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Food-animals and Abattoir Drains in Buea, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Salmonella spp. have been extensively incriminated worldwide as common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food-animals serving as important reservoirs. The study was aimed at investigating cattle and pigs slaughtered in Buea as reservoirs of Salmonella Typhimurium and the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics. In total, 230 specimens (comprising 50 each from the rectum, ileum, and gall bladder of cattle; and 10 each from same anatomical sites of pigs and 50 from abattoir drains) were analyzed for Salmonella using the standard microbiological, biochemical and serological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion test. The isolates were characterized into biotypes using the API 20E kit, and results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Seventy-five (32.6%) of the 230 specimens were positive for S. Typhimurium, with pigs and abattoir drains presenting the highest level of isolation (40%). Biochemical typing grouped the isolates into five biotypes. Biotype I was the most prevalent (30.6%) while biotype IV was the least prevalent (9.3%) and was absent in samples from pigs. Antibio-tic susceptibility studies revealed 14 antibiotypes based on antibiotics used in the study. The predominant antibiotype AMXR DOXRCEFR was recorded in 13 (17.3%) of the isolates. Multidrug resistance (to four or more antibiotics) was recorded in 50.7% (38/75) of the isolates. The most active drugs were ciprofloxacin (98.6%), ofloxacin (93.3%), amikacin (90.6%), and gentamicin (84%). All the isolates (100%) were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin. Cattle and pigs were found to be reservoirs of S. Typhimurium in the environment of Buea, Cameroon, implying that foods from these sources, if not properly handled, could serve as vehicles for its transmission to humans.

Akoachere, Jane-Francis T.K.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Ndip, Lucy M.

2009-01-01

203

Equipment for Packing Meat and Cured Meat Products. (Poland).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes statistical charts on production, demand and sales for the Polish meat packing industry. Also included are: best prospects, a competitive assessment, an overview access to the market and trade promotion opportunities.

1990-01-01

204

Magnetic Particle Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and s...

S. Sastri

1990-01-01

205

About Nursing Home Inspections  

MedlinePLUS

... website may not be available. About nursing home inspections To be part of the Medicare and Medicaid ... state governments to do health and fire safety inspections of these nursing homes and investigate complaints about ...

206

Underwater Inspection Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application describes an underwater inspection aid designed to facilitate underwater inspection and instrumentation or measuring device reading in very murky water where visibility is low. The device consists of a sealed acrylic cylinder with b...

J. Mittleman F. B. Barrett

1975-01-01

207

Control of Thermal Meat Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

208

Alternate Red Meat Production Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress on a project designed to maximize the quantity of acceptable red meat per unit of land area with minimum expenditure of cultural energy is presented. The two interacting factors investigated were breed types of cattle and forage production system...

C. W. Cook

1978-01-01

209

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

210

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

211

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

212

Commercially Distributed Meat as a Potential Vehicle for Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has been increasing; however, the sources of infection remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of meat as a possible mediator of CA-MRSA infection. We examined the distribution of MRSA strains in commercially distributed raw meat samples (n = 197) and diarrheal stool samples of outpatients (n = 1,287) that were collected in Oita Prefecture, Japan, between 2003 and 2009 for routine legal inspections. Fourteen MRSA strains were isolated from three meat and 11 stool samples. Among these, seven isolates from three meat and four stool samples exhibited the same epidemiological marker profiles [coagulase type III, staphylococcal enterotoxin C, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV, ST8, spa type 606 (t1767), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) producing type]. Furthermore, of the seven strains, three isolates from two meat samples and one stool sample collected in 2007 exhibited completely identical characteristics with respect to phage open reading frame (ORF) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and drug susceptibility profiles. The results suggest that commercially distributed meat could play a role in the prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community.

Narimatsu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Higuchi, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

2012-01-01

213

Prevalence of Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Ethiiopian\\u000a slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in Ethiopia\\u000a was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. Five representative abattoirs (four\\u000a municipal and one export) located

B. Demelash; F. Inangolet; J. Oloya; B. Asseged; M. Badaso; A. Yilkal; E. Skjerve

2009-01-01

214

A retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Botswana was conducted by reviewing\\u000a meat inspection records available at the Botswana Ostrich Company Abattoir in Gaborone for the 3 year period that the abattoir\\u000a had been in operation. The most frequently condemned organs were lung (85.1%), liver (8%), intestine (3.3%), heart (2.7%)\\u000a and kidney (0.8%). The most

B. M. Dzoma; E. Pansiri; B. V. E. Segwagwe

2009-01-01

215

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle identified by nested-PCR in abattoirs from two dairy areas of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous disease that primarily affects lung tissue and lymph nodes (LN) in cattle, with economic impact on their productivity. Furthermore, it is potential zoonoses that may cause public health hazard. In this study, we evaluated the presence of bTB in two abattoirs: Cayambe and Pelileo countries located in the Ecuadorian provinces of Pichincha and Tungurahua, respectively. In total, 578 cattle were sampled (Cayambe 271 and Pelileo 307): 1,156 LN and 578 lung tissue samples were collected to apply in vitro culture and nested-PCR, respectively. The results determined a total apparent prevalence of 4.33 %, with 4.06 % at Cayambe's abattoir and 4.56 % at Pelileo's abattoir. Additionally, the Bayesian analysis showed a total true prevalence of 2.51 %, with 89.7 % of sensitivity and 97.6 % of specificity. The risk factors were evaluated by the use of simple logistic regressions with and without the random effect of places of origin. Associations of the origin of cattle in the selected slaughterhouses were found. The results showed an efficient method for the detection of bTB, which could identify a large number of infected animals, and the usefulness of lung tissue samples for early diagnosis of the disease was demonstrated in this study. PMID:24817423

Echeverría, Gustavo; Ron, Lenin; León, Ana María; Espinosa, Wilson; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Proaño-Pérez, Freddy

2014-08-01

216

Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine.

2014-01-01

217

Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidified sodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.  

PubMed

A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry. PMID:21083814

Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A

2010-11-01

218

Inspection of lymph nodes for caseous lymphadenitis and its effect on the density of microbes on sheep carcasses.  

PubMed

This study aimed to measure the amount of microbial contamination caused by inspecting the lymph nodes of adult sheep carcasses for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). Surface swabs from carcasses pre-inspection (N=296) and post-inspection (N=296) were obtained for enumeration of indicator organisms at three commercial abattoirs. At the scapular site, inspection doubled the probability of detecting E. coli (Pr before=0.35, Pr after=0.67) and increased the expected count of E. coli from 2 cfu/cm² to 13 cfu/cm². Inspection at the rump site increased the probability of detecting E. coli by 1.1 times (Pr before=0.84, Pr after=0.93) and increased the expected count from 32 cfu/cm² to 45 cfu/cm². Effects were also observed for Enterobacteriaceae and total viable count. The findings show that routine inspection of adult sheep carcasses for CLA has a detrimental impact on carcass microbiological traits. PMID:22863079

Jordan, D; Sentance, C B; Spooncer, W F; Balan, J A; Morris, S M

2012-12-01

219

Reconstructed Meat Technology for the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The committee reviewed areas of the technology of restructured meats of particular interest to the military such as equipment, processes, and products; additives that influence the functional properties of restructured meats; storage stability; mechanical...

1982-01-01

220

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs Table B13. Meat, poultry, and eggs: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation

221

Ironclad Findings about Red Meat's Harms?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Ironclad Findings About Red Meat's Harms? Analysis of 21 studies may bolster ... News) -- A type of iron found only in red meat is associated with an increase in the ...

222

An abattoir-based study of hydatidosis in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study based on abattoir records was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries in Khorasan province in north-eastern Iran. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 25,255 dromedaries were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 2791 (11.1%) and the lungs of 3289 dromedaries (13.2%) were discarded due to hydatidosis. The annual prevalence of liver condemnations due to hydatidosis decreased from 24.1% in 2004-2005 to 13.3% in 2009, and finally to 6.8% in 2010. The corresponding features for lung condemnation due to hydatidosis were relatively higher than liver, declining from 28.7% in 2004-2005 to 14.9% in 2009, and finally to 7.1% in 2010. Liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis were significantly higher in the spring. This could be attributed to various factors such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21251343

Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A

2011-12-01

223

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

224

Bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a South African poultry abattoir.  

PubMed

Bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. Sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. The neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. Bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also characterized. Bacterial colonies (751) were randomly isolated from yeast extract-supplemented tryptone soya agar plates exhibiting 30 to 300 colonies. Micrococcus spp. were isolated in the highest proportion from pre-and postscalded carcass samples (63.5 to 86.1% of isolates), regardless of the sample type. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae (40.3%), Acinetobacter (19.4%), and Aeromonas/Vibrio (12.5%) species predominated on neck skin samples taken from mechanically defeathered carcasses. Isolates from the rubber fingers were, however, predominantly Micrococcus spp. (94.4%). Bacterial groups isolated in the highest proportion from scald tank water samples were Micrococcus spp. (38.3%), species of Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%), and lactic acid bacteria (17.0%). Corynebacterium spp., species of Enterobacteriaceae, and Micrococcus spp. were dominant on air settle plates. PMID:9709252

Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A E; von Holy, A

1998-06-01

225

Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella in veal calves at Danish cattle abattoirs.  

PubMed

The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007-2008. The animals came from 71 randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P=0.03) higher risk of delivering Salmonella-shedding calves to slaughter. The results emphasize the importance of efforts in the dairy industry to ensure food safety for consumers. PMID:21062531

Nielsen, L R; Baggesen, D L; Aabo, S; Moos, M K; Rattenborg, E

2011-07-01

226

Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.  

PubMed

Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

1998-11-10

227

Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

2002-03-01

228

Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…

Le Cureux, James

1974-01-01

229

Influences on meat consumption in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health\\/nutrition\\/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others

E. Lea; A. Worsley

2001-01-01

230

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased worldwide meat consumption; higher numbers of consumers at-risk for infection; and, increased interest, awareness and scrutiny by consumers, news media, and consumer activist groups. Issues such as bovine sponginform encephalopathy will continue to be of interest mostly as a target for eradication, while viral agents affecting food animals, such as avian influenza, will always need attention for prevention or containment. PMID:22062090

Sofos, John N

2008-01-01

231

Meat, Meat Cooking Methods and Preservation, and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking meat at high temperatures produces heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Processed meats contain N-nitroso compounds. Meat intake may increase cancer risk as HCAs, PAHs, and N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic in animal models. We investigat- ed meat, processed meat, HCAs, and the PAH benzo(a)pyrene and the risk of colorectal adenoma in 3,696 left-sided (descending and sigmoid colon

Rashmi Sinha; Ulrike Peters; Amanda J. Cross; Martin Kulldorff; Joel L. Weissfeld; Paul F. Pinsky; Nathaniel Rothman; Richard B. Hayes

232

Meat and Meat Products Report 2003-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives The qualities of meat products — composition, nutritional value, wholesomeness and consumer acceptability — are largely determined by the events and conditions encountered during growth of the animal and after slaughter. Control of these qualities, and their further enhancement, are thus dependent on a fuller understanding of the commodity at all stages of its existence — from

Jean Pierre Renou

233

SRP reactor moderator piping inspections  

SciTech Connect

A program has been planned and initiated to provide inspection of SRP reactor moderator piping for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Inspections will be accomplished by SRP personnel and subcontractors, using state of the art inspection techniques and equipment. Computerized ultransonic inspection systems are being evaluated on R-Area piping. A related program is in progress to determine acceptance criteria for inspection results.

Sprayberry, R.E.

1984-01-01

234

SRP reactor moderator piping inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program has been planned and initiated to provide inspection of SRP reactor moderator piping for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Inspections will be accomplished by SRP personnel and subcontractors, using state of the art inspection techniques and equipment. Computerized ultransonic inspection systems are being evaluated on R-Area piping. A related program is in progress to determine acceptance criteria for inspection

Sprayberry

1984-01-01

235

Structural Inspection Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses structural sampling inspections in inspecting a fleet of Boeing 707 aircraft. At the present time the total Boeing fleet consists of nineteen aircraft, which are again subdivided into thirteen type 707-138B and six type 707-338C aircra...

R. H. Stevens

1966-01-01

236

Tube plug inspection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for inspecting a tube plug defining a chamber therein and having an open end in communication with the chamber, the chamber having disposed therein an expander element having a bore therethrough. It comprises: probe means having a sensor probe connected thereto for inspecting the tube plug, the probe means capable of being connected to the

W. E. Pirl; E. A. Ray; A. M. Costlow; C. H. Jr. Roth; F. X. Gradich; D. A. Chizmar

1992-01-01

237

Video Demonstration: Borescope Inspection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, provides a video demonstration of the Everest XLG3 video probe used to inspect a wind turbine gearbox. This would be useful for students who are learning the visual inspection process and want to see how this specific technology works. Running time for the video is 2:59.

2012-10-24

238

Semiautomatic inspection of microfilm records  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiautomatic machine inspects microfilm for deficiencies. Advantages of microfilm inspector are uniformity of inspection method, increased speed of inspection, and improved quality through elimination of scratches and finger marks.

Klein, E. L.

1969-01-01

239

Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

240

Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli in healthy, pasture-raised sheep on farms and at the abattoir in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985

Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

2014-02-21

241

Studies on dentition and oral disorders of Camels in Maiduguri Abattoir, Borno State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007

Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M

2012-12-01

242

Improving functional value of meat products.  

PubMed

In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed. PMID:20537806

Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

2010-09-01

243

The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted

Abdul Salam Babji

244

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection ratesâNew turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2010-01-01

245

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection ratesâNew turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2009-01-01

246

A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Arusha, Tanzania, based on abattoir data during 2005-2007.  

PubMed

A 3-year (2005-2007) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle and shoats (sheep and goats) slaughtered at Arusha municipal abattoir, Tanzania. A total of 115,186 cattle and 99,401 shoats were slaughtered. Cattle liver, lungs, spleen and heart condemnation rate was 16.35%, 13.04%, 2.09% and 3.06% respectively while 17.63%, 7.63%, 0.38% and 0.04% of shoats' liver, lungs, spleen and heart respectively were condemned. A highly significant (p < 0.001) cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection rate was recorded in shoats (6.02%) than in cattle (4.2%) probably because of differences in grazing patterns. Cattle lungs were more affected by CE (22.5%) than liver (19.7%) while shoats liver were found to be more affected (21%) than the lungs (19.3). A significant (p < 0.001) higher CE infection rate was observed in cattle spleen (15.5%) than shoats (9.7%). There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between condemnation rates due to hydatidosis during rain and dry seasons probably because of chronicity of the disease. The study have established that CE is prevalent in animals slaughtered at Arusha abattoir and causes higher condemnation rates of edible offals. This merit for more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the prevalence, economic impact and public health importance of the disease in the region. PMID:19184507

Nonga, H E; Karimuribo, E D

2009-10-01

247

Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with fluorescent penetrant inspection and to relate it to classification of various defects. The penetrant method of nondestructive testing is a method for finding discontinuities open to the su...

S. Sastri

1990-01-01

248

Inspection of chromeless AAPSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chromeless Phase Shift Mask (CLM) approach from ASML MaskTools has been developed as an approach to achieve sub-100nm lithography using currently available stepper technology. The technology uses sub-resolution gray-scaled regions of zero-phase and pi-phase quartz on the mask to produce effective feature widths well below 100nm at the wafer. The features on the mask consist entirely of etched and unetched quartz. No features consist of chrome on the mask. The integration of this type of phase shift mask technology into the photomask-manufacturing environment requires that the mask manufacturer be able to inspect the mask for defects in the quartz. The Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) pattern was used to construct a CLM mask. The mask was inspected using commercially available inspection platforms, and the resulting inspection capability is reported.

Taylor, Darren; Lassiter, Matthew; Eynon, Benjamin G.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Chen, J. Fung

2002-07-01

249

About Nursing Home Inspections  

MedlinePLUS

... functionalities on this website may not be available. Nursing Homes About Nursing Home Inspections The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ( ... Medicaid dollars is used each year to cover nursing home care and services for the elderly and ...

250

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

251

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

252

Monthly Inspection Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope and findings of inspections and investigations made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are summarized in a monthly report. These include NRC reports on nuclear power reactors under construction or in operation. Information on individual ...

1976-01-01

253

Monthly Inspection Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scope and findings of inspections and investigations made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are summarized. Included are NRC reports on nuclear power reactors under construction or in operation. Information on individual facilities is present...

1976-01-01

254

Wedges for ultrasonic inspection  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

Gavin, Donald A. (Rexford, NY)

1982-01-01

255

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.  

PubMed

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

2011-08-01

256

Packaging supplier inspection guide  

SciTech Connect

This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1991-05-01

257

Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

2012-09-01

258

Method and bacterial compositions for fermenting meats  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and bacterial compositions are described for producing fermented meat by generating lactic acid using selected cultures of Pediococcus pentosaceus which have unique low temperature meat fermentation characteristics. The preferred Pediococcus pentosaceus is NRRL-B-11,465 which is unusually rapid in lowering the pH at low meat temperatures. A stimulatory, edible metal salt, preferably a manganese salt, is provided in the meat with the Pediococcus pentosaceus to reduce or eliminate preservative inhibition and/or to accelerate growth at meat temperatures between 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) to 26.7.degree. C. (80.degree. F.). Preservatives to prevent spoilage and rancidity can be used in the meat and can include hydroxyaryl antioxidants, particularly butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and/or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). BHT and/or BHA together with other meat preservatives, particularly sodium chloride, severely inhibit NRRL-B-11,465 at low meat temperatures between 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) and 26.7.degree. C. (80.degree. F.). Pediococcus pentosaceus compositions containing the stimulatory metal salt are also described. The method and compositions, particularly with a manganese salt, can produce a pH of less than about 5.0 in less than 30 hours at smokehouse temperatures above about 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) and at initial meat temperatures of 4.4.degree. C. to 10.degree. C. (40.degree. to 50.degree. F.) with standard casing diameters (up to about 100 mm). Pediococcus pentosaceus NRRL-B-11,465 is particularly adapted for low temperature meat fermentation and rapidly lowers the pH in the meat to about 4.3 under these conditions with sufficient added assimilable carbohydrate. The method is particularly useful for making dry and semi-dry sausage as well as for nitrite reduction in meats due to the lowering of the pH.

1981-12-01

259

Prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in Germany.  

PubMed

Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (?10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p?

Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate

2013-01-01

260

Effects of Raw Broiler Breast Meat Color Variation on Marination and Cooked Meat Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three replicate trials were conducted to determine the effect of raw broiler breast meat color on marinated and cooked meat quality. In each trial, 90 fillets were collected from a commercial processing plant based on lightness (L*) values of breast meat as follows: light, L* > 53; normal, 48 < L* < 51; and, dark, L* < 46. For each

M. Qiao; D. L. Fletcher; D. P. Smith; J. K. Northcutt

261

Consumers' motivation for eating free-range meat or less meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior, our work builds on recent insights in motivational psychology about the ways in which people may

Joop de Boer; Jan J. Boersema; Harry Aiking

2007-01-01

262

Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior, our work builds on recent insights in motivational psychology about the ways in which people may

Joop de Boer; Jan J. Boersema; Harry Aiking

2009-01-01

263

Zoonotic parasites from exotic meat in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found. PMID:24189683

Fazly, Z A; Nurulaini, R; Shafarin, M S; Fariza, N J; Zawida, Z; Muhamad, H Y; Adnan, M; Premaalatha, B; Erwanas, A I; Zaini, C M; Ong, C C; Chandrawathani, P

2013-09-01

264

Influences on meat consumption in Australia.  

PubMed

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

Lea, E; Worsley, A

2001-04-01

265

Estimating the true prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle slaughtered in Switzerland in the absence of an absolute diagnostic test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 1,331 cattle presented for slaughter at two abattoirs in Switzerland was used to estimate the true prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection and the diagnostic parameters of visual meat inspection, coproscopy after sedimentation technique, a commercial ELISA test for specific antibody detection in serum and the post mortem microscopic detection of eggs in bile. Faeces, blood and the

C. Rapsch; G. Schweizer; F. Grimm; L. Kohler; C. Bauer; P. Deplazes; U. Braun; P. R. Torgerson

2006-01-01

266

Primary liver-cell tumour (hepatoma) in sudanese desert sheep—A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  At meat-inspection examination after abattoir slaughter, two Desert sheep oged 3 to 4 years showed hepatoma. There were several\\u000a tumours in the liver of each but no metastatic lesions in other organs of the body. The macroscopic and microscopic appearances\\u000a are described as also the chemical changes in the serum constituents.

S. E. I. Adam; R. O. Ramadan

1974-01-01

267

Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in seven Central European countries during the years 1990-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-eradication incidence of bovine tuberculosis in seven Central European Countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia) was studied between 1990 and 1999. The majority of cattle to the age of 24 months were screened by tuberculin skin test on annual basis. Tuberculous lesions observed during meat inspection at abattoirs were further laboratory examined by

I. PAVLIK; W. YAYO AYELE; I. PARMOVA; I. MELICHAREK; M. HANZLIKOVA; B. KÖRMENDY; G. NAGY; Z. CVETNIC; M. OCEPEK; N. FEJZIC; M. LIPIEC

2002-01-01

268

Seroepidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of Kenya. Serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. Cattle origin and the presence of T. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such

Jael A. Onyango-Abuje; Joseph M. Nginyi; Moses K. Rugutt; Steven H. Wright; Patrick Lumumba; Gwenda Hughes; Leslie J. S. Harrison

1996-01-01

269

Sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Belgian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using

P Dorny; F Vercammen; J Brandt; W Vansteenkiste; D Berkvens; S Geerts

2000-01-01

270

Flock-level case–control study of slaughter-lamb pneumonia in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subclinical pneumonia is common in production lambs, and causes reductions in growth rate. We selected farms from meat-inspection records of three New Zealand abattoirs from December 2000 to May 2001 to study risk factors for flocks having ?3% of their lambs with ?10% of the lung surface with lesions, compared to flocks with a zero lamb-level prevalence of such pneumonia.

K. A. Goodwin-Ray; M. Stevenson; C. Heuer

2008-01-01

271

Frequency of detection of immunoglobulins of Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins, suggestive of acute or chronic infections, in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad, and to relate to risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 394 consenting livestock/farm workers and 99 abattoir workers across the island of Trinidad. Serological status was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T. gondii IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins. Of 394 apparently healthy livestock/farm workers sampled, 150 (38.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii IgM immunoglobulins, compared with 44 (44.4%) of 99 abattoir workers (p > .05; ?(2) test). Five (1.3%) of 371 and 1 (1.0%) of 99 livestock/farm and abattoir workers respectively were positive for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins. All samples from livestock/farm workers and abattoir workers were negative for B. abortus immunoglobulins. None of the risk factors investigated was statistically significantly (p > .05; ?(2) test) associated with T. gondii and Leptospira spp. infections. PMID:21728871

Adesiyun, Abiodun; Campbell, Mervyn; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Dookeran, Shakti; Gittens-St Hilaire, Marquita

2011-01-01

272

Lead and cadmium in meat and meat products consumed by the population in Tenerife Island, Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead and cadmium in chicken, pork, beef, lamb and turkey samples (both meat and meat products), collected in the island of Tenerife (Spain). Lead and cadmium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 6.94 and 1.68 microg kg(-1) in chicken meat, 5.00 and 5.49 microg kg(-1) in pork meat, 1.91 and 1.90 microg kg(-1) in beef meat and 1.35 and 1.22 microg kg(-1) in lamb meat samples, respectively. Lead was below the detection limit in turkey samples and mean cadmium concentration was 5.49 microg kg(-1). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium in chicken meat product samples were 3.16 and 4.15 microg kg(-1), 4.89 and 6.50 microg kg(-1) in pork meat product, 6.72 and 4.76 microg kg(-1) in beef meat product and 9.12 and 5.98 microg kg(-1) in turkey meat product samples, respectively. The percentage contribution of the two considered metals to provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was calculated for meat and meat products. Statistically significant differences were found for lead content in meats between the chicken and pork groups and the turkey and beef groups, whereas for cadmium concentrations in meats, significant differences were observed between the turkey and chicken, beef and lamb groups. In meat products, no clear differences were observed for lead and cadmium between the various groups. PMID:16807203

González-Weller, D; Karlsson, L; Caballero, A; Hernández, F; Gutiérrez, A; González-Iglesias, T; Marino, M; Hardisson, A

2006-08-01

273

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146...meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...meat-type chicken slaughter plant. A meat-type chicken...

2010-01-01

274

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146...meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...meat-type chicken slaughter plant. A meat-type chicken...

2009-01-01

275

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter...meat-type turkey slaughter plant. A participating meat-type turkey...

2010-01-01

276

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter...meat-type turkey slaughter plant. A participating meat-type turkey...

2009-01-01

277

Piping inspection round robin  

SciTech Connect

The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-04-01

278

Factors associated with fatigued, injured, and dead pig frequency during transport and lairage at a commercial abattoir.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify environmental and management factors that are associated with the frequency of fatigued, injured, and dead pigs on arrival and in resting pens during lairage at a commercial Midwest abattoir. The terms transport losses or total losses refer to pigs that die or become nonambulatory at any stage of the marketing process. In this study, fatigued, injured, and dead pigs were summed into a variable termed total losses. Relative humidity (%), temperature ( degrees C), wind speed (m/s), and dew point ( degrees C) data were collected on 12,333 trailer loads of pigs. Week, sort from barn (first or third pig removal from barn), farm, normal vs. split load type (from 1 or multiple barns), load crew, driver, trailer, and wind direction were used as fixed effects in the model for the analysis of losses per load using generalized mixed models for Poisson distributions. Seven temperature-humidity indices (THI) were calculated and compared as model covariates. Load time per pig, trailer density (pigs per trailer x average BW/trailer space; kg/m(2)), wait time before unloading at the abattoir, and wind speed were used as model covariates. The log of the number of hogs per trailer was used to standardize the response variable. The linear covariate density accounted for the greatest portion of variance (based on F-value) followed by the fixed effect sort from barn, the fixed effect load type (pigs from 1 or multiple barns within a farm), load time per pig linear covariate, and THI. Pigs transported to the abattoir from June through July experienced fewer losses (P < 0.001) when compared with pigs that were transported from November through December. Keeping other factors constant, the log of total losses (%) per load increased by 0.0102x + 0.000541x(2) per unit of THI and 0.0191 kg/m(2) of density. Similarly, of 9 farms, the poorest-performing farm in regards to total loss percentage experienced 0.93% more losses per load when compared with the farm with the least loss percentage. This study demonstrates that multiple environment and management factors influence the incidence of market hog transport losses. PMID:19028860

Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J; Matthews, J O; Schultz Kaster, C M; Johnson, A K

2009-03-01

279

A novel detection method for Alaria alata mesocercariae in meat.  

PubMed

Distomum musculorum suis (DMS), the mesocercarial stage of the trematode Alaria alata, can cause severe damages within their hosts, and since several reports about cases of human larval alariosis have been published, it became apparent that infected game animals and in particular wild boars are a potential source of infection for both humans and animals. A final statement concerning the health risks for consumers could not be given due to the lack of information about both the prevalence of DMS and the suitability of Trichinella inspection methods to detect this parasite in wild boar meat. Our studies concentrate on (1) the verification of suitability of the official digestion methods for Trichinella spp. for DMS detection in wild boars, (2) development, optimization, and validation of methods, and (3) the distribution of the parasites within their paratenic hosts. A total of 868 individual samples/digests from 48 wild boars were analyzed by the reference method for Trichinella detection in meat samples according to regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. In addition to the official protocol, a method modification with Pankreatin(c) and bile acid was applied for analysis of adipose tissue samples (n = 89). On the basis of our results, a new detection method based on a larvae migration technique was developed and used for detection of DMS in 574 single samples. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of DMS in wild boars in a total of 1377 single sample migrations/digestions from 35 positive animals were analyzed by application of all three methods. The official digestion method for Trichinella spp. in wild boars meat is inapplicable for the detection of A. alata mesocercariae as it shows shortcomings in both digestion and sampling. A direct comparison between the newly developed A. alata mesocercariae migration technique and the official digestion method for Trichinella spp. based on 574 single samples from 18 animals clearly shows that the sensitivity to detect A. alata developmental stages in tissues of wild boars of the new method is nearly 60% higher compared with the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion as laid down in regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. Among other advantages, this method offers a simple, highly applicable, fast, and cost effective way to detect DMS in wild boars which is already applicable in routine veterinary inspection. PMID:20405145

Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Grosse, Knut; Zeitler, Lina; Lücker, Ernst

2010-06-01

280

Dietary intake and health risk assessment of lead and cadmium via consumption of cow meat for an urban population in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087

Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B

2013-07-01

281

Magnetic particle inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. This method will most clearly show defects that are perpendicular to the magnetic field. The Magnaglo method uses a liquid which is sprayed on the workpiece to be inspected, and the part is magnetized at the same time. The workpiece is then viewed under a black light, and the presence of discontinuity is shown by the formation of a bright indication formed by the magnetic particles over the discontinuity. The equipment and experimental procedures are described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

282

Advances in inspection automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

2013-01-01

283

Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

284

DNA-Based Traceability of Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of meat traceability are as varied as the people who write them. In essence, they have been encapsulated by McKean\\u000a (2001) who defined traceability of meat as “the ability to maintain a credible custody of identification for animals or animal\\u000a products through various steps within the food chain from the farm to the retailer”.

G. H. Shackell; K. G. Dodds

285

Food safety management in broiler meat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Ensuring compliance with food safety legislation and market requirements is one of the key issues facing the poultry meat industry. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how a pre-requisite programme (PRP) and key performance indicators for food safety can be developed in the poultry meat supply chain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The first stage of the research involved

L. Manning; R. N. Baines; S. A. Chadd

2006-01-01

286

Determination of 4-hexylresorcinol in crab meat.  

PubMed

A method is described for determining 4-hexylresorcinol in crab meat. 4-Hexylresorcinol is used to prevent melanosis in shrimp, and the same use has been proposed for crab meat. Because 4-hexylresorcinol may be added illegally to crab meat as a preservative, consumer protection requires that residues of the compound be monitored in crab meat. 4-Hexylresorcinol is extracted from crab meat with acetonitrile. After dilution with water, the extract is passed through a C18 solid-phase extraction column and 4-hexylresorcinol is eluted from the column with ethanol. The compound is determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detection at 206 nm. Limit of quantitation is 1.0 microgram/g. Mean recovery in the range 1-20 micrograms/g is 89%, with a relative standard deviation of 6.3. PMID:9549084

Smallwood, A W; Ranieri, T L; Satzger, R D

1998-01-01

287

Characterisation of oxygen dynamics within a high-rate algal pond system used to treat abattoir wastewater.  

PubMed

As part of a study examining the efficacy of high-rate algal pond treatment of high-strength abattoir wastewater, the oxygen dynamics of a pilot scale system were characterised. The relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance was investigated using online data collected throughout a year of operation under varying conditions of climate and wastewater quality. Changes in climate were reflected in changes in the net rate of photosynthesis in deep ponds, consistent with adaptation of algal populations to changing light intensity, whilst the response of shallow ponds was more varied. The use of online monitoring and the calculation in real time of photosynthetic rates should allow for improved design and management of full scale treatment systems and further the understanding of factors driving biological reactions within these systems. PMID:14510194

Evans, R A; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

2003-01-01

288

Broiler stunning and meat quality.  

PubMed

The effects of electrical and concussion stunning on meat and carcass quality of broilers were compared. Broiler chickens (n = 165) were subjected to treatments: 1) electrical stunning with no fibrillation, 2) electrical stunning with fibrillation, 3) concussion stunning with restraint, or 4) concussion stunning with no restraint. Electrical stunning (100 V, 80 mA, 50 Hz sinusoidal waveform alternating current) was applied for 3 s. Concussion was applied using a nonpenetrative captive bolt gun with or without restraint. We assessed broken bones, hemorrhages, meat quality defects, blood loss, pH at 10 min and 24 h, and texture from breasts filleted 3 h and 24 h postmortem. Electrically stunned birds showed a significantly higher incidence of broken bones (P < 0.0001), coracoid and furculum bone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001), and nonbone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001) than birds stunned by concussion. However, the incidence of red wing tips (P < 0.005) and shoulder hemorrhages was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in concussion-stunned birds than electrically stunned birds. Electrically stunned and nonfibrillated birds had the fastest blood loss rate. The pH value at 10 min was the lowest in concussion-stunned and unrestrained birds. Breast muscles from concussion-stunned birds that were filleted at 3 h postmortem were more tender than those from birds stunned electrically (P < 0.05). We concluded that concussion stunning could be advantageous for early filleting. PMID:10626658

Göksoy, E O; McKinstry, L J; Wilkins, L J; Parkman, I; Phillips, A; Richardson, R I; Anil, M H

1999-12-01

289

A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

2012-01-01

290

Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

2013-02-01

291

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

2011-01-01

292

Genotypic characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef abattoirs of Argentina.  

PubMed

The non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination in carcasses and feces of 811 bovines in nine beef abattoirs from Argentina was analyzed during a period of 17 months. The feces of 181 (22.3%) bovines were positive for non-O157 STEC, while 73 (9.0%) of the carcasses showed non-O157 STEC contamination. Non-O157 STEC strains isolated from feces (227) and carcasses (80) were characterized. The main serotypes identified were O178:H19, O8:H19, O130:H11, and O113:H21, all of which have produced sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentina and worldwide. Twenty-two (7.2%) strains carried a fully virulent stx/eae/ehxA genotype. Among them, strains of serotypes O103:[H2], O145:NM, and O111:NM represented 4.8% of the isolates. Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis showed 234 different patterns, with 76 strains grouped in 30 clusters. Nine of the clusters grouped strains isolated from feces and from carcasses of the same or different bovines in a lot, while three clusters were comprised of strains distributed in more than one abattoir. Patterns AREXSX01.0157, AREXBX01.0015, and AREXPX01.0013 were identified as 100% compatible with the patterns of one strain isolated from a hemolytic-uremic syndrome case and two strains previously isolated from beef medallions, included in the Argentine PulseNet Database. In this survey, 4.8% (39 of 811) of the bovine carcasses appeared to be contaminated with nonO157 STEC strains potentially capable of producing sporadic human disease, and a lower proportion (0.25%) with strains able to produce outbreaks of severe disease. PMID:22186039

Masana, M O; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Del Castillo, L L; Carbonari, C; Leotta, G A; Vilacoba, E; Irino, K; Rivas, M

2011-12-01

293

Deaerator inspection and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection of 11 deaerator systems at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was performed after at least 30 years of service. Each deaerator system consists of a heater vessel and a storage vessel. Of 22 total vessels, only 11 were found to contain cracks, and these were repaired. The cracks ranged up to one inch in length, were both transverse and

Vormelker

1987-01-01

294

Remote Inspection Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

Roman, Harry T.

2013-01-01

295

Laser scan inspection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present magnetic particle method of inspection using a black light borescope for the detection of cannon bore indications such as cracks, inclusions and discontinuities is time consuming and requires constant operator control. The inspector is highly susceptible to fatigue from prolonged staring into the scope which increases the possibility of overlooking a defect. A new method employing a recently

S. J. Krupski; F. J. Audino

1978-01-01

296

World Bank Inspection Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is simply to ensure a better understanding of the inspection function as envisaged in the resolution establishing the Panel. It will attempt to serve this purpose by shedding light in the first chapter on the circumstances which l...

I. F. I. Shihata

1994-01-01

297

Deaerator Inspection and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inspection of 11 deaerator systems at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was performed after at least 30 years of service. Each deaerator system consists of a heater vessel and a storage vessel. Of 22 total vessels, only 11 were found to contain cracks, and t...

P. R. Vormelker

1987-01-01

298

Improvement after Inspection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on a case study of one English secondary school in the three years following its release from Special Measures. Having followed the school's successful improvement (in inspection terms) while under Special Measures, I was interested to know if the school would be able to sustain its improvement once the inspectors had…

Perryman, Jane

2010-01-01

299

Playground Inspection & Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People today demand a safer work environment and a safer play environment for children. Accidents such as broken arms are no longer accepted as an inevitable part of growing up. This paper presents recommendations for the maintenance of safe playground areas and equipment, covering three main areas: (1) inspections, which should follow a specified…

Leeds, Gerard

300

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

301

From Inspection to School Improvement? Evaluating the Accelerated Inspection Programme in Waltham Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the main findings from the evaluation of the Accelerated Inspection Programme (AIP) in Waltham Forest under three main phases (pre-inspection, inspection, and post inspection). Focuses on the relationship between inspection and school improvement. Discusses the recommendations. (CMK)

Hopkins, David; Harris, Alma; Watling, Rob; Beresford, John

1999-01-01

302

Additives In Meat and Poultry Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) shares responsibility with FDA for the safety ...

303

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in abattoirs of the littoral and Western highland regions of cameroon: a cause for public health concern.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread but poorly controlled in Africa and M. bovis is posing threats to human health. The risk of cattle handlers to M. bovis prevalence and public health significance of BTB in Cameroon were assessed. Slaughter inspection records from major cities revealed that BTB detection rates in cattle from 0.18% to 4.25% and BTB lesions were most common. Analyses of tissues and sera confirmed BTB in 31% (Ziehl-Neelsen), 51% (culture), and 60% (antibody detection) of test cattle. Among cattle handlers, 81.9% were aware of BTB, 67.9% knew that BTB is zoonotic, and 53.8% knew one mode of transmission but over 27% consumed raw meat and/or drank unpasteurized milk. Respondents who had encountered tuberculosis cases were more informed about zoonotic BTB (P < .05). Tuberculosis is prevalent in cattle destined for human consumption in Cameroon with serious public health implications. Targeted monitoring of infected animal populations and concerted veterinary/medical efforts are essential for control. PMID:20613999

Awah Ndukum, J; Kudi, A Caleb; Bradley, G; Ane-Anyangwe, I N; Fon-Tebug, S; Tchoumboue, J

2010-01-01

304

Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

305

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

306

Multi-Sensor Inspection Telerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a telerobotic multi-sensor inspection system for space platforms developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A multi-sensor inspection end-effector incorporates cameras and lighting for visual inspection, as well as temperature and gas leak-detection sensors.

Balaram, J.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.

1994-01-01

307

Safety Audit/Inspection Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides guidelines and procedures for safety audits and inspections in work environments. Contents include: (1) Administrative Concepts, (2) Physical Concepts, (3) Protecting Your Audits, (4) Safety Inspections, and (5) Safety Inspection Checklist. The appendix features federal laws and regulations affecting laboratories. (YDS)

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

308

Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

2011-01-01

309

Polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of chicken in meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for specific detection of chicken meat using designed primer pair based on mitochondrial D-loop gene for amplification of 442bp DNA fragments from fresh, processed and autoclaved meat and meat products. The PCR result was further verified by restriction digestion with HaeIII and Sau3AI enzymes for specific cutting

B. G. Mane; S. K. Mendiratta; A. K. Tiwari

2009-01-01

310

Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as\\u000a a functional ingredient\\/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products.\\u000a Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for

Swapna C. Hathwar; Amit Kumar Rai; Vinod Kumar Modi; Bhaskar Narayan

311

Effect of raw meat L* -value, pH and marination on cooked meat quality of broiler thigh meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marination can improve meat quality, product yield, and sensory properties of meat. The major methods of marination are still-marination, injection and tumbling. The still-marinating process requires more space and time than the tumbling and injection processes, but does not require major capital investment. In addition, an advantage of still-marination is that it protects the integrity of fragile products such as

E. S. Lee; S. Dadgar; C. J. Kim; P. J. Shand

312

Streamline magnetic inspection of OCTGs  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that supply and demand imbalances in the drilling industry are allowing operators to make drilling contracts more stringent, despite reduced day rates. One typical requirement is more thorough inspection of drill string and bottomhole assemblies to ensure equipment-related failures don't increase costs. Magnetic inspection techniques for oil country tubular goods are becoming more advanced. However, common misperceptions often needlessly plague the inspection process. Today, almost all high-grade tubular goods are inspected in the plain-end state according to guidelines which are more stringent than those outlined by API inspection specification 5AX. Most tubular goods are inspected three to four times before the operator is satisfied they are suitable to run downhole. Often such inspections are conducted by different companies employing at least two techniques: magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonics (US).

Stanley, R.

1987-01-01

313

Industrial Inspection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lixi, Inc. has built a thriving business on NASA-developed x-ray technology. The Low Intensity X-ray Imaging scope (LIXI) was designed to use less than one percent of radiation required by conventional x-ray devices. It is portable and can be used for a variety of industrial inspection systems as well as medical devices. A food processing plant uses the new LIXI Conveyor system to identify small bone fragments in chicken. The chicken packages on a conveyor belt enter an x-ray chamber and the image is displayed on a monitor. Defects measuring less than a millimeter can be detected. An important advantage of the system is its ability to inspect 100 percent of the product right on the production line.

1993-01-01

314

Fate of low temperature and acid-adapted Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes that contaminate lactic acid decontaminated meat during chill storage.  

PubMed

Pathogens found in the environment of abattoirs may become adapted to lactic acid used to decontaminate meat. Such organisms are more acid tolerant than non-adapted parents and can contaminate meat after lactic acid decontamination (LAD). The fate of acid-adapted Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes, inoculated on skin surface of pork bellies 2 h after LAD, was examined during chilled storage. LAD included dipping in 1%, 2% or 5% lactic acid solutions at 55 degrees C for 120 s. LAD brought about sharp reductions in meat surface pH, but these recovered with time after LAD at approximately equal to 1-1.5 pH units below that of water-treated controls. Growth permitting pH at 4.8-5.2 was reached after 1% LAD in less than 0.5 d (pH 4.8-5.0), 2% LAD within 1.5 d (pH 4.9-5.1) and after 5% LAD (pH 5.0-5.2) within 4 d. During the lag on 2% LAD meat Y. enterocolitica counts decreased by 0.9 log10 cfu per cm2 and on 5% LAD the reduction was more than 1.4 log10 cfu per cm2. The reductions in L. monocytogenes were about a third of those in Y. enterocolitica. On 1% LAD the counts of both pathogens did not decrease significantly. The generation times of Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes on 2-5% LAD meats were by up to twofold longer than on water-treated controls and on 1% LAD-treated meat they were similar to those on water-treated controls. Low temperature and acid-adapted L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica that contaminate skin surface after hot 2-5% LAD did not cause an increased health hazard, although the number of Gram-negative spoilage organisms were drastically reduced by hot 2-5% LAD and intrinsic (lactic acid content, pH) conditions were created that may benefit the survival and the growth of acid-adapted organisms. PMID:9202443

van Netten, P; Valentijn, A; Mossel, D A; Huis in 't Veld, J H

1997-06-01

315

Risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions and associated mycobacteria in cattle slaughtered at public and export abattoirs in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at investigating risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions and associated\\u000a mycobacteria in Ethiopian cattle slaughtered. The study was carried out during 2006–2007 in five selected municipal and export\\u000a abattoirs. Methods of investigation involved detailed necropsy examination of carcasses and isolation of mycobacteria from\\u000a pathologic tissue specimens. Factors of animal and environment origin were

Demelash Biffa; Francis Inangolet; Asseged Bogale; James Oloya; Berit Djønne; Eystein Skjerve

2011-01-01

316

Dietary Epidemiology of Essential Tremor: Meat Consumption and Meat Cooking Practices  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Harmane [1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole] is a tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in essential tremor (ET) patients for unclear reasons. Potential mechanisms include increased dietary harmane intake (especially through well-cooked meat) or genetic-metabolic factors. We tested the hypothesis that meat consumption and level of meat doneness are higher in ET cases than in controls. Methods Detailed data were collected using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meat Questionnaire. Results Total current meat consumption was greater in men with than without ET (135.3 ± 71.1 vs. 110.6 ± 80.4 g/day, p = 0.03) but not in women with versus without ET (80.6 ± 50.0 vs. 79.3 ± 51.0 g/day, p = 0.76). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males, higher total current meat consumption was associated with ET (OR = 1.006, p = 0.04, i.e., with 10 additional g/day of meat, odds of ET increased by 6%). Male cases had higher odds of being in the highest than lowest quartile of total current meat consumption (adjusted OR = 21.36, p = 0.001). Meat doneness level was similar in cases and controls. Conclusion This study provides evidence of a dietary difference between male ET cases and male controls. The etiological ramifications of these results warrant additional investigation. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

Louis, Elan D.; Keating, Garrett A.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M.; Factor-Litvak, Pam

2008-01-01

317

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

318

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

319

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

320

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

321

Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

Hultin, Herbert O.

1984-01-01

322

[Meat and human health: excess and errors].  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

Lecerf, Jean-Michel

2011-11-01

323

[Evaluation of the meat quality of game].  

PubMed

The carcasses of 140 roe deer, 129 wild boars, 81 red deer and 55 fallow deer were examined to determine meat quality with respect to the influence of typical hunting situations. After hunting, many carcasses had not been cooled, which significantly influenced meat-quality parameters. The pH-value, detected electrochemically, gave the most reliable results out of all the meat-quality parameters investigated. Determination of the pH-value with regard to the pH indexes ascertained for different points of measurement and types of game is helpful in properly judging the substantial quality of venison. Determination of electrical conductivity and water-holding capacity (Q) can be helpful in judging meat quality. The value of residual-blood content in judging substantial venison quality is, however, doubtful. The measurement of rapid glycolysis and the evaluation of rigor mortis are not appropriate for determining the substantial quality of venison. PMID:8578914

Stolle, A; Marx, H; Kühnlein, C

1995-08-01

324

Meat and vegetarianism beliefs among Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent trend in Australia and similar countries towards decreased red meat consumption and increased interest in vegetarian diets has implications for public health, the environment, health education, and home economics educators. A 1999 random survey conducted in South Australia found that 1.5% respondents identified as vegetarian and 7.2% as semi- vegetarian. Twenty-five per cent of respondents ate red meat

Emma Lea

2003-01-01

325

Foodborne zoonoses due to meat: a quantitative approach for a comparative risk assessment applied to pig slaughtering in Europe.  

PubMed

Foodborne zoonoses have a major health impact in industrialised countries. New European food safety regulations were issued to apply risk analysis to the food chain. The severity of foodborne zoonoses and the exposure of humans to biological hazards transmitted by food must be assessed. For meat, inspection at the slaughterhouse is historically the main means of control to protect consumers. However, the levels of detection of biological hazards during meat inspection have not been established in quantitative terms yet. Pork is the most frequently consumed meat in Europe. The aim of this study was to provide elements for quantifying levels of risk for pork consumers and lack of detection by meat inspection. Information concerning hazard identification and characterisation was obtained by the compilation and statistical analysis of data from 440 literature references. The incidence and severity of human cases due to pork consumption in Europe were assessed in order to calculate risk scores. A ratio of non-control was calculated for each biological hazard identified as currently established in Europe, i.e. the incidence of human cases divided by the prevalence of hazards on pork. Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. were characterised by high incidence rates. Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Mycobacterium spp. showed the highest severity scores. The three main high risk hazards involved in foodborne infections, Y. enterocolitica, S. enterica and Campylobacter spp. are characterised by high non-control ratios and cannot be detected by macroscopic examination of carcasses. New means of hazard control are needed to complement the classical macroscopic examination. PMID:18073088

Fosse, Julien; Seegers, Henri; Magras, Catherine

2008-01-01

326

AGR-1 Source Inspection Report for First Inspection  

SciTech Connect

Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) of the Idaho National Laboratory completed a source inspection at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 7 and 8th, 2005. The objective of this inspection was to ensure that all required data collection forms, data collection processes and methods of data acceptance are in place prior to starting the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) particle coating production run. Material traceability and calibration requirements defined for Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) were also reviewed during this inspection.

Gary D. Roberts; Charles M. Barnes

2005-10-01

327

Study on the prevalence of cystic hydatidosis and its economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2008 to March 2009 to assess the status of cystic hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. Out of the total 632 cattle examined visually and manually (palpation and incision), 333 (52.69%) were found harboring hydatid cysts. A significantly higher infection was detected in older cattle (P < 0.05, chi(2) = 4.36) than young. Regarding body condition score, no significant variation (P > 0.05, chi(2) = 2.148) was observed as the prevalence was 54.55% for lean cattle followed by medium (53.83%) and fat (46.88%). Of the total 333 infected, 123 (36.9%) had hydatid cysts only in the lung, 23 (6.9%) in the liver, 12 (3.6%) in the spleen, five (1.5%) in the heart, and three (0.9%) in the kidney while the rest 167 (50.2%) had multiple organ infections. Of the 530 viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest (52.83%) was lung followed by liver (34.15%), spleen (9.06%), heart (3.39%), and kidney (0.56%). Size assessment made on 874 cysts indicated that 308 (35.3%) were small, 251 (28.7%) medium, 89 (10.2%) large, and 226 (25.9%) were calcified. The distribution of characterized cysts in different organs based on their size was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, out of the total 874 cysts collected, 26.9% were fertile, 47.3% sterile, and 25.9% calcified or purulent cysts. There was a significant difference in fertility of cyst from different organs (P < 0.05, chi(2) = 27.96), those of lung origin being highly fertile. Likewise, out of the 121 fertile cysts subjected for viability test, 68 (56.2%) were viable. Considering the current result, the total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to bovine hydatidosis at Hawassa Municipal abattoir was estimated at 1,791,625.89 Ethiopian Birr (ETB; 1USD = 12.93ETB). Results in the study were discussed in light of the situation in different parts of Ethiopia and abroad, and finally, relevant recommendations were forwarded. PMID:20111997

Regassa, Feyesa; Molla, Alemante; Bekele, Jemere

2010-06-01

328

Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.  

PubMed

Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication. PMID:24426061

Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

329

Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review  

PubMed Central

Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration and formation of undesirable “warmed over flavour” in chicken meat products are supposed to be the lack of ?-tocopherol in chicken meat.

Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

330

Listeria spp. associated to different levels of autochthonous microbiota in meat, meat products and processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth of pathogens in these products and interfere in the results of laboratory analyses for detection of these pathogens. With the aim of verifying the possible interference of the autochthonous microbiota encountered in meat and meat products and processing plants

Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Luís Augusto Nero; Aline Villas-Bôas Manoel; Loredana d'Ovídio; Lívia Cavaletti da Silva; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco; Vanerli Beloti

2007-01-01

331

Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level  

PubMed Central

Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

2012-01-01

332

Laser Safety Inspection Criteria  

SciTech Connect

A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

Barat, K

2005-06-13

333

Safeguards management inspection procedures  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes.

Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

1984-08-01

334

Inspection of Grade S-135 Drill Pipe Test Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Discussion; Procedure; Inspection results - initial inspection (standard AMALOG and special end area inspection) (electronic end area inspection of new drill pipe after attachment of tool joints) (ISOLOG B and ultrasonic inspection); Inspection ...

H. J. Schneider, F. M. Wood, W. M. Rogers

1964-01-01

335

Selenium content of game meat  

SciTech Connect

Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States) Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1991-03-11

336

Fluorescent penetrant inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with fluorescent penetrant inspection and to relate it to classification of various defects. The penetrant method of nondestructive testing is a method for finding discontinuities open to the surface in solids and essentially nonporous bodies. The method employs a penetrating liquid which is applied over the surface and enters the discontinuity or crack. After the excess of penetrant has been cleaned from the surface, the penetrant which exudes or is drawn back out of the crack indicates the presence and location of a discontinuity. The experimental procedure is described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

337

Electrostatic Levitator Inspected  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larry Savage, Dr. Jan Rogers, Dr. Michael Robinson (All NASA) and Doug Huie (Mevatec) inspect the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

338

Visual Inspection of Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation evaluates the parameters that affect visual inspection of cleanliness. Factors tested include surface reflectance, surface roughness, size of the largest particle, exposure time, inspector and distance from sample surface. It is concluded that distance predictions were not great, particularly because the distance at which contamination is seen may depend on more variables than those tested. Most parameters estimates had confidence of 95% or better, except for exposure and reflectance. Additionally, the distance at which surface is visibly contaminated decreases with increasing reflectance, roughness, and exposure. The distance at which the surface is visually contaminated increased with the largest particle size. These variables were only slightly affected the observer.

Hughes, David; Perez, Xavier

2007-01-01

339

Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: An overview.  

PubMed

Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. PMID:25017317

Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

2014-11-01

340

Serotype Distribution of Salmonella Isolates from Turkey Ground Meat and Meat Parts  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Luppo; Bilir Ormanci, Fatma Seda; Iseri Kangal, Ozlem

2013-01-01

341

Optical techniques for industrial inspection  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Surface inspection; Optical techniques for quality control; 3D vision; Spectroscopic techniques; and Optical techniques for process control.

Cielo, P.G.

1986-01-01

342

Inspection system performance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system.

Jensen, C.E.

1995-01-17

343

Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer.

John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

344

Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40-79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.92), processed meat (OR = 1.57, CI = 1.04-2.36), grilled red meat (OR = 1.63, CI = 0.99-2.68), and well-done red meat (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.93-2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Quartile 2 vs. 1: OR = 1.41, CI = 0.98-2.01; Quartile 3 vs. 1: OR = 1.42, CI = 0.98-2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

John, Esther M; Stern, Mariana C; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

2011-01-01

345

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus in swine livers collected at an abattoir.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2011 to March 2012 [corrected] . Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detected in the swine liver samples tested. Regarding antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates, all isolates, except 1 Campylobacter jejuni isolate, were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agent. Campylobacter spp. resistant to erythromycin and/or enrofloxacin were isolated from the liver samples of 9 (8%) pigs. These results suggest that the consuming swine liver without proper heat treatment may increase the risk of foodborne illnesses. PMID:23514917

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Haruna, Mika; Murakami, Mariko; Hayashida, Mizuho; Ito, Kazuo; Noda, Mamoru; Yamada, Yukiko

2013-01-01

346

Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups in ruminant's meat.  

PubMed

To assess the presences of Escherichia coli, its serogroups, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties in ruminant's meat, a total of 820 raw meat samples were collected and then evaluated using culture, PCR and disk diffusion methods. Totally, 238 (29.02%) samples were positive for presence of Escherichia coli. All of the isolates had more than one virulence gene including Stx1, Stx2, eaeA and ehly. All investigated serogroups were found in beef and sheep and all except O145, O121 and O128 were found in goat. The O91, O113, O111, O103, O26 and O157 serogroups were found in camel. Totally, aadA1-blaSHV combination was the most predominant antibiotic resistance gene. The highest resistance of STEC strains was seen against penicillin while resistance to nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin was minimal. These findings showed that health care and meat inspection should be reconsidered in Iranian slaughterhouses and butchers. PMID:23747633

Momtaz, Hassan; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ezadi, Hossein; Arab, Reza

2013-10-01

347

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

1994-12-31

348

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

349

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540

Kebede, Nigatu

2008-12-01

350

Test Inspected Unit or Inspect Unit Tested Code?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code inspection and unit testing are two popular fault- detecting techniques at unit level. Organizations where inspections are done generally supplement it with unit testing, as both are complementary. A natural question is the order in which the two techniques should be exercised as this may impact the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the verification process. In this paper, we

Atul Gupta; Pankaj Jalote

2007-01-01

351

Miniature underwater bore hole inspection apparatus. [visual inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniature submergible inspection device is provided for the visual inspection and survey of the strata of dry or water-filled bore holes providing data for video display or recording at the earth's surface and controllable therefrom. Adapted for reversing azimuth scan of the bore hole surface, the raster scan generates a display presented to the operator that does not rotate

B. J. Askowith; M. C. Ellis; R. H. Oberlies; F. A. Peterson; P. Prasad

1976-01-01

352

Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?  

PubMed

During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full effect, rates of salmonellosis have not decreased (surveillance and reporting systems have remained unchanged). Using statistics gathered by the National Enteric Pathogens Surveillance Scheme, an attempt was made to link Salmonella serovars isolated from meat and poultry with those causing salmonellosis. Two periods were studied, 1993/1994, before regulations were introduced, and 2000/2001, when regulations should be having an effect. For red meat, the same serovars were prominent among the top 10 isolates both before and after regulation, and there was little linkage with salmonelloses. For poultry, frequently isolated serovars differed pre- and post-regulation, however, in both periods there was some linkage between serovars isolated from poultry and those causing salmonelloses. Using published and unpublished survey data, it was concluded that there had been improvements in microbiological quality of red meat and poultry over the same timeframe as regulatory changes. That these improvements apparently have not carried through to reduced case-rates for salmonellosis may be due to numerous causes, including lack of control in the food processing, food service and home sectors. The present paper illustrates difficulties faced by governments in measuring public health outcomes of changes to food hygiene regulation. PMID:15109797

Sumner, John; Raven, Geoff; Givney, Rod

2004-04-15

353

Feeding and meat quality - a future approach.  

PubMed

The continuous demand for high standards of quality assurance in the meat production of today and tomorrow calls for development of new tools capable of meeting such demands. The present paper aims to re-think the traditional way of using feeding as a quality control tool in the production of meat and to introduce the potential of a nutrigenomic approach as a first step in the development of pro-active quality control systems which fulfil future demands from industry and consumers. A few chosen examples present how specific feeding strategies can manipulate (i) muscle protein turnover and thereby meat tenderness as well as the cost and sustainability of the production and (ii) muscle energy levels at slaughter and thereby the pH decline, water-holding capacity and the sensory characteristics of meats. The examples are discussed in relation to exploiting essential and basic understanding of physiological and physical processes, which can subsequently be included in a systems biology line of thought of importance for development of unique decision support systems in future meat production. PMID:22063752

Andersen, Henrik J; Oksbjerg, Niels; Young, Jette F; Therkildsen, Margrethe

2005-07-01

354

9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ground meat (which must not include cardiac muscle), cubes of meat, slices of meat...meat (cuts taken from the skeletal muscle tissue) weighing no more than...meat (cuts taken from the skeletal muscle tissue) cooked in tubes in...

2009-01-01

355

9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ground meat (which must not include cardiac muscle), cubes of meat, slices of meat...meat (cuts taken from the skeletal muscle tissue) weighing no more than...meat (cuts taken from the skeletal muscle tissue) cooked in tubes in...

2010-01-01

356

Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-s1 with carcass and meat traits.  

PubMed

Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult, because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in most beef cattle populations. This results in few animals homozygous for the minor alleles. selection to increase the frequencies of the minor alleles for 2 SNP markers in these genes was undertaken in a composite population. The objective was to obtain better estimates of genetic effects associated with these markers and determine if there were epistatic interactions. Selection increased the frequencies of minor alleles for both SNP from <0.30 to 0.45. Bulls (n = 24) heterozygous for both SNP were used in 3 yr to produce 204 steer progeny harvested at an average age of 474 d. The combined effect of the 9 CSN1S1 × TG genotypes was associated with carcass-adjusted fat thickness (P < 0.06) and meat tenderness predicted at the abattoir by visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (P < 0.04). Genotype did not affect BW from birth through harvest, ribeye area, marbling score, slice shear force, or image-based yield grade (P > 0.10). Additive, dominance, and epistatic SNP association effects were estimated from genotypic effects for adjusted fat thickness and predicted meat tenderness. Adjusted fat thickness showed a dominance association with TG SNP (P < 0.06) and an epistatic additive CSN1S1 × additive TG association (P < 0.03). For predicted meat tenderness, heterozygous TG meat was more tender than meat from either homozygote (P < 0.002). Dominance and epistatic associations can result in different SNP allele substitution effects in populations where SNP have the same linkage disequilibrium with causal mutations but have different frequencies. Although the complex associations estimated in this study would contribute little to within-population selection response, they could be important for marker-assisted management or reciprocal selection schemes. PMID:23148258

Bennett, G L; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Smith, T P L

2013-02-01

357

Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".  

PubMed

The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the case of Y. enterocolitica and T. gondii the intra-herd seroprevalence values varied even from zero to 100%. This shows that a serological risk categorization of pig herds regarding zoonoses and production diseases is meaningful if used for risk-based decisions in the framework of the new meat inspection concept and as part of the herd health management system. Thus, the development of a cost-efficient, time- and labour-saving test system for simultaneously detecting various antibodies should be the next step for an extensive implementation of the meat juice multi-serology concept. PMID:24411983

Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

2014-03-01

358

Feasibility of Livestock Meat Processing and Marketing Cooperatives in Vermont.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content: Situation in Vermont; Livestock production and marketing in Vermont and adjacent areas; Analysis of producer schedules; Analysis of meat outlets; Factors to consider in establishing a cooperative meat plant; Alternative methods of handling livest...

R. L. Fox C. G. Randell

1967-01-01

359

78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rulemaking. Goat Meat One commenter expressed concern that inspectors may not know the difference between a goat kid carcass and a lamb kid carcass. Establishments in Uruguay that prepare ovine meat for export slaughter the sheep. Live sheep are...

2013-11-14

360

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

361

Red Meat May Raise Breast Cancer Risk, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Red Meat May Raise Breast Cancer Risk, Study Suggests ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Women who ate the most red meat increased their risk for breast cancer by ...

362

Laser Safety Inspection Criteria  

SciTech Connect

A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items. Some examples are given from the audit criteria handout. As an explanatory key to the reader, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) as a formally reviewed safety procedure required for all Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations. An ''OSP Binder'' contains all safety documentation related to a given laser operation and serves as a central repository for documents, such as the OSP, interlock logs, lessons learned, contact information etc. ''Unattended Operation'' refers to approved procedures for unattended operation of the laser installation and may include operation beyond normal working hours. ''L-train'' is the LLNL training tracking system.

Barat, K

2005-02-11

363

Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.  

PubMed

A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P < 0.01). An increased amount of turkey meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on residual nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity decreased residual nitrite level in finished cured meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation. PMID:11271773

Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

2001-02-01

364

Inspection Policies for A System which Is Inoperative During Inspection Periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection policy models deal with stochastically failing systems in which failures are detected by inspections only. In this paper we examine a model for a system which is inoperative during the inspection periods. This problem is important in situations where inspections demand a considerable amount of time, such as the inspection of production machines, inspection of communication systems, aircraft maintenance,

Hanan Luss

1977-01-01

365

How to Handle 'Routine' Inspections  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive examination (NDE) utilized for preservice or inservice inspection provides valuable information relating to the quality and integrity of fabricated components. This document describes the importance of detailed preparation for nondestructive examination regardless of the complexity, periodicity or routine nature of the examinations/inspections being performed.

Chris T. Brown

2013-04-01

366

Pipe inspection and repair system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

2004-01-01

367

1990 waste tank inspection program  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1990-01-01

368

Wet testing aids inspection process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding inspection of offshore platforms has seen a large increase in the use of non-destructive testing (NDT) being done underwater. This form of wet NDT has increased due to its acceptance and necessity. Two of the more common NDT methods are magnetic particle\\/inspection (MPI) and ultrasonics. These two techniques are probably the most economical and effective types of wet NDT

1979-01-01

369

Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones  

PubMed Central

The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones.

Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

2005-01-01

370

Quality tracing in meat supply chains.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

2014-01-01

371

Device for inspecting vessel surfaces  

DOEpatents

A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

372

Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads  

SciTech Connect

Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

2005-04-01

373

Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were

Evangelyn C. Alocilja

2008-01-01

374

Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According\\u000a to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased\\u000a 27% in value to $1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were

Evangelyn C. Alocilja

375

46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169.226 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your...

2013-10-01

376

46 CFR 169.225 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual inspection. 169.225 Section 169.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.225 Annual inspection. (a) Your vessel...

2013-10-01

377

46 CFR 107.275 - Other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspection: (a) An inspection after an accident. (b) An inspection after a defect is found that affectsâ (1) The seaworthiness of the unit; or (2) The safety or efficiency of a lifesaving device, or firefighting device. (c) An...

2013-10-01

378

42 CFR 73.18 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.18 Inspections. (a) Without prior notification, the HHS Secretary, shall be allowed to inspect any...

2012-10-01

379

42 CFR 73.18 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.18 Inspections. (a) Without prior notification, the HHS Secretary, shall be allowed to inspect any...

2013-10-01

380

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in-depth, fracture critical member and underwater inspection. (c) Rate each bridge...bridges with FCMs, bridges requiring underwater inspection, and bridges that are scour...procedures. (2) Bridges requiring underwater inspections. Identify the...

2013-04-01

381

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Challenge inspections. 717.2 Section 717.2 Commerce...CLARIFICATION PROCEDURES (CONSULTATIONS AND CHALLENGE INSPECTIONS) § 717.2 Challenge inspections. Persons or facilities, other...

2010-01-01

382

46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping...CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270...

2010-10-01

383

49 CFR 230.13 - Daily inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily inspection. 230.13 Section 230.13 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.13 Daily...

2010-10-01

384

46 CFR 169.225 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual inspection. 169.225 Section 169.225...SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Reinspection § 169.225 Annual inspection. (a) Your vessel must...

2010-10-01

385

49 CFR 230.16 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual inspection. 230.16 Section 230.16 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS General General Inspection Requirements § 230.16 Annual...

2010-10-01

386

10 CFR 26.821 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...duly authorized NRC representatives to inspect, copy, or take away copies of its records and to inspect its premises...authorized NRC representatives may inspect, copy, or take away copies of any licensee's, other entity's, or...

2010-01-01

387

TPS Inspection and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

388

Industrial Inspection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ACTIS+ is a smaller, personal computer version of ACTIS, a computed tomography system which finds its origins in the Apollo lunar landing research. It is used to identify imperfections in aerospace structures and components. Designed to be added to an existing real time radiography system, its components include a high precision rotation/elevation manipulator, color image monitor, graphical user interface monitor, and PC compatible workstation. Cross-sectional CT images are more detailed than radiographic images and the high speed scanning feature offers the capability for 100 percent inspection in a production environment. Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. (BIR) originally developed ACTIS for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and commercial units were sold to aerospace manufacturers. The technology was refined for ACTIS+, which is principally used in non-destructive testing.

1993-01-01

389

Grain quality inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

1979-01-01

390

Automated fabric inspection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automatic Fabric Inspection System developed by Systronics Inc. for Clemson Apparel Research uses vision technology to acquire images of the fabric two thousand times per second. Each image-video line consisting of 2048 picture elements is analyzed by a signal processing module and a decision on defect presence and location is made. A product norm signal is first established by having the system acquire an image of an unflawed stripe of the product. The output of each picture element (pixel) is digitized to a grey scale value in the 0-255 range. Threshold levels for defects with grey scale values higher and lower than product norm can then be established and set. The system will then compare all subsequent images against the set thresholds.

Jarvis, Christine W.

1993-10-01

391

Slicing frozen meat with an oscillating knife.  

PubMed

The forces, and hence fracture energies, required to cut frozen meat are presented in this paper and the merits of applying vibrations to a cutting blade are considered. A knife oscillating in a slicing action was used to cut horse M. semimembranosus and loin muscle M. longissimus dorsi over a range of temperatures (-1.5°C to -30°C) and vibration frequencies (0-1000 Hz). The blade required less force to cut when slicing than when not slicing; the decrease in force was proportional to the velocity of the slicing motion. If the average relative slicing velocity of the blade with respect to the meat was greater than 164 mm/s then the cutting force reduced significantly. The reduction was due to a lower requirement for energy to produce the new material surface (up to 80% reduction) and also a reduction in the plastic energy required to deform the off-cut by the blade (up to 30% reduction). The surface energy was reduced because the fracture mechanism was altered by the slicing action. The plastic energy was reduced because the slicing blade fractured the meat fibres with less strain (and hence less material deformation around the process zone) than a blade pressed directly into the meat. Vibration frequencies of 10-100 Hz were required to generate the required slicing motion with the equipment available. A vibrating cutting blade could have a combination of chopping and slicing motions superimposed upon it. These would reduce both the friction between the knife blade and the meat, as well as the surface and plastic energy required to cut the meat. PMID:22061861

King, M J

1999-03-01

392

Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

Toldrá, Fidel

393

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

394

Effect of dry honey on oxidation in turkey breast meat.  

PubMed

The effect of adding dry honey to turkey breast meat on oxidative stability was measured using TBA, volatile headspace, and oxidative stability index. Ground turkey breast meat was mixed with different concentrations of dry honey (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) then cooked in polyethylene bags to 72 C. Oxidative stability measurements were taken for raw meat and cooked meat and for cooked meat after 48 h of storage at 4 C. The proximate composition of the raw meat was 73.9% moisture, 23.2% protein, and 1.3% fat. Gas headspace analysis determined hexanal to be the most abundant volatile compound. Hexanal content decreased as the amount of added honey increased in both freshly cooked meat and in meat stored for 48 h at 4 C. The TBA values also decreased with increasing levels of added honey in the freshly cooked and 48-h-stored meats. The percentage inhibition of oxidation for the 5, 10, 15, and 20% samples increased from 50 to 76% for the freshly cooked meat and from 34 to 88% for the 48-h-stored meat. The oxidative stability index increased with increasing concentrations of honey from 0.28 h (control) to 7.73 h (20% honey). Addition of up to 15% honey inhibited the development of oxidative compounds in cooked turkey meat, with little further inhibition observed compared to 20% honey. PMID:11194051

Antony, S; Rieck, J R; Dawson, P L

2000-12-01

395

Effect of Meat (Beef, Chicken, Bacon) on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcino- genesis in rats.

Géraldine Parnaud; Ginette Peiffer; Sylviane Taché; Denis E. Corpet

396

China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.  

PubMed

From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. PMID:22608925

Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

2012-11-01

397

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2010-01-01

398

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2009-01-01

399

Meat as a component of a healthy diet – are there any risks or benefits if meat is avoided in the diet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat is frequently associated with a “negative” health image due to its “high” fat content and in the case of red meat is seen as a cancer-promoting food. Therefore, a low meat intake, especially red meat is recommended to avoid the risk of cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, this discussion overlooks the fact, that meat is an important source

H.-K. Biesalski

2005-01-01

400

Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry.

Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

2012-01-01

401

Prevalence, characterization, and genotypic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM from selected beef exporting abattoirs of Argentina.  

PubMed

In Argentina, Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM (STEC O157) is the prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is endemic in the country with more than 400 cases per year. In order to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 in beef cattle at slaughter, a survey of 1,622 fecal and carcass samples was conducted in nine beef exporting abattoirs from November 2006 to April 2008. A total of 54 samples were found positive for STEC O157, with an average prevalence of 4.1% in fecal content and 2.6% in carcasses. Calves and heifers presented higher percentages of prevalence in feces, 10.5 and 8.5%, respectively. All STEC O157 isolates harbored stx(2) (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin), and fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin) genes, while stx(1) (Shiga toxin 1) was present in 16.7% of the strains. The prevalent (56%) stx genotype identified was stx(2) combined with variant stx(2c (vh-a)), the combination of which is also prevalent (>90%) in STEC O157 post-enteric HUS cases in Argentina. The clonal relatedness of STEC O157 strains was established by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 54 STEC isolates were categorized into 12 different phage types and in 29 XbaI-PFGE patterns distributed in 27 different lots. STEC O157 strains isolated from 5 of 21 carcasses were identical by PFGE (100% similarity) to strains of the fecal content of the same or a contiguous bovine in the lot. Five phage type-PFGE-stx profiles of 10 strains isolated in this study matched with the profiles of the strains recovered from 18 of 122 HUS cases that occurred in the same period. PMID:20377952

Masana, M O; Leotta, G A; Del Castillo, L L; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Vilacoba, E; Carbonari, C; Rodríguez, H R; Rivas, M

2010-04-01

402

The effect of processed meat and meat starter cultures on gastrointestinal colonization and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of major concern to the food industry in general and the meat industry in particular. The aim of this study was firstly to identify a strain of Listeria that was virulent in SPF BALB\\/c mice. Secondly, to investigate if a traditional meat starter culture (FloraCarn) and nontraditional meat starter (NTMS) cultures of dairy product

M. Mahoney; A. Henriksson

2003-01-01

403

Visual inspection for CTBT verification  

SciTech Connect

On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

1997-03-01

404

Meat and meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study.  

PubMed

Meats cooked at high temperatures, such as pan-frying or grilling, are a source of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We prospectively examined the association between meat types, meat cooking methods, meat doneness, and meat mutagens and the risk for prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. We estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for prostate cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression using age as the underlying time metric and adjusting for state of residence, race, smoking status, and family history of prostate cancer. During 197,017 person-years of follow-up, we observed 668 incident prostate cancer cases (613 of these were diagnosed after the first year of follow-up and 140 were advanced cases) among 23,080 men with complete dietary data. We found no association between meat type or specific cooking method and prostate cancer risk. However, intake of well or very well done total meat was associated with a 1.26-fold increased risk of incident prostate cancer (95% CI, 1.02-1.54) and a 1.97-fold increased risk of advanced disease (95% CI, 1.26-3.08) when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest. Risks for the two heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-b]quinoxaline were of borderline significance for incident disease [1.24 (95% CI, 0.96-1.59) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.93-1.55), respectively] when the highest quintile was compared with the lowest. In conclusion, well and very well done meat was associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer in this cohort. PMID:18199713

Koutros, Stella; Cross, Amanda J; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sinha, Rashmi

2008-01-01

405

Ultrasonic Inspection Near Small Bores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable ultrasonic probe makes it possible to inspect for hidden cracks near insides of narrow tubes. Using pulse-echo technique, instrument detects cracks as small as 0.015-in. (0.38-mm) deep. Used for nondestructive inspection of other hard-to-reach places where conventional large transducers will not fit or where difficult to apply coupling liquid for contact ultrasonic testing. Inspects bore of tubelike fitting. Instrument makes it unnecessary to disassemble fitting to check for cracks. Precise orientation of transducer with respect to part not necessary for detecting cracks.

Parent, R. G.

1986-01-01

406

Microbial challenges of poultry meat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. but, from the commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a role as potential threats. Regarding food safety, the primary target should be

C. Voidarou; D. Vassos; G. Rozos; A. Alexopoulos; S. Plessas; A. Tsinas; M. Skoufou; E. Stavropoulou; E. Bezirtzoglou

407

Metrics for Food Preparation, Baking, Meat Cutting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food preparation, baking, meat cutting students, this instructional package is one of five for the home economics occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

408

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

ScienceCinema

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2009-09-01

409

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

SciTech Connect

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

LLNL - University of California Television

2008-05-01

410

Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

Litchfield, J. H.

1978-01-01

411

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with acute maternal infection acquired during or shortly before the pregnancy. The mother's infection is initiated by the ingestion of one of the life forms of the parasite but the relative importance of the different sources of toxoplasmosis are not established. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed ingestion of raw meats as a risk factor but also

Michelle R Warnekulasuriya; Julie D Johnson; Richard E Holliman

1998-01-01

412

Whale Meat: A Safe and Healthy Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent international debates concerning the potential resumption of commercial whaling, whale meat has frequently been promoted as a good food. Recent research into the diet of Faroe Islanders and Inuit Indians has revealed that consumption of marine mammal tissues can cause them to exceed recommended intake levels for various pollutants. Whales throughout the world have been found to accumulate

Mark P. Simmonds; Paul A. Johnston

1994-01-01

413

Meat consumption: Trends and quality matters.  

PubMed

This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed. PMID:25060586

Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

2014-11-01

414

Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott

2007-01-01

415

Automated inspection station for optical inspection of multifocal intraocular lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated inspection station is a specifically designed for quality assurance inspection of multifocal intraocular lenses in the manufacturing environment. The station provides automatic measurements for all required optical parameters of the AMO ARRAYTM multifocal IOL, which includes labeling parameters such as effective focal length, aqueous diopter power (distance power), add power (near power), and depth-of-focus (DOF) around the distance power, and optical quality parameters such as resolution efficiency, image contrast modulation (MTF), through focus response (TFR), and astigmatism.

Sun, Rong; Bolton, Paul W.; Portney, Valdemar

1994-02-01

416

Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation  

PubMed Central

Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

Sanchez-Ortega, Irais; Garcia-Almendarez, Blanca E.; Santos-Lopez, Eva Maria; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

2014-01-01

417

The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

418

Incidence of Escherichia coli in Black Walnut Meats  

PubMed Central

Examination of commercially shelled black walnut meats showed inconsistent numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli; variation occurred among different meat sizes and within each meat size. The incidence of E. coli on meats of commercially hulled black walnuts depended on the physical condition of the nuts. Apparently tightly sealed ones contained only a few or none, whereas those with visibly separated sutures and spoiled meats yielded the most. This contamination was in part correlated to a hulling operation. Large numbers of E. coli on the husk of the walnuts contaminated the hulling water, subsequently also contaminating the meats by way of separated sutures. Chlorination of the hulling wash water was ineffective. Attempts were made to decontaminate the walnut meats without subsequent deleterious changes in flavor or texture. A treatment in coconut oil at 100 C followed by removal of excess surface oil by centrifugation was best.

Meyer, Melvin T.; Vaughn, Reese H.

1969-01-01

419

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

Bernardi, R.T.

1996-12-31

420

Downhole casing inspection system  

SciTech Connect

A downhole casing interior and exterior wall inspection tool is described comprising: a. a multiple element transducer head package containing at least a multiplicity of 1/4 inch diameter transducers which transmit a signal and receive returns of the signal from the interior and exterior surfaces of the casing, b. an electronic package associated with such transducer head package containing an component to convert the return signals from each transducer to a digitalized signal communicatable to a contained programmed microprocessor of the package, c. the communications component operatively associated with the electronic package enables communications of the output of the micro-processor, via wire-line, to the CPU at the surface, d. the CPU at the surface programmed to visualize and report the signals which are received as significant from the expected norm as well as the preprogrammed number of expected signals return. The transducer head package has each transducer spaced circumferentially and longitudinally in a staggered pattern of about 6 rows such that the signals generated from the transducers will scan from about 60 to about 100% of the interior of the casing.

Anderson, L.J.

1987-10-20

421

76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tracks illnesses caused by the three pathogens, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), and E. coli O157...coli O157:H7. The same cannot be said about Salmonella. Salmonella spp., especially multi-drug resistant...

2011-09-09

422

77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency verification activities and guidance concerning sanitary dressing and antimicrobial interventions at veal slaughter operations...can make to its verification activities related to sanitary dressing and interventions at veal slaughter establishments and...

2012-12-19

423

75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the meeting, when they become available, will be kept in the FSIS Docket Room, USDA, FSIS, Room 2-2175, George Washington Carver Center, 5601 Sunnyside Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, Mailstop 5272, and posted on the Agency's...

2010-09-16

424

Surface Inspection: Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnecti...

J. S. Batchelder

1987-01-01

425

Visual Inspections of Cannon Bores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Describes inspection techniques and equipment for observing and recording changes in condition of cannon bores. Covers closed circuit television (CCTV) and telescopic borescope systems, video tape and photographic recording methods, and techniques and mat...

1978-01-01

426

Visual Inspections of Cannon Bores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes inspection techniques and equipment for observing and recording changes in condition of cannon bores and covers the use of borescope, cameras, gutta-percha or clay impressions, and Woods metal casts. Not applicable are measurements o...

1976-01-01

427

Visual Inspections of Cannon Bores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This international test operations procedures document describes the inspection techniques and equipment used for detecting, observing, and recording changes in the condition of cannon bores. It covers closed-circuit television and telescopic-borescope sy...

1983-01-01

428

Field inspection, data interpretation detailed  

SciTech Connect

The on-line inspection standards adopted by British Gas for metal loss features have been attained and in some cases exceeded. It has been demonstrated that metal loss defects can be accurately located and described using a technique based on magnetic flux leakage. Experience within British Gas has demonstrated on-line inspection to be practical and capable of routine application, thus achieving the technical, operational, and cost advantages over hydrostatic testing which were the prime objectives of its development. The obvious benefit of on-line inspection being able to provide information about pipeline condition in advance of features becoming critical has been realized. This contrasts with hydrostatic testing which does not have this ability. Trials in transmission pipes and a pressurized test loop have confirmed that an inspection system employing elastic waves can be used to detect and size stress corrosion cracks.

Clevehugh, G.; Jackson, L.; Shannon, R.W.E.

1983-02-07

429

FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate t...

C. L. Windes D. G. Moore

2000-01-01

430

Evaluation of Microencapsulated Penetrant Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented are the results of a program to evaluate the merits and short-comings of microencapsulated penetrants for use in fluorescent penetrant inspection to evaluate capsule and spray parameters to effectively use microencapsulated penetrants, and to co...

J. M. Portaz

1980-01-01

431

Risk-based inspection guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-service inspections can play a significant role in minimizing equipment and structural failures. However, for many components that are required to maintain pressure boundary integrity or that are subjected to severe service conditions in the nuclear power, fossil-fired power, and the petroleum and chemical processing industries as well as other applications, in-service inspection requirements are either established based upon prior

K. R. Balkey; B. M. Ayyub; B. F. Gore; F. A. Simonen; D. O. Harris; D. Karydas; H. Jr. Smith; O. J. V. Chapman

1990-01-01

432

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection  

SciTech Connect

Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

Tsai, C.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

1995-02-01

433

Surface inspection: Research and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

Batchelder, J. S.

1987-01-01

434

One and Two Family Dwelling Inspection Guide,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The One and Two Family Dwelling Inspection Guide is designed for building inspectors, contractors, and others who find an inspection-by-inspection checklist useful for inspecting housing units built to the requirements of the CABO One and Two Family Dwell...

W. Brenner D. Hattis

1986-01-01

435

Do Inspections Improve Primary School Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the effect of Dutch primary school inspections on test scores. These inspections are assessments of the educational quality of schools. The authors use two approaches to estimate the effect of the inspections. The first approach, based on a standard fixed effects model, indicates that inspections lead to slightly better…

Luginbuhl, Rob; Webbink, Dinand; de Wolf, Inge

2009-01-01

436

7 CFR 57.28 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections. 57.28 Section 57.28 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF...

2010-01-01

437

SIMULATION OF A TIRE INSPECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation is an important aspect to consider when designing an inspection system based upon machine vision. The tire inspection system uses thermal cameras to inspect the surface of a tire. The simulation of a tire inspection system can yield an optimal set of parameters for a thermal camera, or given a specific thermal camera provide information on the optimal placement

W. H. GRAY; C. DUMONT; M. A. ABIDI

1999-01-01

438

Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, Jose Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira

2013-01-01

439

Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Increasing numbers and complexity of facilities inspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency will require difficult decisions about the levels of safeguards to be assigned to materials and facilities should limitations on inspection resources continue. This paper examines some alternative strategies for assigning inspection effort that could improve effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards compared with current inspection practice. These allocation concepts are: (1) extension of inspection planning to include material strata and accounting areas that encompass multiple facilities and (2) the use of randomization of the quality and frequency of inspections and inspection activities.

Markin, J.T.

1987-01-01

440

A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

SciTech Connect

The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

2010-03-12

441

Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

2013-01-01

442

Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.  

PubMed

This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

2013-01-01

443

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01

444

Efforts to overcome vegetarian-induced dissonance among meat eaters.  

PubMed

Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency ("I eat meat; I don't like to hurt animals"), aversive consequences ("I eat meat; eating meat harms animals"), or threats to self image ("I eat meat; compassionate people don't hurt animals"). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions. PMID:24727102

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-08-01

445

Does It Look Cooked? A Review of Factors That Influence Cooked Meat Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate cooking of meat is necessary to inactivate microbial pathogens. This is particularly important for ground meat products and some variety meats where pathogens can be present internally. Consumers are being advised on appropriate temperatures to which meat products should be cooked, and to use a meat thermometer to ensure these temperatures are reached. However, consumers are more likely to

Rosemary Whyte

2006-01-01

446

Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

447

Horizontal Hostility among Non-Meat Eaters  

PubMed Central

The present study examined intergroup judgments made between four groups of non-meat eaters: health vegetarians; ethical vegetarians; health vegans, and ethical vegans. Consistent with hypotheses based on horizontal hostility and the need to maintain ingroup distinctiveness, ethical vegetarians gave unfavorable evaluations to health vegetarians relative to vegans, especially when the mainstream omnivore group was made salient. Contrary to expectations, vegans gave relatively more favorable evaluations to ethical vegetarians than health vegetarians when mainstream salience was low. This was especially true for vegans who were motivated primarily by ethical concerns. When mainstream salience was high, vegans did not distinguish between the vegetarian subgroups. Results suggest that one’s motives for abstaining from meat often play a larger role in this type of intergroup perceptions than one’s dietary practices.

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-01-01

448

Horizontal Hostility among Non-Meat Eaters.  

PubMed

The present study examined intergroup judgments made between four groups of non-meat eaters: health vegetarians; ethical vegetarians; health vegans, and ethical vegans. Consistent with hypotheses based on horizontal hostility and the need to maintain ingroup distinctiveness, ethical vegetarians gave unfavorable evaluations to health vegetarians relative to vegans, especially when the mainstream omnivore group was made salient. Contrary to expectations, vegans gave relatively more favorable evaluations to ethical vegetarians than health vegetarians when mainstream salience was low. This was especially true for vegans who were motivated primarily by ethical concerns. When mainstream salience was high, vegans did not distinguish between the vegetarian subgroups. Results suggest that one's motives for abstaining from meat often play a larger role in this type of intergroup perceptions than one's dietary practices. PMID:24809342

Rothgerber, Hank

2014-01-01

449

30 CFR 77.1713 - Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...1713 Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of...

2009-07-01

450

30 CFR 77.1713 - Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...1713 Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of...

2010-07-01

451

47 CFR 0.461 - Requests for inspection of materials not routinely available for public inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requests for inspection of materials not routinely available for public inspection. 0.461 Section 0.461 Telecommunication...Information Public Information and Inspection of Records § 0.461 Requests...

2010-10-01

452

7 CFR 52.49 - Charges for copies of inspection documents and/or inspection data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Charges for copies of inspection documents and/or inspection data. 52.49 Section 52.49 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF...

2010-01-01

453

Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

454

Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

2012-12-01

455

Text Detectives Investigate Meat Eating Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify the text features of non-fiction books and use several informational texts on meat-eating plants to answer text dependent questions. Students will become "text detectives" and learn how to use the text to find the evidence to prove that their answers to questions are right. The students will learn to use evidence from informational texts to write explanatory paragraphs.

2013-01-13

456

Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and\\/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for

V. Ortiz-Somovilla; F. España-España; E. J. De Pedro-Sanz; A. J. Gaitán-Jurado

2005-01-01

457

Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type  

PubMed Central

Background The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Methods Included in the study were 2,543 polyp patients [(1,881 with adenomas, and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results High intake of red meat and processed meat (P-trend < 0.05), particularly red meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P-trend ? 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the positive association with red-meat intake and heterocyclic amine exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than single adenoma and serrated than non-serrated adenomas. Conclusion This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor.

Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

2011-01-01

458

MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM  

PubMed Central

Stem cell niche plays a critical role in regulating the behavior and function of adult stem cells that underlie tissue growth, maintenance, and regeneration. In the skeletal muscle, stem cells, called satellite cells, contribute to postnatal muscle growth and hypertrophy, and thus, meat production in agricultural animals. Satellite cells are located adjacent to mature muscle fibers underneath a sheath of basal lamina. Microenvironmental signals from extracellular matrix mediated by the basal lamina and from the host myofiber both impinge on satellite cells to regulate their activity. Furthermore, several types of muscle interstitial cells, including intramuscular preadipocytes and connective tissue fibroblasts, have recently been shown to interact with satellite cells and actively regulate the growth and regeneration of postnatal skeletal muscles. From this regard, interstitial adipogenic cells are not only important for marbling and meat quality, but also represent an additional cellular component of the satellite cell niche. At the molecular level, these interstitial cells may interact with satellite cells through cell surface ligands, such as delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1) protein whose overexpression is thought to be responsible for muscle hypertrophy in callipyge sheep. In fact, extracellular Dlk1 protein has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the stem cell niche that regulate satellite cell differentiation and maintain muscle homeostasis may lead to promising approaches to optimizing muscle growth and composition, thus improving meat production and quality.

Bi, P.; Kuang, S.

2012-01-01

459

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also for inactivating effects on enzymes and microorganisms. So far, techniques of smoking have been gradually improved and various procedures have been developed in different regions for treating meat and fish. Nowadays, the technology is used mainly for enrichment of foods with specific taste, odor, and appearance to be demanded widely on the market. On the other hand, the role of the preservative effects is going down gradually with regard to the latest trends in alternative preservation procedures. Today it is supposed that the technology is applied in many forms to treat 40-60% of the total amount of meat products (Sikorski, 2004) and 15% of fish (Sto?yhwo & Sikorski, 2005).

Šimko, Peter

460

Hydroperoxide formation in different lean meats.  

PubMed

Peroxide is one of the compounds that are indicated to be toxic in the human digestion system. Lean fresh meat samples were collected from beef, lamb, pork and chicken to investigate their hydroperoxide formation potential. Total peroxides of fresh comminuted raw meat were determined by analysing protein-bound peroxides and hydroperoxide compounds in water-methanol and chloroform extracted phases. The amount of total peroxides was ranked as: beef>pork>lamb>chicken. Hydroperoxide formation was examined at different pH values and at different incubation times, using beef and chicken samples. All peroxides were transient, with a maximum value after 2-4 h of incubation at 37 °C. When pH fell from 7 to 1.5, the different peroxides fell by 10-20%. Non-polar peroxide formation could largely (70%) be described by variation in fatty acid composition and hemin content of the meat, while protein-bound peroxide variation was less explained by these variables. Liposome addition increased (40%) the amount of protein-bound peroxides. PMID:23871008

Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nyquist, Nicole Frost; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

2013-12-01

461

Red meats: Time for a paradigm shift in dietary advice.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests dietary advice to limit red meat is unnecessarily restrictive and may have unintended health consequences. As nutrient-rich high quality protein foods, red meats can play an important role in helping people meet their essential nutrient needs. Yet dietary advice to limit red meat remains standard in many developed countries, even though red meat intakes appear to be within current guidelines. Meanwhile, energy intakes from processed foods have increased dramatically at the expense of nutrient-rich foods, such as red meat. Research suggests these food trends are associated with the growing burden of obesity and associated diseases in recent decades. It is time for dietary advice that emphasizes the value of unprocessed red meat as part of a healthy balanced diet. PMID:25041653

Binnie, Mary Ann; Barlow, Karine; Johnson, Valerie; Harrison, Carol

2014-11-01

462

Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique\\u000a such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in\\u000a Iran. In

Abbas Doosti; Payam Ghasemi Dehkordi; Ebrahim Rahimi

463

On Site Inspection Radionuclide Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of an On Site Inspection for the CTBT is the clarification of the nature of a triggering event - probably a seismic signal. After a request for inspection is made and accepted, an inspection team proceeds to the environs of the triggering event and uses visual, seismic, radiological, or other location-finding methods to narrow down the search area. Survey, environmental sampling, and field-lab measurement methods then are used to try to collect definitive facts to support decisions of an Executive Council of the Treaty. Refining and optimizing the science methods for practical survey, sampling, and measurement requires reasonable measurement objectives to be stated. The authors will present a few scenario-dependant objectives such that the field approaches and equipment specifications could follow.

Hayes, J. C.; Haas, D.; Milbrath, B. D.; Miley, H.; Seifert, C. E.

2013-12-01

464

Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks  

SciTech Connect

Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

Choset, Howie

2003-09-11