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Sample records for abattoir meat inspection

  1. Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the

  2. Evaluating the prevalence of tail biting and carcase condemnations in slaughter pigs in the Republic and Northern Ireland, and the potential of abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Harley, S; More, S J; O'Connell, N E; Hanlon, A; Teixeira, D; Boyle, L

    2012-12-15

    Despite extensive utilisation in epidemiological investigations of animal health, to date there has been little consideration of the value of abattoir meat inspection as a pig welfare surveillance tool. This study measured the prevalence of tail-docking, tail biting, carcase condemnations and associated financial losses of the latter (Northern Ireland only) in 36,963 pigs slaughtered in six abattoirs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in July and August 2010. Over 99 per cent of inspected pigs had been tail-docked, while 58.1 per cent and 1.03 per cent had detectable and severe tail lesions, respectively. Producer losses resulting from carcase condemnation were estimated to be €0.37 per pig slaughtered. Enhanced capture and utilisation of meat inspection data for use in animal welfare surveillance schemes has the potential to drive improvements in production efficiency and animal welfare. However, significant differences were detected in the prevalence of carcase condemnation conditions between abattoirs and judiciaries (Republic and Northern Ireland). This reflects variation in the criteria and methods of data capture used in meat inspection in different abattoirs. Thus, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised and reformed before it can be reliably utilised in large-scale pig welfare surveillance schemes. PMID:23248113

  3. The distribution of Staphylococci in bioaerosols from red-meat abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Shale, K; Lues, J E R; Venter, P; Buys, E M

    2006-11-01

    The quality and shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs can be reduced by high concentrations in the processing environment of bioaerosols consisting of spoilage microbiota. A lack of documented literature on the distribution of such bioaerosols has, however, led to the underestimation of their impact. In the study reported here, the deboning rooms of selected South African red-meat abattoirs were investigated for airborne concentrations of staphylococci; the authors studied the distribution of Staphylococcus species in general, as well as the coagulase types of Staphylococcus aureus in particular. Average staphylococci bioaerosol concentrations varied considerably among the abattoirs investigated, with Abattoir B having the highest counts (3 x 10(2) CFUs/m3) and Abattoir A having the lowest (7.6 CFUs/m3). There was a significant link between bioaerosols and microbial loads from red meat in the same environment. The recorded levels were, however, well below the recommended maximum limits for bioaerosols suggested by various international and governmental authorities. Staphylococcus xylosus and S. saprophyticus were found to be the most abundant species in the air of the deboning rooms, while among S. aureus coagulase types, Type III and Type VIII were predominant. On the basis of the ecology of the bacterial groups, the authors suggest probable sources of staphylococcal bioaerosols and propose strategies that could be developed for red-meat abattoirs to reduce the levels of airborne pathogens. PMID:17091740

  4. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306

  5. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). Conclusion The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers’ education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir

  6. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p < 0.05) in the cecum of pigs held on solid concrete floors (72.4%), and slightly less for pigs held on slatted floors (63.3%). Animals held for less than 45 min before slaughter demonstrated the lowest proportion of S. enterica-positive samples (52.9%). The pig prevalence, as measured by any one of the three samples being positive, was significantly different (p < 0.05) between animals held on solid floors (81%) and those animals held for 45 min or less before slaughter (69%). Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short

  7. Pig Abattoir Inspection Data: Can It Be Used for Surveillance Purposes?

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Smith, Richard P.; Eze, Jude I.; Henry, Madeleine K.; Gunn, George J.; Williamson, Susanna; Tongue, Sue C.

    2016-01-01

    Statutory recording of carcass lesions at the abattoir may have significant potential as a resource for surveillance of livestock populations. Food Standards Agency (FSA) data in Great Britain are not currently used for surveillance purposes. There are concerns that the sensitivity of detection, combined with other issues, may make the outputs unreliable. In this study we postulate that FSA data could be used for surveillance purposes. To test this we compared FSA data with BPHS (a targeted surveillance system of slaughtered pigs) and laboratory diagnostic scanning surveillance (FarmFile) data, from mid-2008 to mid-2012, for respiratory conditions and tail bite lesions in pigs at population level. We also evaluated the agreement/correlation at batch level between FSA and BPHS inspections in four field trials during 2013. Temporal trends and regional differences at population level were described and compared using logistic regression models. Population temporal analysis showed an increase in respiratory disease in all datasets but with regional differences. For tail bite, the temporal trend and monthly patterns were completely different between the datasets. The field trials were run in three abattoirs and included 322 batches. Pearson’s correlation and Cohen’s kappa tests were used to assess correlation/agreement between inspections systems. It was moderate to strong for high prevalence conditions but slight for low prevalence conditions. We conclude that there is potential to use FSA data as a component of a surveillance system to monitor temporal trends and regional differences of chosen indicators at population level. At producer level and for low prevalence conditions it needs further improvement. Overall a number of issues still need to be addressed in order to provide the pig industry with the confidence to base their decisions on these FSA inspection data. Similar conclusions, at national level, may apply to other livestock sectors but require further

  8. Pig Abattoir Inspection Data: Can It Be Used for Surveillance Purposes?

    PubMed

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Smith, Richard P; Eze, Jude I; Henry, Madeleine K; Gunn, George J; Williamson, Susanna; Tongue, Sue C

    2016-01-01

    Statutory recording of carcass lesions at the abattoir may have significant potential as a resource for surveillance of livestock populations. Food Standards Agency (FSA) data in Great Britain are not currently used for surveillance purposes. There are concerns that the sensitivity of detection, combined with other issues, may make the outputs unreliable. In this study we postulate that FSA data could be used for surveillance purposes. To test this we compared FSA data with BPHS (a targeted surveillance system of slaughtered pigs) and laboratory diagnostic scanning surveillance (FarmFile) data, from mid-2008 to mid-2012, for respiratory conditions and tail bite lesions in pigs at population level. We also evaluated the agreement/correlation at batch level between FSA and BPHS inspections in four field trials during 2013. Temporal trends and regional differences at population level were described and compared using logistic regression models. Population temporal analysis showed an increase in respiratory disease in all datasets but with regional differences. For tail bite, the temporal trend and monthly patterns were completely different between the datasets. The field trials were run in three abattoirs and included 322 batches. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa tests were used to assess correlation/agreement between inspections systems. It was moderate to strong for high prevalence conditions but slight for low prevalence conditions. We conclude that there is potential to use FSA data as a component of a surveillance system to monitor temporal trends and regional differences of chosen indicators at population level. At producer level and for low prevalence conditions it needs further improvement. Overall a number of issues still need to be addressed in order to provide the pig industry with the confidence to base their decisions on these FSA inspection data. Similar conclusions, at national level, may apply to other livestock sectors but require further

  9. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  10. Construction, management and cleanliness of red meat abattoir lairages in the UK.

    PubMed

    Small, A; James, C; James, S; Davies, R; Howell, M; Hutchison, M; Buncic, S

    2007-03-01

    A survey of a large number of UK abattoirs was conducted via a questionnaire designed to obtain information on (i) throughput and species slaughtered; (ii) construction materials used; (iii) use and type of bedding and (iv) details of cleaning/sanitation regimes. A representative group of abattoirs were selected on the basis of the responses to the questionnaire, and the lairage at these plants investigated through enumeration of Escherichia coli remaining after routine cleansing operations. The aim of this study was to enable identification of "common lairage practices" and to assess the general status of the lairage hygiene and effectiveness of lairage cleaning in commercial UK abattoirs. The study shows that microbial contamination often remains in UK lairage holding pens after routine cleaning operations. It would appear that there are significant differences in the effectiveness of lairage cleaning programmes at commercial abattoirs, and that the stun-box-roll-out areas are often cleaned to a better standard than the holding areas. As a result of persistence of microbial contamination in the lairage, there is a possible risk of foodborne pathogens persisting in the environment and potentially contaminating animals and carcasses processed on subsequent days. PMID:22063810

  11. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2) identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This

  12. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions. PMID:25803448

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs' immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses were monitored. A general idea of the degree of disease coverage was analysed by examining organ lesions postmortem. Haptoglobin (Hp) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in meat juice samples. 72.13 per cent of pigs appeared to be seropositive for the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and almost 86.2 per cent of them had concomitant infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine circovirus type 2 or Swine influenza virus. Median Hp and CRP concentrations were significantly higher in diseased animals at different stages of the production chain, when compared with levels found in healthy finishing pigs (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest sensitivity-specificity pairs, nearly 80-90 per cent, at cut-off levels of 83 and 10 µg/ml for Hp and CRP determinations, respectively, with high AUCs 0.9. This cut-off could be useful for veterinary inspections at the time of slaughter, to differentiate between the carcase of a healthy animal and the carcase of an animal suffering from a systemic disease, which should be completely condemned. PMID:26101294

  14. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  15. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  16. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  17. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  18. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Meat and Poultry Inspection (9 CFR part 322). If such certificate has been obtained but is unavailable... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances §...

  19. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  20. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  1. Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not

  2. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection... on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The full Committee consists of not more than 20 members, and...: National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms....

  3. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY.... App. 2, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th & Independence Avenue, SW., Room 1180,...

  4. Assessing the Effectiveness of On-Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat-Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin L; Swart, Arno N; Kelly, Louise; Hald, Tine; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    As part of the evidence base for the development of national control plans for Salmonella spp. in pigs for E.U. Member States, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority. The main aim of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on-farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat-borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess the effect of the interventions investigated. Reducing both breeding herd and slaughter pig prevalence were effective in achieving reductions in the number of expected human illnesses in both case study Member States. However, there is scarce evidence to suggest which specific on-farm interventions could achieve consistent reductions in either breeding herd or slaughter pig prevalence. Hypothetical reductions in feed contamination rates were important in reducing slaughter pig prevalence for the case study Member State where prevalence of infection was already low, but not for the high-prevalence case study. The most significant reductions were achieved by a 1- or 2-log decrease of Salmonella contamination of the carcass post-evisceration; a 1-log decrease in average contamination produced a 90% reduction in human illness. The intervention analyses suggest that abattoir intervention may be the most effective way to reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. However, a combined farm/abattoir approach would likely have cumulative benefits. On-farm intervention is probably most effective at the breeding-herd level for high-prevalence Member States; once infection in the breeding herd has been reduced to a low enough level, then feed and biosecurity measures would become increasingly more effective. PMID:27002673

  5. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  6. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  7. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  9. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  10. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  11. 76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry..., 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will..., including floppy disks or CD-ROMs: Send to National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection,...

  12. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... and Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing a meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and... committee to fully explore enhancing the safe food handling label on meat and poultry packages. With...

  13. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ..., ``Cooperative Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final... Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... small State-inspected establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in...

  14. 75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re... of Agriculture signed the charter of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection....Newman@fsis.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Advisory Committee on Meat...

  15. Occupational Education for Meat Inspection and Laboratory Animal Caretaker Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Leon Albert

    To determine educational requirements and opportunities for employment, 60 representatives of animal laboratories and meat inspection agencies were interviewed in a 30-county area in northern Illinois. The chi-square test, analysis of variance test, and Pearson product moment correlation were utilized to conclude that: (1) Substantial…

  16. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... on the Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection published January 27, 2012 (77 FR 4408... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Advisory Committee Act, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI)...

  17. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry.... Department of Agriculture National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture intends to reestablish the National Advisory Committee on Meat and...

  18. An evaluation of strontium chloride, Rappaport and strontium selenite enrichment for the isolation of salmonellas from man, animals, meat products and abattoir effluents.

    PubMed

    Iveson, J B; Mackay-Scollay, E M

    1972-06-01

    Strontium chloride enrichment broth was found to be comparable to Rappaport broth for the recovery of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes from man, animals, meat products and effluents. With the exception of cloacal samples from reptiles, both procedures were superior to selenite F.The performance of strontium chloride Mand selenite F enrichment was improved when effluent samples were incubated at 43 degrees C.Strontium chloride M and Rappaport enrichment were superior to selenite F for the isolation of Arizona species from reptiles.Strontium chloride B, strontium selenite and Rappaport broths were found suitable for the isolation of multiple Salmonella serotypes from sea water contaminated with abattoir effluents. The strontium chloride B and strontium selenite enrichment media were superior to Rappaport broth when samples were incubated at 43 degrees C.Modified bismuth sulphite agar was found superior to Salmonella-Shigella agar as a solid subculture medium.The investigation of a food poisoning outbreak due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 21 is reported.The significance of the choice of sampling and isolation techniques in salmonellosis in man and animals is discussed. PMID:4503874

  19. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY... the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee is being... advice to the Secretary of Agriculture concerning State and Federal programs with respect to...

  20. [Guidelines for animal and meat inspection procedures in the slaughterhouse].

    PubMed

    Schnöller, A

    2006-08-01

    Over the last few decades there have been significant developments in livestock and meat inspection systems in slaughterhouses. The most highly developed countries have taken the lead in bringing about these changes by enacting new legislation. These new national laws have been reflected by the Codex Alimentarius in its Codes of Good Practice and this has served to harmonise world trade in foodstuffs. The author identifies the different aspects to be considered when carrying out a veterinary inspection of animals and animal products in the slaughterhouse, bearing in mind the need to protect public and animal health. Although this article only covers cattle, many of the concepts set forth can be applied to other livestock species. Information obtained from the slaughterhouse is useful to primary production; conversely, information compiled in the primary production process makes for more efficient use of slaughterhouse resources. This information makes it possible to carry out risk-based inspections, which will gradually replace traditional procedures. Conventional inspections are often very rigid and mechanical and incapable of measuring the seriousness of hazards or of determining the probability that they will occur. Emerging biological, physical and chemical hazards, as well as new technologies, mean that we cannot become complacent about inspection procedures but must continue to be alert and to keep pace with the constant changes in food safety sciences. Another new trend is the active participation of operators, who must shoulder primary responsibility in upholding the safety of the food they produce. Official veterinary inspection in the slaughterhouse plays several roles: the detection of animal diseases, the inspection of meat and meat products and the verification of audits carried out by the private sector. In recent years, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis and cases of dioxin poisoning have highlighted the need for traceability of foodstuffs

  1. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  2. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  3. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  4. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  5. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  6. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and...

  7. The abattoir condemnation of meat because of parasitic infection, and its economic importance: results of a retrospective study in north-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, H; Parandeh, S

    2010-12-01

    In nine districts in the north of Khorasan province, in north-eastern Iran, a 5-year retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalences, in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs, of the parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of the animals' carcasses and viscera (and the economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal). Between 20 March 2005 and 19 March 2010, 436,620 animals (45,360 cattle, 275,439 sheep, 115,674 goats and 147 camels) were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 30,207 (6.9%), the lungs of 23,259 (5.3%) and the carcasses of 1072 (0.2%) of these animals were condemned. Almost all (92.4%) of the condemned livers, most (68.9%) of the condemned lungs but only 10.8% of the condemned carcasses were rejected because of parasitic infection. The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica and/or Dicrocoelium dendriticum (cattle, sheep and goats) or entirely to E. granulosus (camels). All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs (which also came from cattle, sheep, goats and camels) were attributed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis cysts and/or Taenia cysticerci were found in ovine muscle while only Taenia cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle (no parasitic lesions were observed in the muscles of the goats and camels). Parasites were responsible for 80.8% of the condemned organs or carcasses, and the value of the food lost because of parasite-related condemnation (based on market prices in 2010) was estimated to be U.S.$421,826 (U.S.$47,980 for cattle, U.S.$316,344.0 for sheep, U.S.$57,372 for goats and U.S.$130 for camels). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and muscles were E. granulosus (52.2%) and D. dendriticum flukes (29.5%). These parasites clearly remain too common and cause considerable economic loss in Khorasan and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:21144183

  8. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  9. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products,'' 74 FR 47648). FSIS held two public meetings by teleconference on October 27, 2009, and November 4, 2009, to solicit comments on the proposed regulations (74 FR 54493). The..., and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Product; Final...

  10. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    PubMed

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely. PMID:20033872

  11. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  12. Public Health Implications and Risk Factors Assessment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections among Abattoir Personnel in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sa'idu, A S; Okolocha, E C; Dzikwi, A A; Gamawa, A A; Ibrahim, S; Kwaga, J K P; Usman, A; Maigari, S A

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs). PMID:26464954

  13. A retrospective study of the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at major abattoirs in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mochankana, M Ernest; Robertson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study covering a period of ten years (2001-2010) was conducted using postmortem meat inspection records of the Department of Veterinary Services in Gaborone to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Botswana. Meat inspection records of monthly and annual returns from the two main export abattoirs in the country were examined, as well as the data collected on the total number of cattle slaughtered and the number of livers condemned due to Fasciola gigantica infection. Only 1250 of the approximately 1.4 million cattle slaughtered were infected with F. gigantica (0.09%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.0% - 0.3%). No distinct seasonal pattern was observed in condemnation rates of livers. However, the pattern of distribution of fasciolosis was higher (but not significant) in cattle that originated from areas with high rainfall and more permanent water bodies than those from relatively low rainfall areas with a transitory water system. It is recommended that a longitudinal survey should be carried out at the abattoirs and farms to determine the prevalence of the disease in cattle of different ages, sex and breed as well as the place of origin in the country. The present study indicated that the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle is low and the disease is therefore of less significance in Botswana than other African countries for which information is available. PMID:27380655

  14. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  15. VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

    2003-02-01

    Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

  16. Bacteriological survey of frozen meat and gravy produced at establishments under federal inspection.

    PubMed

    Surkiewicz, B F; Harris, M E; Johnston, R W

    1973-10-01

    During visits to 34 federally inspected establishments producing frozen meat and gravy, 541 production line samples and 535 finished product units were collected for bacteriological analyses. It was found that more than 70% of the sets of finished product (10 units/set) produced under good manufacturing practices had: (i) four or fewer coliform-positive units, (ii) two or fewer Escherichia coli-positive units, (iii) three or fewer Staphylococcus aureus-positive units, and (iv) an aerobic plate count of fewer than 50,000/g (geometric mean of 10 units). All finished product units were negative for salmonellae. PMID:4584595

  17. Real time detection of farm-level swine mycobacteriosis outbreak using time series modeling of the number of condemned intestines in abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis. PMID:25913899

  18. Real time detection of farm-level swine mycobacteriosis outbreak using time series modeling of the number of condemned intestines in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Yasumoto; MAKITA, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis. PMID:25913899

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Okolocha, E. C.; Gamawa, A. A.; Babashani, M.; Bakari, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s) of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM), as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%), followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30%) while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2) of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10), then the lungs 29.23% (19/65); while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2), followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8), and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65). The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28) tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%), followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7%) and then Misau with 13 (10

  20. Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the...

  1. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness

  2. Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

    The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

  3. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that

  4. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  5. Breed influences on in vitro development of abattoir-derived bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a discrepancy in the reproductive performance between different cattle breeds. Using abattoir-derived ovaries and data base information we studied the effects of breed on in vitro fertilization and early embryo development. Methods The in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from cattle (n = 202) of Swedish Red (SR), Swedish Holstein (SH) and mixed beef breeds was compared, retrospectively tracing donors of abattoir-derived ovaries using a combination of the national animal databases and abattoir information. Age was significantly lower and carcass conformation score was higher in the beef breeds than in the dairy breeds. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n = 1351) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries from animals of known breed (visual inspection confirmed through databases), age (databases), and abattoir information. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (frozen semen from two dairy bulls) and cultured according to conventional protocols. On day 8, blastocysts were graded and the number of nuclei determined. Results Cleavage rate was not different between the breeds but was significantly different between bulls. The percentage of blastocysts on day 8 was significantly higher when the oocyte donor’s breed was beef or SR than SH. There was no significant difference in blastocyst grades or stages between the breeds, but the number of nuclei in day 8 blastocysts was significantly lower in SH compared to the beef. Conclusions The use of abattoir-derived ovaries from animals whose background is traceable can be a valuable tool for research. Using this approach in the present study, oocyte donor breed was seen to affect early embryo development during in vitro embryo production, which may be a contributing factor to the declining fertility in some dairy breeds seen today. PMID:22682104

  6. Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

  7. Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria - 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Kwaga, Jacob; Fasina, Folorunso; Lazarus, David; Suleman, Idris; Poggensee, Gabrielle; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis, a neglected debilitating zoonosis, is a recognized occupational hazard with a high prevalence in developing countries. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected animals or animal products. Brucellosis presents with fever. In Nigeria, there is a possibility of missed diagnoses by physicians leading to a long debilitating illness. We conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with Human Brucellosis (HB) among abattoir-workers in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and selected abattoir-workers using stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics and exposure-factors. We tested the workers’ serum-samples using Rose-Bengal (RBPT) and ELISA tests. A worker with HB was one whose serum tested positive to RBPT or ELISA. We tested differences in proportions between workers with HB and those without HB using odds-ratio and X2 tests. Results Of 224 workers, 172 (76.8%) were male and mean age was 30 + 9.0 years. Of 224 sera collected, 54 were positive giving a seroprevalence of 24.1%. Of these, 32 (59.3%) were butchers, and 11 (20.4%) were meat-sellers. Slaughtering animals while having open-wounds (Odds-ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.15-4.04); occupational-exposure of >5years (OR = 2.30, CI = 1.11-4.78) and eating raw meat (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.21-6.26) were significantly associated with HB. Multivariate analyses showed that occupational-exposure of >5years (Adjusted OR (AOR) =2.45, CI = 1.15 – 5.30) and eating raw-meat (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.14 - 6.14) remained significantly associated with HB. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HB among abattoir-workers in Abuja was high. Factors associated with HB were occupational-exposure of >5years and eating raw-meat. Abattoir-workers should be discouraged from eating raw-meat and educated on adherence to safe animal-product handling practices. PMID:24876892

  8. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat, meat-food products horse meat and horse meat-food products offered for entry into... section 306, Tariff Act of 1930. The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this...

  9. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854

  10. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  11. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  12. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  13. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  14. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have...

  15. [Trichinae, pigs and veterinary public health: The introduction of the microscopic world into the scientific basis for meat inspection (Barcelona, 1870s)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century, Spanish authorities began developing specific programs on the safety of certain foods intended for human consumption. This paper analyses the key features that gave rise to the inclusion of the veterinarian in the administrative structure responsible for safeguarding public health. Among the aspects covered, special focus is put on the relationship between human and animal medicine at a time when growing public alarm in relation to certain zoonoses contributed to shaping the notion of veterinary public health. The appearance of a disease in pigs that was transmissible through the consumption of parasitized meat set the scene for veterinary inspection to be associated with the protection of public health. The outbreaks of trichinosis all over Spain in the 1870's proved the existence of contagium animatum in a pre-bacteriology era, and this led to the introduction of improvements in food inspection. In this sense, microscopic examination of pork products encouraged the modernization of inspection tasks undertaken by veterinarians, which had previously focused on the organoleptic evaluation of meat and fish and on unveiling fraud. The introduction of microscopes was widely accepted and established a watershed between acceptable and unacceptable methods of carrying out the examination of meat. Furthermore, this "technological" method of diagnosis brought veterinary medicine closer to other more prestigious health professions, at least in theory. Among other aspects, the acceptance of trichinae as an exogenous cause of disease contributed to 19th century doctors learning about the idea of pathogenic microorganisms from veterinarians. At a social level, the use of the microscope was seen as a way of preventing the transmission to people of an animal disease that was very much in the public eye at the time. From the political point of view, the process -analysed in this paper from the perspective of veterinarians in Barcelona

  16. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.7 Marking..., the inspection mark applied to inspected and passed exotic animal carcasses, meat or meat food... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  18. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  19. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  20. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  1. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  2. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  3. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  4. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  5. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  6. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  7. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  8. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  9. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  10. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  11. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  12. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  13. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  14. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  15. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  17. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  18. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  19. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  20. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  1. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  2. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  3. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  4. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat...

  5. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  6. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied...

  7. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff. PMID:27251548

  8. Suitability and limitations of portion-specific abattoir data as part of an early warning system for emerging diseases of swine in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation

  9. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  11. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  12. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must...

  13. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall...

  14. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. Link to an amendment published at...

  15. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  16. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  17. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  18. 19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Meat and Meat-Food Products § 12.8 Inspection; bond; release. (a) All imported meat and meat-food products offered for entry into the United States are subject to the..., et seq.). The term “meat and meat-food products,” for the purpose of this section, shall include...

  19. Poultry abattoir survey of carcass condemnation for standard, vegetarian, and free range chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, D; Jakel, O

    1994-01-01

    During the period April 1991 to March 1992, data concerning the condemnation rate of standard, vegetarian, and free-range chickens were collected and summarized from one federally inspected abattoir in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of diet, management, and breed of chickens on pathological lesions, ensuing condemnation rates, and consequent losses to the growers and the poultry industry. The data collected at this abattoir revealed that vegetarian chickens showed a higher condemnation rate (5.23%) for disease and nondisease conditions compared with standard (1.48%) and free-range (0.94%) chickens. Free-range chickens were approximately two weeks older than vegetarian and standard chickens at the time of slaughter. The most common causes of condemnation in vegetarian chickens was cellulitis (1.18%), followed by ascites (0.77%). Ascites and cellulitis (0.26% both) were also the most common causes of condemnation in standard chickens. Cyanosis (0.21%) and mutilation (0.17%) represented the highest rate of condemnation in free-range chickens. The low rate of pathological lesions in free-range chickens is a positive trend in poultry disease management. PMID:8050075

  20. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  1. An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Tessaro, S V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of grossly visible lesions of tuberculosis in a herd of 344 North American elk (Cervus elaphus) depopulated during a three-month period in 1991. Abattoir inspection detected mycobacterial lesions in 134 (39.8%) of the 337 animals received for slaughter. The prevalence of lesions increased with the age of the animals. Lesions were predominantly suppurative rather than caseous, and mineralization was less evident than in tuberculous lesions in cattle. Lesions occurred predominantly in lymph nodes, and lungs were the only organs in which mycobacterial lesions were found. The distribution of lesions suggested that aerosol transmission was the most significant means of spread of the disease within the herd. Giant liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) were observed in approximately 80% of the adult elk. PMID:7954222

  2. A Survey of Carcass Condemnation at a Poultry Abattoir and its Application to Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Ansong-Danquah, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    During a five year period, slaughter records were maintained on flocks of broiler chickens sent to a federally-inspected abattoir in New Brunswick. These records, including data regarding condemnation of both carcasses and portions of broilers, were maintained at the level of the individual producer. Annual meetings and ad hoc consultations with producers, a veterinary poultry specialist, and support groups in the poultry industry (feed mills, breeders, etc.) were used to relay to the various interested parties, information relating to disease conditions. Following the implementation of this system, condemnation rates dropped by one full percentage point during the first three years, with a slight increase observed during the last two years of the study. At the end of the survey, condemnation rates were 20% less than those of the national average. PMID:17422886

  3. Spread of marker bacteria from the hides of cattle in a simulated livestock market and at an abattoir.

    PubMed

    Collis, V J; Reid, C-A; Hutchison, M L; Davies, M H; Wheeler, K P A; Small, A; Buncic, S

    2004-11-01

    The spread of microbial contamination on the hides of beef was investigated at two stages in the meat chain: (i) in a simulated livestock market ("the market") using 33 animals, and (ii) in the unloading-to-skinning area of a commercial abattoir using 18 animals. At both stages, harmless bacterial markers (nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12; rifampicin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens; and a tetracycline-resistant E. coli) were inoculated on the hides of a small number of selected animals, and their transfer to other animals and the environment was examined. At the market, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide markers (9.1% in each phase) introduced in the presale pen, sale ring, and postsale pen changed to 39.4, 15.1, and 54.5%, respectively, by the end of the market process. In addition, widespread contamination of the market environment with the hide markers was observed. At the abattoir, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide marker (11.1%) inoculated at unloading increased to 100% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). In addition, another marker inoculated on environmental surfaces in lairage pens, races, and stunning box was detected on 83.3% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). These results, although obtained with a relatively small number of animals, demonstrate that both the livestock market process and the unloading-to-skinning process at abattoirs can facilitate the extensive spread of microbial contamination on hides not just within, but also between, batches of animals. PMID:15553619

  4. Control of trichinellosis by inspection and farm management practices.

    PubMed

    van Knapen, F

    2000-12-01

    The prevention of human trichinellosis by proper meat inspection is a classic example of successful veterinary public health measures. The microscopic methods which have been used for more than a century to test pigs for trichinae were intended to prevent human disease. However, the value of these relatively insensitive direct detection methods, including trichinoscopy and pooled sample digestion, was debated as soon as more sensitive indirect (serological) methods became available. Two issues related to testing were discussed. First, should public health authorities endeavour to prevent all infections of humans rather than simply prevent the occurrence of disease, and second, would epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of the pig population on farms not provide a better control system to prevent human infection. This latter issue is of particular importance for those countries in the world where human trichinellosis acquired from farmed animals is absent and examination of pigs at the abattoir only results in negative findings. In countries where domestic pig infections are virtually non-existent, monitoring of Trichinella infection in wildlife could also contribute to understanding the infection pressure from nature to livestock. Trichinella-free pig farming is a feasible option for controlling this zoonosis, even in endemic areas. This approach provides an opportunity to combine good veterinary practice, in order to prevent animal diseases, with the prevention of Trichinella infection. All animals with access to the environment, or animals which are fed with potentially Trichinella-infected feed (swill, carcasses) will always constitute a public health threat, and must be inspected individually at slaughter (swine, horses, wild boars). Finally, it is important to recognize that trichinellosis is a world-wide problem that needs continuous public health attention. If no control system exists, for whatever reason, the public should be educated not to consume

  5. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  6. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  7. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  8. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  9. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  10. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  11. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  12. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not...

  13. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  14. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup...

  15. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  16. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  17. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The Administrator is...

  18. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  19. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  20. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  1. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  2. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  3. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  4. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall...

  5. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  6. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  7. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as...

  8. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  9. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  12. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  17. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. Microbiological contamination of cattle carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ≤6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539

  20. Incidence of Salmonellae in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, M. A.; Carpenter, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    Standard enrichment, plating, and biochemical techniques were used to assess the incidence of Salmonella species on beef and pork carcasses and processed meat products. The incidence of Salmonella in pork carcasses was 56% and in beef carcasses, 74%. These figures are about the same as previously reported for pork but much higher than previously reported for beef carcasses; however, they represent only three to five abattoirs in Georgia and do not necessarily represent contamination levels throughout the country. Examination of carcasses by area did not indicate greater incidence of Salmonella in any one area. Two areas suggested for representative sampling are the cervical and anal areas of the carcass. Of the sausage samples examined, 38% of the fresh pork sausage, 9% of the smoked pork sausage, and 1 sample (souse) of 16 samples of miscellaneous sausage products were contaminated. Examination of subsamples indicated that Salmonella, when present in sausage products, could be found in any section of the entire sample. PMID:5797942

  1. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  2. Three-stage extraction of gelatines from tendons of abattoir cattle: 1--reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Mokrejs, Pavel; Janacova, Dagmar; Svoboda, Petr

    2012-10-01

    Short and long tendons of abattoir cattle are collagen by-products of the meat industry. They offer no utilisation at present, being a raw material source of over 90 % protein characteristic. This contribution deals with the three-stage extraction of gelatine from short cattle tendons. The principle of treatment consists in processing degreased tendons in the first processing stage in an environment resulting in the swelling of the starting material. In the second stage, the material is treated with a proteolytic enzyme to produce such disruption of the collagen substrate that makes gelatine extraction when boiling possible in the third stage of the process. In order to study the influence of the significant parameters during the extraction process on gelatine yield, experiments were planned using a factor experiment of 2(3) types. The variables under study were the duration of the second processing stage (5-25 h), temperature in the first and second processing stages (10-40 °C) and the addition of a proteolytic enzyme (1-5 %) on the quantity of the extracted gelatine. The results were processed statistically, and statistical significance of the studied factors was thus found. Contour graphs were plotted to easily survey the influence of the observed factors on gelatine yield. The process achieves up to 71 % efficiency, runs under atmospheric pressure and mild reaction conditions, and is conducive to preparing quality gelatines. PMID:22903323

  3. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.7...

  4. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Egbe, N F; Muwonge, A; Ndip, L; Kelly, R F; Sander, M; Tanya, V; Ngwa, V Ngu; Handel, I G; Novak, A; Ngandalo, R; Mazeri, S; Morgan, K L; Asuquo, A; Bronsvoort, B M de C

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne's disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9-3.9), 7.7% (6.1-9.6), 21.3% (15.2-28.4) and 13.1% (7.7-20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  5. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Egbe, N. F.; Muwonge, A.; Ndip, L.; Kelly, R. F.; Sander, M.; Tanya, V.; Ngwa, V. Ngu; Handel, I. G.; Novak, A.; Ngandalo, R.; Mazeri, S.; Morgan, K. L.; Asuquo, A.; Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9–3.9), 7.7% (6.1–9.6), 21.3% (15.2–28.4) and 13.1% (7.7–20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  6. 48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Publication No. C8900-SL, and the USDA inspection requirements: (1) Butter. (2) Cheese (except cottage cheese). (3) Sausage. (4) Meat food products*. * “Meat food products” means processed foods containing meat...

  7. 48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Publication No. C8900-SL, and the USDA inspection requirements: (1) Butter. (2) Cheese (except cottage cheese). (3) Sausage. (4) Meat food products*. * “Meat food products” means processed foods containing meat...

  8. 48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Publication No. C8900-SL, and the USDA inspection requirements: (1) Butter. (2) Cheese (except cottage cheese). (3) Sausage. (4) Meat food products*. * “Meat food products” means processed foods containing meat...

  9. 48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Publication No. C8900-SL, and the USDA inspection requirements: (1) Butter. (2) Cheese (except cottage cheese). (3) Sausage. (4) Meat food products*. * “Meat food products” means processed foods containing meat...

  10. 48 CFR 846.408-71 - Waiver of USDA inspection and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Publication No. C8900-SL, and the USDA inspection requirements: (1) Butter. (2) Cheese (except cottage cheese). (3) Sausage. (4) Meat food products*. * “Meat food products” means processed foods containing meat...

  11. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    PubMed

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained. PMID:21779942

  12. Growth of Salmonella on chilled meat.

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, B. M.; Roberts, T. A.; Mansfield, J.; Farkas, G.

    1980-01-01

    Growth rates of a mixture of Salmonella serotypes inoculated on beef from a commercial abattoir were measured at chill temperatures. The minimum recorded mean generation times were 8.1 h at 10 degrees C; 5.2 h at 12.5 degrees C and 2.9 h at 15 degrees C. Growth did not occur at 7-8 degrees C. From these data the maximum extent of growth of Salmonella during storage of meat for different times at chill temperatures was calculated. Criteria for deciding safe handling temperatures for meat are discussed. Maintaining an internal temperature below 10 degrees C during the boning operation would be sufficient to safeguard public health requirements. PMID:7052227

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and salmonella in raw red meats

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, P. C. B.; Rose, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one laboratories examined a total of 6169 meat samples, 1236 from abattoirs and 4933 from retail and other outlets. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 98 (1·6%). A higher isolation rate of 49/1236 (4·0%) was found among abattoir than among retail and other samples (49/4933-1·0%). Twenty-two of the laboratories looked for salmonella; although 94/4002 (2·3%) were positive, in only one sample of minced beef were campylobacter and salmonella found together. Isolation rates for salmonellae were 75/3576 (2·1%) from retail and 19/426 (4·5%) from abattoir samples. Analysis of the results revealed that (1) the contamination rate of raw red meat by C. jejuni is, in general, very low; (2) when contaminated, numbers of organisms are generally also very low; (3) enrichment procedures were of some value; 41/98 (42%) isolates were detected by enrichment only, but, on the other hand 8 (8%) were direct plate positive/enrichment negative; (4) practice at looking for the organism and increased seasonal temperatures over the survey period did not result in a noticeable increase in isolations; (5) there was no apparent correlation between campylobacter and salmonella isolations. PMID:20475890

  14. Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nafarnda, W D; Ajayi, I E; Shawulu, J C; Kawe, M S; Omeiza, G K; Sani, N A; Tenuche, O Z; Dantong, D D; Tags, S Z

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 10(6) to 5.8 × 10(5) /100 mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 10(4) to 3.2 × 10(4)/100 mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(4)/100 mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(3)/100 mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(5)/100 mL of TC, 6.2 × 10(4) to 1.8 × 10(4)/100 mL of FC, 1.8 × 10(4) to 6.0 × 10(3)/100 mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(2)/100 mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100 m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100 m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

  15. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  16. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  17. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  18. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  19. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  20. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  1. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  2. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  3. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  4. Lymphoreticular Lesions in Beef Cattle at an Ontario Abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, Drago; Dukes, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    During the period April 1983 to March 1986, lymphoreticular lesions in cattle were surveyed at an Ontario abattoir. Postmortem examination of 171,157 cattle revealed macroscopic lesions in 696 animals (0.4%). The most frequent finding was abscessation of a single lymph node, a finding that was observed in 353 cases (50.7% of animals with lesions/0.2% of total slaughter). Actinobacillary granulomas were present in 252 lymph nodes (36.2%/0.1%). Other specific lesions included mycobacteriosis and mycotic or parasitic lymphadenitis. Cases of nonspecific chronic lymphadenitis or granulomas in lymph nodes, pigmentations, malformations, hyperplasia, and neoplasia were also seen. Abscesses were the most common splenic lesions. One animal had localized lymphangiectasia of the epicardium. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6. PMID:17423120

  5. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. PMID:25794684

  6. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Johannes L.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Bekker, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers’ health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  7. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  8. Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Gun, H; Yilmaz, A; Turker, S; Tanlasi, A; Yilmaz, H

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The swabs from the carcasses and environmental samples (abattoir floor, benches including conveyors, knives, aprons, saws, hooks, hands) were taken at the abattoir immediately after slaughter using sterile cotton swabs. A sample from the wash water of the abattoir was also taken. Preenrichment, immunomagnetic separation and CT-SMAC agar were used for the isolation. The reaction of the isolates with anti-O157 and H7 antisera were also analysed. Twelve strains (3.6%) of E. coli O157 were isolated from the cattle carcasses and eight (2.4%) of them gave positive reaction with anti-H:7. Six strains of E. coli O157 were isolated from the environmental samples and all strains were positive for H7. The number of E. coli O157H:7 strains isolated from the environmental samples was two from the knife, two from the hands, one from the apron and one from the floor. No E. coli O157 was isolated from the abattoir water. PMID:12810296

  9. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    PubMed

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  10. Video image analysis in the Australian meat industry - precision and accuracy of predicting lean meat yield in lamb carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D L; Safari, E; Thompson, J M; Smith, C R

    2004-06-01

    A wide selection of lamb types of mixed sex (ewes and wethers) were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and during this process images of 360 carcasses were obtained online using the VIAScan® system developed by Meat and Livestock Australia. Soft tissue depth at the GR site (thickness of tissue over the 12th rib 110 mm from the midline) was measured by an abattoir employee using the AUS-MEAT sheep probe (PGR). Another measure of this thickness was taken in the chiller using a GR knife (NGR). Each carcass was subsequently broken down to a range of trimmed boneless retail cuts and the lean meat yield determined. The current industry model for predicting meat yield uses hot carcass weight (HCW) and tissue depth at the GR site. A low level of accuracy and precision was found when HCW and PGR were used to predict lean meat yield (R(2)=0.19, r.s.d.=2.80%), which could be improved markedly when PGR was replaced by NGR (R(2)=0.41, r.s.d.=2.39%). If the GR measures were replaced by 8 VIAScan® measures then greater prediction accuracy could be achieved (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). A similar result was achieved when the model was based on principal components (PCs) computed from the 8 VIAScan® measures (R(2)=0.52, r.s.d.=2.17%). The use of PCs also improved the stability of the model compared to a regression model based on HCW and NGR. The transportability of the models was tested by randomly dividing the data set and comparing coefficients and the level of accuracy and precision. Those models based on PCs were superior to those based on regression. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate modeling the VIAScan® system offers a workable method for predicting lean meat yield automatically. PMID:22061323

  11. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  12. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317.344 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  13. Food safety through the meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, M; Matthews, K R

    2000-01-01

    Food poisoning in humans can be caused by many different bacterial genera. While the incidence of food poisoning in England, Wales and Scotland from Salmonella has reached a plateau, there has been an increase in the incidence from Campylobacter. The incidence from Escherichia coli O157:H7 rose to 1997 but declined slightly in 1998 (data from the Public Health Laboratory Service and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health). This organism has a high virulence in humans and a very low infective dose. Infection can produce a wide range of responses, including death. The low infective dose presents a major threat. The organism is relatively heat-sensitive and the cooking of food products to achieve a centre core temperature of 70 degrees C for 2 min is sufficient to destroy it. It is relatively acid-tolerant and will survive for several weeks at pH 4.2. Several foodstuffs, as well as water, have been implicated in world-wide outbreaks. The E. coli O157:H7 food-borne outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996 led to 21 fatalities. The Pennington Group report, issued in April 1997, reported on the circumstances leading to this outbreak, the implications for food safety and the lessons to be learnt. Four areas covered within the Pennington Group report specific to meat hygiene are reviewed in this paper. On-farm practices must ensure the presentation of clean animals for slaughter. There is a requirement for the development and introduction of risk assessment techniques based upon Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points in abattoirs, and the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC) is producing a manual for use by the abattoir sector. The Pennington report stated that there was a need for research into the potential use of end-process treatments such as steam pasteurization. The MLC is involved in evaluating such a system. Meat production premises and butchers' shops in England are introducing HACCP through an MLC scheme funded by the Department of Health. At the

  14. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  15. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  16. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  17. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  18. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  19. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  20. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  1. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  2. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  3. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  4. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of meat and poultry products at official establishments. 318.2 Section 318.2 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO..., and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments. (a) All products and...

  5. A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

    2012-10-01

    A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing

  6. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inauguration of inspection. 355.7 Section 355.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS...

  7. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  8. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  9. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  10. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  11. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient,...

  12. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  13. 9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall...

  14. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official poultry inspection... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n = 49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n = 56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004–November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 21–55 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–26.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.5–68.5), and worked within 0–10 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–80.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFNγ) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0

  20. 9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 304.3 Section 304.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... HACCP plan, as required by §§ 417.2 and 417.4 of this chapter. A conditional grant of inspection...

  1. 9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 304.3 Section 304.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... HACCP plan, as required by §§ 417.2 and 417.4 of this chapter. A conditional grant of inspection...

  2. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 500.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES... with the Uniform Rules of Practice, 7 CFR Subtitle A, part 1, subpart H....

  3. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 500.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES... with the Uniform Rules of Practice, 7 CFR Subtitle A, part 1, subpart H....

  4. 9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 Section 381.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  5. 9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 Section 381.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  6. 9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 Section 381.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  7. 9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 Section 381.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 Section 381.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  9. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  10. Streptococcus gallinaceus bacteraemia in an abattoir worker presenting with a febrile illness.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Truong, Han T; Choudhary, Anwar S; Robinson, Geoffrey M; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus gallinaceus is a newly described species of viridans streptococci, previously only identified as causing disease in broiler chickens. This organism was recovered in pure culture from blood taken from a New Zealand abattoir worker presenting with a febrile illness. This first report of bacteraemia caused by S. gallinaceus in a human may help the understanding of the ecology of this recently described organism. PMID:16772426

  11. Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

  12. Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  13. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  14. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  15. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  16. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  18. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  19. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  20. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  1. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  2. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  3. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  4. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  5. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  6. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.16 Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat...

  7. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection Service will make publicly available the names and locations of retail consignees of recalled meat...

  8. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  9. 9 CFR 352.6 - Denial or withdrawal of inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of inspection service. 352.6 Section 352.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  10. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  13. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  14. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  15. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  16. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  18. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  20. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Official...

  1. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  2. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  3. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported...

  5. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... stencil or rubber stamp. The name and address of the packer or distributor, if prominently shown...

  6. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... stencil or rubber stamp. The name and address of the packer or distributor, if prominently shown...

  7. Occurrence of cancer in women in the meat industry.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E S; Fischman, H R; Matanoski, G M; Diamond, E

    1986-01-01

    A follow up study of 7261 white women from a meatcutters' union was conducted between July 1949 and December 1980. Proportional mortality ratio (PMR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses, using the United States general population mortality rates, were conducted for the group as a whole and for subgroups defined according to the four main job categories in the meat industry, and a fifth category of workers from outside the industry but belonging to the same union (control group). At least a threefold risk of death was observed both for myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among workers in the meat department of retail food stores. No excess risk from these diseases was observed in the control group. SMRs of 4.56, 4.02, and 1.95, which were statistically significant, were observed for lung cancer among workers in chicken slaughtering plants, meatpacking plants, and retail food stores respectively. The lung cancer SMR for abattoir workers was 1.41 (not significant) and 1.11 for workers in non-meat companies. The role of potentially harmful exposures within the industry in the occurrence of these excesses is discussed. PMID:3756110

  8. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.41 Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules. (a)(1) An... for mules. 355.41 Section 355.41 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  9. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Zakri, Adel M; El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G; Hemeg, Hassan A; Ibrahim, Ihab M

    2015-11-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia "200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products". Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  10. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 recovered from meat and meat products relevant to human health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hessain, Ashgan M.; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A.; Zakri, Adel M.; El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Al-Zogibi, Onizan G.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Ibrahim, Ihab M.

    2015-01-01

    Raw meat can harbor pathogenic bacteria, potentially harmful to humans such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 causing diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HS). Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and the molecular detection characterization of E. coli serotype O157:H7 recovered from raw meat and meat products collected from Saudi Arabia. During the period of 25th January 2013 to 25th March 2014, 370 meat samples were collected from abattoirs and markets located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia “200 raw meat samples and 170 meat products”. Bacteriological analysis of the meat samples and serotyping of the isolated E. coli revealed the isolation of 11 (2.97%) strains of E. coli O157:H7. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in raw beef, chicken and mutton were 2%, 2.5%, and 2.5%, respectively, however, there was no occurrence in raw turkey. The incidences of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef burgers, beef sausage, ground chicken and chicken burgers were 5%, 10%, 0.0%, 5% and 0.0%, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay revealed that 3 (27.27%) out of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw beef, chicken and mutton had stx1, stx2, and eae while 5 (45.45%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from ground beef, ground chicken, and raw beef had both stx1 and stx2. However, from beef burgers, only one E. coli O157:H7 isolate had stx1 while two were positive for hlyA gene. These results call for urgent attention toward appropriate controls and good hygienic practices in dealing with raw meat. PMID:26587000

  11. Ambivalence towards meat.

    PubMed

    Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

  12. Analysis of Nsukka metropolitan abattoir solid waste and its bacterial contents in south eastern Nigeria: public health implication.

    PubMed

    Nwanta, John Anaelom; Onunkwo, Joseph; Ezenduka, Ekenne

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the quantum of waste generation and management and presence of major bacteria genera of public health importance in Nsukka municipal abattoir/slaughter house. The environment and public health implications of unhygienic sanitary condition at the abattoir and environs as a consequence of poor waste disposal and management were studied. A total of 194 kg of solid (rumen/stomach) wastes was generated daily without any clearly defined system of disposal and management. Forty-five rumen/stomach waste samples were examined for bacterial isolates using standard procedures. The isolation frequency showed that E. coli, Bacillus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were more frequently isolated, followed by Streptococcus sp., Salmonella sp., and Campylobacter sp. Appropriate strategies for efficient solid waste disposal and management in our abattoirs were recommended. PMID:20146999

  13. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers. PMID:24915320

  14. 9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 381.22 Section 381.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... have conducted a hazard analysis and developed and validated a HACCP plan, in accordance with §§...

  15. 9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 318.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... thermally processed/commercially sterile product does not address food safety hazards associated...

  16. 9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 381.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY.../commercially sterile product does not address food safety hazards associated with microbial...

  17. 9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 381.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY.../commercially sterile product does not address food safety hazards associated with microbial...

  18. 9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 318.309 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... thermally processed/commercially sterile product does not address food safety hazards associated...

  19. 9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 381.22 Section 381.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... have conducted a hazard analysis and developed and validated a HACCP plan, in accordance with §§...

  20. 9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... it appears elsewhere on the packaging material. Ordering and manufacture of the triangle brand shall be in accordance with the provisions in 9 CFR 317.3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations... product, packaging material, immediate container or shipping container. When the inspection mark...

  1. Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-10-01

    From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation rate between the bacteriological culture and histopathological study (r = 0.196, P = 0.006). The prescapular lymph node had the highest infection rate with 54 (1.70 ± 0.97) and supramammary lymph node had the lowest with two

  2. Hydatidosis of camel (Camelus dromedarius) at Jijiga municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia: prevalence, associated risk factors and financial implication.

    PubMed

    Debela, Etana; Abdulahi, Buckhary; Megersa, Bekele; Kumsa, Bersissa; Abunna, Fufa; Sheferaw, Desie; Regassa, Alemayehu

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011 to estimate the prevalence of camel hydatidosis, associated risk factors and financial loss in Jijiga municipal abattoir, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. Accordingly, of the total 400 inspected camel, 92 (23 %) camels and 109 organs were positive for hydatid cyst with the highest proportion recorded in lung (56 %) followed by liver (33.9 %), spleen (7.3 %) and kidneys (2.8 %). The prevalence of hydatidosis significantly varied among age categories (P < 0.05), sex (P < 0.05) and body condition score (P < 0.05) of camels. Hence, there is higher likelihood for occurrence of camel hydatidosis among the older age groups (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 3.3), in female camels (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7, 4.7) and in poor body conditioned camels (OR 4.1, 95 % CI 2.2, 7.9) than younger camels, males and camels with good body condition score, respectively. Of the total 288 examined cysts for fertility and viability, 59.7 % (172/288) were fertile while the rest 24.0 % (69/288) cysts were sterile. Of the 172 fertile cysts 69.8 % (n = 120) were viable and 30.2 % (n = 52) were non-viable. The rest 16.3 % (47/288) cysts were found dead. It was also observed that the pulmonary and hepatic cysts had fertility rate of 63.7 % (116/182) and 57.4 % (54/94), respectively. The total annual direct financial loss recorded in this study as result of organs condemnation due to hydatid cyst, was 12,147.75 Ethiopian birrs ($714.57 or $7.77/camel). If this value could be extrapolated to the infected camel population of the region, financial loss due to hydatidosis could be enormous. In conclusion, this study showed the importance of hydatidosis and the associated direct financial loss due to the condemnation of organs affected by hydatid cyst in the study area. PMID:26688643

  3. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  4. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  5. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  6. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  7. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act. 381.223 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Special Provisions for Designated...

  8. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  9. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  10. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  11. Isolation and multilineage differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells localized in the stromal compartment of the bone marrow (BM). The potential of MSC for mesenchymal differentiation has been well documented in different animal models predominantly on rodents. However, information regarding bovine MSC (bMSC) is limited, and the differentiation potential of bMSC derived from fetal BM remains unknown. In the present study we sought to isolate bMSC from abattoir-derived fetal BM and to characterize the multipotent and differentiation potential under osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic conditions by quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. These cells expressed high levels of MSC surface markers (CD73, CD90, and CD105) and low levels of hematopoietic surface markers (CD34 and CD45). Culture of bMSC under osteogenic conditions during a 27-day period induced up-regulation of the osteocalcin (OC) gene expression and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) activity, and promoted mineralization of the matrix. Increasing supplementation levels of ascorbic acid to culture media enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bMSC; whereas, reduction of FBS supplementation compromised osteogenesis. bMSC increased expression of cartilage-specific genes aggrecan (ACAN), collagen 2A1 (COL2A1) and SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9) at Day 21 of chondrogenic differentiation. Treatment of bMSC with adipogenic factors increased levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (AP2) mRNA and accumulation of lipid vacuoles after 18 days of culture. NANOG mRNA levels in differentiating bMSC were not affected during adipogenic culture; however, osteogenic and chondrogenic conditions induced higher and lower levels, respectively. Conclusions Our analyses revealed the potential multilineage differentiation of bMSC isolated from abattoir-derived fetal BM. NANOG mRNA pattern in

  12. Online inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An online line-scan imaging system capable of both hyperspectral and multispectral visible/near-infrared reflectance imaging was developed to inspect freshly slaughtered chickens on a processing line for wholesomeness. In-plant testing results indicated that the imaging inspection system achieved o...

  13. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs. PMID:22060638

  14. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  15. 9 CFR 327.12 - Foreign canned or packaged products bearing trade labels; sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign canned or packaged products bearing trade labels; sampling and inspection. 327.12 Section 327.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  17. Screening for Zoonotic Fascioliasis in Slaughtered Large Ruminants in Abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Azmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim Noor; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2015-12-01

    Fascioliasis, or trematode infestation, is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Both species are hepatic parasites that affect humans. We have examined the zoonotic aspects of fascioliasis. A total of 80 fresh liver samples were collected from 67 Kedah-Kelantan crossbred cattle and 13 Murrah buffalo at 4 local abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia. The samples were examined macroscopically to detect the presence of Fasciola spp. The results show 7.50% (6 of 80) of the animals were diagnosed with fascioliasis. Overall, 7.46% (5 of 67) and 7.69% (1 of 13) of cattle and buffalo samples were positive, respectively. There were only F. gigantica species identified in the samples. Our findings suggest that precautions should be taken because the disease has a zoonotic impact on public health. PMID:26868715

  18. Screening for Zoonotic Fascioliasis in Slaughtered Large Ruminants in Abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Azmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim Noor; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis, or trematode infestation, is an important disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Both species are hepatic parasites that affect humans. We have examined the zoonotic aspects of fascioliasis. A total of 80 fresh liver samples were collected from 67 Kedah-Kelantan crossbred cattle and 13 Murrah buffalo at 4 local abattoirs in Perak, Malaysia. The samples were examined macroscopically to detect the presence of Fasciola spp. The results show 7.50% (6 of 80) of the animals were diagnosed with fascioliasis. Overall, 7.46% (5 of 67) and 7.69% (1 of 13) of cattle and buffalo samples were positive, respectively. There were only F. gigantica species identified in the samples. Our findings suggest that precautions should be taken because the disease has a zoonotic impact on public health. PMID:26868715

  19. Evidence of Rickettsia and Orientia Infections Among Abattoir Workers in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Horton, Katherine C; Jiang, Ju; Maina, Alice; Dueger, Erica; Zayed, Alia; Ahmed, Ammar Abdo; Pimentel, Guillermo; Richards, Allen L

    2016-08-01

    Of 49 workers at a Djiboutian abattoir, eight (16%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-29) were seropositive against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), two (4%, 95% CI: 1-14) against typhus group rickettsiae, and three (6%, 95% CI: 2-17) against orientiae. One worker (9%, 95% CI: 2-38) seroconverted against orientiae during the study period. This is the first evidence of orientiae exposure in the Horn of Africa. SFGR were also identified by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 189 (11%, 95% CI: 8-15) tick pools from 26 of 72 (36%) cattle. Twenty-five (8%, 95% CI: 6-12) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae, the causative agent of African tick-bite fever. Health-care providers in Djibouti should be aware of the possibility of rickettsiae infections among patients, although further research is needed to determine the impact of these infections in the country. PMID:27273647

  20. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  1. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  2. Effects of scalding and dehairing of pig carcasses at abattoirs on the visibility of welfare-related lesions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions

  3. 76 FR 22667 - Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... establishment is one that has 10 or more but fewer than 500 employees (61 FR 38819). USDA Nondiscrimination... Meat and Poultry Establishments That Produce Ready-to-Eat Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide for small and very small...

  4. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  5. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  6. Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (α1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P < 0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage

  7. Potential of chlorophyll-rich feed ingredients to improve detection of fecal contamination in the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Scott, Mark B; Veberg-Dahl, Annette; Evans, Phil R; Theobald, Vince J; Lundby, Frank; Scollan, Nigel D; Wold, Jens-Petter

    2013-03-01

    The use of fecal fluorescence to improve detection of contamination of carcasses in the abattoir was previously reported. However, incidents of false negatives can result when animals are offered diets that contain little chlorophyll (e.g., concentrate). Here, we investigated the potential of incorporating a high-chlorophyll-containing feed ingredient (concentrated alfalfa extract; CAE) into the diets of sheep and cattle to improve fecal fluorescence intensity. The sheep experiment evaluated the fecal fluorescence of animals from pasture, when fed a concentrate-barley straw diet and when the concentrate diet incorporated CAE (100 g of dry matter a day). Fecal chlorophyll and metabolite content was highest on the pasture-fed animals and increased significantly over the concentrate diet when CAE was included. Subsequently fluorescent intensity was increased from 15,000 to 36,000 arbitrary units for concentrate and CAE-concentrate diets, respectively, compared with 59,000 for the pasture-fed animals. The cattle experiment investigated the potential of CAE to improve fluorescence of feces from a concentrate diet as well as a silage diet at two levels of incorporation (75 and 150 g CAE/kg of dry matter intake). This study also determined the fluorescence of digesta and carcass contamination in the abattoir on a subset of carcasses. In agreement with the sheep study, CAE significantly improved fluorescence of feces and digesta when added to a concentrate diet, but had little effect on improving fecal fluorescence from the silage-fed animals. This was thought to be related to greater chlorophyll degradation in the rumen or/and the dark nature of the silage feces acting as a quencher of emitted fluoresced light. Incorporating high-chlorophyll-containing plant ingredients into ruminant concentrate diets will improve detection of fecal contamination by reducing false-negative readings. However, they will have little effect on false-positive readings due to the range of

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  9. Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  10. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

  11. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep: An abattoir study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Kumar, P.; Singh, M.; Vasishta, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% were grossly normal and 19.47% had one or more genital abnormalities. Genital abnormalities were categorized as ovarian (5.26%), uterine (10.53%) and miscellaneous (3.68%). Amongst ovarian abnormalities are follicular cysts (3.16%) and ovaro-bursal adhesions (2.10%), which were recorded in Gaddi ewes. Uterine abnormalities include hydrometra (4.74%), pyometra (2.63%), mucometra (2.10%), endometritis (0.53%) and mummification (0.53%). Miscellaneous abnormalities include parovarian cysts (2.10%), parasitic cysts (1.05%) and nodules on both uterine horns (0.53%). Among the genital abnormalities in sheep, highest incidence (24.32%) was observed with hydrometra and lowest (2.7%) with each of endometritis, mummification and nodular growth on both uterine horns. Thus the uterus (54.07%) was most commonly affected, followed by the ovary (27.02%) and miscellaneous (18.91%) in ewes. In present study, 8.95% pregnant sheep were also slaughtered, with fetal age in majority of cases two months or less on the basis of CRL measurement which represents a huge economic loss. PMID:26623348

  12. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep: An abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kumar, P; Singh, M; Vasishta, N K

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% were grossly normal and 19.47% had one or more genital abnormalities. Genital abnormalities were categorized as ovarian (5.26%), uterine (10.53%) and miscellaneous (3.68%). Amongst ovarian abnormalities are follicular cysts (3.16%) and ovaro-bursal adhesions (2.10%), which were recorded in Gaddi ewes. Uterine abnormalities include hydrometra (4.74%), pyometra (2.63%), mucometra (2.10%), endometritis (0.53%) and mummification (0.53%). Miscellaneous abnormalities include parovarian cysts (2.10%), parasitic cysts (1.05%) and nodules on both uterine horns (0.53%). Among the genital abnormalities in sheep, highest incidence (24.32%) was observed with hydrometra and lowest (2.7%) with each of endometritis, mummification and nodular growth on both uterine horns. Thus the uterus (54.07%) was most commonly affected, followed by the ovary (27.02%) and miscellaneous (18.91%) in ewes. In present study, 8.95% pregnant sheep were also slaughtered, with fetal age in majority of cases two months or less on the basis of CRL measurement which represents a huge economic loss. PMID:26623348

  13. Microbial community structure associated with the high loading anaerobic codigestion of olive mill and abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, Hana; Omri, Ilhem; Chouari, Rakia; Khelifi, Eltaief; Keskes, Sajiaa; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-02-01

    The effect of increasing the organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of the anaerobic codigestion of olive mill (OMW) and abattoir wastewaters (AW) was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structure of the microbial community was also monitored. Increasing OLR to 9g of chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) affected significantly the biogas yield and microbial diversity at 35°C. However, at 55°C digester remained stable until OLR of 12g of CODL(-1)d(-1) with higher COD removal (80%) and biogas yield (0.52Lg(-1) COD removed). Significant differences in the bacterial communities were detected between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The dominant phyla detected in the digester at both phases were the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes and Spirochaete. However, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and the candidate division BRC1 were only detected at thermophilic conditions. The Methanobacteriales and the Thermoplasmales were found as a high predominant archaeal member in the anaerobic sludge. PMID:26687494

  14. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  15. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  16. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  17. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  18. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  19. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. PMID:22405913

  20. Effect of fat score on the quality of various meat products.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, R; Eberhard, P; Guggisberg, D; Piccinali, P; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H

    2008-11-01

    In the larger Swiss abattoirs the fat score (FS) is determined by default as an indicator of fat quality. The FS refers to the iodine number and is related to the degree of unsaturation of the outer layer of backfat. In a feeding trial with Large White gilts, the FS was determined in 47 carcasses. Meat and fat tissues were prepared for the production of salami (SAL), raw-cured bacon (RCB), pork hamburger (PHB) and Vienna sausage (VIS). In the different meat products, the FS was closely related to the percentage of saturated (SFA: r=-0.49 to -0.79) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, r=0.36 to 0.79) for RCB, SAL and PHB (p⩽0.05), but not for VIS. For RCB, significant correlations with FS were seen for the meat:fat-ratio (r=0.39), fat firmness (r=-0.31) and one fat oxidation marker (1-octen-3-ol: r=0.51). The texture (r=-0.60), a(w)-value (r=0.63) and one fat oxidation marker (1-octen-3-ol: r=0.46) were significantly correlated with FS in SAL. On the whole, only a few variables correlated significantly with FS for SAL and RCB and the corresponding relationships were always linear. No significant correlation between FS and any of the technological and sensorial parameters were found for VIS or PHB. PMID:22063595

  1. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672

  2. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  3. Food inspection using hyperspectral imaging and SVDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslu, Faruk Sukru; Binol, Hamidullah; Bal, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays food inspection and evaluation is becoming significant public issue, therefore robust, fast, and environmentally safe methods are studied instead of human visual assessment. Optical sensing is one of the potential methods with the properties of being non-destructive and accurate. As a remote sensing technology, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is being successfully applied by researchers because of having both spatial and detailed spectral information about studied material. HSI can be used to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, quality evaluation of fish, detection of skin tumors on chicken carcasses, and classification of wheat kernels in the food industry. In this paper, we have implied an experiment to detect fat ratio in ground meat via Support Vector Data Description which is an efficient and robust one-class classifier for HSI. The experiments have been implemented on two different ground meat HSI data sets with different fat percentage. Addition to these implementations, we have also applied bagging technique which is mostly used as an ensemble method to improve the prediction ratio. The results show that the proposed methods produce high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.

  4. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  5. Studies on dentition and oral disorders of Camels in Maiduguri Abattoir, Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M

    2012-12-01

    Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007

  6. A retrospective survey of hydatidosis based on abattoir data in Kermanshah, Iran from 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Afshari Safavi, Ehsan Allah

    2016-06-01

    A retrospective study was carried out from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at the Kermanshah municipal abattoir, in western Iran. A total number of 663,633 livestock (393,585 sheep, 81,080 goats and 188,968 cattle) slaughtered in the 5-year period and overall 9,524 (1.43 %) livers and 13,147 (1.98 %) lungs were condemned. The lungs were more frequently infected with hydatid cysts than the livers in all animal species. The average prevalence of hydatidosis was 2.7 % in this area. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection recorded in the present study was generally lower than those reported from other regions of Iran. Greater awareness among farmers, destruction of organs containing hydatid cysts, prevention of access of dogs to raw offals and implementation of national rabies control program could be responsible factors. The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of hydatidosis among studied animals with higher prevalence in cattle than sheep, with the lowest prevalence recorded in goats. However the annual prevalence of liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis was decreased in some years, but the overall trend had a variable pattern in the prevalence of hydatidosis over the study period. Data showed a significant seasonal pattern for hydatidosis in all studied animals. Liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis were higher in the fall for sheep and cattle, whereas in goats were higher in summer. This could be attributed to various factors such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The current results suggest that a systematic investigation that lead to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of hydatidosis. In addition, the present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID

  7. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  8. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend the meat, poultry, and egg products import... requirements of the Acts and regulations as are applied to domestic products. The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (21 U.S.C. 1046) prohibits the importation of egg products unless they were processed under...

  9. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  10. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  11. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  12. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  13. 9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. 381.197 Section 381.197 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors). PMID:15927927

  16. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  17. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  18. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  19. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040

  20. Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

    2012-07-01

    The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 Ωm) in comparison to other positions (135-288 Ωm). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ≥ 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed β-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

  1. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  2. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  3. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  4. The effect of forage type on lamb carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined. PMID:27155319

  5. Factors associated with fatigued, injured, and dead pig frequency during transport and lairage at a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J; Matthews, J O; Schultz Kaster, C M; Johnson, A K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify environmental and management factors that are associated with the frequency of fatigued, injured, and dead pigs on arrival and in resting pens during lairage at a commercial Midwest abattoir. The terms transport losses or total losses refer to pigs that die or become nonambulatory at any stage of the marketing process. In this study, fatigued, injured, and dead pigs were summed into a variable termed total losses. Relative humidity (%), temperature ( degrees C), wind speed (m/s), and dew point ( degrees C) data were collected on 12,333 trailer loads of pigs. Week, sort from barn (first or third pig removal from barn), farm, normal vs. split load type (from 1 or multiple barns), load crew, driver, trailer, and wind direction were used as fixed effects in the model for the analysis of losses per load using generalized mixed models for Poisson distributions. Seven temperature-humidity indices (THI) were calculated and compared as model covariates. Load time per pig, trailer density (pigs per trailer x average BW/trailer space; kg/m(2)), wait time before unloading at the abattoir, and wind speed were used as model covariates. The log of the number of hogs per trailer was used to standardize the response variable. The linear covariate density accounted for the greatest portion of variance (based on F-value) followed by the fixed effect sort from barn, the fixed effect load type (pigs from 1 or multiple barns within a farm), load time per pig linear covariate, and THI. Pigs transported to the abattoir from June through July experienced fewer losses (P < 0.001) when compared with pigs that were transported from November through December. Keeping other factors constant, the log of total losses (%) per load increased by 0.0102x + 0.000541x(2) per unit of THI and 0.0191 kg/m(2) of density. Similarly, of 9 farms, the poorest-performing farm in regards to total loss percentage experienced 0.93% more losses per load when compared with

  6. [Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157 in bovine meat products and cattle in the province of Tucuman].

    PubMed

    Jure, María A; Condorí, Marina S; Pérez Terrazzino, Gabriela; Catalán, Mariana G; López Campo, Alejandro; Zolezzi, Gisella; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; Castillo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is an emergent pathogen associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Meat products constitute an important transmission source of this microorganism. The aims of this study were to characterize E. coli O157 isolated from cattle and meat products collected from abattoirs and retail stores, to establish the clonal relatedness among regional isolates and to compare them with those in the national database. Between 2004 and 2013, 169 minced meat, 35 sausage and 216 carcass samples were analyzed. Thirteen E. coli O157 isolates were identified; 6 of which were O157:H7 and characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA (n = 5) and stx2/eae/ehxA (n = 1). The 7 remaining isolates were non-toxigenic E. coli strains, and serotyped as O157:NT (n = 4), O157:NM (n = 1), O157:ND (n = 1) and O157:H16 (n = 1). The strains yielded different XbaI-PFGE patterns. Compared to the E. coli O157 isolates in the National Database, none of these patterns have been previously detected in strains of different origin in Argentina. PMID:26026230

  7. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., soy flour, soy protein concentrate, isolated soy protein, dried milk, nonfat dry milk, or...

  8. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., soy flour, soy protein concentrate, isolated soy protein, dried milk, nonfat dry milk, or...

  9. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., soy flour, soy protein concentrate, isolated soy protein, dried milk, nonfat dry milk, or...

  10. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., soy flour, soy protein concentrate, isolated soy protein, dried milk, nonfat dry milk, or...

  11. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend its regulations to establish a common or usual name for raw meat and poultry products that do not meet standard of identity regulations and to which solutions have been added. Products with added solutions are sometimes referred to as ``enhanced products.'' The Agency is proposing that the common or usual name for such......

  12. Genotypic characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef abattoirs of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Masana, M O; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Del Castillo, L L; Carbonari, C; Leotta, G A; Vilacoba, E; Irino, K; Rivas, M

    2011-12-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination in carcasses and feces of 811 bovines in nine beef abattoirs from Argentina was analyzed during a period of 17 months. The feces of 181 (22.3%) bovines were positive for non-O157 STEC, while 73 (9.0%) of the carcasses showed non-O157 STEC contamination. Non-O157 STEC strains isolated from feces (227) and carcasses (80) were characterized. The main serotypes identified were O178:H19, O8:H19, O130:H11, and O113:H21, all of which have produced sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentina and worldwide. Twenty-two (7.2%) strains carried a fully virulent stx/eae/ehxA genotype. Among them, strains of serotypes O103:[H2], O145:NM, and O111:NM represented 4.8% of the isolates. Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis showed 234 different patterns, with 76 strains grouped in 30 clusters. Nine of the clusters grouped strains isolated from feces and from carcasses of the same or different bovines in a lot, while three clusters were comprised of strains distributed in more than one abattoir. Patterns AREXSX01.0157, AREXBX01.0015, and AREXPX01.0013 were identified as 100% compatible with the patterns of one strain isolated from a hemolytic-uremic syndrome case and two strains previously isolated from beef medallions, included in the Argentine PulseNet Database. In this survey, 4.8% (39 of 811) of the bovine carcasses appeared to be contaminated with nonO157 STEC strains potentially capable of producing sporadic human disease, and a lower proportion (0.25%) with strains able to produce outbreaks of severe disease. PMID:22186039

  13. Inspection and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryman, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

  14. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens increase lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J.; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F.; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat-mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n=2101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining ~80% of the cases from the area. Non-cancer population controls (n=2120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1903 cases and 2073 controls, and used in conjunction with a meat-mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5–2.2; p-trend<0.001 and OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.4–2.1; p-trend<0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.4–4.0, p-trend=0.001 and OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.5–4.2, p-trend=0.001, respectively). Heterocyclic amines and benzo[a]pyrene were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat-mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:19141639

  15. Effects of hygienic treatments during slaughtering on microbial dynamics and contamination of sheep meat.

    PubMed

    Omer, Mohamed K; Hauge, Sigrun J; Østensvik, Øyvin; Moen, Birgitte; Alvseike, Ole; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Prieto, Miguel; Dommersnes, Sissel; Nesteng, Ole H; Nesbakken, Truls

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate bacterial dynamics in the sheep meat chain, from fleece to meat trimmings, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, and to study the effects on microbial load associated with the hygienic interventions of: i) shearing sheep immediately before slaughter, ii) manual steam vacuum pasteurisation, iii) hot water pasteurisation of carcasses, followed by iv) chilling. A further aim was to provide evidence to determine whether or not unshorn sheep should be handled in a processing line separate from that of shorn sheep in Norwegian abattoirs. A total of 176 surface swab samples were collected from three sites along the value chain: i) on fleeces, ii) on carcasses at the end of the slaughter line, and iii) on carcasses after chilling for 24h, and 32 samples were collected from meat trimmings. The results showed that Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) were lower for the shorn group compared to the unshorn group, both on carcasses before chilling and after chilling (difference of 0.8 and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p≤0.05), respectively) and in meat trimmings (difference of 0.5logCFU/g (p≤0.05)). Hygienic treatments were used on carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, and steam vacuum treatment reduced Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC before chilling by 1.2, 1.0, and 0.6logCFU/1000cm(2) (p≤0.05), respectively, and hot water pasteurisation, in addition to chilling, reduced E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC by 0.7, 1.0, and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p≤0.05), respectively, compared with untreated carcasses. The effect of chilling was shown by the significant reduction of number of carcasses where E. coli were detected; from 65% (13/20) of the shorn group before chilling to 35% (7/20) after chilling, and from 90% (36/40) to 45% (9/20) of the unshorn group. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene derived from 316 colonies of Enterobacteriaceae showed a tendency for the relative proportion of the genus Escherichia/Shigella, compared

  16. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  17. Walnut shell and meat classification using texture analysis and SVMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fenghua; Qin, Lei; Rao, Xiuqin; Tao, Yang

    2007-09-01

    The classification of walnuts shell and meat has a potential application in industry walnuts processing. A dark-field illumination method is proposed for the inspection of walnuts. Experiments show that the dark-field illuminated images of walnut shell and meat have distinct text patterns due to the differences in the light transmittance property of each. A number of rotation invariant feature analysis methods are used to characterize and discriminate the unique texture patterns. These methods include local binary pattern operator, wavelet analysis, circular Gabor filters, circularly symmetric gray level co-occurrence matrix and the histogram-related features. A recursive feature elimination method (SVM-RFE), is used to remove uncorrelated and redundant features and to train the SVM classifier at the same time. Experiments show that, by using only the top six ranked features, an average classification accuracy of 99.2% can be achieved.

  18. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  19. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  20. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  1. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  2. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  3. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  4. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach. PMID:26621069

  5. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  6. Diversity of Mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella trehalosi serotypes from apparently healthy sheep and abattoir specimens in the highlands of Wollo, North East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sisay, T; Zerihun, A

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence and serotypic diversity of Mannheimia [Pasteurella] haemolytica and Pasteurella trehalosi from nasal swabs, sera and abattoir specimens from sheep in the highlands of Wollo, North East Ethiopia was investigated. Prevalence rates of 83% and 75% of these microorganisms were found in the serum samples and nasal swabs, respectively, from apparently healthy sheep. In a local abattoir, 205 lungs were investigated, 34% of which showed pneumonia, from which samples were collected from 51 lungs and the same number of corresponding tonsils. Mannheimia and Pasteurella species were isolated from 59% of these pneumonic lungs and 69% of the respective tonsils. M. haemolytica serotypes accounted for 41 (59%) and P. trehalosi for 11 (32%) of the isolates from the abattoir specimens. The majority (67%) of isolates from nasal swabs were P. trehalosi, M. haemolytica being isolated f rom 4 (13%) of the swabs. M. glucosida was isolated only from the tonsils. The predominant serotypes of the isolates from both the nasal swabs and the abattoir specimens were M. haemolytica A1 (17%) and P. trehalosi T4 (16%) and T3 (13%). P. trehalosi T15 was less commonly encountered, while M. haemolytica A9 and A13 were not isolated. Studies on sera from 100 sheep indicated that antibodies against M. haemolytica serotype A1 (14%) were most common, followed by A5 and A8 (each 10%) and A9 and P. trehalosi T3 (each 9%) and T4 (8%). Antibodies against M. glucosida or serotype All occurred in 2% of the sera. Multiple serotypes were common in all types of samples. The importance of including in vaccines the most prevalent serotypes involved in the pneumonia of sheep in the area is discussed. PMID:12625399

  7. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  8. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  9. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  10. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  11. Prevalence and histopathological finding of thin-walled and thick-walled Sarcocysts in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs. PMID:26064016

  12. Serotypes, antimicrobial profiles, and public health significance of Salmonella from camels slaughtered in Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Odetokun, Ismail A.; Oladunni, Fatai S.; Adam, Mohammed; Kolapo, Ubaidat T.; Akorede, Ganiu J.; Ghali, Ibraheem M.; Ameh, James A.; Ambali, Abdulganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed at determining the serotypes, antimicrobial profiles, and public health importance of Salmonella strains from camels slaughtered at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples were obtained from camel comprising of intestines, feces, liver, and spleen (n=50 each). Non-lactose fermenting dark center Salmonella colonies were identified using standard biochemical techniques, serotyped and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using minimum inhibition concentration method. Results: Out of the 200 samples collected, 17 were Salmonella positive (spleen=7, intestine=6, feces=3, and liver=1) with a prevalence of 8.5%. Five serotypes comprising Salmonella Eko, 7 (3.5%), Salmonella Uganda, 4 (2.0%), Salmonella Amager, 2 (1.0%), Salmonella Westhampton, 2 (1.0%), and Salmonella Give, 2 (1.0%) were incriminated. Majority of the serotypes were sensitive to the antimicrobials, but one Salmonella Amager exhibited resistance to streptomycin, and one each of Salmonella Uganda and Salmonella Eko were resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion: This study revealed the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance profile of newly emerging Salmonella from camels in the northeast of Nigeria, which can serve as a means for the transmission of Salmonella to human. Therefore, there is a need for the establishment of national Salmonella surveillance and control programs. PMID:27047200

  13. A retrospective survey of liver flukes in livestock based on abattoir data in Kermanshah, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Safavi, Ehsan Allah Afshari

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of liver flukes in ruminants slaughtered at the abattoir of Kermanshah province, west of Iran. A total of 663,633 animals slaughtered in the 5-year period and totally 1.95 % of livers were condemned due to liver flukes. Fasciolosis were responsible for 0.8, 0.7 and 1.5 % of liver condemnations, whereas 1, 0.8 and 1 % of liver were condemned because of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in the sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. A significant difference in the prevalence of liver flukes were observed among studied animals (p < 0.001) and the highest and lowest prevalence were detected in cattle and goats, respectively. Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goat (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats and cattle slaughtered during winter, summer and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in autumn season for sheep and cattle and in winter for goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region. PMID:27605816

  14. Modelling the effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses at study, abattoir and batch levels by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Cadavez, Vasco; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis

    2013-05-15

    The effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses was investigated at study, abattoir and batch level by meta-analysis. Both the fixed-effects and random-effects model confirmed (p<0.05) the significant effect of chilling in decreasing Salmonella occurrence on pig carcasses; although the random-effects solution was preferred to account for the significant variability in effect size (p<0.001) estimated from the 13 primary studies considered, the 32 abattoirs surveyed, and the 51 sampled batches. Conservatively, it can be said that chilling reduces the Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses by a mean ratio of ~1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.6). Multilevel meta-analysis models investigating study characteristics that could explain the heterogeneity (τ(2)) in the true effect size among primary studies (τ(2)=0.578), among surveyed abattoirs (τ(2)=0.431), and among sampled batches (τ(2)=0.373), revealed that study size (represented by the moderating variables of 'total sample size' and 'number of batches sampled in an abattoir') and 'carcass swabbed area' have a significant impact (p<0.05) on the measured effect size of chilling. The fact that swabbed area explained between 56 and 62% and total sample size between 23 and 38% of the total heterogeneity in the chilling true effect size, indicates that differences in experimental design greatly affect our substantive conclusion about the effect of chilling on Salmonella occurrence. This inconsistency to elucidate the effect of chilling arises because of the many factors influencing both the performance of the chilling operation and the measurement itself. Meta-analysis was not only instrumental to show that small-size studies (i.e., only one batch sampled per abattoir, total number of sampled carcasses per batch<50) and small swabbed areas (<100 cm(2)) lead to imprecise and even conflicting conclusions, but most importantly, enabled definition of the characteristics of a well-designed study having a minimum

  15. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Nutrition....301. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat products...

  16. 9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of single... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Nutrition....301. (a)(1) Nutrition information on the major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat products...

  17. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  18. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  19. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  20. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  1. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  2. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  3. 77 FR 73401 - Not Applying the Mark of Inspection Pending Certain Test Results

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing that it is changing its procedures and will withhold its determination as to whether meat and poultry products are not adulterated, and thus eligible to enter commerce, until all test results that bear on the determination have been received. This notice responds to the comments FSIS received on the Federal Register notice it issued......

  4. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

  5. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  6. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  7. Computer aided inspection qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, D.; McNab, A.; Potts, A.; Toft, M.; McDonald, J.

    2002-05-01

    Inspection Qualification under the ENIQ methodology uses a Technical Justification as a key element in assuring the performance of the inspection. It combines a mixture of physical reasoning and modeling linked to limited experimental trial data from identified worst-case defects, but the qualification process is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes an investigation into providing an integrated set of intelligent software tools to aid the process of inspection qualification.

  8. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.; Han, Kyung S.

    1994-11-01

    This article describes the Waste Inspection Tomography Program. The program provides an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste, transuranic waste, and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive and environmentally safe inspections using x-ray and gamma ray technologies with reasonable cost and throughput. included are background information; project description; and results. 11 figs.

  9. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  10. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  11. Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Perry, G H

    2007-07-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP

  12. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased

  13. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  14. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  15. Changing Classrooms through Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a preliminary study evaluating effects of the UK's Office for Standards in Education inspections on classroom change, based on teachers' perceptions, responses, and intentions to change practice (resulting from the inspection process) at five comprehensive secondary schools. School context and culture figure prominently.…

  16. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  17. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  18. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  19. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  20. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  1. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  2. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  3. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  4. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  5. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting. PMID:25954058

  6. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  7. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  8. Source Inspection Scheduling Calendar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brayden

    2011-01-01

    Quality is an essential component for creating flight hardware travelling through space since the hardware is extremely expensive and cannot be reworked or repaired once launched. An important step in this process is ensuring the quality of hardware procured from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) suppliers. An important element of determining supplier quality is source inspection. Source inspections are performed at suppliers' facilities by JPL employeesto ensure that hardware characteristics are acceptable before being covered up and/or delivered to JPL.

  9. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  10. 46 CFR 176.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 176.818 Section 176.818 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for... sanitary condition....

  11. 46 CFR 176.818 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 176.818 Section 176.818 Shipping...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for... sanitary condition....

  12. Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

  13. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  14. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  15. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  16. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  17. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  18. Evaluation of an immunobiosensor for the on-site testing of veterinary drug residues at an abattoir. Screening for sulfamethazine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G A; O'Connor, M C; Haughey, S A; Crooks, S R; Elliott, C T

    1999-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of performing "on-site" screening for sulfamethazine (SMT), at an abattoir, using a rapid immunobiosensor method. This involved transfer of the biosensor technology and an assay developed in the laboratory, to the cold, humid conditions of a modern pig-processing factory. A pre-determined threshold limit of 0.4 microgram ml-1 SMT in bile was used to identify the likelihood that corresponding tissue samples contained SMT concentrations in excess of the European maximum permissible residue limit of 0.1 mg kg-1. Bile samples containing SMT concentrations above the threshold limit were deemed positive and the corresponding kidney and muscle samples were sent to the laboratory for HPLC analysis. The robustness of the biosensor instrumentation in the harsh operating conditions was monitored throughout the project. The performance of the assay, on-site, was assessed by the regular inclusion of QA samples and by the submission of control 'SMT-positive' pigs to the abattoir. Sampling procedures, identification and traceability were also under scrutiny. During the project, 337 (9.35%) of the total kill were tested for SMT residues, representing 75% of all producers submitting pigs for slaughter. Twelve animals, including the ten controls, gave positive bile results. HPLC analysis confirmed SMT residues in all 12 kidneys (11 in excess of the permissible level). Ten muscle samples also contained violative SMT levels. Throughout the project, the biosensor performed reliably, with no adverse reaction of any mechanical or electrical components. The SMT assay also performed reliably. This is the first report of a biosensor being used for 'on-site' drug screening. PMID:10736854

  19. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, data analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.

  20. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, datamore » analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.« less

  1. Predictors of Bovine TB Risk Behaviour amongst Meat Handlers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Guided by the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Dupe; Freeman, Jenny; Taddese, Henock B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. Results Just over a quarter (28.1%) of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p = 0.03), not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p = 0.001), and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p = 0.001). Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value = 0.021). Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively). Conclusion Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM. PMID:23409127

  2. Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat. PMID:24338447

  3. Remote Inspection Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  4. Intelligent inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Jeniece; Dale, Ken; Holloway, Mike; Gaby, Willard

    1997-01-01

    The intelligent inspection system is an advanced controller and analysis system for dimensional measuring machines dedicated to measuring surface of revolution mechanical parts. IIS was developed by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Oak Ridge Y-12 plant because no commercial product was available to replace the obsolete computing systems on these important machines.

  5. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. 14 CFR 91.409 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... detail— (i) An explanation of the progressive inspection, including the continuity of inspection... the name and address of the person responsible for scheduling the inspections required by the...

  8. 14 CFR 91.409 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... detail— (i) An explanation of the progressive inspection, including the continuity of inspection... the name and address of the person responsible for scheduling the inspections required by the...

  9. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted. PMID:20619800

  10. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053

  11. Patents for stretching and shaping meats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Johanne M; Hopkins, David L

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the years to speed up the slaughter and processing of meat have been limited by the impact on important meat quality traits, such as tenderness. A number of methods and equipment have been developed for stretching and/or shaping to enhance the tenderness of meat, reducing the need for long term storage and ageing of meat. The more successful methods and equipment to improve the tenderness of meat - Tenderstretch (pelvic suspension), Tendercut (skeletal separation), SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound (Pi-Vac Elasto-Pack system) are the subject of this review. Minimal research has been performed to compare these methods of tenderising meat. Tenderstretch and Tendercut are relatively easy to implement and require no specialised equipment, but they are relatively inflexible and only impact on a small number of muscles. The adoption of Tenderstretch has also been limited by increased resource requirements (chiller space and labour). SmartStretch™/Smartshape™ and Tenderbound, which wrap hot-boned pre-rigor muscles to prevent muscle contraction and shortening during rigor, are systems that do require specialised equipment. The major advantage of these systems is that they are very flexible and can be applied to any target muscle. Further research needs to be undertaken to compare these methods to better facilitate their commercial adoption. The article presents some promising patents on stretching and shaping meats. PMID:21428872

  12. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health. PMID:22493153

  13. Changes in the EU legislation on Trichinella inspection--new challenges in the epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M O

    2005-09-01

    The European Union (EU) countries are searching for new ways to certify meat free of Trichinella; however, with the expansion of the EU, the acceptance of a unilateral method is complicated by the variability of pig and human trichinellosis among EU countries, where significantly higher prevalence rates have been observed in the newly added eastern countries. Several attempts have been made to define Trichinella-free areas, but certification of Trichinella-free pig production farms appears to be the only feasible approach. The increasing prevalence of the non-encapsulating species, Trichinella pseudospiralis, in game, domestic pigs and humans has eliminated the compression technique from the new EU legislation to be enacted in 2006. Also, the observation that several species of Trichinella tolerate freezing in horse meat for up to 4 weeks has forced a change in legislation as well where freezing is no longer an option for certifying horse meat. Because current serological detection methods are not suited for meat inspection, classical direct detection methods and inactivation by freezing remain the methods of choice for pork. It has been proposed, therefore, to automate direct inspection methods as a cost effective alternative to certify pig farms free of Trichinella. PMID:16039781

  14. Safety Audit/Inspection Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides guidelines and procedures for safety audits and inspections in work environments. Contents include: (1) Administrative Concepts, (2) Physical Concepts, (3) Protecting Your Audits, (4) Safety Inspections, and (5) Safety Inspection Checklist. The appendix features federal laws and regulations affecting laboratories. (YDS)

  15. Optical inspection of NGL masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettibone, Donald W.; Stokowski, Stanley E.

    2004-12-01

    For the last five years KLA-Tencor and our joint venture partners have pursued a research program studying the ability of optical inspection tools to meet the inspection needs of possible NGL lithographies. The NGL technologies that we have studied include SCALPEL, PREVAIL, EUV lithography, and Step and Flash Imprint Lithography. We will discuss the sensitivity of the inspection tools and mask design factors that affect tool sensitivity. Most of the work has been directed towards EUV mask inspection and how to optimize the mask to facilitate inspection. Our partners have succeeded in making high contrast EUV masks ranging in contrast from 70% to 98%. Die to die and die to database inspection of EUV masks have been achieved with a sensitivity that is comparable to what can be achieved with conventional photomasks, approximately 80nm defect sensitivity. We have inspected SCALPEL masks successfully. We have found a limitation of optical inspection when applied to PREVAIL stencil masks. We have run inspections on SFIL masks in die to die, reflected light, in an effort to provide feedback to improve the masks. We have used a UV inspection system to inspect both unpatterned EUV substrates (no coatings) and blanks (with EUV multilayer coatings). These inspection results have proven useful in driving down the substrate and blank defect levels.

  16. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  18. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. PMID:23793078

  19. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products. PMID:26787929

  20. An outline of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance and its future prospects.

    PubMed

    Berends, B R; van Knapen, F

    1999-10-01

    Discussed are the outlines of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance to replace the current meat inspection. An example of a system that uses the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)-principles in the entire production chain from stable to table is also given. Continuous evaluation of risks is the main driving force of the new system. Only then the system has the means to remain flexible and provide for the data necessary to convince trade partners that the products they buy are safe. A monitoring system that keeps track of the important health hazards in the entire chain from stable to table is therefore necessary. This includes monitoring of cases of disease in the human population caused by the hazardous agents of concern. Coordination of the monitoring and control and processing of the information is done by an independent body. Furthermore, the system demands a production from stable to table that is based on the ideas of Integrated Quality Control (IQC), HACCP, and certification of production processes and quality control procedures. Clear legislation provides for criteria about acceptable or unacceptable health risks for the consumer and determines at what moments which risks should be controlled by the producers. Simultaneously, the legislation has to be flexible enough to be able to adapt quickly to any changes in risks, or in the way risks should be controlled. In the new system current meat inspection can easily be carried out by employees of the slaughter houses and is no longer a direct responsibility of the authorities. The authorities only demand certain safety levels and verify whether producers stick to these. Producers remain fully responsible for the safety and quality of their products, and fully liable in case of any damage to the consumers' health. However, it is to be expected that some EU Member-States miss the organizational and agricultural basis for a successful application of the new system. Consequences

  1. Overview of the software inspection process

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, G.L.; Dabbs, R.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial introduces attendees to the Inspection Process and teaches them how to organize and participate in a software inspection. The tutorial advocates the benefits of inspections and encourages attendees to socialize the inspection process in their organizations.

  2. Industrial Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Lixi, Inc. has built a thriving business on NASA-developed x-ray technology. The Low Intensity X-ray Imaging scope (LIXI) was designed to use less than one percent of radiation required by conventional x-ray devices. It is portable and can be used for a variety of industrial inspection systems as well as medical devices. A food processing plant uses the new LIXI Conveyor system to identify small bone fragments in chicken. The chicken packages on a conveyor belt enter an x-ray chamber and the image is displayed on a monitor. Defects measuring less than a millimeter can be detected. An important advantage of the system is its ability to inspect 100 percent of the product right on the production line.

  3. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed. PMID:27118166

  4. Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?

    PubMed

    Corpet, Denis E

    2011-11-01

    The effect of meat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant but modest (20-30%). Current WCRF-AICR recommendations are to eat no more than 500 g per week of red meat, and to avoid processed meat. Moreover, our studies show that beef meat and cured pork meat promote colon carcinogenesis in rats. The major promoter in meat is heme iron, via N-nitrosation or fat peroxidation. Dietary additives can suppress the toxic effects of heme iron. For instance, promotion of colon carcinogenesis in rats by cooked, nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme cured meat was suppressed by dietary calcium and by α-tocopherol, and a study in volunteers supported these protective effects in humans. These additives, and others still under study, could provide an acceptable way to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:21558046

  5. Inspection challenges -- pigs versus pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, E.M.; Grimes, K.

    1996-12-31

    As the size of the international pipeline network grows, and systems age (by the year 2000, over 50% of US gas transmission pipelines will be over 40 years old), and as environmental pressures increase, the demand for inspection is ever more apparent. Pipeline operations` experience has revealed many new defects and new inspection problems, many of which have challenged in-line inspection technology and stimulated further developments. This paper describes what pipeline inspection needs to find, the available technology and some examples of the inspection challenges.

  6. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  7. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  8. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  9. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  10. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  11. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-12-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

  12. Laser Scanning In Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

  13. [Meat and human health: excess and errors].

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

  14. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  15. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  16. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. PMID:24856100

  17. Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal diffusivity of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The thermal diffusivity of various meat samples (pork, fish), and its temperature dependence, in the -5 to +70 °C temperature range, was measured using the photopyroelectric calorimetry in the back configuration (with thermally thick sample and sensor, and optically opaque sample). An almost temperature independent behavior of the thermal diffusivity, for temperatures higher than melting point of ice was confirmed. The results can be used to optimize the meat sterilisation process.

  18. High Temperature Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C.W.

    1999-01-26

    The Remote and Specialty Equipment Section (RSES) of the Savannah River Technology Center has developed a High Temperature Inspection System (HTIS) for remotely viewing the interior of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter pour spout. The DWPF is a vitrification facility at the Savannah River Site where radioactive waste is processed, mixed and melted with glass frit in an electrically heated melter, and poured into canisters for long-term storage. The glass mixture is transferred from the melter to the canisters via the pour spout, a vertical interface between the melter and the canisters. During initial operation of the melter, problems were experienced with wicking of the glass stream to the sides of the pour spout resulting in pluggage of the pour spout. A removable insert was developed to eliminate the wicking problem. Routine cleaning of the pour spout and replacement of the insert requires that the pour spout interior be inspected on a regular basis. The HTIS was developed to perform the inspection. The HTIS provides two video images: one view for aligning the HTIS with the pour spout and the other for inspecting the pour spout wall condition and other surfaces. The HTIS is carried into the melter cell using an overhead crane and is remotely connected to the cell's telerobotic manipulator (TRM). An operator uses the TRM to insert the HTIS into the 2-inch (5.08 cm) diameter pour spout, rotate it 360 degrees, and then remove it. This application created many challenges for the inspection device, especially regarding size and temperature. The HTIS design allows the video cameras to stay below a safe operating temperature during use in the 1100 degrees C environment. Many devices are designed to penetrate a wall and extend into a heated chamber only a few inches, but the HTIS is inserted into the heated chamber 22 inches (55.88 cm). Other devices can handle the insertion length and small diameter, but they are not designed to handle the high

  19. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  20. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  1. Bovine and ovine rumen fluke in Ireland-Prevalence, risk factors and species identity based on passive veterinary surveillance and abattoir findings.

    PubMed

    Toolan, Dónal P; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Sheehan, Maresa; Skuce, Philip J; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of rumen fluke, the incidence of clinical paramphistomosis and the trematode's species identity were studied in cattle and sheep in the Republic of Ireland using passive veterinary surveillance (faecal examination and necropsy results; 2010-2013) and abattoir data. Based on faecal examination, the prevalence of rumen fluke was higher in cattle than in sheep. Rumen fluke prevalence in cattle and sheep fluctuated over the year and in most years (2011-2013), prevalence was higher in winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). For 3 of 4 years studied, there was no correlation between monthly prevalence of rumen fluke and prevalence of liver fluke as estimated by faecal examination. At sample level, joint occurrence of rumen fluke and liver fluke was 1.1-2.0 times more common than would be expected under the assumption of independence. Based on necropsy data, a spike in deaths attributed to paramphistomosis was observed in 2012, when rainfall was unusually high. This spike in mortality was not accompanied by a spike in faecal prevalence, emphasizing that the incidence of disease, which is due to high burdens of juvenile rumen fluke in the gut, is not correlated with prevalence of infection, which is measured by faecal examination and reflects presence of adult fluke in the rumen. At slaughter, 52% of 518 cattle from 101 herds were positive for rumen fluke, compared to 14% of 158 sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher than reported in most studies from mainland Europe and varied by animal category, age, sex, abattoir visit and location (county) of farm from which the animal was submitted for slaughter, but in multivariate analysis, only sampling month and county were significantly associated with detection of rumen fluke. The identity of rumen fluke in cattle and sheep was confirmed as Calicophoron daubneyi. Although C. daubneyi is thought to share an intermediate host snail with Fasciola hepatica, the differences in prevalence between host

  2. Hot-water spraying is a sensitive test for signs of life before dressing and scalding in pig abattoirs with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning.

    PubMed

    Parotat, S; von Holleben, K; Arnold, S; Troeger, K; Luecker, E

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual

  3. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  4. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed. PMID:27087253

  5. Selenium content of game meat

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie )

    1991-03-11

    Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

  6. Immobilized cells in meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, A J; Champagne, C P

    1994-01-01

    The immobilization of microbial cells can contribute to fermented meat technology at two basic levels. First, the solid/semisolid nature (low available water) of the substrate restricts the mobility of cells and results in spatial organizations based on "natural immobilization" within the fermentation matrix. The microniches formed influence the fermentation biochemistry through mass transfer limitations and the subsequent development and activity of the microflora. This form of immobilization controls the nature of competition between subpopulations within the microflora and ultimately exerts an effect on the ecological competence (ability to survive and compete) of the various cultures present. Second, immobilized cell technology (ICT) can be used to enhance the ecological competence of starter cultures added to initiate the fermentation. Immobilization matrices such as alginate can provide microniches or microenvironments that protect the culture during freezing or lyophilization, during subsequent rehydration, and when in competition with indigenous microflora. The regulated release of cells from the microenvironments can also contribute to competitive ability. The regulation of both immobilization processes can result in enhanced fermentation activity. PMID:8069934

  7. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  8. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  9. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module l.0: Meat Grades and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on meat grades and classes is the first of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop trade-related Spanish/English…

  10. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S.; Taleff, Alexander; Sturges, Jr., Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  11. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  12. Bridge inspection in Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisler, Don E.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a brief insight into the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Bridge Inspection Program. The State of Kansas has 25,580 bridge length structures within its boundaries used to carry vehicle traffic or pedestrians, excluding railroad. This total ranks third within the nation according to the November issue of 'Better Roads.' The total number of structures listed includes 20,453 structures owned by local governments, 340 structures owned by the Kansas Turnpike Authority, and 4,787 structures owned by the KDOT. This paper will deal specifically with the KDOT structures only.

  13. Acoustic inspection device

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Pappas, Richard A.; Mullen, O. Dennis; Samuel, Todd J.; Reid, Larry D.; Harris, Joe C.; Valencia, Juan D.; Smalley, Jonathan T.; Shepard, Chester L.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2005-09-06

    An ultrasound inspection apparatus particularly adapted to examine containers (sealed or unsealed) containing a liquid or solid bulk material. The apparatus has an overall configuration of a hand held pistol with a front transducer contact surface that is positioned against a front wall of the container. An ultrasound pulse is transmitted from the apparatus to be reflected from a back wall of a container being investigated. The received echo pulse is converted to a digital waveform. The waveform is analyzed relative to temperature, travel distance of the pulse(s), and time of travel to ascertain characteristics of the liquid or other materials and to provide identification of the same.

  14. Fluorescent penetrant inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with fluorescent penetrant inspection and to relate it to classification of various defects. The penetrant method of nondestructive testing is a method for finding discontinuities open to the surface in solids and essentially nonporous bodies. The method employs a penetrating liquid which is applied over the surface and enters the discontinuity or crack. After the excess of penetrant has been cleaned from the surface, the penetrant which exudes or is drawn back out of the crack indicates the presence and location of a discontinuity. The experimental procedure is described.

  15. Ceramic inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Werve, Michael E.

    2006-05-16

    A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

  16. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. PMID:25282670

  17. Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability.

    PubMed

    Karltun, J; Vogel, K; Bergstrand, M; Eklund, J

    2016-09-01

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD. PMID:27184316

  18. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. PMID:25017317

  19. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.

    2015-06-01

    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  20. Ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this presentation is ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems. This paper describes two current programs underway at Savannah River Site which provide state-of-the-art ultrasonic inspections of weld heat-affected zones in the primary cooling loop of the Savannah River Site reactors. It also describes the automated remote inspection equipment being developed and employed; briefly describe the procedures being used; and give you a general idea of the future direction of two major programs: Moderator Piping Inspection Program and the Reactor Tank Wall Weld Inspection Program. The objective of these programs is to provide inspection techniques to more fully determine the condition of the reactor primary system and provide data for prediction of maintenance needs and remaining service life. Detection and sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the focus of these programs.

  1. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  2. Thermographic Inspection of Aerospace Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Carl; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James; Wilkerson, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Thermography has been shown to be the ideal technical and economic inspection method for two applications - post-machining evaluations and for field inspections of damage and repair. For most manufacturing applications ultrasonic inspections are already available and established. There is no question about the detectability or cost when inspecting hardware out of the autoclave. But when the part is too large to bring to the scanning inspection system or you do not want to remove the hardware from its current setup then a more portable or field applicable inspection is required. This paper will describe two applications of thermography on composite inspections. The NASA NDE Team and Lockheed Martin conducted the work at NASA s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first application was inspecting machined hardware. The technique and example data will be presented along with the advantages of thermography. Examples of drilling holes and trimming the edges will be discussed. The second application will be the evaluation of damage in a composite part and the subsequent repair of the region will be presented. The technique, data, and benefits of this application will also be presented along with the follow-up inspection of the post- repaired hardware.

  3. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  4. Feeding and meat quality - a future approach.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Henrik J; Oksbjerg, Niels; Young, Jette F; Therkildsen, Margrethe

    2005-07-01

    The continuous demand for high standards of quality assurance in the meat production of today and tomorrow calls for development of new tools capable of meeting such demands. The present paper aims to re-think the traditional way of using feeding as a quality control tool in the production of meat and to introduce the potential of a nutrigenomic approach as a first step in the development of pro-active quality control systems which fulfil future demands from industry and consumers. A few chosen examples present how specific feeding strategies can manipulate (i) muscle protein turnover and thereby meat tenderness as well as the cost and sustainability of the production and (ii) muscle energy levels at slaughter and thereby the pH decline, water-holding capacity and the sensory characteristics of meats. The examples are discussed in relation to exploiting essential and basic understanding of physiological and physical processes, which can subsequently be included in a systems biology line of thought of importance for development of unique decision support systems in future meat production. PMID:22063752

  5. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. PMID:25865663

  6. Meat eaters by dissociation: How we present, prepare and talk about meat increases willingness to eat meat by reducing empathy and disgust.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas R; Hohle, Sigrid M

    2016-10-01

    Many people enjoy eating meat but dislike causing pain to animals. Dissociating meat from its animal origins may be a powerful way to avoid cognitive dissonance resulting from this 'meat paradox'. Here, we provide the first comprehensive test of this hypothesis, highlighting underlying psychological mechanisms. Processed meat made participants less empathetic towards the slaughtered animal than unprocessed meat (Study 1). When beheaded, a whole roasted pork evoked less empathy (Study 2a) and disgust (Study 2b) than when the head was present. These affective responses, in turn, made participants more willing to eat the roast and less willing to consider an alternative vegetarian dish. Conversely, presenting a living animal in a meat advertisement increased empathy and reduced willingness to eat meat (Study 3). Next, describing industrial meat production as "harvesting" versus "killing" or "slaughtering" indirectly reduced empathy (Study 4). Last, replacing "beef/pork" with "cow/pig" in a restaurant menu increased empathy and disgust, which both equally reduced willingness to eat meat and increased willingness to choose an alternative vegetarian dish (Study 5). In all experiments, effects were strongly mediated by dissociation and interacted with participants' general dissociation tendencies in Study 3 and 5, so that effects were particularly pronounced among participants who generally spend efforts disassociating meat from animals in their daily lives. Together, this line of research demonstrates the large role various culturally-entrenched processes of dissociation play for meat consumption. PMID:27405101

  7. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  8. A portable device for rapid nondestructive detection of fresh meat quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wan; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. In order to meet the demand of inspection department for portable device, a rapid and nondestructive detection device for fresh meat quality based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) processor and VIS/NIR technology was designed. Working principal, hardware composition, software system and functional test were introduced. Hardware system consisted of ARM processing unit, light source unit, detection probe unit, spectral data acquisition unit, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) touch screen display unit, power unit and the cooling unit. Linux operating system and quality parameters acquisition processing application were designed. This system has realized collecting spectral signal, storing, displaying and processing as integration with the weight of 3.5 kg. 40 pieces of beef were used in experiment to validate the stability and reliability. The results indicated that prediction model developed using PLSR method using SNV as pre-processing method had good performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 and root mean square error of 1.56 for validation set for L*, 0.95 and 1.74 for a*,0.94 and 0.59 for b*, 0.88 and 0.13 for pH, 0.79 and 12.46 for tenderness, 0.89 and 0.91 for water content, respectively. The experimental result shows that this device can be a useful tool for detecting quality of meat.

  9. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  10. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results. PMID:25474205

  11. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO RIGHT AND LEFT - Greenwood Furnace, Meat House, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

  12. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. PMID:26946479

  13. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  14. Meat: The balance between nutrition and health. A review.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stefaan; Vossen, Els

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats provide high biological value proteins and important micronutrients. On the other hand, a working group of IARC recently classified processed meat as 'carcinogenic to humans' and red meat as 'probably carcinogenic to humans' for colorectal cancer, appealing to critically consider the future role of meat in a healthy diet. This manuscript first evaluates the contribution of meat consumption to the supply of important micronutrients in the human food chain, and the extent to which this can be improved by primary production strategies, and impacts on human health. Secondly, the IARC hazard analysis of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption is discussed, arguing that having more insight in the mechanisms of the association offers opportunities for mitigation. It is advocated that the benefits and risks associated with red and processed meat consumption should not necessarily cause dilemmas, if these meats are consumed in moderate amounts as part of balanced diets. PMID:27107745

  15. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual inspections. 213.365 Section 213.365... Visual inspections. (a) All track shall be visually inspected in accordance with the schedule prescribed..., electrical, and other track inspection devices may be used to supplement visual inspection. If a vehicle...

  16. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visual inspections. 213.365 Section 213.365... Visual inspections. (a) All track shall be visually inspected in accordance with the schedule prescribed..., electrical, and other track inspection devices may be used to supplement visual inspection. If a vehicle...

  17. 46 CFR 169.237 - Inspection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection standards. 169.237 Section 169.237 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.237 Inspection standards. Vessels are inspected for...

  18. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  19. 46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 169.255 Section 169.255 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for...

  20. 46 CFR 169.237 - Inspection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection standards. 169.237 Section 169.237 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.237 Inspection standards. Vessels are inspected for...