Sample records for abattoir meat inspection

  1. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031

  2. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats...vessel carrying meat or meat-food products, as defined and...

  3. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p < 0.05) in the cecum of pigs held on solid concrete floors (72.4%), and slightly less for pigs held on slatted floors (63.3%). Animals held for less than 45 min before slaughter demonstrated the lowest proportion of S. enterica-positive samples (52.9%). The pig prevalence, as measured by any one of the three samples being positive, was significantly different (p < 0.05) between animals held on solid floors (81%) and those animals held for 45 min or less before slaughter (69%). Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems. PMID:15992301

  4. Microbiological baseline study of poultry slaughtered in provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; Checkley, Sylvia L; Gensler, Gary E; Barrios, Pablo Romero

    2009-02-01

    Studies to determine baseline levels of microbial contaminants and foodborne bacterial pathogens are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programs, Good Manufacturing/Production Practices, and various interventions. In 2004 and 2005 poultry carcass rinses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada, were tested to determine the levels of aerobic plate count bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp., and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Samples were collected from 3 high volume and 62 low volume abbatoirs. All samples (1296) were positive for aerobic plate count bacteria, with 98.8% of samples having counts of 100 000 or less colony forming units (CFU)/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 99.7% of the 1296 carcasses and were recovered at levels of < or = 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.3% of the samples. Generic E. coli were recovered from 99.1% of the 1296 carcasses at levels of < or = 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.6% of the samples. Seventy five percent of 1234 samples that were tested for Campylobacter were positive; 37.5% of 1295 samples that were tested for Salmonella were positive; and only 2 of 1296 samples tested for STEC were positive (0.15%). PMID:19412397

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs' immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses were monitored. A general idea of the degree of disease coverage was analysed by examining organ lesions postmortem. Haptoglobin (Hp) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in meat juice samples. 72.13 per cent of pigs appeared to be seropositive for the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and almost 86.2 per cent of them had concomitant infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine circovirus type 2 or Swine influenza virus. Median Hp and CRP concentrations were significantly higher in diseased animals at different stages of the production chain, when compared with levels found in healthy finishing pigs (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest sensitivity-specificity pairs, nearly 80-90 per cent, at cut-off levels of 83 and 10?µg/ml for Hp and CRP determinations, respectively, with high AUCs 0.9. This cut-off could be useful for veterinary inspections at the time of slaughter, to differentiate between the carcase of a healthy animal and the carcase of an animal suffering from a systemic disease, which should be completely condemned. PMID:26101294

  6. 77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...FSIS-2012-0030] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety...Agriculture National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection...reestablish the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. The purpose...

  7. 77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...FSIS-2012-0025] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for...membership on the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The...Attn: National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...FSIS-2010-0030] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety...that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will...Send to National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA,...

  9. 77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...FSIS-2012-0016] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety...that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will...Send to National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA,...

  10. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability...import inspection applications for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the...INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21...

  11. Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nma Bida Alhaji

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between\\u000a 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating\\u000a to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P?

  12. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Daniel Y. C.; Edwards, Jessica R.; Crozier-Dodson, Beth Ann

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms. Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling pathogens and may become more commonly incorporated into the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. A comprehensive review of decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat processing was made by Edwards and Fung (2006). The current chapter is for at-line consideration of all types of microorganisms related to meat processing with E. coli O157:H7 as the main model. Another detailed analysis of the entire topic of meat safety was made by Fung et al.

  13. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY...establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce...Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR...

  14. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2010-05-01

    Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat inspectors and researchers were estimated without the assumption of an available gold standard. The Se for the regular meat inspection was found to be 0.92, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.49 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Se for the researchers was found to be 0.81, 0.96, 0.91 and 0.68 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Sp for the regular meat inspection was found to be between 0.98 and 1.00 for the four categories. The Sp for the researchers was found to be 0.83, 0.94, 0.76 and 0.99 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The low Se of ordinary meat inspection for parasitic, intestinal and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. PMID:20132995

  15. At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Y. C. Fung; Jessica R. Edwards; Beth Ann Crozier-Dodson

    Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms.\\u000a Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry\\u000a as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling\\u000a pathogens and may become

  16. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  17. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  18. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

  19. 75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...FSIS-2010-0021] The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment...charter of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) on June...Background The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection provides...

  20. 77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...FSIS-2012-0051] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety...meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The...State and Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg...

  1. Possible impact of the "yellow card" antimicrobial scheme on meat inspection lesions in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Dahl, J; Andreasen, M; Petersen, J V; Sandberg, M

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, the "yellow card scheme" which was adopted by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration imposed restrictions on pig farmers who used more antimicrobials than twice the average. To study the potential impact on pig health, we looked into antimicrobial consumption and vaccine use data from the monitoring programme Vetstat, covering all treatments conducted on Danish pigs between January 2010 and July 2011. The decrease in antimicrobial consumption was pronounced for all age groups (sows/piglets, weaners and finishers) treated for either gastro-intestinal or respiratory disease. Evaluated over 12 months, use of vaccines increased in general: PCV2-related infections (+31%), gastro-intestinal disease (27%), respiratory infections (21%) whereas use of vaccines against other infections remained almost constant (-18%). Data from meat inspection of finisher pigs from before and after introduction of the scheme were compared. This included 1.7 million finisher pigs originating from 2765 pig farms, slaughtered on one large Danish abattoir and covered the first 9 weeks in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nine lesions of chronic nature and infectious origin and the code "condemned" were selected. The prevalence of these lesions was calculated. Logistic regression models with year and week as explanatory variables were used to identify whether the prevalence of a lesion changed from 2010 to 2011. Possible clustering due to correlation within herds and between weekly shipments of animals originating from the same herd was taken into account in the models. The most common lesion seen was chronic pleuritis (?23%) while the other lesions occurred less-commonly (<1%). For osteomyelitis, pleuritis, chronic arthritis and condemnation, no differences were observed between the 2 years. The prevalence of chronic peritonitis (OR=1.5), umbilical hernia (OR=1.2) and chronic enteritis (OR=1.2) were statistically higher in 2011 compared to 2010, whereas it was lower for tail bite infection (OR=0.6), chronic pericarditis (OR=0.6), and chronic pneumonia (OR=0.7) (P<0.001). Moreover, in the condemned carcasses, chronic pneumonia plummeted as a lesion found in 2011 compared to 2010 (OR=0.07, P<0.0001). Our results indicate that marked reduction in use of antimicrobials is associated with a short-term increase in the prevalence of specific lesions found during meat inspection and higher coverage of vaccines against respiratory diseases might impact the prevalence of chronic pneumonia positively. Other factors that impact on pig health were not included in the study. Moreover, effect of productivity was not evaluated. PMID:23194892

  2. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  3. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  4. 9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

  5. Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 2. Abattoir carcass traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. ReverterA; D. J. JohnstonA; D. Perry; H. M. BurrowD

    A total of 11 abattoir carcass measures were recorded on 7854 carcasses in temperate (TEMP) and tropically adapted (TROP) beef breeds. Breeds for TEMP included Angus, Hereford, Murray Grey, and Shorthorn; Brahman, Belmont Red, and Santa Gertrudis accounted for TROP breeds. Measurements included carcass weight (CWT), retail beef yield percentage (RBY), intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), subcutaneous fat depth at the

  6. Implication of clinical pathology in assessment of animal health and in animal production and meat inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. M. Toussaint; A. M. van Ederen; E. Gruys

    1995-01-01

    Clinical, zootechnical and industrial developments of the last decades have led to new ideas on monitoring systems for animal production and meat inspection. Quality assessment systems, integrated monitoring, risk assessment concerning consumer's health and monitoring for infectious animal diseases, are more relevant today than pathomorphological control of individual subjects. Published papers on investigations to assess slaughtered animals by blood variables

  7. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen...

  9. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen...

  10. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section...chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen...

  11. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726

  12. Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida

    2011-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P<0.05) high during the early rainy season (April to June). There was no significant difference observed across the years. The economic impact of the wastage is estimated at N8, 353,800.00 ($56,828.57) which is a great loss to the livestock industry. With these findings, there is the need to advocate for adequate enforcement of legislations on routine veterinary examinations at the slaughter houses in Nigeria. Also, livestock owners should be educated on the seasonal breeding patterns of cattle in order to avoid selling cows during the calving season to salvage high level of calf foetal wastage. PMID:21080227

  13. Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 2005–2010 data from ten French slaughterhouses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer’s lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. PMID:23628140

  14. Suggestions for the construction, analysis and use of descriptive epidemiological models for the modernization of meat inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Berends; F. van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders

    1996-01-01

    There is consensus that scientifically validated, quantitative assessments of actual public health risks are a prerequisite for any sound modernization of current meat inspection procedures. This article outlines how such analyses could be conducted. Approaches that rely heavily upon extrapolations from theoretical dose-effect relationships are inadequate for the assessment of microbiological health risks associated with the production and consumption of

  15. Contribution of Meat Inspection to the surveillance of poultry health and welfare in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Stärk, K D C; Mateus, A; Lupo, C; Lindberg, A; LE Bouquin-Leneveu, S

    2015-08-01

    In the European Union, Meat Inspection (MI) aims to protect public health by ensuring that minimal hazardous material enters in the food chain. It also contributes to the detection and monitoring of animal diseases and welfare problems but its utility for animal surveillance has been assessed partially for some diseases only. Using the example of poultry production, we propose a complete assessment of MI as a health surveillance system. MI allows a long-term syndromic surveillance of poultry health but its contribution is lowered by a lack of data standardization, analysis and reporting. In addition, the probability of case detection for 20 diseases and welfare conditions was quantified using a scenario tree modelling approach, with input data based on literature and expert opinion. The sensitivity of MI appeared to be very high to detect most of the conditions studied because MI is performed at batch level and applied to a high number of birds per batch. PMID:25521240

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the...

  17. A survey of the causes of cattle organs and/or carcass condemnation, financial losses and magnitude of foetal wastage at an abattoir in Dodoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Wilfred; Nonga, Hezron E

    2015-01-01

    Slaughterhouses provide a safeguard that prevents the public from consuming meat of poor quality or meat which may be infected with zoonotic diseases. This work reviews a 3-year database of cattle that were slaughtered and inspected between 2010 and 2012 at Dodoma abattoir, Tanzania. In addition, meat inspection was undertaken for 1 month (December 2013). The aim of this study was to establish causes of organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications as well as the magnitude of slaughter of pregnant cows at Dodoma abattoir. During retrospective study, it was found that a total of 9015 (10.5%) lungs, 6276 (7.3%) intestines, 5402 (6.3%) livers, 3291 (3.8%) kidneys and 41 (0.05%) carcasses were condemned. Pulmonary emphysema (3.4%), fasciolosis (4.5%), pimply gut (5.7%), kidney congenital cysts (1.9%) and hydatidosis (3.1%) were major causes of organ condemnations. This large number of condemned edible organs and/or carcasses implies that public health considerations result in deprivation of valuable protein. Occurrence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, fasciolosis and tuberculosis illustrates the possible public health problem and presence of environmental infections. Of the 794 cows slaughtered in December 2013, 46% were pregnant. Financial loss as a result of organ and/or carcass condemnations was estimated at $9892. Condemnation of organs and/or carcasses and indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows represent a significant loss of meat and revenue and a reduction in growth of future herds, which has a negative effect on the livestock industry. This justifies appropriate surveillance and disease control programmes coupled with strict enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to curb the slaughter of pregnant animals. PMID:26017465

  18. An investigation of the quality of meat sold in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seeiso, T M; McCrindle, C M E

    2009-12-01

    Since the closure of the Lesotho abattoir in 2003, only imported meat can be legally sold. However, it was estimated in 2007 that 80% of the meat sold at butcheries comes from informal slaughter. The aim of this study was to investigate the situation. The number and location of informal butcheries in Lesotho (n = 143) were recorded and mapped using Geographical Information Systems. Observations (photographs) of informal slaughter indicated a lack of hygiene, unskilled slaughtermen and illegal disposal of offal with possible environmental pollution. In addition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of meat from randomly selected carcasses (n = 237) of cattle, sheep and pigs from a sample of 44 butcheries, 4 of which were associated with registered supermarkets. As a control, samples for microbiological assay were taken from imported meat originating from carcasses (n = 20) slaughtered at a registered abattoir in South Africa. Of the 44 butcheries investigated only the 4 commercial butcheries associated with supermarkets sold imported meat only; 3 butcheries sold meat inspected at government slaughter slabs (n = 3), while the rest (n = 37) sold both imported and informally slaughtered meat. In terms of Lesotho legislation, informally slaughtered meat is only for home consumption. The bacteriological counts from all samples showed a total bacterial plate count exceeding 30 organisms per ml in contrast with the controls which all showed a count less than 5 colonies per ml. This was found for both imported and informally slaughtered meat sold in Lesotho. In addition, meat samples from butcheries showed the presence of the potential pathogens Salmonella (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and Escherichia coli (n = 15). During the study, anthrax was confirmed in 9 human patients, 5 of whom died, after consumption of informally slaughtered livestock. Although no cases of animal abuse were detected, it was considered that informal slaughter can prejudice livestock welfare. It was concluded that the current situation is not acceptable in terms of meat safety. Thus, the Veterinary Public Health Directorate of the National Veterinary Services has prioritised the monitoring of butchers, registration of slaughter slabs and a general extension campaign to improve hygiene and animal welfare standards for slaughter in Lesotho. This paper highlights the major risks associated with meat consumption without Veterinary Public Health intervention in accordance with international standards. PMID:20458865

  19. Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Current EU regulation requires that every bovine carcass is examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC) at meat inspection. This is costly and might be superfluous at low BC prevalence. However, from a consumer view-point it may be important to identify and manage infected carcasses to avoid human infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish cattle population, (2) estimate the animal level prevalence (3) provide descriptive statistics of potential risk factors for BC, and (4) determine attributable risks and fractions of selected risk factors potentially useful for a future risk-based meat inspection system. In total, 348 cases of BC were recorded among all cattle slaughtered (n=4,090,661) in Denmark between 2004 and 2011. The true animal level prevalence of BC was estimated to be 0.06%. The herd of origin of the cases were defined as the herd in which the animals spent most of their lifetimes. The detected cases were found to originate from 328 herds, with a maximum of two cases per herd indicating sporadic occurrence. Even though organic farming was associated with a higher risk (RR=1.9 in univariable analysis) of BC-positive animals being detected at slaughter, the population attributable fraction showed that only 5% of the animals with BC could be attributed to organic farming practices at the level of organic farming practiced in Denmark in the study period. Thus, organic farming status was not a suitable risk factor to use to target future risk-based meat inspection. However, 54% of the animals with BC in the cattle population were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior to slaughter. The challenges and opportunities of this approach should be investigated further. PMID:23245844

  20. Meat as a vector of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans in Spain: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez García, José Manuel

    2006-05-01

    If we consult current treatises that address tuberculosis infection by Mycobacterium bovis, we find that they neglect meat or accord it very little importance as a vector of transmission of tuberculosis to humans. However, several decades ago, the books of Veterinary Inspection concerning food dedicated numerous pages to tuberculosis in meat and the seizure of consumptive animals. The criteria or attitudes concerning meat from tuberculosis-infected animals have fluctuated over time, from rigorous extremes that, on one hand, required the seizure and destruction of the food products obtained from infected animals from a strictly hygienic measure, to other more practical considerations applying economic arguments, and which accepted the conditional use of these products due to the universal shortage of animal proteins. Consequently, the use or non-use of meat from animals infected with tuberculosis became one of the questions that prompted the greatest concern amongst researches and technicians. It is for these reasons that this paper addresses the history of meat as a vehicle of zoonotic transmission, highlighting its importance and repercussions on health inspections of meat in abattoirs. PMID:17147299

  1. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

  2. A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions. Results A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung (“Rule of Tens”). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference. Conclusions The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors. PMID:24766795

  3. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  4. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  6. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  7. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  8. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  10. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  11. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...import inspection. (a) Carcasses, parts thereof, meat and meat food products (other than rendered animal...

  12. 9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...the official inspection legend to be applied to imported meat and meat food products shall be in the appropriate form 1...

  13. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...import inspection. (a) Carcasses, parts thereof, meat and meat food products (other than rendered animal...

  14. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  20. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  1. Salmonella Enteritidis in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003.

    PubMed

    White, Patricia L; Naugle, Alecia L; Jackson, Charlene R; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Rose, Bonnie E; Pritchard, Katrine M; Levine, Priscilla; Saini, Parmesh K; Schroeder, Carl M; Dreyfuss, Moshe S; Tan, Regina; Holt, Kristin G; Harman, Jane; Buchanan, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR-HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 through 2003, 293,938 samples collected for these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica serotypes. Of these samples, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella, and 167 (1.3%) of the positive samples (0.06% of all samples) contained Salmonella Enteritidis. The highest incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis was observed in ground chicken PR-HACCP samples (8 of 1,722 samples, 0.46%), and the lowest was found in steer-heifer PR-HACCP samples (0 of 12,835 samples). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were characterized by phage type, pulsed-field gel electrophoretic pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phage typing of 94 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates identified PT13 (39 isolates) and PT8 (36 isolates) as the most common types. One isolate from a ready-to-eat ham product was characterized as PT4. Electrophoretic analysis of 148 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates, with 28 unique XbaI electrophoretic patterns identified. Of these 148 isolates, 136 (92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin alone, and 10 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products. PMID:17388045

  2. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 9 CFR 381.223 - Control and disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...disposition of nonfederally inspected poultry products in States designated under...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  7. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...316.11 Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

  8. 9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...316.11 Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

  9. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854

  10. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

  11. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  12. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

  13. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

  14. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  15. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  16. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  17. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  18. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

  19. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

  20. 9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. (a) The...

  1. 9 CFR 302.1 - Establishments requiring inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION APPLICATION OF INSPECTION...

  2. Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

    2015-02-01

    Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18 °C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs. PMID:25460110

  3. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS...

  4. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of campylobacter isolates from sewage and poultry abattoir drain water.

    PubMed Central

    Koenraad, P. M.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; Van der Laan, T.; Beumer, R. R.; Rombouts, F. M.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of 209 campylobacter strains to the quinolones nalidixic acid, flumequine, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and to ampicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin was tested by the disk diffusion method. The strains were isolated from poultry abattoir effluent (DWA) and two sewage purification plants (SPA and SPB). Sewage purification plant SPA received mixed sewage, including that from a poultry abattoir, whereas SPB did not receive sewage from any meat-processing industry. The quinolone resistance of the DWA isolates ranged from 28% for enrofloxacin to 50% for nalidixic acid. The strains isolated from the sewage purification plants were more susceptible to the quinolones with a range of 11-18% quinolone resistance for SPB isolates to 17-33% quinolone resistance for SPA isolates. The susceptibility criteria as recommended by National Committee Clinical Laboratory Standards (USA) cannot readily be employed for campylobacter isolates. This investigation shows that the resistance of campylobacter bacteria is highest in the plant receiving sewage from a poultry slaughterhouse. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance of aquatic Campylobacter spp. is important, as surface waters are recognized as possible sources of infection. PMID:8557079

  6. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  7. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  8. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  9. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  10. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Borna; Steiner, Benjamin; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Fané, Adama; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. Of 3330 animals screened only 60 exhibited gross visible lesions. From these animals, twenty strains of M. bovis were isolated and characterised by spoligotyping. Results Organ lesions typical of BTB were most often detected in the liver, followed by the lung and the peritoneum. M. bovis was isolated from 20 animals and 7 different spoligotypes were observed among these 20 strains; three of the patterns had not been previously reported. Spoligotype patterns from thirteen of the strains lacked spacer 30, a characteristic common in strains of M. bovis found in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. However, unlike the other three Central African countries, the majority of spoligotype patterns observed in Mali also lacked spacer 6. Of the remaining seven strains, six had spoligotype patterns identical to strains commonly isolated in France and Spain. Conclusion Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin. PMID:18637160

  11. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  12. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  13. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  14. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  15. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  17. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  18. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

  19. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. Link to an amendment...

  20. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

  1. 9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a) Nutrition...

  2. Poultry abattoir survey of carcass condemnation for standard, vegetarian, and free range chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, D; Jakel, O

    1994-01-01

    During the period April 1991 to March 1992, data concerning the condemnation rate of standard, vegetarian, and free-range chickens were collected and summarized from one federally inspected abattoir in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of diet, management, and breed of chickens on pathological lesions, ensuing condemnation rates, and consequent losses to the growers and the poultry industry. The data collected at this abattoir revealed that vegetarian chickens showed a higher condemnation rate (5.23%) for disease and nondisease conditions compared with standard (1.48%) and free-range (0.94%) chickens. Free-range chickens were approximately two weeks older than vegetarian and standard chickens at the time of slaughter. The most common causes of condemnation in vegetarian chickens was cellulitis (1.18%), followed by ascites (0.77%). Ascites and cellulitis (0.26% both) were also the most common causes of condemnation in standard chickens. Cyanosis (0.21%) and mutilation (0.17%) represented the highest rate of condemnation in free-range chickens. The low rate of pathological lesions in free-range chickens is a positive trend in poultry disease management. PMID:8050075

  3. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

  4. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

  5. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

  6. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  7. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  8. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  9. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  10. 9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  11. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  12. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  13. 9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

  14. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  15. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  19. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  1. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  3. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  6. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  7. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. 9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Form of official poultry inspection certificate. 381.109...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  12. 9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  13. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION...

  16. The British pig health schemes: integrated systems for large-scale pig abattoir lesion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Strachan, W D; Armstrong, D; Nielen, M; Gunn, G J

    2011-10-15

    Pig health schemes based on abattoir inspections provide an integrated system to optimise the postmortem detection and the reporting of pathological lesions. In Great Britain, two initiatives have been implemented by the pig industry: Wholesome Pigs Scotland (WPS) and the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS). These schemes record the presence of a range of pathological lesions detected by means of detailed inspection of the pluck and the skin of the slaughtered pigs. The lesions are those associated with a reduction in performance traits or are indicators of animal welfare problems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the objectives behind the BPHS and their activities, outlining similarities and differences between WPS and BPHS on five main operational topics: the lesions monitored, the administration of the schemes, flow of the information, inspection strategies and the major idiosyncratic characteristics of the schemes. These initiatives inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their pig herds. Additionally, they offer the added value of providing nationwide disease monitoring information and have the potential to be a useful surveillance tool for emerging and enzootic conditions. PMID:21881022

  17. 9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

  18. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  19. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a)...

  20. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a)...

  1. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

  2. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

  3. 9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

  4. Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481

  5. 9 CFR 327.15 - Outside containers of foreign products; marking and labeling; application of official inspection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.15 ...assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the Program....

  6. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

  7. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  8. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

  9. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

  10. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

  11. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

  12. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: Model studies and commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Sofos; Gary C. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system,

  13. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  14. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  15. Comparative fluke burden and pathology in condemned and non-condemned cattle livers from selected abattoirs in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Chembensofu, M; Monrad, J

    2006-12-01

    After dissecting 70 condemned and 32 non-condemned cattle livers collected from Lusaka, Chisamba, Mongu and Senanga abattoirs and Turnpike slaughter slab, significantly higher numbers of liver flukes (Fasciola gigantica) (P < 0.001) were found in the condemned livers (mean +/- SD = 100.6 +/- 16.7) than in the non-condemned livers (mean +/- SD = 0.7 +/- 0.5). Liver flukes found in 9.4% of the non-condemned livers suggest that abattoir records of liver inspection may underestimate F. gigantica infections. Average faecal fluke egg counts from animals with condemned livers (5 eggs per gram [EPG]) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in animals with non-condemned livers (0.8 EPG). No correlation was found between egg counts and number of flukes. Fibrosis and calcification were common in condemned livers, being severest in the vicinity of the bile ducts. Only two (6.3%) of the non-condemned livers showed pathological changes on the liver edges. The severe liver damage and high worm burden may explain low production levels experienced in cattle in Zambia maintained under traditional systems of management where worm control and good management programmes are rarely practiced. PMID:17283728

  16. 9 CFR 327.7 - Products for importation; movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 316.8 - Unmarked inspected products; moved between official establishments; moved in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND...

  18. 9 CFR 327.7 - Products for importation; movement prior to inspection; handling; bond; assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  19. 9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS §...

  20. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  1. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  2. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

  3. Bacteriological Quality of Abattoir Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nafarnda, W. D.; Ajayi, I. E.; Shawulu, J. C.; Kawe, M. S.; Omeiza, G. K.; Sani, N. A.; Tenuche, O. Z.; Dantong, D. D.; Tags, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 105 /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 104 to 3.2 × 104/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 104/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 103/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 105 to 6.0 × 105/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 104 to 1.8 × 104/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 104 to 6.0 × 103/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 103 to 6.6 × 102/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

  4. Prevalence of Listeria spp. and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Broilers at the Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Bouayad, Leila; Hamdi, Taha M; Naim, Malek; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Products from three broiler abattoirs were sampled for Listeria species to evaluate the changes in the prevalence and contamination rates at two stages of processing. Sampling was performed at the evisceration stage and at the end of processing after packaging and refrigerating at 4°C for 24?h. A total of 212 samples were collected; 52 were from abattoir A, and 80 samples each were collected from abattoirs B and C. Among all samples, 99 (46.7%) tested positive for Listeria, including L. monocytogenes 19 (8.9%), L. innocua 69 (32.5%), L. grayi 10 (4.7%), and L. welshimeri 1 (0.5%). The L. monocytogenes contamination rate varied from 5% to 11.5% in the 3 abattoirs. L. innocua was the most common species identified and was found in 8.8% of the samples from abattoir A and 33.7% of the samples from both abattoirs B and C. Twenty-six of the L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from positive samples were subjected to serotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and characterization by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using two cutting enzymes, ApaI and AscI. Three molecular serogroups were identified: IIa, IIb, and IVb. Serogroup IIa was common to all abattoirs, and serogroups IIb and IVb were found only in abattoir C. The 10 different obtained PFGE profiles were grouped into 7 clusters; some of these clusters were common to the 3 abattoirs, and others were specific to the abattoirs in which they were identified. This study revealed a high prevalence of Listeria spp., particularly L. monocytogenes, in raw broilers. This high incidence presents a risk to consumers due to the potential occurrence of cross-contamination with other foods in domestic refrigerators and the ability of these microorganisms to survive in undercooked products. PMID:25942617

  5. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    PubMed

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

  6. The relationship between hide cleanliness and bacterial numbers on beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, J M; Doherty, A M; Finnerty, M; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2000-05-01

    Cattle were visually inspected in the lairage of a commercial abattoir and assigned to a category ranging from 1 (very clean) to 5 (very dirty) depending on the observed cleanliness of the hide. Animals from categories 2, 3 and 5 were slaughtered and total viable counts (TVCs) enumerated at five sites (hock, brisket, cranial back, bung and inside round) on the subsequent carcasses. The TVCs at the hock were significantly higher on category 5 than on category 2 carcasses (P < 0.05). Similarly, TVCs at the brisket were significantly higher on categories 3 and 5 than on category 2 carcasses (P < 0.05). There were no differences in counts among the categories at any of the other sites. The TVCs averaged over the five carcass sites were higher for category 5 than for category 2 carcasses (P < 0.05). The TVCs at the brisket were significantly higher than all other sites (P < 0.01). In general, carcasses from category 2 animals slaughtered in a batch with dirtier animals (categories 3 and 5) did not have higher TVCs than carcasses of category 2 animals slaughtered at the beginning of the day in the absence of dirtier animals. The introduction of improved hygienic practices during the dehiding of category 4 animals resulted in reduced TVCs at the brisket (P < 0.001). PMID:10792669

  7. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues. PMID:17133803

  8. 9 CFR 312.6 - Official marks and devices in connection with post-mortem inspection and identification of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OFFICIAL MARKS, DEVICES...

  9. Identification of Salmonella spp. isolates from chicken abattoirs by multiplex-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. L. Cortez; A. C. F. B. Carvalho; A. A. Ikuno; K. P. Bürger; A. M. C. Vidal-Martins

    2006-01-01

    The present study was carried out to report the occurrence Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken abattoirs. Samples of feces; feathers; scald, evisceration, and chiller water; and rinse water of non-eviscerated, eviscerated, and chilled carcass were collected from six chicken abattoirs. Salmonella isolates were identified by a multiplex-PCR using three sets of primers targeting the invA, pefA,

  10. 7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...7) Coordinate with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service the administration of programs relating to human pathogen reduction (such as salmonella enteritidis...substantially reduce the level of pathogens on meat, meat food products,...

  11. Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Sikasunge, C S; Monrad, J

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and some factors influencing occurrence of fasciolosis in cattle, carried out at selected major abattoirs in Zambia. Of 841 cattle livers inspected and 677 faecal samples analysed, prevalence rates of 53.9% and 48.9%, respectively, were found. Cumulative prevalence of 60.9% (n = 677) was recorded. According to age, no significant difference of infection was found. Female cattle on liver inspection (59.3%) and coprological examination (65.2%) had significantly higher (P < 0.001) rates than males (44.5% and 36.3% respectively). Origin of cattle had a significant influence (P < 0.001) on the prevalence rate. According to fluke egg count classification, 68.5% of cattle had light infection, 20.9% moderate, 4.4% heavy and 6.2% severe. These results indicate that Fasciola gigantica infection is an important condition that leads to high liver condemnations and/or trimmings in cattle tendered for slaughter. PMID:16283922

  12. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

  13. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

  14. Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; García-López, Isabel; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. PMID:16715811

  15. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF...

  16. 9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF...

  17. Meat Preparation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety Fact Sheets / Meat Preparation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  18. 9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...inspection by designated personnel and official mark. 332.6 Section 332.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.6 Commencement of a cooperative interstate...

  19. 9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...inspection by designated personnel and official mark. 332.6 Section 332.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.6 Commencement of a cooperative interstate...

  20. 9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...inspection by designated personnel and official mark. 332.6 Section 332.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.6 Commencement of a cooperative interstate...

  1. Serodiversity and serological as well as cultural distribution of Salmonella on farms and in abattoirs in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    PubMed

    Visscher, C F; Klein, G; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Stratmann-Selke, J; Kamphues, J

    2011-03-15

    In this study fattening pigs were monitored on farms and in the abattoir for Salmonella prevalence. The samples with the highest prevalence at slaughter should be identified with special attention to the distribution of Salmonella serovars on farms in comparison to those in slaughtered pigs. Another aim was to monitor whether high serological antibody responses in pigs are in accordance with the specific Salmonella serovars in tissues. From 3418 farm faecal samples, 191 were Salmonella positive (5.58%), whereas from slaughtered pigs 330 out of 2494 analysed samples were Salmonella positive (13.2%) with the highest prevalence in the caecal content (124/499=24.9%). The chi-square test for homogeneity between the serovars found on farms and in the different types of samples at slaughter was in most cases negative (p<0.05). Exceptions were the similar serovars found in samples taken from farm 1 and in the corresponding ileocaecal lymph nodes extracted at slaughter (p=0.1188); in samples taken from farm 2 and the corresponding tonsils (p=0.1479) and in samples taken from farm 3 and the corresponding caecal content (p=0.3230) and ileocaecal lymph nodes (p=0.1921), respectively. The frequency distribution in different samples was significantly different in most cases. Three exceptions, the distribution between tonsils and caecal content among antibody titre in meat juice (cut off 40) and cultural detection of Salmonella spp. in ileocaecal lymph nodes, as well as between meat juice samples (cut off 20) and caecal content did not differ significantly. The Kappa indices only showed signs of weak concordance according to positive test results (Kappa ? 0.4) between different sample types on an animal basis. Pigs harbouring S. Typhimurium 1,4,12:i:1,2; DT104L in tonsils or S. Typhimurium 1,4,12:i:1,2 DT 104B low in caecal content or ileocaecal lymph nodes had the highest optical densities in meat juice. Apart from the different Salmonella prevalences between farms and slaughterhouses and in most cases non-existing concordance in Salmonella serovar distribution on farms and at slaughter, also in future farm intervention strategies to control Salmonella in the food chain are not dispensable. This is because once introduced into a slaughterhouse via swine the serovars seem to maintain the resident slaughterhouse flora and add to it. PMID:21334757

  2. Use of a Marker Organism To Model the Spread of Central Nervous System Tissue in Cattle and the Abattoir Environment during Commercial Stunning and Carcass Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Daly, D. J.; Prendergast, D. M.; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. PMID:11823220

  3. Measuring Meat Texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  4. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained, the carcass...

  5. 9 CFR 381.71 - Condemnation on ante mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...at night or Sunday or a holiday, and the Agency veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained, the carcass...

  6. Influenza Virus A (H10N7) in Chickens and Poultry Abattoir Workers, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Arzey, K. Edla; Frost, Melinda; Maywood, Patrick; Conaty, Stephen; Hurt, Aeron C.; Deng, Yi-Mo; Iannello, Pina; Barr, Ian; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Ratnamohan, Mala; McPhie, Kenneth; Selleck, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza A (H10N7) occurred on a chicken farm in Australia. After processing clinically normal birds from the farm, 7 abattoir workers reported conjunctivitis and minor upper respiratory tract symptoms. Influenza virus A subtype H10 infection was detected in 2 workers. PMID:22516302

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  8. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

  9. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

  10. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

  11. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

  12. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the Import Field Office for an inspection assignment (see § 301.2(yyy)). (1) If the Automated Import Information System (AIIS) does not designate the consignment for reinspection, the...

  13. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n?=?49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n?=?56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004–November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 21–55 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–26.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.5–68.5), and worked within 0–10 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–80.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFN?) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0.001). Discussion This novel polyradiculoneuropathy was associated with removing porcine brains with compressed air. An autoimmune mechanism is supported by higher levels of IFN? in cases than in controls consistent with other immune mediated illnesses occurring in association with neural tissue exposure. Abattoirs should not use compressed air to remove brains and should avoid procedures that aerosolize CNS tissue. This outbreak highlights the potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting. PMID:20333310

  14. 76 FR 11752 - Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...programs, and performing other food safety activities. AQIS inspectors...inspection of each carcass for food safety defects. It should be...consistent performance under the Meat Hygiene Assessment (MHA) national...AEMIS incorporates the same food safety performance...

  15. Identification of Salmonella spp. isolates from chicken abattoirs by multiplex-PCR.

    PubMed

    Cortez, A L L; Carvalho, A C F B; Ikuno, A A; Bürger, K P; Vidal-Martins, A M C

    2006-12-01

    The present study was carried out to report the occurrence Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken abattoirs. Samples of feces; feathers; scald, evisceration, and chiller water; and rinse water of non-eviscerated, eviscerated, and chilled carcass were collected from six chicken abattoirs. Salmonella isolates were identified by a multiplex-PCR using three sets of primers targeting the invA, pefA, and sefA gene sequences from Salmonella spp., S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively. Salmonella spp. was detected in 10% (29/288) of the samples, whereas serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium were identified in 62% (7/288), respectively. The results indicate the need to improve hygiene and sanitary standards in poultry slaughter lines, besides the education of food handlers and information to consumers. PMID:16701750

  16. A study on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in goats at an export oriented abattoir, Debrezeit, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, L; Yigezu, L; Asfaw, Y

    2007-08-01

    300 goat serum samples from an export-oriented abattoir were tested for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia antibodies by the complement fixation test. The disease prevalence was 31% with no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the regions "Borena", "Bale", "Afar" and "Jinka" or the age of the goats (P > 0.05). Gross pathology and histopathology of the lung primary lesions were indicative of pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. PMID:17966273

  17. Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy M. Holzbauer; Aaron S. Devries; James J. Sejvar; Christine H. Lees; Jennifer Adjemian; Jennifer H. McQuiston; Carlota Medus; Catherine A. Lexau; Julie R. Harris; Sergio E. Recuenco; Ermias D. Belay; James F. Howell; Bryan F. Buss; Mady Hornig; John D. Gibbins; Scott E. Brueck; Kirk E. Smith; Richard N. Danila; W. Ian Lipkin; Daniel H. Lachance; P. James. B. Dyck; Ruth Lynfield; Jos H. Verbeek

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness.Methods and ResultsSymptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control

  18. OSHA Inspections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    August J. Valenti; Michael D. Decker

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requires that every worker be provided with a safe and healthful workplace and authorizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to conduct workplace inspections. OSHA conducts workplace inspections in hospitals and checks for compliance with the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, the Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis, and the

  19. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  20. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  1. Hadza meat sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hawkes; J. F. O'Connell; N. G. Blurton Jones

    2001-01-01

    In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills

  2. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...at night or on a Sunday or holiday, and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low...

  3. 9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...at night or on a Sunday or holiday, and the FSIS veterinary medical officer cannot be obtained; or (2) In low...

  4. An outline of a risk assessment?based system of meat safety assurance and its future prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Berends; F. van Knapen

    1999-01-01

    Discussed are the outlines of a risk assessment?based system of meat safety assurance to replace the current meat inspection. An example of a system that uses the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)?principles in the entire production chain from stable to table is also given. Continuous evaluation of risks is the main driving force of the new system. Only

  5. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Dookeran, Shakti; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Thompson, Nadin

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses are established causative agents of hemorrhagic fevers and renal diseases amongst other clinical manifestations in humans, with most diagnosis based on serological assays. The disease, which is rodent-borne, has been reported in numerous countries worldwide but information about the disease is scanty in the Caribbean. The objective of this investigation is to determine the frequency of exposure to hantaviruses in a selected apparently healthy human population associated with abattoirs and livestock farms in Trinidad using a hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of a total of 236 individuals tested, 27 (11.4%) were seropositive for hantavirus infection. Amongst abattoir workers the frequency of infection was 9.4% (6 of 64) compared with seropositivity rate of 12.4% (18 of 145) and 11.1% (3 of 27) amongst livestock farm workers and office workers and other individuals with minimal animal contact respectively. The differences were, however, not statistically significant (p > .05; ?(2) test). Age, gender, and race did not significantly affect the infection rate by hantavirus in the workers studied. This is considered the first documented evidence of hantavirus infection in Trinidad and Tobago. It is imperative for local physicians to consider hantavirus as a differential diagnosis in patients with hemorrhagic fever and renal diseases, since there may be a number of undiagnosed cases of hantavirus disease in the human population in the country. PMID:21728870

  6. Current research in meat color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Mancini; M. C. Hunt

    2005-01-01

    This review surveyed recent literature focused on factors that affect myoglobin chemistry, meat color, pigment redox stability, and methodology used to evaluate these properties. The appearance of meat and meat products is a complex topic involving animal genetics, ante- and postmortem conditions, fundamental muscle chemistry, and many factors related to meat processing, packaging, distribution, storage, display, and final preparation for

  7. Serodiversity and serological as well as cultural distribution of Salmonella on farms and in abattoirs in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Visscher; G. Klein; J. Verspohl; M. Beyerbach; J. Stratmann-Selke; J. Kamphues

    2011-01-01

    In this study fattening pigs were monitored on farms and in the abattoir for Salmonella prevalence. The samples with the highest prevalence at slaughter should be identified with special attention to the distribution of Salmonella serovars on farms in comparison to those in slaughtered pigs. Another aim was to monitor whether high serological antibody responses in pigs are in accordance

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPATIALLY VALID SAMPLYING TECHNIQUE FOR THE ENUMERATION OF SALMONELLA IN THE SWINE ABATTOIR HOLDING PEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has indicated that the holding pens of swine abattoirs may be an important source of Salmonella infection in swine entering the food chain. The risk posed by this Salmonella source is difficult to gauge because little work has been done on how to properly measure the amounts of Salm...

  9. The speciation and subtyping of campylobacter isolates from sewage plants and waste water from a connected poultry abattoir using molecular techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Koenraad, P. M.; Ayling, R.; Hazeleger, W. C.; Rombouts, F. M.; Newell, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the distribution of phenotypes of campylobacter strains in sewage and surface waters was investigated by subtyping and by speciation of isolates from various aquatic environments. These environments included two municipal sewage plants (SPA and SPB) and waste water from a poultry abattoir (WWA). Both the sewage plants SPA and SPB collected domestic and industrial waste, and SPA received drain water from WWA. SPB received no waste water from any meat-processing plant. The isolates were speciated by PCR and subtyped by PCR/RFLP based on the flagellin PCR products. From all three reservoirs, no Campylobacter lari was isolated, and approximately 80% of the isolates could be identified as C. jejuni and the rest belonged to the C. coli species. The PCR/RFLP typing technique has a high discrimination level and was reproducible between two separate laboratories. The 182 isolates tested yielded 22 distinct Dde I profiles. The results indicate that strains with profiles found in poultry are also detectable in waste water presumed to be solely from domestic and human sources. In addition some strains were unique to the known poultry-related sources, suggesting that avian-specific strains, non-pathogenic to man, may exist in the environment. In contrast some strains were unique to human waste indicating the potential importance of non-poultry sources of infection. No seasonality was observed in the profile distribution. So, at least in the Netherlands, it is unlikely that infections caused by contaminated surface waters contribute to the seasonality of human campylobacteriosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8557080

  10. Enjoy Poultry Meat Safely

    E-print Network

    Davis, Michael

    2006-03-24

    Poultry is a nutritious, economical and versatile food choice, but it requires careful handling, storage and cooking to prevent food poisoning. Two groups of bacteria can be found on raw poultry meat: bacteria that cause food to spoil and bacteria...

  11. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  12. Usual Intake of Meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

  13. Shedding and Seroprevalence of Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Sheep and Cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ?1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  14. Ofsted Inspected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank

    2009-01-01

    One of the most radical actions one can take is to describe, without exaggeration or bias, exactly what is happening. The author has been reading the "Handbook for the inspection of further education and skills from September 2009." The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills' (Ofsted's) new handbook promises a "fresh…

  15. Effect of industrial waste products on phosphorus mobilisation and biomass production in abattoir wastewater irrigated soil.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480

  16. Microbiological contamination of pig carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two European Union-approved abattoirs.

    PubMed

    Spescha, C; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2006-11-01

    At sequential steps of slaughter (scalding, dehairing, singeing, polishing, trimming, washing, and chilling), 200 pig carcasses from two abattoirs were examined for total viable bacteria count (TVC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) by the wet-dry double-swab technique at the neck, belly, back, and ham. Before scalding, mean TVCs ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU cm(-2), and Enterobacteriaceae and CPS were detected on all carcasses. At abattoir A, mean TVCs and the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 12%, respectively), singeing (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 66%, respectively), and blast chilling (2.3 log CFU cm(-2) and 17%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after dehairing (3.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 100%, respectively) and polishing (2.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The proportion of CPS-positive samples decreased to < or = 10% after scalding and remained at this level. At abattoir B, mean TVCs and the percentages of Enterobacteriaceae- and CPS-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (2.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 29 and 20%, respectively), polishing (3.7 log CFU cm(-2)), and chilling (2.6 log CFU cm(-2) and 55 and 77%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after the combined dehairing-singeing (4.7 log CFU cm(-2) and 97 and 100%, respectively). Among sites, the neck tended to yield higher levels of contamination from trimming to chilling at both abattoirs (P < 0.05). Consequently, scalding, singeing, and chilling may be integrated in a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for pig slaughter. As indicated by the higher levels of contamination on carcasses after dehairing-singeing and the following stages at abattoir B, each abattoir should develop its own baseline data and should customize HACCP systems to match process- and site-specific circumstances. PMID:17133797

  17. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  18. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  19. Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Egan, A F

    1983-09-01

    When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When these organisms spoil meats it is generally by causing souring, however other specific types of spoilage do occur. Some strains cause slime formation and greening of cured meats, and others may produce hydrogen sulphide during growth on vacuum-packaged beef. The safety and stability of fermented sausages depends upon fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria. Overall the presence on meats of lactic acid bacteria is more desirable than that of the types of bacteria they have replaced. PMID:6354082

  20. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  1. Hadza meat sharing.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F.; Blurton Jones, N G.

    2001-03-01

    In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills made by other hunters. If hunting and its associated risks of failure have great antiquity, then meat sharing might have been the evolutionary foundation for many other distinctively human patterns of social exchange. Here we use previously unpublished data from the Tanzanian Hadza to test hypotheses drawn from a simple version of this argument. Results indicate that Hadza meat sharing does not fit the expectations of risk-reduction reciprocity. We comment on some variations of the "sharing as exchange" argument; then elaborate an alternative based partly on the observation that a successful hunter does not control the distribution of his kill. Instead of family provisioning, his goal may be to enhance his status as a desirable neighbor. If correct, this alternative argument has implications for the evolution of men's work. PMID:11282309

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  3. Potential of chlorophyll-rich feed ingredients to improve detection of fecal contamination in the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Scott, Mark B; Veberg-Dahl, Annette; Evans, Phil R; Theobald, Vince J; Lundby, Frank; Scollan, Nigel D; Wold, Jens-Petter

    2013-03-01

    The use of fecal fluorescence to improve detection of contamination of carcasses in the abattoir was previously reported. However, incidents of false negatives can result when animals are offered diets that contain little chlorophyll (e.g., concentrate). Here, we investigated the potential of incorporating a high-chlorophyll-containing feed ingredient (concentrated alfalfa extract; CAE) into the diets of sheep and cattle to improve fecal fluorescence intensity. The sheep experiment evaluated the fecal fluorescence of animals from pasture, when fed a concentrate-barley straw diet and when the concentrate diet incorporated CAE (100 g of dry matter a day). Fecal chlorophyll and metabolite content was highest on the pasture-fed animals and increased significantly over the concentrate diet when CAE was included. Subsequently fluorescent intensity was increased from 15,000 to 36,000 arbitrary units for concentrate and CAE-concentrate diets, respectively, compared with 59,000 for the pasture-fed animals. The cattle experiment investigated the potential of CAE to improve fluorescence of feces from a concentrate diet as well as a silage diet at two levels of incorporation (75 and 150 g CAE/kg of dry matter intake). This study also determined the fluorescence of digesta and carcass contamination in the abattoir on a subset of carcasses. In agreement with the sheep study, CAE significantly improved fluorescence of feces and digesta when added to a concentrate diet, but had little effect on improving fecal fluorescence from the silage-fed animals. This was thought to be related to greater chlorophyll degradation in the rumen or/and the dark nature of the silage feces acting as a quencher of emitted fluoresced light. Incorporating high-chlorophyll-containing plant ingredients into ruminant concentrate diets will improve detection of fecal contamination by reducing false-negative readings. However, they will have little effect on false-positive readings due to the range of wavelengths emitted by natural chlorophyll and its metabolites. Implications and potential solutions for this are discussed. PMID:23462091

  4. Traditional versus hazard analysis and critical control point-based inspection: results from a poultry slaughter project.

    PubMed

    Cates, S C; Anderson, D W; Karns, S A; Brown, P A

    2001-06-01

    Federal meat and poultry inspection has changed little since the Federal Meat Inspection Act was passed in 1906, followed by the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 and related amendments. These acts mandate sensory or organoleptic (sight, smell, and touch) inspection of all carcasses. For several decades, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has been urged by various organizations to move to a scientific, risk-based inspection system. In partial response to these calls, the FSIS has developed new slaughter inspection models that are currently being tested with volunteer plants in the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)-based inspection models project. To evaluate whether plants operating under the new inspection models perform at least as well as they did under the current or traditional system, microbial and organoleptic data are being collected before and after the implementation of the new inspection models. In this article, we describe the baseline and models data collection procedures and present the results of the baseline and models data collection for eight plants that slaughter young chickens. The results from the first eight volunteer plants suggest that inspection under the new models is equivalent and in some ways superior to that of traditional inspection. This pilot project suggests that new slaughter inspection systems, which rely on HACCP principles with FSIS oversight and verification services, can maintain or even improve food safety and other consumer protection conditions relative to traditional hands-on inspection methods. PMID:11403133

  5. Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat; Hina Fayaz

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro production of meat is probably feasible with existing tissue engineering techniques and may offer health and\\u000a environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems.\\u000a By culturing loose myosatellite cells on a substrate, it is probably possible to produce cultured meat by harvesting mature\\u000a muscle cells after differentiation and processing them

  6. Meat and cancer: meat as a component of a healthy diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HK Biesalski

    2002-01-01

    Based on epidemiological studies it is assumed that meat, especially red meat, enhances risk for cancer, particulary of the colon, breast and prostate. Meat and meat products are important sources of protein, some micronutrients and fat. High fat intake has been blamed for correlation with different diseases, including cancer. Meat protein is reported to contribute to cancer formation. However, meat,

  7. 75 FR 69575 - Permission To Use Air Inflation of Meat Carcasses and Parts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...RIN 0583-AD33 Permission To Use Air Inflation of Meat Carcasses and Parts AGENCY...requests to FSIS for approval of air inflation procedures not listed in the regulations...inspection regulations concerning air inflation. The proposed rule explained that...

  8. Prevalence of Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Demelash; F. Inangolet; J. Oloya; B. Asseged; M. Badaso; A. Yilkal; E. Skjerve

    2009-01-01

    A study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Ethiiopian\\u000a slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in Ethiopia\\u000a was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. Five representative abattoirs (four\\u000a municipal and one export) located

  9. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Red meat and processed meat are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, and evidence also suggests their association with some other cancers, such as prostate cancer. Red meat refers to beef, pork, and lamb, although some studies include all processed meats (such as bacon, sausage, hot dogs, and cold cuts) in their definition, regardless of animal origin. Some research suggests that processed meat, but not fresh meat, may increase risk.

  10. Occurrence and financial loss assessment of cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) in cattle slaughtered at Wolayita Sodo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Jemere; Butako, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study aimed at determining the prevalence and cyst characteristics and estimating the financial loss due to cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) in cattle slaughtered at Wolayita Sodo municipal abattoir was conducted from November 2009 to April 2010. Out of 546 cattle examined, 92 (16.85%) were found to harbor visible hydatid cysts. Significantly higher infection was detected in local (P?abattoir from offal condemnation and carcass weight loss was estimated at 410,755.90 Ethiopian Birr (ETB; 30,202.64 US$; 1 US$?=?13.60 ETB). Despite the moderate magnitude of infection detected currently, there seems to be an existing socioeconomic situation favorable for hydatidosis, and hence, it remains one of the most important diseases warranting serious attention for prevention and control actions in Wolayita zone. Hence, establishment of well-equipped standardized abattoirs, creation of public awareness, and control of stray dogs are of paramount importance. PMID:20803350

  11. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, H; Bouallagui, H; Okbi, A; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M

    2009-10-15

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/Ld in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/Ld led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates. PMID:19501962

  12. Journey length and high temperatures: effects on rabbit welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Liste, G; María, G A; Buil, T; García-Belenguer, S; Chacón, G; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Villarroel, M

    2006-02-01

    The transport of domestic animals by road can increase levels of stress and decrease meat quality, especially in unfavourable climates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of journey duration and vertical position on the transport truck on some physiological indicators of stress and on instrumental meat quality parameters in commercial rabbits. In the summer months (June and July, 2003), 78 rabbits were subjected to either long (7 h) (LJ) or short (1 h) (SJ) journeys (3 replicates each, n = 6) between the farm and an abattoir in northern Spain. The position (top, middle, or bottom) occupied by the rabbits on the Multi-Floor cage Rolling Stand (MFRS) of the transport truck was recorded. Blood samples were collected at sticking and meat pH was measured at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). At 48 h post-mortem, samples of the M. longissimus dorsi were used to determine water-holding capacity (WHC) and instrumental tenderness using an INSTRON machine. The levels of corticosterone, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase were slightly higher in LJ than in SJ samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p < or = 0.10). Independent of journey length, rabbits in the middle and bottom of the MFRS showed higher levels (p < or = 0.05) of glucose and creatine kinase (middle), and corticosterone (bottom) than the rabbits located at the top floor. The pH 24 and WHC values of the SJ and LJ rabbits did not differ significantly. Journey length had a significant effect (p < or = 0.01) on meat tenderness. The meat from rabbits subjected to LJ had higher values of maximum stress and total toughness than did the SJ rabbits (p < or = 0.05). There were similar differences (p < or = 0.05) between LJ and SJ rabbits in their stress values of compression at 20% and 40% (measures of the tenderness of raw meat). In hot weather, the position on the transport truck appeared to have a greater effect on rabbit welfare than the duration of the journey. PMID:16555485

  13. Effects of hygienic treatments during slaughtering on microbial dynamics and contamination of sheep meat.

    PubMed

    Omer, Mohamed K; Hauge, Sigrun J; Østensvik, Øyvin; Moen, Birgitte; Alvseike, Ole; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Prieto, Miguel; Dommersnes, Sissel; Nesteng, Ole H; Nesbakken, Truls

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate bacterial dynamics in the sheep meat chain, from fleece to meat trimmings, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, and to study the effects on microbial load associated with the hygienic interventions of: i) shearing sheep immediately before slaughter, ii) manual steam vacuum pasteurisation, iii) hot water pasteurisation of carcasses, followed by iv) chilling. A further aim was to provide evidence to determine whether or not unshorn sheep should be handled in a processing line separate from that of shorn sheep in Norwegian abattoirs. A total of 176 surface swab samples were collected from three sites along the value chain: i) on fleeces, ii) on carcasses at the end of the slaughter line, and iii) on carcasses after chilling for 24h, and 32 samples were collected from meat trimmings. The results showed that Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) were lower for the shorn group compared to the unshorn group, both on carcasses before chilling and after chilling (difference of 0.8 and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively) and in meat trimmings (difference of 0.5logCFU/g (p?0.05)). Hygienic treatments were used on carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, and steam vacuum treatment reduced Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC before chilling by 1.2, 1.0, and 0.6logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively, and hot water pasteurisation, in addition to chilling, reduced E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC by 0.7, 1.0, and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively, compared with untreated carcasses. The effect of chilling was shown by the significant reduction of number of carcasses where E. coli were detected; from 65% (13/20) of the shorn group before chilling to 35% (7/20) after chilling, and from 90% (36/40) to 45% (9/20) of the unshorn group. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene derived from 316 colonies of Enterobacteriaceae showed a tendency for the relative proportion of the genus Escherichia/Shigella, compared with other genera within Enterobacteriaceae, to be greater for unshorn, untreated sheep than from the other groups at the sampling locations along the meat chain. The study showed that steam vacuum and hot water pasteurisation reduced the contamination of carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, down to the level of the shorn group, and thus can replace the separate processing line for unshorn sheep. Indeed, the low microbial contamination in meat trimmings for all groups indicates that the separate processing line is unnecessary. PMID:25461602

  14. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata Nymphs in Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Cattle and Buffaloes Slaughtered in Ahvaz Abattoir, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alborzi, AR; Molayan, P Haddad; Akbari, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canine respiratory system (final hosts). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of cattle and buffaloes (intermediate hosts) that were processed in the Ahvaz, Iran abattoir. Methods During November 2010 to March 2011, 223 animals (119 cattle and 104 buffaloes), in different sex and three age groups (<2, 2–< 3 and 3-> 3 years old) were sampled randomly at Ahvaz abattoir. Up to 35 grams of their mesenteric lymph nodes were examined separately for nymphal stages of L. serrata by digesting the samples with acid- pepsin method, collected the nymphs and counted under stereomicroscope. Results Overall 37(16.6%) of 223 animals were infected with L. serrata nymphs in their mesenteric lymph nodes. Prevalence of the infection in cattle and buffaloes were 16.8% and 16.3% respectively. The number of collected nymphs of MLNs was ranged from 1 to 16. No significant differences were seen in the infection rates between males and females (sexes) and age groups in the cattle and buffaloes (P <0.05). Conclusion Linguatula serrata has an active life cycle in the studied area and a zoonotic potential for transmission between animal and human. Avoiding use of raw MLNs to dogs can help reduce the infection. PMID:23914248

  15. Abattoir based surveillance of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Sultanate of Oman during 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Al Kitani, Fadya Abdullah; Al Riyami, Shumoos; Al Yahyai, Sabra; Al Awahi, Abdulmajeed Hamood; Al Aawali, Mahir; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad

    2015-07-30

    A passive surveillance was conducted in 8 selected abattoirs belonging to 8 governorates of Oman. Routine slaughtering of 282.020 animals was observed during 2010-2013 by duty veterinarians and suspected samples (n=1440) for cystic echinococcosis (CE) from camels (n=292), cattle (n=303), goats (n=682) and sheep (n=163) were collected. In total, 587 (40.8%) samples were found positive for CE and the highest percentage (64.2%) of positive samples belonged to Dhofar (Salalah) as compared to other governorates, p<0.01. The infection rate of CE was calculated as 5.3, 0.6, 0.07 and 0.03 in camel, cattle, sheep and goats respectively. Fertile cysts were found in 30.7% of positive samples and camels (52%) were found as major source of these followed by cattle (14.1%) and goats (9.7%). Percentage of positive to submitted samples was higher in females (67.9%) than males (29.8%). The fertility of cyst increased with age and the highest percentage of fertile cysts were collected from animals above 5 years of age (54.4%) followed by between 3 and 5 years (36.7%) and below 3 years of age (8.9%). For different breeds, 478 (62.7%) samples from local breeds of livestock were positive for CE as compared to 108 (15.9%) from imported animals (OR 8.92), p<0.01. The highest percent of positive samples was observed in cysts from lungs (54.4%) followed by those from liver (25.7%), liver and lungs (14.1%) and others (3.8%). Molecular investigations indicated that G1 and G6/7 were the two strains of CE circulating in camels and cattle while G1 was the only strain found in samples from small ruminants. Results indicated that CE is endemic in the livestock of Oman and further molecular epidemiological work in different host species is required for the conceptualization of a comprehensive control program. PMID:26116457

  16. Detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli in samples collected at an abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at different points in the surrounding environment.

    PubMed

    Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse's effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145

  17. Effect of a microencapsulated feed additive of lactic and formic acid on the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs arriving at the abattoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseane Willamil; Eva Creus; J. Francisco Pérez; Enric Mateu; Susana M. Martín-Orúe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the potential of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (formic and lactic acid) added to the feed of fattening pigs to reduce the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella when arriving to the abattoir. Two trials were performed. In Trial 1, 24 fattening pigs received one of three diets: a control diet,

  18. Modelling the effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses at study, abattoir and batch levels by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Cadavez, Vasco; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis

    2013-05-15

    The effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses was investigated at study, abattoir and batch level by meta-analysis. Both the fixed-effects and random-effects model confirmed (p<0.05) the significant effect of chilling in decreasing Salmonella occurrence on pig carcasses; although the random-effects solution was preferred to account for the significant variability in effect size (p<0.001) estimated from the 13 primary studies considered, the 32 abattoirs surveyed, and the 51 sampled batches. Conservatively, it can be said that chilling reduces the Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses by a mean ratio of ~1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.6). Multilevel meta-analysis models investigating study characteristics that could explain the heterogeneity (?(2)) in the true effect size among primary studies (?(2)=0.578), among surveyed abattoirs (?(2)=0.431), and among sampled batches (?(2)=0.373), revealed that study size (represented by the moderating variables of 'total sample size' and 'number of batches sampled in an abattoir') and 'carcass swabbed area' have a significant impact (p<0.05) on the measured effect size of chilling. The fact that swabbed area explained between 56 and 62% and total sample size between 23 and 38% of the total heterogeneity in the chilling true effect size, indicates that differences in experimental design greatly affect our substantive conclusion about the effect of chilling on Salmonella occurrence. This inconsistency to elucidate the effect of chilling arises because of the many factors influencing both the performance of the chilling operation and the measurement itself. Meta-analysis was not only instrumental to show that small-size studies (i.e., only one batch sampled per abattoir, total number of sampled carcasses per batch<50) and small swabbed areas (<100 cm(2)) lead to imprecise and even conflicting conclusions, but most importantly, enabled definition of the characteristics of a well-designed study having a minimum statistical power to produce precise results. A sound experimental design derived by multilevel meta-analysis consists of swabbing carcass areas of at least 500 cm(2) from 25 pre-chill and 25 post-chill carcasses from a single production batch, with a minimum of two batches sampled per surveyed abattoir. If the survey were to be conducted in more than one abattoir, the total sample size should not be less than 400. Two methods to test for publication bias, a common problem in meta-analysis, suggested that whilst the presence of unpublished small-size studies is probable, it is not likely that this would significantly bias the overall chilling effect estimated in this study. PMID:23558193

  19. Aflatoxin Production in Meats. I. Stored Meats1

    PubMed Central

    Bullerman, Lloyd B.; Hartman, Paul A.; Ayres, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Aflatoxins were produced on fresh beef (in which bacterial spoilage was delayed with antibiotics), ham, and bacon inoculated with toxinogenic fungi and stored at 15, 20 and 30 C. Meats stored at 10 C were spoiled by bacteria and yeast before detectable levels of aflatoxins were produced. High levels of aflatoxins were formed in meats stored at 20 C; one sample supported the production of 630 ?g of aflatoxins per g of meat, the major portion (580 ?g) of which was aflatoxin G1. Meats stored below 30 C developed higher levels of aflatoxin G1 than B1, but at 30 C Aspergillus flavus produced equal amounts of B1 and G1, whereas A. parasiticus continued to produce more G1 than B1. PMID:5392562

  20. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for...meat food products intended for human consumption and offered...

  1. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for...meat food products intended for human consumption and offered...

  2. Software Formal Inspections Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

  3. Food Safety and Meat Microbiology

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (Video) Behind the Scenes of a Recall Foodborne Illness Outbreaks of Animal Sciences UW-Meat Sci. and Muscle Biology Lab Food Research Institute Madison, Wisconsin

  4. Factors associated with fatigued, injured, and dead pig frequency during transport and lairage at a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J; Matthews, J O; Schultz Kaster, C M; Johnson, A K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify environmental and management factors that are associated with the frequency of fatigued, injured, and dead pigs on arrival and in resting pens during lairage at a commercial Midwest abattoir. The terms transport losses or total losses refer to pigs that die or become nonambulatory at any stage of the marketing process. In this study, fatigued, injured, and dead pigs were summed into a variable termed total losses. Relative humidity (%), temperature ( degrees C), wind speed (m/s), and dew point ( degrees C) data were collected on 12,333 trailer loads of pigs. Week, sort from barn (first or third pig removal from barn), farm, normal vs. split load type (from 1 or multiple barns), load crew, driver, trailer, and wind direction were used as fixed effects in the model for the analysis of losses per load using generalized mixed models for Poisson distributions. Seven temperature-humidity indices (THI) were calculated and compared as model covariates. Load time per pig, trailer density (pigs per trailer x average BW/trailer space; kg/m(2)), wait time before unloading at the abattoir, and wind speed were used as model covariates. The log of the number of hogs per trailer was used to standardize the response variable. The linear covariate density accounted for the greatest portion of variance (based on F-value) followed by the fixed effect sort from barn, the fixed effect load type (pigs from 1 or multiple barns within a farm), load time per pig linear covariate, and THI. Pigs transported to the abattoir from June through July experienced fewer losses (P < 0.001) when compared with pigs that were transported from November through December. Keeping other factors constant, the log of total losses (%) per load increased by 0.0102x + 0.000541x(2) per unit of THI and 0.0191 kg/m(2) of density. Similarly, of 9 farms, the poorest-performing farm in regards to total loss percentage experienced 0.93% more losses per load when compared with the farm with the least loss percentage. This study demonstrates that multiple environment and management factors influence the incidence of market hog transport losses. PMID:19028860

  5. Usual Intake of Cured meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

  6. Randomization of inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    As the numbers and complexity of nuclear facilities increase, limitations on resources for international safeguards may restrict attainment of safeguards goals. One option for improving the efficiency of limited resources is to expand the current inspection regime to include random allocation of the amount and frequency of inspection effort to material strata or to facilities. This paper identifies the changes in safeguards policy, administrative procedures, and operational procedures that would be necessary to accommodate randomized inspections and identifies those situations where randomization can improve inspection efficiency and those situations where the current nonrandom inspections should be maintained. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  7. A study of defects on EUV masks using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    E-print Network

    A study of defects on EUV masks using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63/cm2 . Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection

  8. Green offal inspection of cattle, small ruminants and pigs in the United Kingdom: Impact assessment of changes in the inspection protocol on likelihood of detection of selected hazards.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Dadios, Nikolaos; Reinmann, Karin; Guitian, Javier; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2015-06-01

    The changes in detection of selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards due to the change in current inspection of green offal in cattle, small ruminants and pigs were assessed. With respect to public health and animal health, the conditional likelihood of detection with the current green offal inspection was found to be low for eleven out of the twenty-four selected hazard-species pairings and very low for the remaining thirteen pairings. This strongly suggests that the contribution of current green offal inspection to risk mitigation is very limited for public and animal health hazards. The removal of green offal inspection would reduce the detection of some selected animal welfare conditions. For all selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards, the reduced detection could be compensated with other pre-harvest, harvest and/or post-harvest control measures including existing meat inspection tasks. PMID:25882639

  9. Backyard Production of Meat Rabbits in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Lukefahr, Steven D.; Paschal, Joseph C.; Ford, John E.

    1998-06-11

    Raising domesticated meat rabbits can provide nutritious, wholesome meat for the family table, educational experiences for young people, enjoyable activity for family members of all ages, rich manure for gardening, and potential extra income...

  10. Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs Table B13. Meat, poultry, and eggs: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation

  11. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

  12. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  13. Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

  14. Risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions and associated mycobacteria in cattle slaughtered at public and export abattoirs in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demelash Biffa; Francis Inangolet; Asseged Bogale; James Oloya; Berit Djønne; Eystein Skjerve

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions and associated\\u000a mycobacteria in Ethiopian cattle slaughtered. The study was carried out during 2006–2007 in five selected municipal and export\\u000a abattoirs. Methods of investigation involved detailed necropsy examination of carcasses and isolation of mycobacteria from\\u000a pathologic tissue specimens. Factors of animal and environment origin were

  15. Building Inspection Technology Syllabus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson, Debra

    This document is a course syllabus for Debra Anderson's building inspection technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The main goal of the course is to teach students the building inspection review process, code requirements and evaluating the adequacy of structural elements. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  16. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  17. Visual inspection management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Huang; L. Y. Lee; C. C. Lou; K. R. Ling

    2000-01-01

    Using information technology to create the procedures for the in-line inspection training, quality control testing, audit and control etc, in order to improve the defect inspection process and enhance the fab yield. This system contains several sub-systems including the checking card system, the image exam system, the defect library & training system, the image record system records. The checking card

  18. Pesticide residues in Australian meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PJ Corrigan; P Seneviratna

    1989-01-01

    On several occasions in 1987 Australian meat was reported by overseas countries to contain unacceptable levels of pesticide residues. Investigations revealed that the residues were mainly the organochlorine compounds DDT, dieldrin and heptachlor, the concentrations of which exceeded the maximum residue limits. The organochlorines had accumulated in the soil of farms where they were used annually, or more frequently, owing

  19. MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, there will be some texture and Clavor loss. Discard DAIRY Still contains ice crystals and feels Ice cream, frozen yogurt Discard Discard Cheese (soft and semi-soft) Refreeze. May

  20. Nutritional composition of red meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter WILLIAMS

    2007-01-01

    Lean red meats are: • An excellent source of high biological value protein, vitamin B12, niacin, vitamin B6, iron, zinc and phosphorus • A source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fats, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, selenium and possibly also vitamin D • Mostly low in fat and sodium • Sources of a range of endogenous antioxidants and other bioactive substances including taurine,

  1. Cholesterol oxides in processed meats.

    PubMed

    Higley, N A; Taylor, S L; Herian, A M; Lee, K

    1986-01-01

    Methods for the extraction of cholesterol oxides from meats were studied. A dry column technique for the extraction of sterols was found to be more rapid and convenient than conventional chloroform-methanol extraction. An overall yield of 32·0% and 23·6% for radiolabelled cholesterol and cholesterol oxides, respectively, was obtained after dry column extraction, saponification and chromatography on a silica arrestant column, Florisil®-AgNO(3) column and silica Sep-Pak® column. The overall extraction efficiency of ten meat samples was 22·3 ± 1·7 %. Cholesterol oxides present in measurable amounts included 5-cholesten-3?, 19-diol, 5-cholesten-3?-ol-22-one, the ? and ? epimers of 5-cholesten-3?, 7-diol and cholestan-3 ?, 5?, 6?-triol in some of the meat samples analyzed, but, for the majority of samples, no detectable amounts of known cholesterol oxides were found. Most of the meats, however, contained unidentified components that are non-polar with respect to cholesterol. PMID:22054927

  2. Fetal programming in meat production.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. PMID:25953215

  3. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  4. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  5. Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products. PMID:24915324

  6. Prevalence and histopathological finding of thin-walled and thick-walled Sarcocysts in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs. PMID:26064016

  7. National monitoring of Ascaris suum related liver pathologies in English abattoirs: a time-series analysis, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-02-28

    Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266

  8. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Salam Babji

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted

  9. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  10. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  11. Remote surface inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

  12. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  13. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  14. Simulator for Software Project Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Suri; Bharat Bhushan; Ashish Jolly

    2009-01-01

    Software project inspection has been shown to be an effective defect removal practice, leading to higher quality software with lower field failures. The use of software code inspections, design inspections, and requirements inspections, has been found to increase software quality and lower software development costs (1, 2). Efficiency is the main attribute of reliability. Efficiency measures the performance of the

  15. Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

  16. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Bernardi; K. S. Han

    1994-01-01

    The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for

  17. Source Inspection Scheduling Calendar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brayden

    2011-01-01

    Quality is an essential component for creating flight hardware travelling through space since the hardware is extremely expensive and cannot be reworked or repaired once launched. An important step in this process is ensuring the quality of hardware procured from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) suppliers. An important element of determining supplier quality is source inspection. Source inspections are performed at suppliers' facilities by JPL employeesto ensure that hardware characteristics are acceptable before being covered up and/or delivered to JPL.

  18. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  19. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  20. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  1. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  2. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  4. USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Programs ... Centers / USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  5. Influences on meat consumption in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, E; Worsley, A

    2001-04-01

    In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

  6. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat. PMID:21682287

  7. The effect of hazard analysis critical control point programs on microbial contamination of carcasses in abattoirs: a systematic review of published data.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Raji?, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D; Waddell, Lisa; Harris, Janet

    2011-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs have been endorsed and implemented globally to enhance food safety. Our objective was to identify, assess, and summarize or synthesize the published research investigating the effect of HACCP programs on microbial prevalence and concentration on food animal carcasses in abattoirs through primary processing. The results of microbial testing pre- and post-HACCP implementation were reported in only 19 studies, mostly investigating beef (n=13 studies) and pork (n=8 studies) carcasses. In 12 of 13 studies measuring aerobic bacterial counts, reductions were reported on beef (7/8 studies), pork (3/3), poultry (1/1), and sheep (1/1). Significant (p<0.05) reductions in prevalence of Salmonella spp. were reported in studies on pork (2/3 studies) and poultry carcasses (3/3); no significant reductions were reported on beef carcasses (0/8 studies). These trends were confirmed through meta-analysis of these data; however, powerful meta-analysis was precluded because of an overall scarcity of individual studies and significant heterogeneity across studies. Australia reported extensive national data spanning the period from 4 years prior to HACCP implementation to 4 years post-HACCP, indicating reduction in microbial prevalence and concentration on beef carcasses in abattoirs slaughtering beef for export; however, the effect of abattoir changes initiated independent of HACCP could not be excluded. More primary research and access to relevant proprietary data are needed to properly evaluate HACCP program effectiveness using modeling techniques capable of differentiating the effects of HACCP from other concurrent factors. PMID:21568689

  8. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  9. Meat is the Meal and Status is by Meat: Recognition of Rank, Wealth, and Respect Through Meat in Turkana Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. I. Lokuruka

    2006-01-01

    Although milk is the main meal and major contributor to nutritional requirements of the Turkana nomads, livestock-meat increasingly becomes central to the diet whenever the milk supply declines, and as the dry season progresses. Major social obligations are performed and networks made, maintained, and extended using livestock-meat, whose apportionment is based on seniority and power, which are equated to age

  10. 23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

  11. 23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

  12. 23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

  13. 23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

  14. 23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

  15. 23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

  16. 23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in...

  17. Advances in inspection automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  18. Development and quality evaluation of dehydrated chicken meat rings using spent hen meat and different extenders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bidyut Prava; Chauhan, Geeta; Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Desai, B A; Rath, P K

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended that for effective utilization of spent hen meat, it should be converted into value added or shelf stable meat products. Since we are lacking in cold chain facilities, therefore there is imperative need to develop shelf stable meat products. The present study was envisaged with the objective to develop dehydrated chicken meat rings utilizing spent hen meat with different extenders. A basic formulation and processing conditions were standardized for dehydrated chicken meat rings. Extenders such as rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were incorporated separately replacing the lean meat in pre standardized dehydrated chicken meat ring formulation. On the basis of physico-chemical properties and sensory scores optimum level of incorporation was adjudged as 10 %, 10 % and 5 % for rice flour, barnyard millet flour and texturized soy granule powder respectively. Products with optimum level of extenders were analysed for physico-chemical and sensory attributes. It was found that a good quality dehydrated chicken meat rings can be prepared by utilizing spent hen meat at 90 % level, potato starch 3 % and refined wheat flour 7 % along with spices, condiments, common salt and STPP. Addition of an optimum level of different extenders such as rice flour (10 %), barnyard millet flour (10 %) and TSGP (5 %) separately replacing lean meat in the formulation can give acceptable quality of the product. Rice flour was found to be the best among the three extenders studied as per the sensory evaluation. PMID:25829592

  19. Determination of meat quality by texture analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Shiranita; Tsuneharu Miyajima; Ryuzo Takiyama

    1998-01-01

    We describe a method of determining meat quality using the concepts of ''marbling score'' and texture analysis. The marbling score is a measure of the distribution density of fat in the rib-eye region. In this system, we consider the marbling of meat as a texture pattern. We use a gray level cooccurrence matrix as a texture feature and make standard

  20. Grading meat quality by image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Shiranita; Kenichiro Hayashi; Akifumi Otsubo; Tsuneharu Miyajima; Ryuzo Takiyama

    2000-01-01

    We study the implementation of a meat-quality grading system, using the concept of the “marbling score”, as well as image processing, neural network techniques and multiple regression analysis. The marbling score is a measure of the distribution density of fat in the rib-eye region. We identify five features used for grading meat images. For the evaluation of the five features,

  1. Grading meat quality by texture analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Shiranita; Kenichiro Hayashi; Akifumi Otsubo; Tsuneharu Miyajima; Ryum Takiyama

    1999-01-01

    We describe a method of determining meat quality using the concepts of “marbling score” and texture analysis. The marbling score is a measure of the distribution density of fat in the rib-eye region. In this system, we consider the marbling of meat as a texture pattern. We use a gray level cooccurrence matrix as a texture feature and make standard

  2. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  3. Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets: A Survey of Shoppers at Four Markets in Oregon Lauren). Meat and poultry vendors have expanded in recent years but typically represent a very small proportion and/or poultry and these products are sold at 45% of all markets (USDA, 2006). Sales data from

  4. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  5. Genetic and environmental effects on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Warner, R D; Greenwood, P L; Pethick, D W; Ferguson, D M

    2010-09-01

    In order for livestock industries to consistently produce high quality meat, there must be an understanding of the factors that cause quality to vary, as well as the contribution of genetics. A brief overview of meat tenderness is presented to understand how genotype and environment may interact to influence this trait. Essentially, meat tenderness is determined from the contribution of connective tissue, sarcomere length determined pre-rigor and rate of proteolysis during ageing, as well as contributions from intramuscular fat and post-mortem energy metabolism. The influence of mutations in myostatin, the callipyge gene, the Carwell or rib eye muscle gene as well as the calpain system on meat tenderness is presented. Specific examples of interactions between the production or processing environment and genetics are presented for both sheep and cattle. The day-to-day variation in tenderness is evident across experiments and this variation needs to be controlled in order to consistently produce tender meat. PMID:20561754

  6. An evaluation of various working practices in shops selling raw and cooked meats.

    PubMed Central

    Tebbutt, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of premises (butchers' shops, supermarkets and general dealers) which sell raw and cooked meats were compared. Salmonellas were not detected, but Escherichia coli, and to a lesser degree Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis, were widely distributed in all three groups of premises. Contamination of hands, towels and nail brushes was related to poor working practices. The presence of E. coli or Str. faecalis on slicing machines was associated with contamination of meat samples. A number of wiping cloths were heavily contaminated with E. coli, and many also contained Clostridium perfringens. Fewer premises provided written cleaning plans, and in many cases staff did not receive an adequate training in food hygiene. The use of disinfectants as part of the cleaning process did not necessarily reduce the level of bacterial contamination. In general there was poor correlation between microbiological results and a visual inspection made by an environmental health officer. The possible reasons for this finding are discussed. PMID:3090137

  7. Changes in the EU legislation on Trichinella inspection--new challenges in the epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M O

    2005-09-01

    The European Union (EU) countries are searching for new ways to certify meat free of Trichinella; however, with the expansion of the EU, the acceptance of a unilateral method is complicated by the variability of pig and human trichinellosis among EU countries, where significantly higher prevalence rates have been observed in the newly added eastern countries. Several attempts have been made to define Trichinella-free areas, but certification of Trichinella-free pig production farms appears to be the only feasible approach. The increasing prevalence of the non-encapsulating species, Trichinella pseudospiralis, in game, domestic pigs and humans has eliminated the compression technique from the new EU legislation to be enacted in 2006. Also, the observation that several species of Trichinella tolerate freezing in horse meat for up to 4 weeks has forced a change in legislation as well where freezing is no longer an option for certifying horse meat. Because current serological detection methods are not suited for meat inspection, classical direct detection methods and inactivation by freezing remain the methods of choice for pork. It has been proposed, therefore, to automate direct inspection methods as a cost effective alternative to certify pig farms free of Trichinella. PMID:16039781

  8. Decontamination technologies for meat products.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, T; Picouet, P A; Monfort, J M

    2008-01-01

    Consumers demand high quality, natural, nutritious, fresh appearance and convenient meat products with natural flavour and taste and an extended shelf-life. To match all these demands without compromising safety, in the last decades alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as HHP, irradiation, light pulses, natural biopreservatives together with active packaging have been proposed and further investigated. They are efficient to inactivate the vegetative microorganisms, most commonly related to food-borne diseases, but not spores. The combination of several non-thermal and thermal preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated in order to increase their efficiency. Quick thermal technologies such as microwave and radiofrequency tunnels or steam pasteurization bring new possibilities to the pasteurization of meat products especially in ready to eat meals. Their application after final packaging will prevent further cross-contamination during post-processing handling. The benefits of these new technologies and their limitations in an industrial application will be presented and discussed. PMID:22062101

  9. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  10. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  11. An outline of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance and its future prospects.

    PubMed

    Berends, B R; van Knapen, F

    1999-10-01

    Discussed are the outlines of a risk assessment-based system of meat safety assurance to replace the current meat inspection. An example of a system that uses the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)-principles in the entire production chain from stable to table is also given. Continuous evaluation of risks is the main driving force of the new system. Only then the system has the means to remain flexible and provide for the data necessary to convince trade partners that the products they buy are safe. A monitoring system that keeps track of the important health hazards in the entire chain from stable to table is therefore necessary. This includes monitoring of cases of disease in the human population caused by the hazardous agents of concern. Coordination of the monitoring and control and processing of the information is done by an independent body. Furthermore, the system demands a production from stable to table that is based on the ideas of Integrated Quality Control (IQC), HACCP, and certification of production processes and quality control procedures. Clear legislation provides for criteria about acceptable or unacceptable health risks for the consumer and determines at what moments which risks should be controlled by the producers. Simultaneously, the legislation has to be flexible enough to be able to adapt quickly to any changes in risks, or in the way risks should be controlled. In the new system current meat inspection can easily be carried out by employees of the slaughter houses and is no longer a direct responsibility of the authorities. The authorities only demand certain safety levels and verify whether producers stick to these. Producers remain fully responsible for the safety and quality of their products, and fully liable in case of any damage to the consumers' health. However, it is to be expected that some EU Member-States miss the organizational and agricultural basis for a successful application of the new system. Consequences are that two parallel flows of meat and meat products may come to existence. One flow will exist of meat produced according to the new, and with respect to safety assurance, superior system. The other flow will consist of meat produced and inspected in the traditional way. However, this meat will contain all the flaws that required a revision of the system in the first place. This, and the fact that EU policy ordains that part-taking in an alternative meat inspection system should be voluntary, may very well result in a very slow start-up of the new system. One of the easiest solutions, however, would be to implement a decontamination step in the slaughtering process, provided that this is accompanied by strict codes of hygienic practices and good manufacturing practices. Not only would this lead to safer meat, but also result in the two separate flows of meat becoming one flow again as well as an easier to organize livestock production according to HACCP-principles. PMID:10568002

  12. Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

    Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  14. Safety Audit/Inspection Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides guidelines and procedures for safety audits and inspections in work environments. Contents include: (1) Administrative Concepts, (2) Physical Concepts, (3) Protecting Your Audits, (4) Safety Inspections, and (5) Safety Inspection Checklist. The appendix features federal laws and regulations affecting laboratories. (YDS)

  15. Skin sepsis in meat handlers: observations on the causes of injury with special reference to bone.

    PubMed Central

    Barnham, M.; Kerby, J.

    1981-01-01

    Outbreaks of wound infection with Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus occurred in a abattoir and a pork-processing factory in Autumn 1980. Investigations showed that staff handling the meat before de-boning were particularly affected and that bone was the cause of 48% of the wounds which became clinicially infected. Of the total isolates of Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus from wounds of known cause 75% were from lesions caused by bone. In one outbreak streptococcal infection was seen principally in newly-employed staff. Group L streptococci were found in several sites in the pork factory and were isolated from infected lesions in two workers. Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus were cultured from tap handles in the lavatories. Sixty-six workers were examined in a non-epidemic period and 59% were found to have current wounds on the hand or wrists; 13% of wounds were infected but Strep. pyogenes was not isolated. Bone was the commonest of the many causes of injury, accounting for 31% of all wounds. Butchers had the highest rates of wounding and most bone-inflicted injury was seen in this group. Packers were the only group to wear protective gloves regularly. Damaged fingernails were found in 50% of workers, including a high proportion of nail-biters (33% of all workers). The epidemic strain of Staph. aureus was cultured from bitten fingernails. Three of four infected workers carrying epidemic organisms in the throat were examined and all were nail-biters. Sharp-edged bone was produced by rotary saws early in the production line and bone dust contaminated the carcasses and adjacent surfaces. It is suggested that bone fragments could contaminate wounds and that this might have implications for the initiation of infection and the development of outbreaks. PMID:7031129

  16. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted. PMID:20619800

  17. High-meat diets and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bingham, S A

    1999-05-01

    Up to 80% of breast, bowel and prostate cancers are attributed to dietary practices, and international comparisons show strong positive associations with meat consumption. Estimates of relative risk obtained from cohort investigations are in the same direction, although generally weak, and red and processed meats rather than white meat seem to be associated with elevated risk of colon cancer. In breast cancer, there are consistent associations with total meat intake and there is evidence of a dose response. Despite these associations with meat, existing studies suggest that vegetarians do not have reduced risk of breast, bowel or prostate cancer, but there are no quantitative estimates of amounts of meat consumed by meat eaters in these cohort studies. Possible mechanisms underlying epidemiological associations include the formation of heterocyclic amines in meat when it is cooked. These heterocyclic amines require acetylation by P450 enzymes, and individuals with the fast-acetylating genotype who eat high amounts of meat may be at increased risk of large-bowel cancer. NH3 and N-nitroso compounds (NOC) formed from residues by bacteria in the large bowel and probably also important. NH3 is a promotor of large-bowel tumours chemically induced by NOC, and some of the chromosomal mutations found in human colo-rectal cancer are consistent with effects of NOC and heterocyclic amines. However, the type, amount, and cooking method of meat or protein associated with increased risk are not certain. The effects of high levels of meat on NH3 and NOC output are not reduced by increasing the amount of fermentable carbohydrate in the diet, but interaction between meat, NSP and vegetable intakes on the risk of cancer has not been studied comprehensively. The interaction between dietary low-penetrance genetic polymorphic and somatic mutation factors has also been investigated to a limited extent. Current Department of Health (1998) recommendations are that meat consumption should not rise, and that consumers at the top end of the distribution should consider a reduction in intakes. PMID:10466162

  18. A recursive Meat-axe algorithm Stephen P. Glasby

    E-print Network

    Glasby, Stephen

    A recursive Meat-axe algorithm Stephen P. Glasby Central Washington University November 2009 S. P. Glasby (CWU) A recursive Meat-axe algorithm 1 / 17 #12;Overview 1 Four Meat-axe problems: Invar, Cent, Iso, Subfield 2 Non-recursive Meat-axe algorithm 3 Changing field: scaling up F E; scaling down E F 4

  19. A second look into fibre typing – Relation to meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lefaucheur

    2010-01-01

    Despite intensive research, a large variation in meat quality is still observed in most meat producing species. It is widely accepted that myofibre type composition is an important source of variation in meat quality. However, the identification of specific and universal relationships between myofibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality traits remains a challenge. After the presentation of recent knowledge

  20. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  1. Proteomic approach for the detection of chicken mechanically recovered meat.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, I; Koistinen, K M; Fraser, P D; Bramley, P M

    2011-10-01

    Mechanically recovered meat is cheaper than raw meat and thus has been incorporated into many meat-derived products. EU regulations exclude mechanically recovered meat from the definition of meat; as a consequence analytical procedures are needed to differentiate it from hand-deboned meat. The present pilot study has utilized a proteomic approach to find potential markers for the detection of chicken mechanically recovered meat. Intact proteins were extracted from raw meat and then analyzed with OFF-GEL electrophoresis followed by SDS-PAGE and identification of potential markers by nano-LC-MS/MS. It was shown that it is possible to extract, separate and identify key proteins from processed meat material. Potential chicken mechanically recovered meat markers--hemoglobin subunits and those similar to myosin-binding protein C were also identified. PMID:21555191

  2. Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat

    E-print Network

    Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    System College Station, Texas [ "TENDER TEXRS ?] CHICKEN ? Th f\\1a:U1Jwl Light Moot . c ., J. H. Denton and F. A. Gardner? Chicken offers consumers the ultimate meat in nutrient density at an affordable price. Chicken, a tremendously versatile.... Perhaps the greatest benefit of all is the fact that chicken broiler meat (raw), containing 119 calories per 100 grams of edible portion (breast meat contains only 110 calories per 100 gr~ms), offers th consumer a very good product for use in weight...

  3. Non-haem iron availability from pork meat: Impact of heat treatments and meat protein dose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Sørensen; H. Sørensen; I. Søndergaard; K. Bukhave

    2007-01-01

    Pork meat heated at 60, 80, 100, and 120°C (1h), raw pork meat, BSA, casein and haemoglobin were examined for their effects on in vitro iron availability measured as Fe2+-dialysability, and on iron-reducing capacity following in vitro protein digestion (IVPD-dialysis). The pepsin-digested samples of meat heated at 80, 100, and 120°C resulted in increased in vitro iron availability. Generally, the

  4. Industrial Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Lixi, Inc. has built a thriving business on NASA-developed x-ray technology. The Low Intensity X-ray Imaging scope (LIXI) was designed to use less than one percent of radiation required by conventional x-ray devices. It is portable and can be used for a variety of industrial inspection systems as well as medical devices. A food processing plant uses the new LIXI Conveyor system to identify small bone fragments in chicken. The chicken packages on a conveyor belt enter an x-ray chamber and the image is displayed on a monitor. Defects measuring less than a millimeter can be detected. An important advantage of the system is its ability to inspect 100 percent of the product right on the production line.

  5. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  6. [Meat and human health: excess and errors].

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

  7. [Evaluation of the meat quality of game].

    PubMed

    Stolle, A; Marx, H; Kühnlein, C

    1995-08-01

    The carcasses of 140 roe deer, 129 wild boars, 81 red deer and 55 fallow deer were examined to determine meat quality with respect to the influence of typical hunting situations. After hunting, many carcasses had not been cooled, which significantly influenced meat-quality parameters. The pH-value, detected electrochemically, gave the most reliable results out of all the meat-quality parameters investigated. Determination of the pH-value with regard to the pH indexes ascertained for different points of measurement and types of game is helpful in properly judging the substantial quality of venison. Determination of electrical conductivity and water-holding capacity (Q) can be helpful in judging meat quality. The value of residual-blood content in judging substantial venison quality is, however, doubtful. The measurement of rapid glycolysis and the evaluation of rigor mortis are not appropriate for determining the substantial quality of venison. PMID:8578914

  8. High Temperature Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C.W.

    1999-01-26

    The Remote and Specialty Equipment Section (RSES) of the Savannah River Technology Center has developed a High Temperature Inspection System (HTIS) for remotely viewing the interior of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter pour spout. The DWPF is a vitrification facility at the Savannah River Site where radioactive waste is processed, mixed and melted with glass frit in an electrically heated melter, and poured into canisters for long-term storage. The glass mixture is transferred from the melter to the canisters via the pour spout, a vertical interface between the melter and the canisters. During initial operation of the melter, problems were experienced with wicking of the glass stream to the sides of the pour spout resulting in pluggage of the pour spout. A removable insert was developed to eliminate the wicking problem. Routine cleaning of the pour spout and replacement of the insert requires that the pour spout interior be inspected on a regular basis. The HTIS was developed to perform the inspection. The HTIS provides two video images: one view for aligning the HTIS with the pour spout and the other for inspecting the pour spout wall condition and other surfaces. The HTIS is carried into the melter cell using an overhead crane and is remotely connected to the cell's telerobotic manipulator (TRM). An operator uses the TRM to insert the HTIS into the 2-inch (5.08 cm) diameter pour spout, rotate it 360 degrees, and then remove it. This application created many challenges for the inspection device, especially regarding size and temperature. The HTIS design allows the video cameras to stay below a safe operating temperature during use in the 1100 degrees C environment. Many devices are designed to penetrate a wall and extend into a heated chamber only a few inches, but the HTIS is inserted into the heated chamber 22 inches (55.88 cm). Other devices can handle the insertion length and small diameter, but they are not designed to handle the high temperature. This paper will discuss the development, unique features, and field use of the HTIS.

  9. Sorghum Bran in Meat and Poultry 

    E-print Network

    Hesteande, Blake E

    2014-01-27

    and reference standards for meat descriptive flavor aromatics and basic taste sensory attributes and their intensities where 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense for pork sausage patties from the ASTM (2011). .......................................... 87 9... formulations ..................... 97 14. Definition and reference standards for meat descriptive flavor aromatics and basic taste sensory attributes and their intensities where 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense for bratwurst sausages from the ASTM (2011...

  10. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Nørrung; Jens Kirk Andersen; Sava Buncic

    2009-01-01

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni\\/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events

  11. AGR-1 Source Inspection Report for First Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Roberts; Charles M. Barnes

    2005-10-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) of the Idaho National Laboratory completed a source inspection at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 7 and 8th, 2005. The objective of this inspection was to ensure that all required data collection forms, data collection processes and methods of data acceptance are in place prior to starting the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) particle coating production run. Material traceability and calibration requirements defined for Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) were also reviewed during this inspection.

  12. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar

    2013-03-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet. PMID:23273468

  13. Prevalence of dental disorders in an abattoir population of horses in South Africa by oral examination of intact and bisected heads.

    PubMed

    Vemming, Ditte C; Steenkamp, Gerhard; Carstens, Ann; Olorunju, Steve A S; Stroehle, Ruth M; Page, Patrick C

    2015-07-01

    Dental care is an integral part of equine veterinary practice. The objectives of this cross sectional study were to describe the prevalence of dental disorders in an abattoir population of horses, and to compare oral examination of intact and bisected heads. Heads from 40 horses, 19 males and 21 females, were examined and divided into immature, adult or older horses based on dental age. Older horses had a significantly higher prevalence of infundibular caries (91.7%), diastemata (66.7%) and fractures (58.3%), whereas dental wear disorders affected all age groups. Gasterophilus spp. larvae were detected in 20% of the horses. A short oral examination performed on intact heads was adequate for diagnosing major disorders, but the occurrence of many conditions had only fair to poor agreement with the bisected heads. A more detailed oral examination may be needed for reliable diagnosis of many disorders. PMID:25979819

  14. Composition of minced meat part B: A survey of commercial ground meat.

    PubMed

    Skrökki, A; Hormi, O

    1994-01-01

    A modified polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic method was used to differentiate qualitatively various species of meat such as beef, pork, venison, reindeer, and mutton. The composition of commercial minced meat was examined; and illegal adulterations of minced beef with pork were detected. PMID:22059712

  15. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module l.0: Meat Grades and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on meat grades and classes is the first of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop trade-related Spanish/English…

  16. Effects of litter size and sex on meat quality traits of kid meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Todaro; A Corrao; M. L Alicata; R Schinelli; P Giaccone; A Priolo

    2004-01-01

    The influence of litter size and sex on meat quality traits was investigated using 40 Nebrodi kids slaughtered at 47 days of age. Carcass measurements (body components, carcass joints, pelvic limb tissue composition, meat fatty acid composition and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) colour), body weight at birth and at slaughter were evaluated. Nebrodi kids had a low body weight at

  17. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  18. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  19. Acoustic inspection device

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.; Pappas, Richard A.; Mullen, O. Dennis; Samuel, Todd J.; Reid, Larry D.; Harris, Joe C.; Valencia, Juan D.; Smalley, Jonathan T.; Shepard, Chester L.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2005-09-06

    An ultrasound inspection apparatus particularly adapted to examine containers (sealed or unsealed) containing a liquid or solid bulk material. The apparatus has an overall configuration of a hand held pistol with a front transducer contact surface that is positioned against a front wall of the container. An ultrasound pulse is transmitted from the apparatus to be reflected from a back wall of a container being investigated. The received echo pulse is converted to a digital waveform. The waveform is analyzed relative to temperature, travel distance of the pulse(s), and time of travel to ascertain characteristics of the liquid or other materials and to provide identification of the same.

  20. Ceramic inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Werve, Michael E. (Modesto, CA)

    2006-05-16

    A system for inspecting a ceramic component. The ceramic component is positioned on a first rotary table. The first rotary table rotates the ceramic component. Light is directed toward the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. A detector is located on a second rotary table. The second rotary table is operably connected to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component. The second rotary table is used to move the detector at an angle to the first rotary table and the rotating ceramic component.

  1. Tube flare inspection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meunier, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Flare angle and symmetry of tube ends can be checked by simple tool that consists of two stainless steel pins bonded to rubber plug. Primary function of tool is to inspect tubes before they are installed, thereby eliminating expense and inconvenience of repairing leaks caused by imperfect flares. Measuring hole tapers, countersink angles, and bearing race angles are other possible uses. Tool is used with optical comparator. Axis of tool is alined with centerline of tube. Shadow of seated pins on comparator screen allows operator to verify flare angle is within tolerance.

  2. 19 CFR 162.8 - Preclearance inspections and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.8 Preclearance inspections and...including inspections, examinations, searches, seizures, and arrests), as may...

  3. Selenium content of game meat

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States) Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

  4. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Stern, Mariana C; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40-79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.92), processed meat (OR = 1.57, CI = 1.04-2.36), grilled red meat (OR = 1.63, CI = 0.99-2.68), and well-done red meat (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.93-2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Quartile 2 vs. 1: OR = 1.41, CI = 0.98-2.01; Quartile 3 vs. 1: OR = 1.42, CI = 0.98-2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  5. LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By: __________________________

    E-print Network

    Bolch, Tobias

    LASER SAFETY SELF-INSPECTION CHECKLIST Lab Supervisor _________________________ Inspected By, and alignment procedures kept with laser equipment? yes no 3. Have all commercially produced Class 3b and 4 lasers and all lasers made or modified on campus been registered with the University's Laser Safety

  6. Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by "meat juice multi-serology".

    PubMed

    Meemken, Diana; Tangemann, Anna Helene; Meermeier, Dieter; Gundlach, Susanne; Mischok, Dieter; Greiner, Matthias; Klein, Guenter; Blaha, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The most important pork-borne zoonotic diseases in humans such as Salmonelloses and Yersinioses cause only latent infections in pigs. Thus, the infection of pigs does not result in apparent or palpable alterations in the pig carcasses. This is the major reason, why the traditional meat inspection with adspection, palpation and incision is not able to control the food safety risks of today. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a set of serological tests, which provides a classification of pig herds into "zoonoses risk categories" as demanded by EU law and into "herd health risk categories" by using meat juice as diagnostic specimen for ELISA tests. Serological data that were obtained by testing meat juice samples from various pig herds were analyzed as proof of the "meat juice multi-serology" concept. For that, at least 60 meat juice samples from 49 pig herds each were taken between September 2010 and March 2011 and tested for antibodies against zoonotic pathogens (Salmonella spp., Trichinella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Toxoplasma gondii) and against pathogens causing production diseases (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, influenza A virus subtype H1N1, influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and PRRSV). Apparent and true animal prevalence, herd prevalence values and intra-herd seroprevalence values as well as the predictive values for the herd and the animal prevalence values were calculated for each pathogen and each of the 49 randomly selected herds. The herd seroprevalence values (one seropositive sample per herd determined a "positive herd") for Y. enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., T. gondii, M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV were higher than 80%, respectively, for the influenza A viruses between 60% and 14% and for Trichinella spp. 0%. Although all herds were located in the same area in the Northwest of Germany within a radius of 250 km, the intra-herd seroprevalence values for all tested pathogens, except for Trichinella spp., varied remarkably from herd to herd. In the case of Y. enterocolitica and T. gondii the intra-herd seroprevalence values varied even from zero to 100%. This shows that a serological risk categorization of pig herds regarding zoonoses and production diseases is meaningful if used for risk-based decisions in the framework of the new meat inspection concept and as part of the herd health management system. Thus, the development of a cost-efficient, time- and labour-saving test system for simultaneously detecting various antibodies should be the next step for an extensive implementation of the meat juice multi-serology concept. PMID:24411983

  7. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. PMID:25865663

  8. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

  9. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

  10. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

  11. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

  12. 46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic inspection. 169.226 Section 169...Certification Reinspection § 169.226 Periodic inspection. (a) Your vessel must undergo a periodic inspection within 3 months before...

  13. 15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

  14. 15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

  15. 15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

  16. 15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

  17. 46 CFR 185.724 - Quarterly inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Quarterly inspections. 185.724 Section 185.724 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.724 Quarterly inspections. (a) Each...

  18. 46 CFR 185.726 - Annual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual inspections. 185.726 Section 185.726 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.726 Annual inspections. (a) Each...

  19. 49 CFR 230.13 - Daily inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS...conduct the inspection shall inspect each steam locomotive and its tender each day...Pre-departure. At the beginning of each day the steam locomotive is used, an individual...

  20. Experience with Fagan's Inspection Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Doolan

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY Fagan's inspection method was used by a software development group to validate requirements specifi- cations for software functions. The experiences of that group are described in this paper. In general, they have proved to be favorable. Because the costs of fixing errors in software were known, the payback for every hour invested in inspection was shown to be a

  1. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  2. FDA'S Inspections of Clinical Investigators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bruckheimer

    1993-01-01

    The FDA's recently revised compliance program for inspections of clinical investigators now focuses on determining authority to control the clinical studies and responsibility for administration of every aspect of the trial. During these inspections, we compare raw data with case record forms and in the converse, case record forms with raw data. We look for drug accountability; adherence by the

  3. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsai

    1995-01-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear

  4. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

  5. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    SciTech Connect

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-12-31

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report.

  6. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO RIGHT AND LEFT - Greenwood Furnace, Meat House, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

  7. Team Line Score Report For Meats Sr 4-H

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Chop Lamb Carcass Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over All Rank Overall Score

  8. Team Line Score Report For Meats Jr 4-H

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ribeye Steaks Fresh Hams Lamb Carcass Pork Chops Written Exam Meat ID Type & Cookery Placing Classes Chops Written Exam Meat ID Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over All Rank Overall Score

  9. Team Line Score Report For Meats Sr 4-H

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Carcasses Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Over All Rank Overall Score Medal Ribs Pork Carcasses Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Over All Rank Overall

  10. Team Line Score Report For Meats Jr 4-H

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ribeyes Pork Carcass Pork Chop Lamb Carcass Written Exam Meat ID Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Lamb Carcass Written Exam Meat ID Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over All Rank

  11. Team Line Score Report For Meats Sr 4-H

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    ribs lamb carcass Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over lamb carcass Written Exam Meat ID Reasons Type & Cookery Placing Classes Placing Questions Over All

  12. Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2003-09-22

    This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

  13. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items. Some examples are given from the audit criteria handout. As an explanatory key to the reader, an Operational Safety Procedure (OSP) as a formally reviewed safety procedure required for all Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations. An ''OSP Binder'' contains all safety documentation related to a given laser operation and serves as a central repository for documents, such as the OSP, interlock logs, lessons learned, contact information etc. ''Unattended Operation'' refers to approved procedures for unattended operation of the laser installation and may include operation beyond normal working hours. ''L-train'' is the LLNL training tracking system.

  14. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

  15. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B.

    2014-02-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

  16. Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

    2005-04-01

    Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

  17. Fruit-based Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Gokulakrishnan, P; Giriprasad, R; Yatoo, M A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants, natural antioxidant sources especially fruits are being preferred now-a-days for use in different meat products. The majority of the antioxidant capacity of a fruit is especially because of numerous phenolic compounds. Many of the phytochemicals present in fruits may help protect cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancers, and neurological diseases. Various parts of the fruit including their byproducts like skin and seeds have been used in meat products. Plum has been used as plum puree, prunes (dried plum), and plum extracts. Grape skin, seed, peel extracts, and grape pomace; berries as cakes and powder extracts; pomegranate rind powder and its juice; and most of the citrus fruits have proved beneficial sources of antioxidants. All these natural sources have effectively reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and free radical frequency. Thus, lipid oxidation is prevented and shelf life is greatly enhanced by incorporating various kinds of fruits and their byproducts in meat and meat products. There is a great scope for the use of fruits as natural sources of antioxidants in meat industry. The review is intended to provide an overview of the fruit-based natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. PMID:24915314

  18. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results. PMID:25474205

  19. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  20. Grain quality inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

  1. Inspection system calibration methods

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2004-12-28

    An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.

  2. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  3. 14 CFR 21.449 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures § 21.449 Inspections. Upon request, each DAS and each applicant shall let the Administrator inspect his facilities, products, and...

  4. 14 CFR 21.449 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures § 21.449 Inspections. Upon request, each DAS and each applicant shall let the Administrator inspect his facilities, products, and...

  5. 50 CFR 401.14 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.14 Inspection. Cooperator supervision of each project shall include adequate and continuous inspection....

  6. 50 CFR 401.14 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.14 Inspection. Cooperator supervision of each project shall include adequate and continuous inspection....

  7. 50 CFR 401.14 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.14 Inspection. Cooperator supervision of each project shall include adequate and continuous inspection....

  8. 50 CFR 401.14 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.14 Inspection. Cooperator supervision of each project shall include adequate and continuous inspection....

  9. 50 CFR 401.14 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A ANADROMOUS FISHERIES CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.14 Inspection. Cooperator supervision of each project shall include adequate and continuous inspection....

  10. Risk of Colorectal Adenomas in Relation to Meat Consumption, Meat Preparation, and Genetic Susceptibility in a Dutch Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edine W. Tiemersma; Dorien W. Voskuil; Annelies Bunschoten; Elbert A. Hogendoorn; Ben J. M. Witteman; Fokko M. Nagengast; HansRuedi Glatt; Frans J. Kok; Ellen Kampman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We studied the association between meat consumption and colorectal adenomas, and potential influence of genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) formed during meat cooking at high temperatures.

  11. Significance of Porcine Fat Quality in Meat Technology: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arno Hugo; Eileen Roodt

    2007-01-01

    Pork is the most important meat product globally. The aim of this review was to assess whether fat quality of pork is important in meat processing. Good quality backfat can be defined as firm and white. Problems associated with the use of poor fat quality (soft fat) in meat products were found to be insufficient drying, oily appearance, rancidity development,

  12. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  13. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  14. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  15. Nutrient values for Australian and overseas chicken meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmine Probst

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat and compare analysed data for Australian chicken meat with overseas data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat was compared with publicly available English language databases from overseas countries. Where similar cuts were available, ratio plots were developed to determine similarities

  16. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D Reinders; M. F Weber; L. J. A Lipman; J Verhoeff; P. G. H Bijker

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a ‘Masterplan VTEC’, include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in

  17. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF MEAT YIELD IN FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat yield, the proportion of whole fish weight comprised of saleable meat, is an economically important trait in farm-raised catfish. The economic impact of increasing meat yield depends on the cut (dressed fish, shank fillet etc.), pricing system, and influence on the volume of product sold. Cur...

  18. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  19. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Sofos

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

  20. Apparent Specific Heat Capacity of Chilled and Frozen Meat Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebnem Tavman; Seher Kumcuoglu; Volker Gaukel

    2007-01-01

    In this article, apparent specific heat capacities of meat and meat products, minced beef, hamburger patties, soudjouk, minced turkey meat, turkey sausage, and turkey soudjouk, were measured at temperatures ranging from ?60°C to +40°C, using a differential scanning calorimeter. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from different predictive models given in the literature. Measured apparent specific heat capacities were

  1. Effects of regular moving and handling on the behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter treatment and consequences for subsequent meat quality.

    PubMed

    Geverink, N A; Kappers, A; van de Burgwal, J A; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, H J; Wiegant, V M

    1998-08-01

    The effects of regular moving and handling during the finishing period on behavioral and physiological responses of pigs during preslaughter treatment and consequences for meat quality were studied. From the age of 10 wk onward, 144 pigs were housed in groups of four (two gilts and two castrates) and subjected to one of the following treatments. The Environment treatment allowed pigs to move freely for 8 min outside their home pen. Then the pigs were transported in a box for 2 min, and after which they were returned to their home pen. In the Handling treatment, an experimenter remained for 3 min in the pen, and whenever a pig made contact, it was gently stroked. The experimenter then walked for an additional 1 min, without attempting to pat or stroke any pigs but subsequently held each pig in a tight grip for about 5 s. This entire procedure was then repeated. A Control treatment was also included, in which the pigs were subjected to no treatment. The Environment and Handling treatments were applied twice a week at the age of 15, 17, 19, 21, and 23 wk. At 25 wk of age, pigs were transported to the abattoir. They were held unmixed in the truck and in lairage and were manually stunned. The stockmen needed significantly less time to move Environment pigs out of their pen and into the transport box. There were no differences between treatments in salivary cortisol concentrations before or after transport. Environment and Handling pigs had paler meat than Control pigs. Glycogen content at 1 h after death and water-holding capacity were lower in Environment pigs than in Control pigs, but this did not lead to a higher incidence of PSE meat. We conclude that the pigs that had experience with leaving their home pen and some of the transport conditions were much easier to handle at loading. Pigs that are easier to move are less likely to be subjected to rough handling, which implies improved welfare, and the workload for personnel at the time of marketing is reduced. Differences in meat quality due to treatment were slight. PMID:9734857

  2. [Investigation in a slaughter house and processing of pork meat. Repetitive task work and osteo-articular and musculotendinous pathology of the upper limbs].

    PubMed

    Rovetta, S; Bosco, M G; Tornese, C; Rischia, G; Emili, A; Morino, S

    1996-01-01

    The investigation concerned 47 workers (43 males and 4 females), whose average age was 41.5 years and average length of service 12 years. The aim of the study was to quantify the presence in an abattoir and meat processing plant of risk factors represented by repetitive movements requiring the use of force, and to describe the work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs) of the upper limbs found in a group of workers exposed to such risk factors. The work was found to feature high speeds and very particular operations which, for most of the workers, required highly repetitive actions often associated with the use of force. Almost all the tasks had duration cycles of less than 30 seconds and a medium-high rate of actions/minute (from 20 to 60), with peak rates reached in the boning operations; the postural involvement was also considerable, particularly for the right wrist. The amount of force employed-calculated as a percentage of the Maximum Voluntary Contraction-averaged 50%. With very few exceptions, there were no significant pauses during the cycle. The group displayed a high prevalence of pain and paraesthesia and joint disorders, particularly in the over 35 age groups; statistically significant differences emerged with respect to the data from a matched population sample given the same anamnestic and clinical protocol. The group also exhibited significantly different Carpal Tunnel Syndromes with respect to the control population: 7 right-hand CTSs and five left-hand. CTS affected two out of every three women aged over 35 and 3 out of every 23 men over 35. The authors discuss the results in the light of previous studies and of the definition of CTS. The study concludes that investigating and preventing WMSDs in the meat processing industry is a justified, albeit very difficult, task whilst the protection afforded by current legislation appears to be most inadequate. PMID:9148126

  3. Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry. PMID:23267400

  4. An abattoir survey on the frequency of fatty liver syndrome in dairy cows from the suburbs of Tehran.

    PubMed

    Raoofi, A; Bazargani, T T; Tabatabayi, A H

    2001-02-01

    One hundred and six Holstein and Holstein x native cows were inspected before and after slaughter, and liver samples were taken. The fat content of all the liver samples was estimated by an extraction method (Soxhlet). The livers of 29 cows (27%) were classified as fatty. Seventeen of the animals were newly calved, 47 were non-pregnant, 33 were pregnant and 9 were dry, the median values for the fat content of their livers being 60.6, 34.4, 34.7 and 33.8 mg/g, respectively. The median concentration of liver fat in the first group was significantly different from that in each of the other groups (p < 0.01). PMID:11234188

  5. Fully Employing Software Inspections Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

  6. Visual inspection for CTBT verification

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-03-01

    On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

  7. A slaughterhouse survey of lung lesions in slaughtered stocks at Arusha, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. B. Mellau; H. E. Nonga; E. D. Karimuribo

    2010-01-01

    An abattoir survey was conducted on clinically healthy 115,186 cattle, 61,551 sheep and 37,850 goats slaughtered in Arusha municipality, Tanzania, between 2005 and 2007. The objective was to determine the prevalence of disease conditions affecting the lungs. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect the presence of the pathological lesions. A total of 15,245 (13.2%), 4668 (7.8%) and 3192

  8. The effect of processed meat and meat starter cultures on gastrointestinal colonization and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mahoney; A. Henriksson

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of major concern to the food industry in general and the meat industry in particular. The aim of this study was firstly to identify a strain of Listeria that was virulent in SPF BALB\\/c mice. Secondly, to investigate if a traditional meat starter culture (FloraCarn) and nontraditional meat starter (NTMS) cultures of dairy product

  9. Procedures for precap visual inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Screening procedures for the final precap visual inspection of microcircuits used in electronic system components are described as an aid in training personnel unfamiliar with microcircuits. Processing techniques used in industry for the manufacture of monolithic and hybrid components are presented and imperfections that may be encountered during this inspection are discussed. Problem areas such as scratches, voids, adhesions, and wire bonding are illustrated by photomicrographs. This guide can serve as an effective tool in training personnel to perform precap visual inspections efficiently and reliably.

  10. Procedures for precap visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screening procedures for the final precap visual inspection of microcircuits used in electronic system components are described as an aid in training personnel unfamiliar with microcircuits. Processing techniques used in industry for the manufacture of monolithic and hybrid components are presented and imperfections that may be encountered during this inspection are discussed. Problem areas such as scratches, voids, adhesions, and wire bonding are illustrated by photomicrographs. This guide can serve as an effective tool in training personnel to perform precap visual inspections efficiently and reliably.

  11. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products. 590.925 Section 590.925 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates. 590.402...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates. 590.402...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates. 590.402...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products. 590.925 Section 590.925 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products. 590.925 Section 590.925 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 49 CFR 229.23 - Periodic inspection: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic inspection: General. 229.23 Section... Inspections and Tests § 229.23 Periodic inspection: General. (a) Each...steam generator shall be inspected at each periodic inspection to determine whether...

  18. 49 CFR 229.23 - Periodic inspection: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic inspection: General. 229.23 Section... Inspections and Tests § 229.23 Periodic inspection: General. (a) Each...steam generator shall be inspected at each periodic inspection to determine whether...

  19. Benchmarking the poultry meat supply chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Manning; R. Baines; S. Chadd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how a pre-requisite programme and key performance indicators can be developed within an information management system in order to manage food safety, animal welfare and business performance criteria effectively in the poultry meat supply chain and seek to deliver continuous improvement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Desk research was carried out in order

  20. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Lung cancer in the meat industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Coggon; B Pannett; E C Pippard; P D Winter

    1989-01-01

    Routine statistics of occupational mortality and incidence of cancer have consistently shown high rates of lung cancer in butchers. Possible explanations include infection by carcinogenic papilloma viruses, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrites in the preservation of meat, or a confounding effect of tobacco. To explore these possibilities, we have examined the mortality of 1610 men employed at three

  2. Goat meat production in harsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Alexandre; N. Mandonnet

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides some insight into special attributes of the goat as an efficient producer of meat under harsh environments. The overview is not intended to be exhaustive; it gives the readers a comprehensive synthesis on the subject allowing them to consult the list of references. Moreover, it would not be possible to classify the most limiting factor among the

  3. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

  4. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 degrees °C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from ...

  5. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  6. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  7. Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were up 5% in value to 1.7 billion with a volume of 704,138 mt. However, with increasing production also comes increasing product recalls, averaging 4,536 mt of meat and poultry every year since 1997 (Teratanavat &Hooker, 2004). For example, in September 2007, a major meat processing company recalled up to 9,843 mt (21.7 million pounds) of ground beef due E. coli O157:H7 contamination, one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history.

  8. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  9. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-11-24

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  10. Multirobot inspection of industrial machinery

    E-print Network

    Correll, Nikolaus

    Inspection of aircraft and power generation machinery using a swarm of miniature robots is a promising application both from an intellectual and a commercial perspective. Our research is motivated by a case study concerned ...

  11. Tight-budget tank inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1997-04-01

    To assure reliability of above ground storage tanks (ASTs), the American Petroleum Institute (API) established API Standard 653. Adherence to this provides both environmental protection and stored product protection. Implementing every aspect of API 653 at a particular storage tank isn`t easy. Periodically carrying out all three types of required inspections can be expensive. Many tank storage facilities comply by turning the inspection job over to contractors. A contractor`s rigorous adherence to what is perceived necessary to meet the standard`s requirements can be costly and time consuming. Conversely, response to API 653`s formal external inspection (FEI) requirement by briefly walking around a tank taking minor notes clearly violates the purpose of this safety standard. An easy, quick and cost-effective approach between these extremes, the expedited external inspection (EEI), has been developed. The approach is discussed.

  12. Power line inspection with a flying robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binhai Wang; Xiguang Chen; Qian Wang; Liang Liu; Hailong Zhang; Bingqiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Power line inspection is an essential job for the maintenance of electric grids. However, the job is not easy due to wide range of grid distribution. Besides manually inspecting power lines, which is still the main method, helicopters are also used for the inspection from the sky. In the recent years, unmanned flying systems were used for power line inspection

  13. Assessment of human health risk associated with pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs when conducting visual-only inspection of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Skou, Peter Bæk; Alban, Lis

    2015-03-01

    The most important lesion to be overlooked when performing visual-only inspection of the lungs is embolic pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional human health risk represented by overlooking cases of pyaemia represented by embolic pneumonia in finisher pigs, when conducting visual-only compared to palpation of the lungs, as is the traditional meat inspection procedure. An examination of bacteria isolated from 19 finisher pigs identified with embolic pneumonia at traditional meat inspection was undertaken. From each pig samples were taken from various organs (lungs, spleen, heart, liver and kidney), from the carpal joints (A. carpi) and flexor muscle (M. flexor digitorum superficialis) on the right foreleg. These data were included in a risk assessment following OIE guidelines. Bacteria were isolated from 78 out of 127 tissue and swap samples taken (61% positive samples). Staphylococcus aureus (N=37) was the most frequently isolated bacterium. The predominant site of S. aureus was the lung. S. aureus was detected although less frequently in low numbers in some organs (<100CFU/sample) and muscle samples (<10CFU/sample). Only one MRSA isolate was found. Staphylococcus warneri (N=24) was the second most commonly found bacterium. There was no predominant site and the number of S. warneri was less than 50CFU per sample. The risk of a food-borne intoxication from S. aureus in relation to pyaemia in pigs was considered very low due to the low quantitative numbers of S. aureus in muscle tissue samples. Implementing visual-only inspection will reduce the exposure of S. aureus due to less cross-contamination and handling of the plucks by the meat inspectors. The human health risk associated with S. warneri was considered very low, due to the limited zoonotic potential of this bacterium. In conclusion, the additional human health risk in relation to possibly overlooking pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs was considered negligible when conducting visual-only compared to traditional meat inspection. PMID:25514754

  14. Surface inspection: Research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelder, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

  15. Underwater welding, cutting and inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ohio Underwater Welding Center)

    1995-02-01

    Underwater welding, cutting and inspection of offshore, inland waterway and port facilities are becoming a requirement for both military and industrial communities, as maintenance and repair costs continue to escalate, and as many of the facilities are in operation well beyond their intended design life. In nuclear applications, underwater welding, cutting and inspection for repair and modification of irradiated nuclear power plant components are also a requirement. This article summarizes recent developments in this emerging underwater technology.

  16. In Situ Robotic Inspection Of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wyk, Lisa M.; Garcia, Raul C., Jr.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Automated system reduces delays in inspection and rework. System reduces inspection-and-rework delay from days to hours. Path of inspection sensors taken directly from welding path saving time in programming for inspection. Inspection data stored so not lost as inspection equipment turned off. Same robot welding workpiece used to inspect it. In preparation, welding tool mounted on end effector of robot replaced with eddy-current or ultrasonic sensor. Robot recalls welding path from memory and retraces it, recording sensor output as it proceeds.

  17. 78 FR 77643 - National Advisory Committee of Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...The Committee is being convened to review two topics for FSIS. The first topic will address safe handling instructions included...within the scope of the FMIA and PPIA. The agenda topics are safe handling instructions included on...

  18. 76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...Patricia K. Buck, Center for Foodborne Illness Research and Prevention; Dr...University; Nancy J. Donley, STOP Foodborne Illness; Veneranda Gapud, Fieldale...entering establishments on source animals or products. FSIS...

  19. Characterization of multidrug-resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from swine from an abattoir in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Shima, Kensuke; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Yamasaki, Shinji; Kuroda, Koichi; Endo, Ginji

    2005-01-01

    A total of 455 highly tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 84 healthy swine from abattoirs and it was found that 56.9, 43.1, 22.2, 15.4, 2.6 and 1.5% of strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ofloxacin and gentamicin respectively. Interestingly, E. coli strains isolated from certain finisher hog groups exhibited resistance against 2-7 antimicrobials, but strains isolated from multiparous sow groups in each herd were resistant to only 2-4 antimicrobial agents. When randomly selected 108 tetracycline-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of resistance genes, the following genes tet(A) (n = 6), tet(B) (n = 95), tet(D) (n = 1) or both tet(A) and tet(B) (n = 6) were found to be distributed among them. Furthermore, 52 isolates carried the integrase 1 gene and 24 strains gave five different PCR amplicon profiles using primers from the variable region of integron. Extensive nucleotide sequence analyses of these amplicons revealed the presence of dhfrI, dhfrXII, dfr17, aadA, aadA2, aadA5, aadA21, aacA4 and catB3 genes which code for different antibacterial resistance proteins. PMID:15724712

  20. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  1. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

  2. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production. PMID:25971200

  3. Examination of the association between announced inspections and inspection scores.

    PubMed

    Waters, A Blake; VanDerslice, James; Porucznik, Christina A; Kim, Jaewhan; DeLegge, Royal; Durrant, Lynne

    2013-09-01

    In 2010 the Salt Lake Valley Health Department conducted a pilot of an announced inspection program utilizing a randomized assignment of restaurants to an intervention group with announced inspections and a control group that remained on the usual schedule of unannounced inspections. After adjusting for food type, visible kitchen, outside quality assurance, season, and standardized inspector, significant reductions were found in the odds ratios of personal hygiene (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] = 0.11, p = .00) and equipment cleanliness (aOR = 0.19, p = .00) violations. In the models for the control group, none of the odds ratios were statistically different from one, indicating no change in the postintervention time period as compared to the preintervention period. PMID:24073484

  4. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    PubMed

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. PMID:23688798

  5. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p < 0.01) evidence of linkage while the remaining 33 showed suggestive evidence (p < 0.05) of linkage with different growth, growth curve, meat quality and breast yield traits. Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species. PMID:21745371

  6. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50?Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250?V, 90?sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L?, a?, b?) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

  7. Automated Visual Integrated Circuit Mounting Operations Inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapron, Michel

    1987-05-01

    The paper deals with visual inspections which take place on integrated-circuit assembly lines after the following operations : die-bonding, wire bonding, lid sealing, package marking. Ceramic package inspection is also described. An X-ray camera enables us to inspect eutectic die bondings or epoxy die bondings. Different defect types are detected by using mainly 2 methods : the former is based on classical processings, the latter is based on unusual projections. Photographs, obtained by an ultra-sonic microscope, show the power of this new means of die-bonding inspection. The microscope permits sufficient magnification in order to inspect the wire-bonding. The method presented is primarily based on mathematical morphology. The inspection of lid sealing consists of two inspections : lid centering inspection and joint inspection. The method proposed for solving the first inspection is based on mathematical morphology, projections, Hough transform, and is available for different types and sizes of packages. It is also invariant in translation and rotation. The second inspection is mainly based on mathematical morphology. Two methods are proposed for solving package marking inspection : the first one is based on mathematical morphology, the other one on a Bayesian method. The final inspection, ceramic package integrity inspection, which is made with a horizontal lighting, is based on classical processings and mathematical morphology.

  8. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 ?g/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 ?g/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  9. Horizontal hostility among non-meat eaters.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined intergroup judgments made between four groups of non-meat eaters: health vegetarians; ethical vegetarians; health vegans, and ethical vegans. Consistent with hypotheses based on horizontal hostility and the need to maintain ingroup distinctiveness, ethical vegetarians gave unfavorable evaluations to health vegetarians relative to vegans, especially when the mainstream omnivore group was made salient. Contrary to expectations, vegans gave relatively more favorable evaluations to ethical vegetarians than health vegetarians when mainstream salience was low. This was especially true for vegans who were motivated primarily by ethical concerns. When mainstream salience was high, vegans did not distinguish between the vegetarian subgroups. Results suggest that one's motives for abstaining from meat often play a larger role in this type of intergroup perceptions than one's dietary practices. PMID:24809342

  10. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 ?A/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

  11. Composition of minced meat part A: Methods.

    PubMed

    Skrökki, A; Hormi, O

    1994-01-01

    A simplified rapid electrophoretic method is described for the identification of venison, pork, and beef in samples of only a few grams of minced meat. The method is based on the species-specific separation patterns obtained upon electrophoresis of the proteins. Venison, beef, and pork can be identified easily and readily from the patterns given by their raw water-extractable proteins. PMID:22059711

  12. Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn B. Pluhar

    2010-01-01

    Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment,\\u000a and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane\\u000a food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian\\u000a and rights-based viewpoints, all in the

  13. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  14. 9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

  15. 9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

  16. 9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

  17. 9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

  18. 9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

  19. Red meats: time for a paradigm shift in dietary advice.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Mary Ann; Barlow, Karine; Johnson, Valerie; Harrison, Carol

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests dietary advice to limit red meat is unnecessarily restrictive and may have unintended health consequences. As nutrient-rich high quality protein foods, red meats can play an important role in helping people meet their essential nutrient needs. Yet dietary advice to limit red meat remains standard in many developed countries, even though red meat intakes appear to be within current guidelines. Meanwhile, energy intakes from processed foods have increased dramatically at the expense of nutrient-rich foods, such as red meat. Research suggests these food trends are associated with the growing burden of obesity and associated diseases in recent decades. It is time for dietary advice that emphasizes the value of unprocessed red meat as part of a healthy balanced diet. PMID:25041653

  20. Exploring future patterns of meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Erik

    2015-11-01

    The nutrition transition encompasses a set of major shifts in human diet and nutritional status, throughout history and that is influenced by a wide range of factors such as income, technical change, urbanisation and culture. High-income societies are witnessing a shift towards diets with more fat, sugar, processed foods and less fibre, leading to a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases, such as obesity. This trend can also be observed among the middle classes of emerging countries. However, increasing evidence suggests that a final shift is occurring, following behavioural change towards consuming higher-quality fats, more whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and particularly less meat. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, an assessment is made of where different countries are located in the different phases of the nutrition transition. Second, a qualitative investigation is made into the factors enhancing and hindering the latest phase of the transition-particularly towards less meat consumption-taking into account cultural differences between consumer groups across countries. The analysis of both objectives generates insights into possible future scenarios of meat consumption. PMID:26002118

  1. Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Choset, Howie

    2003-09-11

    Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

  2. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    PubMed

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:19152846

  3. Current trends in traditional Turkish meat products and cuisine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birol Kilic

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the results of research and technological improvements achieved during the past decade in the field of traditional Turkish meat products having economic value. Traditional Turkish meat products discussed are sucuk (dry, uncooked, cured, and fermented sausage), past?rma (seasoned, air-dried, cured, pressed, and non-fermented beef cut), döner kebab (meat block roasted with slow rotation in front of

  4. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat 

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  5. Evaluation of inservice inspection examinatiions

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Section 11, Division 1, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code examinations, 26 inservice inspection (ISI) summary reports from 24 facilities were reviewed. It was found that these ASME Code examinations and tests are instrumental in revealing indications and defects in welds and plant components. In addition, this study uncovered that fact that some of the Section 11 requirements are apparently not clear and are misunderstood by some of the facilities. Also, the need for more stringent requirements was evaluated and some Code changes are recommended.

  6. Evaluation of inservice inspection examinatiions

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1990-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Section 11, Division 1, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code examinations, 26 inservice inspection (ISI) summary reports from 24 facilities were reviewed. It was found that these ASME Code examinations and tests are instrumental in revealing indications and defects in welds and plant components. In addition, this study uncovered that fact that some of the Section 11 requirements are apparently not clear and are misunderstood by some of the facilities. Also, the need for more stringent requirements was evaluated and some Code changes are recommended.

  7. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  8. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  9. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 ...description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The...

  10. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a...

  11. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 ...spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a...

  13. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food...cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food...blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the...

  15. 40 CFR 408.50 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. 408.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.50 ...description of the remote Alaskan crab meat processing subcategory. The...

  16. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food...

  17. 9 CFR 95.23 - Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject...UNITED STATES § 95.23 Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject...has been used to cover fresh or frozen meats originating in any region...

  18. 9 CFR 95.23 - Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject...UNITED STATES § 95.23 Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject...has been used to cover fresh or frozen meats originating in any region...

  19. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food...cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food...

  20. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-01-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food. PMID:25557827

  1. To meat or not to meat? New perspectives on Neanderthal ecology.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Henry, Amanda G; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Blasco, Ruth; Picin, Andrea; Wroe, Stephen; Kullmer, Ottmar

    2015-02-01

    Neanderthals have been commonly depicted as top predators who met their nutritional needs by focusing entirely on meat. This information mostly derives from faunal assemblage analyses and stable isotope studies: methods that tend to underestimate plant consumption and overestimate the intake of animal proteins. Several studies in fact demonstrate that there is a physiological limit to the amount of animal proteins that can be consumed: exceeding these values causes protein toxicity that can be particularly dangerous to pregnant women and newborns. Consequently, to avoid food poisoning from meat-based diets, Neanderthals must have incorporated alternative food sources in their daily diets, including plant materials as well. PMID:25407444

  2. 9 CFR 203.2 - Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees. 203.2...Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government...

  3. 9 CFR 203.2 - Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government employees. 203.2...Statement of general policy with respect to the giving by meat packers of meat and other gifts to Government...

  4. Restaurant Inspection Scores and Foodborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Boris I.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Ingram, L. Amanda; Schaffner, William

    2004-01-01

    Restaurants in the United States are regularly inspected by health departments, but few data exist regarding the effect of restaurant inspections on food safety. We examined statewide inspection records from January 1993 through April 2000. Data were available from 167,574 restaurant inspections. From 1993 to 2000, mean scores rose steadily from 80.2 to 83.8. Mean inspection scores of individual inspectors were 69–92. None of the 12 most commonly cited violations were critical food safety hazards. Establishments scoring <60 had a mean improvement of 16 points on subsequent inspections. Mean scores of restaurants experiencing foodborne disease outbreaks did not differ from restaurants with no reported outbreaks. A variety of factors influence the uniformity of restaurant inspections. The restaurant inspection system should be examined to identify ways to ensure food safety. PMID:15200861

  5. 7 CFR 989.102 - Inspection service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.102 Inspection service. Inspection...

  6. Efficient Bayesian sampling inspection for industrial processes

    E-print Network

    Little, John

    of complex systems may be inspected each week at a single oil re- fining plant. Many inspection methods in industry guidelines, for ex- ample those issued by UK Health and Safety Executive [UK Health And Safety

  7. 45 CFR 1309.33 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.33 Inspection. A grantee which purchases a modular unit with grant funds or receives approval...of a continuing purchase must have the modular unit inspected by a licensed...

  8. 45 CFR 1309.33 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.33 Inspection. A grantee which purchases a modular unit with grant funds or receives approval...of a continuing purchase must have the modular unit inspected by a licensed...

  9. 45 CFR 1309.33 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.33 Inspection. A grantee which purchases a modular unit with grant funds or receives approval...of a continuing purchase must have the modular unit inspected by a licensed...

  10. 45 CFR 1309.33 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.33 Inspection. A grantee which purchases a modular unit with grant funds or receives approval...of a continuing purchase must have the modular unit inspected by a licensed...

  11. 45 CFR 1309.33 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular Units § 1309.33 Inspection. A grantee which purchases a modular unit with grant funds or receives approval...of a continuing purchase must have the modular unit inspected by a licensed...

  12. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-06

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage is described for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a Y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure. 4 figures.

  13. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (Martinez, GA); Treanor, Richard C. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  14. 7 CFR 353.6 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Inspector. (1) An employee of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...bachelor's degree in the biological sciences, and a minimum of 1 year's experience...by receipt of a passing grade, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  15. 7 CFR 353.6 - Inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Inspector. (1) An employee of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...bachelor's degree in the biological sciences, and a minimum of 1 year's experience...by receipt of a passing grade, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  16. 21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections...identification of donors or recipients of human tissue will be handled in accordance with...

  17. 21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections...identification of donors or recipients of human tissue will be handled in accordance with...

  18. 21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections...identification of donors or recipients of human tissue will be handled in accordance with...

  19. 21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections...identification of donors or recipients of human tissue will be handled in accordance with...

  20. 21 CFR 1270.41 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.41 Inspections...identification of donors or recipients of human tissue will be handled in accordance with...