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1

Bacterial populations associated with meat from the deboning room of a high throughput red meat abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are faced with high incidences of food poisoning outbreaks, with obvious economic consequences. In highly perishable foodstuffs such as fresh red meat the threat of food poisoning is particularly intense. In this study, red meat samples were collected from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir. The samples were analysed for the presence of Bacillus cereus., Staphylococcus

S Nel; J. F. R Lues; E. M Buys; P Venter

2004-01-01

2

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and

S. Abuseir; C. Epe; T. Schnieder; G. Klein; M. Kühne

2006-01-01

3

A comparison of microbial contamination on sheep\\/goat carcasses in a modern Indian abattoir and traditional meat shops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial load on sheep\\/goat carcasses was investigated in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 96 swab samples from carcass sites were collected and analysed from the abattoir, while 144 swab samples from carcass sites were analysed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. T. Sherikar; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

2007-01-01

4

Evaluation of Abattoir Inspection for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle at Addis Ababa Abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed postmortem examinations were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of meat inspection procedures and to determine the distribution of lesions in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle. The study involved routine inspection at slaughter, collection of tissues for detailed examination in the laboratory, and bacteriological examination to identify M. bovis. Additionally, a 10-year (1992–2001) meat inspection record was analysed to determine tuberculosis trends

B. Asseged; Z. Woldesenbet; E. Yimer; E. Lemma

2004-01-01

5

A prevalence study of bovine tuberculosis by using abattoir meat inspection and tuberculin skin testing data, histopathological and IS6110 PCR examination of tissues with tuberculous lesions in cattle in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mortem surveillances, for the detection of tuberculous lesions in particular depend on the work load time and the diligence of the inspector conducting the examination. The first aim of the study was to determine the trend of occurrence of tuberculous lesions in two abattoirs in Addis Ababa and Debre-Zeit (Ethio - pia). The second aim of the study was

J. E. SHITAYE; B. GETAHUN; T. ALEMAYEHU; M. SKORIC; F. TREML; P. FICTUM; V. VRBAS; I. PAVLIK

6

Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.

Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit

2013-01-01

7

Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.  

PubMed

Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

2013-03-22

8

Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.  

PubMed

Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on inspection of the head of carcases. Overall, the SSSe was low in all scenarios leading to undetected BC-positive cattle both in the current meat inspection and under the investigated risk-based meat inspection systems. Therefore, improving the sensitivity of the methods used for inspection of high-risk cattle would be beneficial. PMID:23182031

Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

2012-11-22

9

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. 4.72 Section...TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.72 Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats....

2013-04-01

10

76 FR 55867 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a public...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th &...

2011-09-09

11

75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a public...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th &...

2010-09-16

12

75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment AGENCY...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) on June 19, 2010...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection provides advice and...

2010-07-23

13

77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The full Committee...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2012-05-21

14

77 FR 75118 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The Committee...Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg products,...

2012-12-19

15

77 FR 13512 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a public...proposed rule on the Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection published...

2012-03-07

16

Microbiological baseline study of poultry slaughtered in provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Studies to determine baseline levels of microbial contaminants and foodborne bacterial pathogens are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programs, Good Manufacturing/Production Practices, and various interventions. In 2004 and 2005 poultry carcass rinses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada, were tested to determine the levels of aerobic plate count bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp., and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Samples were collected from 3 high volume and 62 low volume abbatoirs. All samples (1296) were positive for aerobic plate count bacteria, with 98.8% of samples having counts of 100 000 or less colony forming units (CFU)/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 99.7% of the 1296 carcasses and were recovered at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.3% of the samples. Generic E. coli were recovered from 99.1% of the 1296 carcasses at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.6% of the samples. Seventy five percent of 1234 samples that were tested for Campylobacter were positive; 37.5% of 1295 samples that were tested for Salmonella were positive; and only 2 of 1296 samples tested for STEC were positive (0.15%).

Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero

2009-01-01

17

Microbiological baseline study of beef and pork carcasses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 2006 and 2007 beef and pork carcass swabs from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada were tested to determine the levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swabs from beef and pork carcasses from 48 and 34 facilities, respectively, were analyzed. All samples tested were positive for aerobic bacteria with 99.8% of beef and 96.0% of pork samples, having total counts of ? 100 000 CFU/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 22.4% and 42.0% of beef and pork carcass samples, respectively. Generic E. coli were recovered from 14.6% of beef and 33.7% of pork carcass samples. For beef carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 0.1% of 1036 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 1.5% of 1022 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 5.4% of 1018 samples tested for STEC. For pork carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 1.6 % of 1076 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 8.8% of 1070 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 4.8% of 1067 samples tested for STEC.

Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero

2011-01-01

18

Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis.  

PubMed

Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat inspectors and researchers were estimated without the assumption of an available gold standard. The Se for the regular meat inspection was found to be 0.92, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.49 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Se for the researchers was found to be 0.81, 0.96, 0.91 and 0.68 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Sp for the regular meat inspection was found to be between 0.98 and 1.00 for the four categories. The Sp for the researchers was found to be 0.83, 0.94, 0.76 and 0.99 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The low Se of ordinary meat inspection for parasitic, intestinal and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. PMID:20132995

Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Jan Tind

2010-02-04

19

77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide advice to the Secretary of Agriculture concerning State and Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg products inspection, food safety, and other matters that fall with the scope of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)...

2012-08-07

20

9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling;...

2013-01-01

21

MEAT CARCASS INSPECTION USING THE FLUORESCENCE OF DIETARY PORPHYRINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces on animal carcasses are an important source of foodborne pathogens. Imaging devices that could assess the general level of carcass contamination would help to provide high quality meat products to consumers. Inspection procedures have relied upon unaided visual examination of carcasses but ...

22

At-Line Methods for Controlling Microbial Growth and Spoilage in Meat Processing Abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many decontamination strategies are available to the meat industry for the control of spoilage and disease causing microorganisms.\\u000a Most of these strategies are spraywash methods, and a variety of other methods are becoming increasingly popular in the industry\\u000a as new research and developments are made. Hide-on decontamination has been shown to be extremely effective for controlling\\u000a pathogens and may become

Daniel Y. C. Fung; Jessica R. Edwards; Beth Ann Crozier-Dodson

23

Suitability of bovine portion condemnations at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario Canada for food animal syndromic surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis.

2012-01-01

24

The personal and general hygiene practices in the deboning room of a high throughput red meat abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food handling facilities are under increased consumer and regulatory pressures to improve the micro-biological safety of perishable raw and ready-to-eat commodities. In this study workers from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire to ascertain the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices regarding personal and general hygiene applied specifically in the deboning

S Nel; J. F. R Lues; E. M Buys; P Venter

2004-01-01

25

Hydatidosis of slaughtered cattle in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle. Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 74 visceral organ were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. The infection of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were found to be 45.94% 45.94%, 6.75% and 1.35% respectively. From the total of 283 hydatid cysts counted 153(54.06%), 17(6.00%), 5(1.76%), 108(38.16%) were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 170(60.28%), 5(1.76%) and 108(38.16%) were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung. Hydatid cyst viability rate of 40% was observed. PMID:18787969

Kebede, Nigatu; Mekonnen, Habtamu; Wossene, Abebe; Tilahun, Getachew

2008-09-12

26

Some Causes of Organ and Carcass Condemnations in Ostriches Slaughtered at the Only Ostrich Abattoir in Zimbabwe from 1999-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Zimbabwe for the period 1999-2005. Records of meat inspection available at the single ostrich abattoir in Zimbabwe were used in this study. The number of ostriches slaughtered for the whole study period was 55 957. The total number of ostriches slaughtered decreased by 84.8%

S. Mukaratirwa; B. M. Dzoma; C. Matongo; M. Nyahuma

2009-01-01

27

Hydatidosis: Prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997–2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence

A. Getaw; D. Beyene; D. Ayana; B. Megersa; F. Abunna

2010-01-01

28

9 CFR 316.10 - Marking of meat food products with official inspection legend and ingredient statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of meat food products with official inspection...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.10 Marking of meat food products with official...

2013-01-01

29

USDA's (United States Department of Agriculture) Oversight of State Meat and Poultry Inspection Programs could be Strengthened.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal legislation requires that meat and poultry products sold for human consumption be inspected to ensure that they are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled. The Department of Agriculture (USDA) must inspect all products sold in interstate and fore...

1983-01-01

30

Speech input system for meat inspection and pathological coding used thereby  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat inspection is one of exclusive and important jobs of veterinarians though it is not well known in general. As the inspection should be conducted skillfully during a series of continuous operations in a slaughter house, development of automatic inspecting systems has been required for a long time. We employed a hand-free speech input system to record the inspecting data because inspecters have to use their both hands to treat the internals of catles and check their health conditions by necked eyes. The data collected by the inspectors are transfered to a speech recognizer and then stored as controlable data of each catle inspected. Control of terms such as pathological conditions to be input and their coding are also important in this speech input system and practical examples are shown.

Abe, Shozo

31

Agricultural research service, meat inspection division chemical requirements as they apply to the fat and oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper cites portions of the Meat Inspection Act giving authority for the control of chemicals in meat and meat food products.\\u000a It defines the extent of coverage, procedures for determining compilance, criteria used in evaluating safety or suitability\\u000a of chemicals used in the treatment of fats, fat derivatives or other meat food products. It identifies certain requirements\\u000a covering the

O. L. Bennett

1965-01-01

32

Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.  

PubMed

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-11-09

33

Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing  

PubMed Central

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

34

Efficacy of current EC meat inspection procedures and some proposed revisions with respect to microbiological safety: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of the current EC meat inspection procedures, and some of their proposed revisions, in relation to their efficacy in assuring the microbiological safety and quality of meat, and the difficulties for health authorities and industry in providing such an assurance. It is concluded that neither the current nor the proposed revisions of ante and post

BR Berends; JM Snijders; JG van Logtestijn

1993-01-01

35

76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY: Food Safety...establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The...Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The...

2011-12-28

36

Defining syndromes using cattle meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance purposes: a statistical approach with the 2005-2010 data from ten French slaughterhouses  

PubMed Central

Background The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging. The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data. Results Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer’s lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues. Conclusion The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases.

2013-01-01

37

Improving meat inspection and control in resource-poor communities: the Nepal example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat is an important source of protein and a valuable commodity in resource-poor communities. In many developing countries, lack of appropriate slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as invaluable by-products from animal carcasses. Slaughtering places are frequently contaminated and may not be protected against dogs, rodents and insects. Meat products coming from

Durga Datt Joshi; Mahendra Maharjan; Maria Vang Johansen; Arve Lee Willingham; Minu Sharma

2003-01-01

38

Improving meat inspection and control in resource-poor communities: the Nepal example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat is an important source of protein and a valuable commodity in resource-poor communities. In many developing countries, lack of appropriate slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as invaluable by-products from animal carcasses. Slaughtering places are frequently contaminated and may not be protected against dogs, rodents and insects. Meat products coming from

Durga Datt Joshi; Mahendra Maharjan; Maria Vang Johansen; Arve Lee Willingham; Minu Sharma

39

Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011.  

PubMed

Current EU regulation requires that every bovine carcass is examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC) at meat inspection. This is costly and might be superfluous at low BC prevalence. However, from a consumer view-point it may be important to identify and manage infected carcasses to avoid human infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish cattle population, (2) estimate the animal level prevalence (3) provide descriptive statistics of potential risk factors for BC, and (4) determine attributable risks and fractions of selected risk factors potentially useful for a future risk-based meat inspection system. In total, 348 cases of BC were recorded among all cattle slaughtered (n=4,090,661) in Denmark between 2004 and 2011. The true animal level prevalence of BC was estimated to be 0.06%. The herd of origin of the cases were defined as the herd in which the animals spent most of their lifetimes. The detected cases were found to originate from 328 herds, with a maximum of two cases per herd indicating sporadic occurrence. Even though organic farming was associated with a higher risk (RR=1.9 in univariable analysis) of BC-positive animals being detected at slaughter, the population attributable fraction showed that only 5% of the animals with BC could be attributed to organic farming practices at the level of organic farming practiced in Denmark in the study period. Thus, organic farming status was not a suitable risk factor to use to target future risk-based meat inspection. However, 54% of the animals with BC in the cattle population were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior to slaughter. The challenges and opportunities of this approach should be investigated further. PMID:23245844

Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Alban, L

2012-12-11

40

Characterization of the Effluent Wastewater from Abattoirs for Land Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627?mg\\/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099?mg\\/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content

Gauri S. Mittal

2004-01-01

41

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

2011-07-01

42

Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

43

Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.  

PubMed

Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

2013-02-28

44

Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.  

PubMed

Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, p<0.001). These results open new possibilities for the assessment of animal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality. PMID:19395045

Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

2009-04-22

45

9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...import inspection. (a) Carcasses, parts thereof, meat and meat food products (other than rendered animal...

2013-01-01

46

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2009-01-01

47

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

48

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

49

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2010-01-01

50

9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 ...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

51

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2009-01-01

52

9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat and meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

53

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2012-08-14

54

Corruption and Reform? The Emergence of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the 1906 Meat Inspection Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the origins of federal regulation of food, drugs and meat. We argue that developments in these industries during the late 19th century—technological changes that gave rise to new and cheaper products, the creation of a national market for food and drugs, as well as scientific advance that made it possible for producers to cheapen their food and

Gary D. Libecap; Marc T. Law

2003-01-01

55

9 CFR 316.11 - Special markings for certain meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special markings for certain meat food products. 316.11 Section 316...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...316.11 Special markings for certain meat food products. (a) Meat food...

2013-01-01

56

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2013-01-01

57

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2013-01-01

58

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats...characteristics of a barbecued article, which include the formation of a brown crust on the surface and the rendering of...

2009-01-01

59

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats...characteristics of a barbecued article, which include the formation of a brown crust on the surface and the rendering of...

2010-01-01

60

Improving Recalls at the Food Safety and Inspection Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for ensuring that meat, poultry, and egg products are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled. FSIS enforces the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA), the P...

J. Axtell P. Bailey J. Behney P. Derfler M. Gioglio

2003-01-01

61

Preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in suspected beef from a metropolitan abattoir in Ghana with Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis is an important zoonotic disease transmissible through aerosols inhalation and the ingestion of contaminated milk and meat from cattle. Abattoirs in Ghana mainly depend on post-mortem examinations as means of diagnosing the presence of mycobacterium in meat (beef). A Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy was used to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium bovis as Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFBs) in beef samples from the Kumasi Metropolitan abattoir; thereby vetting post-mortem examinations at the abattoir. Lesioned lung tissues and calcified or puss-filled thoracic lymph nodes were collected at post-mortem as directed by an expert veterinarian. A total of 159 samples from 130 cattle (bulls and cows) were used in this study from April to July 2006. Ninety-five (i.e., 73.1%) of the 130 cattle sampled were positive for AFBs, whilst the remaining thirty-five (26.9%) were negative. Out of the total 159 individual samples specimen collected, 114 (71.7%) were found with AFBs. A total of 64 lung tissues and 95 lymph nodes were collected, respectively. Interestingly, 70.3% of the lung tissues were AFB-positive with 69 (72.6%) out of the 95 lymph nodes, also being positive. The ZN microscopy was effective in detecting the presence of mycobacteria, as 73.1% of the suspected samples were AFB-positive. It presupposes that, abattoir post-mortem examinations were also efficient however; the lapses of non-detection of asymptomatic carcasses could also pose a serious health risk to consumers. Also, lack of a functional on-site laboratory and a practical monitoring system was found to be unfavourable to the maintenance of meat quality. Detailed laboratory examinations (such as culture, PCR and other biochemical tests) to augment ZN microscopy is recommended for thorough detection of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:19943459

Adu-Bobi, N A K; Mak-Mensah, E E; Achel, D G; Gyamfi, O K; Bedzra, K D

2009-09-01

62

Assessment of occupational exposure to leptospirosis in a sheep-only abattoir.  

PubMed

This study estimated the frequency of exposure of meat workers to carcasses infected with Leptospira serovars Hardjobovis or Pomona in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand. A stochastic spreadsheet model was developed to assess the daily risk of exposure of eviscerators, meat inspectors and offal handlers to live leptospires in sheep carcasses from May to November 2004 (high-risk period), and from December 2004 to June 2005 (low-risk period). The average sheep processed per day were 225 for an eviscerator, 374 for a meat inspector, and 1123 for an offal handler. The median daily exposures during high- and low-risk periods were 11 [95% distribution interval (DI) 5-19] and three (95% DI 1-8) infected carcasses/day for eviscerators, 18 (95% DI 9-29) and six (95% DI 2-12) for meat inspectors, and 54 (95% DI 32-83) and 18 (95% DI 8-31) for offal handlers, respectively. Stochastic risk modelling provided evidence that processing of sheep carcasses exposed meat workers regularly to live leptospires with substantial seasonal variation. PMID:20843385

Dorjee, S; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; West, D M; Collins-Emerson, J M; Midwinter, A C; Ridler, A L

2010-09-15

63

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2013-01-01

64

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2013-01-01

65

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2013-01-01

66

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2013-01-01

67

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers § 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as âBeef Pie,â âVeal Pie,â and âPork Pieâ shall contain...

2009-01-01

68

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers § 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as âBeef Pie,â âVeal Pie,â and âPork Pieâ shall contain...

2010-01-01

69

9 CFR 318.23 - Heat-processing and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties. 318.23 Section 318.23...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...and stabilization requirements for uncured meat patties. (a) Definitions....

2013-01-01

70

9 CFR 317.301 - Required nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. 317.301 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...nutrition labeling of ground or chopped meat products. (a) Nutrition...

2013-01-01

71

9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

2013-01-01

72

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...24 Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process...

2010-01-01

73

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...24 Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process...

2013-01-01

74

9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...24 Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process...

2009-01-01

75

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

76

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

77

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2013-01-01

78

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food...

2013-01-01

79

FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FSIS Food Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products are designed to aid those handling food products during transportation and storage. These guidelines provide a list of safety and secur...

2005-01-01

80

Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

81

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2010-01-01

82

9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. (a)...

2013-01-01

83

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

2013-01-01

84

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2013-01-01

85

9 CFR 319.10 - Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed nutrient...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an expressed...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Requirements for substitute standardized meat food products named by use of an...

2009-01-01

86

9 CFR 321.3 - Cooperation of States for the interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...interstate shipment of carcasses, parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products. 321.3 Section 321.3 Animals...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

87

Suitability and limitations of portion-specific abattoir data as part of an early warning system for emerging diseases of swine in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation rates did not correspond with the timeframes during which major respiratory disease outbreaks took place. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a number of abattoir-related factors require consideration when using abattoir data for quantitative disease surveillance. Data pertaining to lungs condemned for pneumonia did not provide useful information for predicting disease events, while partial carcass condemnations of nephritis were most consistent with expected trends. Techniques that adjust for non-disease factors should be considered when applying cluster detection methods to abattoir data.

2012-01-01

88

Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. Of 3330 animals screened only 60 exhibited gross visible lesions. From these animals, twenty strains of M. bovis were isolated and characterised by spoligotyping. Results Organ lesions typical of BTB were most often detected in the liver, followed by the lung and the peritoneum. M. bovis was isolated from 20 animals and 7 different spoligotypes were observed among these 20 strains; three of the patterns had not been previously reported. Spoligotype patterns from thirteen of the strains lacked spacer 30, a characteristic common in strains of M. bovis found in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. However, unlike the other three Central African countries, the majority of spoligotype patterns observed in Mali also lacked spacer 6. Of the remaining seven strains, six had spoligotype patterns identical to strains commonly isolated in France and Spain. Conclusion Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin.

Muller, Borna; Steiner, Benjamin; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Fane, Adama; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

2008-01-01

89

Risk assessment of DFD meat due to pre-slaughter conditions in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to identify and assess the risk factors for pork becoming dark, firm and dry meat (DFD). A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 3075 commercial pigs delivered from different farms to five commercial Spanish pig abattoirs were surveyed. The DFD condition was described as an ordinal response variable (normal, moderate and serious) based on

M. D. Guàrdia; J. Estany; S. Balasch; M. A. Oliver; M. Gispert; A. Diestre

2005-01-01

90

Final Report of an Enforcement Audit Carried Out in Brazil Covering Brazil's Meat Inspection System, July 7 through July 27, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit took place in Brazil from July 7 through July 27, 2005. An opening meeting nas held on July 7, 2005, in Sao Paulo with the Central Competent Authority (CCA), which is the Department of Animal Product Inspection (Departamento de Inspecao de Produ...

2005-01-01

91

Major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in small ruminants slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A retrospective study and active abattoir survey were conducted from December 2009 to April 2010 to determine the major causes of organs and carcasses condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at Luna Export Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. The active abattoir survey was conducted on 674 goats and 451 sheep (n=1125) and three years (2007, 2008 and 2009), retrospective data of 718,395 sheep and goats were also collected. From the retrospective data it was observed that liver was the most frequently condemned organ with condemnation rate of 32.4%, 46.7% and 70.5%, respectively. The major causes of condemnation for liver, lung, heart, kidneys and brain were cirrhosis (12.3%, 17.0% and 12.8%), pneumonia (6.6%, 11.6% and 12.5%), pericarditis (0.6%, 0.8% and 0.4%), nephritis (0.6%, 0.8% and 1.2%) and abscess (0.005%, 0.007% and 0.012%), respectively. Consequently, the overall direct financial loss from organs and carcass condemnation during the three years was estimated to be 22,993,591 Ethiopian birr (ETB) or 1,323,257 United State Dollar (USD). On the other hand, detailed post mortem inspection of liver, heart, kidneys, tongue, brain and carcass during the active abattoir survey revealed that higher losses were caused mainly due to cirrhosis (89.3 kg, 2998 ETB), pericarditis (5.4 kg, 308 ETB), faulty evisceration (8.4 kg, 472 ETB), calcification (8.4 kg, 469 ETB) and Coenurus cerebralis (4.3 kg, 243 ETB) and poor carcass condition (bonny carcass) (1390 kg, 78,500 ETB), respectively. Other causes of condemnation were also recorded and totally, about 110,361 ETB (6351 USD) was lost only from organs and carcasses condemnation during the active abattoir survey. In conclusion, this study identified the major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in Luna Export Abattoir and estimated the associated direct financial losses. PMID:23245843

Regassa, Alemayehu; Moje, Nebyou; Megersa, Bekele; Beyene, Desta; Sheferaw, Dessie; Debela, Etana; Abunna, Fufa; Skjerve, Eystein

2012-12-11

92

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

2013-01-01

93

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2013-01-01

94

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2013-01-01

95

Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: Model studies and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system,

John N. Sofos; Gary C. Smith

1998-01-01

96

Incidence of Salmonellae in Meat and Meat Products  

PubMed Central

Standard enrichment, plating, and biochemical techniques were used to assess the incidence of Salmonella species on beef and pork carcasses and processed meat products. The incidence of Salmonella in pork carcasses was 56% and in beef carcasses, 74%. These figures are about the same as previously reported for pork but much higher than previously reported for beef carcasses; however, they represent only three to five abattoirs in Georgia and do not necessarily represent contamination levels throughout the country. Examination of carcasses by area did not indicate greater incidence of Salmonella in any one area. Two areas suggested for representative sampling are the cervical and anal areas of the carcass. Of the sausage samples examined, 38% of the fresh pork sausage, 9% of the smoked pork sausage, and 1 sample (souse) of 16 samples of miscellaneous sausage products were contaminated. Examination of subsamples indicated that Salmonella, when present in sausage products, could be found in any section of the entire sample.

Weissman, M. A.; Carpenter, J. A.

1969-01-01

97

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

98

Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

2013-06-18

99

U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.  

PubMed

The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues. PMID:17133803

Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

2006-11-01

100

Military Standard: Sanitary Standards for Meat Processing Plants in Overseas Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard establishes the general sanitary requirements for overseas area meat processing plants that do not have an active U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) foreign meat inspection program. This standard is intended to insure clean, wholesome foo...

1982-01-01

101

Local Meat and Poultry Processing: The Importance of Business Commitments for Long-Term Viability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consumer demand for local food, including local meat and poultry, has risen in recent years. To sell meat, farmers need access to appropriately scaled processing facilities with the skills, inspection status, and reliability to prepare these products safe...

A. Thiboumery L. Gwin R. Stillman

2013-01-01

102

The animal fat paradox and meat quality.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat. PMID:22063167

Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

2008-06-02

103

19 CFR 12.8 - Inspection; bond; release.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraph unless the officer in charge of the local office of the Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry...agreement with the proposed action. If there is no local inspector of the Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and...

2013-04-01

104

Youth and Drugs in Karu Abattoir Abuja: The Economic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of marijuana amongst the youth at Karu abattoir is very fearsome. It is said that marijuana amongst many views, is an incentive to hard work; to some it enables ease thinking; and to some it relaxes the body nerves. However good these views are, the consumption of this hard substance still remains illegal in the society. While strategies

Habakuk Aboki

105

Mortality in workers employed in pig abattoirs and processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: workers in slaughterhouses and processing plants that handle pigs, and pork butchers\\/meatcutters have been little studied for health risks associated with employment, in spite of the fact that they are potentially exposed to oncogenic and non-oncogenic transmissible agents and chemical carcinogens at work. We report here on an update of mortality in 510 workers employed in abattoirs and processing

Eric S. Johnson; Harrison Ndetan; Martha J. Felini; Mohammed F. Faramawi; Karan P. Singh; Kyung-Mee Choi; Raquel Qualls-Hampton

2011-01-01

106

78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection...FSIS) is amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to remove...regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. New uses of these...

2013-03-07

107

Abattoir-based study on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using conventional and molecular tools  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats.

2013-01-01

108

7 CFR 2.53 - Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Safety to the Administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service...appropriate State, interstate, or local agency, containing a plan and...6) Administer and conduct a food safety research program (7...of pathogens on meat, meat food products, poultry, and...

2013-01-01

109

Microbiological conditions of meats from large game animals and birds.  

PubMed

Large game animals and birds used for the commercial production of meat include deer of various species, wild boar and feral pigs, ostriches, emus and rheas, crocodiles and alligators, bison, and kangaroos. Meat from feral pigs and kangaroos is obtained from wild animals only, but much or most meat from the other game animals or birds is obtained from farmed animals. The microbiological conditions of meats from hunted animals can be compromised by poor placement of shots, the usual evisceration and sometimes further dressing of carcass in the field, and ageing of carcasses at ambient temperatures. However, the general microbiological conditions of carcasses from farmed game animals or birds slaughtered and dressed at suitable abattoirs can be comparable with or better than the microbiological conditions of carcasses from domestic animals or birds. The incidences of enteric pathogens on meat from wild or farmed game animals or birds can be less than those for meat from intensively reared domestic animals, but infection of some game meats with Trichinella or other foodborne parasites may occur. PMID:22061585

Gill, C O

2007-03-19

110

Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among abattoir personnel of Delhi.  

PubMed

A total of 165 serum samples of abattoir personnel of Delhi were tested by Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), Standard tube agglutination test (STAT), Complement fixation test (CFT) and Dot-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ElISA). The Seroprevalence was 20.60, 12.75, 50.30 and 25.45 percent, respectively on the basis of RBPT, STAT, CFT and Dot-ELISA. Seroprevalence was highest among blood collectors (99.77%) followed by miscellaneous group (72%), animal handlers (68.96%), butchers (68.00%) and sweepers (57.14%). Among veterinarians, Seroprevalance was 28.57%. The Seroprevalence was more among persons of higher age group. The study indicates that abattoir personnel are at high risk to infection with brucellosis. PMID:9282512

Kumar, P; Singh, D K; Barbuddhe, S B

1997-06-01

111

Abattoir survey of congenital reproductive abnormalities in ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of abnormalities of the reproductive tract of female sheep was undertaken at two abattoirs in the south west of England over a period of 12 months. During the survey, 9970 reproductive tracts from cull ewes and 23,536 tracts from nulliparous sheep (prime lambs and hoggets) were examined. A total of 655 (6.57 per cent) ewes and 459 (1.95

K. C. Smith; S. E. Long; T. J. Parkinson

1998-01-01

112

Animal Drug Tolerances in Imported Meat and Poultry  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... FSIS Enforcement of Animal Drug Tolerances in Imported Meat and Poultry Products. Food Safety and Inspection Service. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

113

Authentication of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has increased. Many consumers are concerned about the meat they eat and accurate labelling is important to inform consumer choice. Authentication methods can be categorised into the areas where fraud is most likely to occur: meat origin, meat substitution, meat processing treatment and non-meat ingredient addition. Within each area the possibilities for fraud can be subcategorised as follows: meat origin-sex, meat cuts, breed, feed intake, slaughter age, wild versus farmed meat, organic versus conventional meat, and geographic origin; meat substitution-meat species, fat, and protein; meat processing treatment-irradiation, fresh versus thawed meat and meat preparation; non-meat ingredient addition-additives and water. Analytical methods used in authentication are as diverse as the authentication problems, and include a diverse range of equipment and techniques. This review is intended to provide an overview of the possible analytical methods available for meat and meat products authentication. In areas where no authentication methods have been published, possible strategies are suggested. PMID:20685045

Ballin, N Z

2010-06-11

114

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis\\u000a due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were

Fufa Abunna; Loma Asfaw; Bekele Megersa; Alemayehu Regassa

2010-01-01

115

Time series evaluation of traumatic lesions and airsacculitis at one poultry abattoir in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1996-2005).  

PubMed

Ten year official condemnation records of one officially inspected poultry abattoir in state of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Seasonal and cyclical trends were analyzed in relation to traumatic lesions and airsacculitis, which were the most relevant official condemnation causes. Time series analysis of the records, seasonal indexes and moving averages was used to describe the adherence to the mathematical model and to offer preventive management strategies for the slaughterhouse industry. Although cause-effect relationships were not defined, some insight was given into the causal mechanisms that generated the series. PMID:20233633

d'Arc Moretti, Leandro; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Telles, Evelise O; Balian, Simone de Carvalho

2010-03-15

116

9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

2013-01-01

117

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2009-01-01

118

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2013-01-01

119

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2010-01-01

120

Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The

H. Gun; A. Yilmaz; S. Turker; A. Tanlasi; H. Yilmaz

2003-01-01

121

Meat products and consumption culture in the West.  

PubMed

Meat products and consumption culture in the West may be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The dominant cultural source was Greco-Roman, with evidence from archeology, surviving documents and the names of meat cuts. The initial uniformity of meat technology and language in the Roman Empire was lost as national boundaries and languages fragmented. More recently, however, there has been a strong trend back to uniformity in meat cutting and grading. This started in the USA to solve logistical problems associated with long-distance commerce and similar changes occurred with the formation of the EU. Issues such as meat inspection and animal transport have been strongly influenced by the effect of literature on public opinion, which then led to legislated improvements. Innovations in other areas such as meat distribution and preservation had military origins. Meat consumption culture was involved in the early development of language, social grouping and religions. PMID:20605689

Swatland, H J

2010-05-05

122

Pautas de Inocuidad y Seguridad para el Transporte y la Distribucion de Carne, Aves, y Productos de Huevo (FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FSIS Food Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products are designed to aid those handling food products during transportation and storage. These guidelines provide a list of safety and secur...

2005-01-01

123

Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in abuja, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 10(6) to 5.8 × 10(5) /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 10(4) to 3.2 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(5)/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 10(4) to 1.8 × 10(4)/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 10(4) to 6.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(2)/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

Nafarnda, W D; Ajayi, I E; Shawulu, J C; Kawe, M S; Omeiza, G K; Sani, N A; Tenuche, O Z; Dantong, D D; Tags, S Z

2012-07-19

124

Australian Meat Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian exports of meat account for about 46 per cent of the total Australian production of meat, and 19 per cent of total world exports of meat. About 52 and 33 per cent of Australian meat exports are sold on Asian and the American markets, respectively. However, Australia is highly restricted in its access to world meat markets by the

H. Kidane

2003-01-01

125

Characterisation and transferability of antibiotic resistance genes from lactic acid bacteria isolated from Irish pork and beef abattoirs.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Irish pork and beef abattoirs were analysed for their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Thirty-seven isolates (12 enterococci, 10 lactobacilli, 8 streptococci, 3 lactococci, 2 Leuconostoc, and 2 pediococci) were examined for phenotypic resistance using the E-test and their minimum inhibitory concentration to a panel of six antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin) was recorded. The corresponding genetic determinants responsible were characterised by PCR. Also, the transferability of these resistance markers was assessed in filter mating assays. Of the 37 isolates, 33 were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. The erm(B) and msrA/B genes were detected among the 11 erythromycin-resistant strains of enterococci, lactobacilli, and streptococci. Two tetracycline-resistant strains, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp., contained tet(M) and tet(S) genes respectively. Intrinsic streptomycin resistance was observed in lactobacilli, streptococci, lactococci and Leuconostoc species; none of the common genetic determinants (strA, strB, aadA, aadE) were identified. Four of 10 strains of Enterococcus faecium were resistant to vancomycin; however, no corresponding genetic determinants for this phenotype were identified. Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to vancomycin. L. plantarum, L. mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were intrinsically resistant to vancomycin. Transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants was demonstrated in one strain, wherein the tet(M) gene of L. plantarum (23) isolated from a pork abattoir was transferred to Lactococcus lactis BU-2-60 and to E. faecalis JH2-2. This study identified the presence of antibiotic resistance markers in Irish meat isolates and, in one example, resistance was conjugally transferred to other LAB strains. PMID:20074643

Toomey, Niamh; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Séamus

2010-01-13

126

Meat Preparation  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety Fact Sheets / Meat Preparation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

127

Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced\\u000a from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter\\u000a facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested\\u000a questionnaire on abattoir

Kinyanjui Wamalwa; Massimo Castiello; Jackson Nyarangi Ombui; Joseph Gathuma

128

Biogenic Amines in Meat and Meat Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized for some time that biogenic amines occur in a wide range of foods, among them meat and meat products. Meat is an important component of the diet in developed countries. The presence of these amines in food is of interest for two reasons: firstly, for toxicological reasons, in the sense that high levels of dietary biogenic

CLAUDIA RUIZ-CAPILLAS; FRANCISCO JIMÉNEZ-COLMENERO

2005-01-01

129

9 CFR 317.345 - Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or chopped...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw meat products that are not ground or...

2013-01-01

130

Meat and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing literature associates high intake of meat, especially red meat and processed meat with an increased risk of cancers, especially colorectal cancer. There is evidence that this risk may not be a function of meat per se, but may reflect high-fat intake, and\\/or carcinogens generated through various cooking and processing methods. The cancer risk may be modulated by certain

Lynnette R. Ferguson

2010-01-01

131

Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be

M. Piñeiro; S. Gymnich; S. Knura; C. Piñeiro; B. Petersen

2009-01-01

132

OSHA Inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 requires that every worker be provided with a safe and healthful workplace and authorizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to conduct workplace inspections. OSHA conducts workplace inspections in hospitals and checks for compliance with the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, the Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis, and the

August J. Valenti; Michael D. Decker

1995-01-01

133

Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, ZN, Cu, Fe, Ca) in Meat and Organs of Diseased Calves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three collectives of calves aged 5 to 14 weeks were examined in the dissertation. Collective I consisted of infectious mostly feverish calves, collective II of calves having substantial defects when examined by the official meat inspection, and collective...

J. Frangenberg

1986-01-01

134

9 CFR 203.7 - Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Statement with respect to meat packer sales and purchase contracts. 203.7 Section...Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF...

2009-01-01

135

Research into poultry meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Research in the field of poultry meat quality has become more varied during the last 50 years. Besides meat content and microbial condition, animal welfare issues during the slaughter process, muscle morphology, physiology of meat ripening, impact of slaughter process on meat quality, sensory attributes of meat and meat processing have come into focus. 2. The present review summarizes

M. A. Grashorn

2010-01-01

136

A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.  

PubMed

A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697

Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

2012-05-08

137

Meat, Poultry and Fish  

MedlinePLUS

Choose fish, shellfish, poultry without the skin, and trimmed lean meats, no more than 6 ounces, cooked, per day. Enjoy at least 2 ... fat and total fat than most meats and poultry. Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids such ...

138

Total Lipids of Sarda Sheep Meat that Include the Fatty Acid and Alkenyl Composition and the CLA and Trans -18:1 Isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle were analyzed from commercial adult Sarda sheep in Sardina taken from local abattoirs, and in the subsequent year\\u000a from three local farms in the Sassari region that provided some information on the amount and type of supplements fed to the\\u000a pasture-fed sheep. The complete lipid analysis of sheep meat included the fatty

Viviana Santercole; Rina Mazzette; Enrico P. L. De Santis; Sebastiano Banni; Laki Goonewardene; John K. G. Kramer

2007-01-01

139

Lipid stability in meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or

P. A. Morrissey; P. J. A. Sheehy; K. Galvin; J. P. Kerry; D. J. Buckley

1998-01-01

140

Ambivalence towards meat.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the belief structure of the two groups also differed: More ambivalent persons associated the consumption of meat with slightly negative feelings, morally unacceptable issues, and risks for both their health and the environment. In contrast, less ambivalent meat eaters reported positive affective beliefs, did not emphasize moral issues, and perceived less risk. Results highlight the role of affective beliefs as a predictor of both attitude and ambivalence. Ambivalence, in turn, was a predictor of actual meat consumption; i.e. increased ambivalence was related to reduced meat consumption. Moreover, more ambivalent meat eaters intended to further reduce their meat consumption in the future. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:15036785

Berndsen, Mariëtte; van der Pligt, Joop

2004-02-01

141

Abattoir survey of congenital reproductive abnormalities in ewes.  

PubMed

A survey of abnormalities of the reproductive tract of female sheep was undertaken at two abattoirs in the south west of England over a period of 12 months. During the survey, 9970 reproductive tracts from cull ewes and 23,536 tracts from nulliparous sheep (prime lambs and hoggets) were examined. A total of 655 (6.57 per cent) ewes and 459 (1.95 per cent) nulliparous sheep had abnormalities of the reproductive tract. Of these, congenital abnormalities of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 2.4 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep, congenital abnormalities of the ovaries accounted for 2.6 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep and cystic structures that were considered to have been of congenital origin accounted for 27.2 per cent of the ewes and 52.7 per cent of the nulliparous sheep. The most common lesion was paraovarian cysts (26.6 per cent of ewes and 39.0 per cent of nulliparous sheep), but few of these appeared to have affected the sheep's reproductive function. Several specific conditions were recorded, including some described for the first time in sheep. Uterus unicornis occurred in 20 sheep and other forms of segmental aplasia of parts of the paramesonephric ducts occurred in a further 13 animals. Uterus didelphys occurred in six sheep, and 11 animals were intersex. Intersex sheep had vestigial structures that were derived from the paramesonephric ducts, hypoplastic or masculinised gonads and some had masculinised external genitalia. Ovarian hypoplasia occurred in 34 sheep, and in a further 12 mainly nulliparous animals, the ovaries were fused. Sixty nulliparous animals and two ewes had hydatids of Morgagni. PMID:9921622

Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

142

Eating quality of commercially processed hot boned sheep meat.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to establish consumer perceptions of the eating quality of commercially processed hot boned sheep meat. The eating quality scores for tenderness, flavour, juiciness, and overall liking of grilled m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) were derived from untrained consumers. The animals used in this experiment were sourced from three different properties and were of various ages, breed, and sex, and had been on various quality pastures. All carcases were subjected to immobilisation, spinal discharge and high voltage electrical stimulation and boned within 2h of slaughter. All LL samples were frozen after boning according to the system applied at the abattoir and samples kept for consumer assessment and measurement of meat quality. The results showed, on average carcases entered rigor at high temperatures with a pH of 5.95 at 29.3°C. With an average sarcomere length of 1.68?m, some shortening was evident and there was a significant difference between lots in sarcomere length (P<0.05). A large percentage (82%) of samples had a pH greater than 5.8 at the time of freezing. All samples taken for shear force analysis exceeded a recommended threshold for acceptable table meat of 49N and there was no significant difference between lots (P>0.05). Only 13.5% of the samples met the 'good everyday' requirement following sensory assessment and there were significant differences between lots for eating quality traits (P<0.05). This work clearly shows that the application of effective electrical stimulation is not sufficient to ensure that hot boned sheep meat will be suitable as a table meat. These findings highlight the need for the inclusion of other intervention techniques. PMID:22061877

Toohey, E S; Hopkins, D L

2005-11-09

143

Use of a Marker Organism To Model the Spread of Central Nervous System Tissue in Cattle and the Abattoir Environment during Commercial Stunning and Carcass Dressing  

PubMed Central

Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain.

Daly, D. J.; Prendergast, D. M.; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.

2002-01-01

144

Use of a marker organism to model the spread of central nervous system tissue in cattle and the abattoir environment during commercial stunning and carcass dressing.  

PubMed

Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. PMID:11823220

Daly, D J; Prendergast, D M; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A

2002-02-01

145

Potential Consequences of Public Release of Food Safety and Inspection Service Establishment-Specific Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the regulatory agency in the US Department of Agriculture that is responsible for ensuring that meat, poultry, and processed egg products produced domestically or imported into the United States are safe, w...

2011-01-01

146

76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...utilization. Under this market news program, USDA issues a market news report estimating daily livestock...under Federal inspection. This report is compiled by AMS on a voluntary...and meat industry. Market news reporting must be...

2011-08-09

147

Formation and identification of nitrosylmyoglobin by Staphylococcus xylosus in raw meat batters: a potential solution for nitrite substitution in meat products.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from Chinese dried sausage were assessed for their ability to convert metmyoglobin into nitrosylmyoglobin in Mann-Rogosa-Sharp broth model systems and raw pork meat batters without the addition of nitrite. The results showed that samples in model systems with S. xylosus cultures had an absorption spectra that is typical of nitrosylmyoglobin, an obvious pink colour (judged by visual inspection) and a significantly higher a-value than the control samples or samples inoculated with P. pentosaceus. In raw meat batters, the a-values of the S. xylosus samples were almost the same as those for the meat with nitrite added. The complementary analysis of meat batter samples by photochemical information from UV-vis, electron spin resonance and resonance Raman spectroscopy revealed that the existing status of the myoglobin in meat batters inoculated with S. xylosus was mainly pentacoordinate nitrosylmyoglobin. This study provides a potential solution for nitrite substitute in meat products. PMID:22926033

Li, Peijun; Kong, Baohua; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Dongmei; Liu, Ning

2012-08-08

148

Ofsted Inspected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most radical actions one can take is to describe, without exaggeration or bias, exactly what is happening. The author has been reading the "Handbook for the inspection of further education and skills from September 2009." The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills' (Ofsted's) new handbook promises a "fresh…

Coffield, Frank

2009-01-01

149

Risk Factors for Abattoir Condemnation of Turkey Carcasses Due to Cyanosis in Southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanosis is a category of condemnation for poultry, as defined by Agriculture and Agrifood Can- ada. A retrospective study to examine the seasonal pat- terns and trends for turkey cyanosis condemnation was conducted for the years 1987 to 1995 with the use of condemnation records made available by a single abattoir in Ontario. Condemnation for cyanosis had a significant seasonal

J. G. Mallia; J.-P. Vaillancourt; S. W. Martin; S. A. McEwen

150

An enzymatic approach to the cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes fouled in abattoir effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling severely curtails the economical and practical implementation for the purification of biologically related process streams such as abattoir effluent (Jacobs, WRC Report no. K5\\/362, 1991, Pretoria, South Africa [1]). Mechanical and chemical removal of foulants usually lead to membrane damage and additional pollution. Enzymes, specific for the degradation of proteins and lipids, were tested as key components of

A. Maartens; P. Swart; E. P. Jacobs

1996-01-01

151

75 FR 14361 - Notification, Documentation, and Recordkeeping Requirements for Inspected Establishments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that an adulterated or misbranded meat or poultry product has entered commerce; require...procedures for the recall of meat and poultry products produced and shipped by the establishment...FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601-695), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA)...

2010-03-25

152

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

153

Risk Assessment for 'Clostridium perfringens' in Ready-to-Eat and Partially Cooked Meat and Poultry Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted a quantitative risk assessment of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) in ready-to-eat (RTE) and partially cooked meat and poultry products. The pur...

E. Crouch N. J. Golden

2005-01-01

154

Inspection Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A "NASA Tech Briefs" article describing an inspection tool and technique known as Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) led to the formation of Photo Acoustic Technology, Inc. (PAT). PAT produces sensors and scanning systems which assure surface cleanliness prior to bonding, coating, painting, etc. The company's OP1000 series realtime pre-processing detection capability assures 100 percent surface quality testing. The technique involves brief exposure of the inspection surface to ultraviolet radiation. The energy interacts with the surface layer, causing free electrons to be emitted from the surface to be picked up by the detector. When contamination is present, it interferes with the electron flow in proportion to the thickness of the contaminant layer enabling measurement by system signal output. OP1000 systems operate in conventional atmospheres on all types of material and detect both organic and inorganic contamination.

1989-01-01

155

Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products  

PubMed Central

A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

1965-01-01

156

Hadza meat sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills

K. Hawkes; J. F. O'Connell; N. G. Blurton Jones

2001-01-01

157

Update on meat irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at

1997-01-01

158

Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry\\/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full

John Sumner; Geoff Raven; Rod Givney

2004-01-01

159

Inspection Efficiency and Sampling Inspection Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The published sampling inspection plans contain the assumption that the inspection operation is completely efficient, that is, the items examined are invariably classified correctly. Some contributing factors to lack of inspection efficiency are noted, and an analysis of the validity of the guarantees of the plans in the presence of inspection error is made.

Marvin Lavin

1946-01-01

160

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

161

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

162

Meat sharing for coalitional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review hypotheses about why hunters share meat, and I use quantitative data on meat transfers between households of Achuar, Quichua, and Zapara speakers in Conambo, an indigenous community of horticultural foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to test them. I show that meat is distributed to political allies in Conambo and argue that meat is strategically transferred

John Q. Patton

2005-01-01

163

Current research in meat color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveyed recent literature focused on factors that affect myoglobin chemistry, meat color, pigment redox stability, and methodology used to evaluate these properties. The appearance of meat and meat products is a complex topic involving animal genetics, ante- and postmortem conditions, fundamental muscle chemistry, and many factors related to meat processing, packaging, distribution, storage, display, and final preparation for

R. A. Mancini; M. C. Hunt

2005-01-01

164

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from an abattoir wastewater in a SBR with aerobic granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and performance of granular sludge was studied in an 8l sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating an abattoir (slaughterhouse) wastewater. Influent concentrations averaged 1520mgl?1 volatile suspended solids (VSS), 7685mgl?1 Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 1057mgl?1 total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 217mgl?1 total P. The COD loading was 2.6kgm?3d?1. The SBR was seeded with flocculating sludge from a SBR with an 1h

D. P. Cassidy; E. Belia

2005-01-01

165

Pautas de Seguridad para los Procesadores de Alimentos (FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) Security Guidelines for Food Processors).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FSIS Security Guidelines for Food Processors are designed to assist Federal and State inspected plants that produce meat, poultry, and egg products in developing preventative food security measures. Operators are encouraged to review their current pro...

2005-01-01

166

Food Safety: More Disclosure and Data Needed to Clarify Impact of Changes to Poultry and Hog Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDA inspectors provide continuous inspection of each meat and poultry carcass and its parts that enter interstate commerce. In 1998, USDA began three pilot projects at slaughter plants for healthy young chickens, young turkeys, and young hogs, with a pur...

2013-01-01

167

Human and canine echinococcosis infection in informal, unlicensed abattoirs in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia P; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H; Santivañez, Saul J

2012-04-03

168

Meat and Poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is perhaps, in the cooking of meats, that a good understanding of the underlying science can provide the greatest and most\\u000a immediate improvement in one’s own cooking; certainly this was true for me. Meats are prepared (boned, minced, ground, chopped,\\u000a etc.) and cooked (grilled, roast, stewed, etc.) in so many different ways, that it is to me astonishing that

Peter Barham

169

[Meat and potential risks].  

PubMed

By the term "meat" the consumer understands muscle meat, that is skeletal muscle. The german regulations, the "Leitsätze für Fleisch und Fleischerzeugnisse" as well as the Codex Alimentarius define meat in a much broader sense to include all edible parts of slaughtered or shot warm-blooded animals (skeletal muscles, fat, heart, gut, liver etc). Therefore, a differentiated procedure is required when the risk of BSE transmission by meat has to be estimated. This must be based on knowledge of occurrence, amount, and persistence of BSE agents in the organs of animals. The risk evaluation has to include further factors: differences between animal species, age of the animal at the time of slaughter, the possibility of contamination during the slaughtering and cutting process, and--as far as meat products are concerned--the processing technology. To date there are no indications for the existence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in pigs, poultry and fish, even though BSE has been transmitted to pigs experimentally by intracranial administration. Muscle meat of these species can be considered safe. Muscle meat of experimentally infected cattle in the preclinical stage and even of animals with clinically manifest BSE has not shown infectivity in homologous and autologous bioassays performed so far. This finding justifies the assumption that the risk of BSE exposure by the consumption of beef can be classified as extremely low. Nevertheless, the absence of a proof of infectivity can at present not be equated with absence of BSE agents. This is because of the limits of sensitivity of the bioassays and because muscle meat does contain non-muscle tissue such as connective tissue collagen, nerve and lymph tissue and blood vessels. PMID:12224462

Gareis, M

2002-08-01

170

Tenderizing Meat with Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

2001-06-01

171

Sensory aspects of consumer choices for meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics discussed in this paper are the changing demand for meat and the factors that influence this demand. These factors include increased health concerns, change in demographics, the need for convenience, changes in the distribution of meat, and price. Finally, the paper covers the meat industry’s need for understanding the consumer and the measurement methods used to assess consumer

A. V. A. Resurreccion

2004-01-01

172

Inspection and emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted1 inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft?reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and control, and the

Jane Perryman

2007-01-01

173

GOAT MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat meat in human nutrition as a primary and supplementary nutrient source is presented in terms of the dist ribution of goats, production characteristics, composition and nutrient value of goat meat, muscle fat and processed goat meat. Man is a complex being living in a complex environment, under varyingdegrees of psychological and physical strain. The most severe and most common

N. H. CASEY

174

Microbiological sampling of swine carcasses: A comparison of data obtained by swabbing with medical gauze and data collected routinely by excision at Swedish abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swab sample data from a 13-month microbiological baseline study of swine carcasses at Swedish abattoirs were combined with excision sample data collected routinely at five abattoirs. The aim was to compare the numbers of total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli, recovered by swabbing four carcass sites with gauze (total area 400 cm2) with those obtained by excision at equivalent sites

M. Lindblad

2007-01-01

175

Changes in the Carriage of Campylobacter Strains by Poultry Carcasses during Processing in Abattoirs  

PubMed Central

The recent development of simple, rapid genotyping techniques for Campylobacter species has enabled investigation of the determinative epidemiology of these organisms in a variety of situations. In this study we have used the technique of fla typing (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA and flaB genes) to identify the sources of strains contaminating the carcasses of five campylobacter-positive and two campylobacter-negative broiler flocks during abattoir processing. The results confirmed that, in the United Kingdom, individual broiler flocks are colonized by a limited number of subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli. In some but not all cases, the same subtypes, isolated from the ceca, contaminated the end product as observed in carcass washes. However, the culture methodology, i.e, use of direct plating or enrichment, affected this subtype distribution. Moreover, the number of isolates analyzed per sample was limited. fla typing also indicated that some campylobacter subtypes survive poultry processing better than others. The extent of resistance to the environmental stresses during processing varied between strains. The more robust subtypes appeared to contaminate the abattoir environment, surviving through carcass chilling, and even carrying over onto subsequent flocks. From these studies it is confirmed that some campylobacter-negative flocks reach the abattoir but the carcasses from such flocks are rapidly contaminated by various campylobacter subtypes during processing. However, only some of these contaminating subtypes appeared to survive processing. The sources of this contamination are not clear, but in both negative flocks, campylobacters of the same subtypes as those recovered from the carcasses were isolated from the crates used to transport the birds. In one case, this crate contamination was shown to be present before the birds were loaded.

Newell, D. G.; Shreeve, J. E.; Toszeghy, M.; Domingue, G.; Bull, S.; Humphrey, T.; Mead, G.

2001-01-01

176

Hadza meat sharing.  

PubMed

In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills made by other hunters. If hunting and its associated risks of failure have great antiquity, then meat sharing might have been the evolutionary foundation for many other distinctively human patterns of social exchange. Here we use previously unpublished data from the Tanzanian Hadza to test hypotheses drawn from a simple version of this argument. Results indicate that Hadza meat sharing does not fit the expectations of risk-reduction reciprocity. We comment on some variations of the "sharing as exchange" argument; then elaborate an alternative based partly on the observation that a successful hunter does not control the distribution of his kill. Instead of family provisioning, his goal may be to enhance his status as a desirable neighbor. If correct, this alternative argument has implications for the evolution of men's work. PMID:11282309

Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F.; Blurton Jones, N G.

2001-03-01

177

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311... Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. âChow Mein Vegetables with Meatâ and âChop Suey Vegetables with Meatâ...

2010-01-01

178

Magnetic Particle Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and s...

S. Sastri

1990-01-01

179

Advancements in Underwater Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the advancement of underwater inspection and nondestructive evaluation capabilities being made in the Structural Integrity Monitoring Program, a joint industry program in the United Kingdom. Inspection techniques are discussed that ...

K. R. Bitting

1989-01-01

180

Understanding the characteristics of US meat and poultry recalls: 1994–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of US meat and poultry recalls between 1994 and 2002 are examined and the public health implications of these trends highlighted. Most recalls involve the most serious health consequences, including Class I and biological hazards. Numbers of recalls as well as the total amount in pounds have continually increased since 1997. This may be explained by improving inspection

Ratapol Teratanavat; Neal H. Hooker

2004-01-01

181

Amino acid analysis for meat protein evaluation.  

PubMed

The Food Safety and Inspection Service procedure for determination of essential amino acid content of mechanically processed products from red meat animals and poultry is based on hydrolysis of a powder prepared by blending samples in acetone-chloroform. The hydrolysis procedure incorporates thioglycolic acid to prevent loss of tryptophan. Aliquots of prepared hydrolysates are injected into a liquid chromatographic system, using gradient elution on an ion-exchange column for separation. The system also uses post-column hypochlorite oxidation coupled with orthophthalaldehyde reagent and fluorescence detection. Modification of the elution program allows concurrent determination of tryptophan with minimal added cost. Chromatograms from beef, pork, and poultry products show adequate separation and quantitation of beta-alanine, 1-methyl-histidine, and 3-methyl-histidine, indicating that the procedure could be used to estimate muscle content of products. A colorimetric procedure for assay of hydroxyproline was introduced and validated as an adjunct method for protein quality estimation. PMID:3558283

Ashworth, R B

182

Gender specific preferences and attitudes towards meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, red meat avoidance has shown an increase in the industrialised countries, especially among young female consumers. Sensory factors as bloodiness in meat, difficulties coping with eating a fellow animal, and private body concern appear as the main reasons for red meat exclusion. The study addressed whether sensory attributes in meat are linked to attitudes and beliefs about meat. Based

Elin Kubberød; Øydis Ueland; Marit Rødbotten; Frank Westad; Einar Risvik

2002-01-01

183

Regulations governing the use of soy protein in meat and poultry products in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much interest today in a greater use of vegetable protein in the human diet. Soy protein products currently are approved\\u000a for use at low levels in over 30 different kinds of meat and poultry foods in the U.S. Recognizing a need for more flexibility\\u000a in formulation of products under its jurisdiction, the Federal Meat and Poultry Inspection Program

Harry C. Mussman

1974-01-01

184

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

185

Red meat in global nutrition.  

PubMed

The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E

2012-04-01

186

Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products.The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens. The

Elisabeth Borch; Marie-Louise Kant-Muermans; Ylva Blixt

1996-01-01

187

Consumer expectations and perceptions of meat and meat product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the determinants of perceived quality viewed by different authors. Then, it sets the factors of quality from purchase to consumption and some mechanisms of change over time. After this general presentation, the distinctive features of food and the particular place of meat and meat products among foods are underlined. Important credence and experience attributes as well as

S. Issanchou

1996-01-01

188

Flavour formation in meat and meat products: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic flavour of cooked meat derives from thermally induced reactions occurring during heating, principally the Maillard reaction and the degradation of lipid. Both types of reaction involve complex reaction pathways leading to a wide range of products, which account for the large number of volatile compounds found in cooked meat. Heterocyclic compounds, especially those containing sulfur, are important flavour

Donald S. Mottram

1998-01-01

189

Antibiotic Synergy Interaction against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from an Abattoir Effluent Environment  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen in environmental waters with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. In this study the synergistic efficacy of synergy antibiotic combinations in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from an abattoir effluent was investigated. Water samples were processed using membrane filtration; Pseudomonas was isolated with Pseudomonas Isolation Agar and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with specie-specific primer. Susceptibility studies and in vitro synergy interaction testing were carried out, employing agar dilution and Etest procedure, respectively. Resistance was noted for clinically relevant antipseudomonal agents tested. Finding from antibiotic synergy interaction studies revealed that cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem combined with amikacin resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in vitro antibiotics synergy interaction, indicating the possible use of this regimen in treatment of pseudomonal infections.

Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Orhue, Phillips O.; Omoigberale, May N. O.; Amhanre, Napoleon I.

2012-01-01

190

Determination of microbial transglutaminase in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase is an enzyme that can be used to cross-link pieces of meat, fish or meat products. The resulting product gives the optical impression of an intact chunk of meat. The usage of transglutaminase as a food additive is permitted in some countries. However, its utilisation has to be declared to ensure transparency for consumers. This paper describes two orthogonal analytical methods suited for the detection of technological relevant transglutaminase concentrations (around 25 mg pure enzyme in 1 kg of product) in meat and meat products. The mass spectrometry-based approach relies on a previous digestion with Achromobacter lyticus protease and LC-MS/MS separation and detection. Sufficient selectivity was obtained by monitoring four different peptides. The orthogonal (complementary and independent), ELISA-based approach relies on two commercially available bacterial transglutaminase-specific antibodies, combined to a sandwich ELISA. The two methods were tested by analysing some 60 samples obtained from the market. PMID:22747363

Kaufmann, A; Köppel, R; Widmer, M

2012-06-29

191

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research.

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

192

Wild meat: the bigger picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive overhunting of wildlife for meat across the humid tropics is now causing local extinctions of numerous species. Rural people often rely heavily on wild meat, but, in many areas, this important source of food and income is either already lost or is being rapidly depleted. The problem can only be tackled by looking at the wider economic and institutional

E. J. Milner-Gulland; Elizabeth L. Bennett

2003-01-01

193

The effects of inspection error on single sampling inspection plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptance sampling plans are designed under the assumption of perfect inspection. However, inspection tasks are not, even under ideal inspection conditions, free of error. In this paper we consider the effects of inspection error on probability of acceptance, average outgoing quality, and average total inspection. These measures are examined under both replacement and non -replacement assumptions. Also, a method is

RUFUS D. COLLINS JR; KENNETH E. CASE; G. KEMBLE BENNETT

1973-01-01

194

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOEpatents

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05

195

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOEpatents

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

Moore, Francis W. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

196

23 CFR 650.313 - Inspection procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.313 Inspection procedures. (a) Inspect each bridge in accordance with the inspection...

2013-04-01

197

Visual Inspection Research Project Report on Benchmark Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognizing the importance of visual inspection in the maintenance of the civil air fleet, the FAA tasked the Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, NM, to establish a visual inspection re...

F. W. Spencer

1996-01-01

198

Hamburger meat identification by dot-ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low cost meats to adulterate meats and meat products has been reported. Appropriate methods of analysis then are needed in order to detect this practice. The dot-ELISA method was used to identify the meat of different animal species and to detect adulteration of hamburgers. Antisera to bovine, chicken, swine and horse albumin were produced and they could

A Macedo-Silva; S. F. C Barbosa; M. G. A Alkmin; A. J Vaz; M Shimokomaki; A Tenuta-Filho

2000-01-01

199

Compressed, Dehydrated and Flaked Meat Bar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is disclosed for making a dehydrated, compressed food bar consisting essentially of meat or meat and vegetables, wherein the meat is subdivided by flaking and then formed into a solid mass which is cooked to inactivate enzymes. The meat mass is t...

J. M. Tuomy W. J. Fitzmaurice F. E. DiLeo V. A. Loveridge

1981-01-01

200

Improving functional value of meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids

Wangang Zhang; Shan Xiao; Himali Samaraweera; Eun Joo Lee; Dong U. Ahn

2010-01-01

201

Understanding Java Stack Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current implementations of Java make security decisions by searching the runtime call stack. These systems have attractive security properties, but they have been criticized as being dependent on specific artifacts of the Java imple- mentation. This paper models the stack inspection algorithm in terms of a well-understood logic for access control and demonstrates how stack inspection is a useful tool

Dan S. Wallach; Edward W. Felten

1998-01-01

202

Computer vision barrel inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) ongoing tasks is the storage and inspection of a large number of waste barrels containing a variety of hazardous substances. Martin Marietta is currently contracted to develop a robotic system -- the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) -- for the automatic monitoring and inspection of these barrels. The IMSS is a mobile robot

William J. Wolfe; James Gunderson; Matthew E. Walworth

1994-01-01

203

Automated visual inspection  

SciTech Connect

Existing methods of inspection are often inadequate and are the main limitation to improvement. Automated visual inspection represents a significant contribution to the second industrial revolution. This book discusses the automation of inspection with light and its various industrial applications. Automated visual inspection is taken to encompass a wide variety of tasks, including blemish detection, complex patterned-surface examination, single and multiple defect detection, measurement of tools and components, counting, grading, sorting, sizing, orientation and posture recognition (for robot control), in process monitoring and control. Visual inspection can also be extended to cover other situations where images are generated by thermography, radiography, fluoroscopy, NMR, and ultrasonics. These are discussed, as are some of the non-imaging uses of light.

Batchelor, B.; Hill, D.; Hodgson, H.

1985-01-01

204

Aflatoxin Production in Meats. I. Stored Meats1  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins were produced on fresh beef (in which bacterial spoilage was delayed with antibiotics), ham, and bacon inoculated with toxinogenic fungi and stored at 15, 20 and 30 C. Meats stored at 10 C were spoiled by bacteria and yeast before detectable levels of aflatoxins were produced. High levels of aflatoxins were formed in meats stored at 20 C; one sample supported the production of 630 ?g of aflatoxins per g of meat, the major portion (580 ?g) of which was aflatoxin G1. Meats stored below 30 C developed higher levels of aflatoxin G1 than B1, but at 30 C Aspergillus flavus produced equal amounts of B1 and G1, whereas A. parasiticus continued to produce more G1 than B1.

Bullerman, Lloyd B.; Hartman, Paul A.; Ayres, John C.

1969-01-01

205

Journey length and high temperatures: effects on rabbit welfare and meat quality.  

PubMed

The transport of domestic animals by road can increase levels of stress and decrease meat quality, especially in unfavourable climates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of journey duration and vertical position on the transport truck on some physiological indicators of stress and on instrumental meat quality parameters in commercial rabbits. In the summer months (June and July, 2003), 78 rabbits were subjected to either long (7 h) (LJ) or short (1 h) (SJ) journeys (3 replicates each, n = 6) between the farm and an abattoir in northern Spain. The position (top, middle, or bottom) occupied by the rabbits on the Multi-Floor cage Rolling Stand (MFRS) of the transport truck was recorded. Blood samples were collected at sticking and meat pH was measured at 24 h post-mortem (pH24). At 48 h post-mortem, samples of the M. longissimus dorsi were used to determine water-holding capacity (WHC) and instrumental tenderness using an INSTRON machine. The levels of corticosterone, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase were slightly higher in LJ than in SJ samples, but the difference was not statistically significant (p < or = 0.10). Independent of journey length, rabbits in the middle and bottom of the MFRS showed higher levels (p < or = 0.05) of glucose and creatine kinase (middle), and corticosterone (bottom) than the rabbits located at the top floor. The pH 24 and WHC values of the SJ and LJ rabbits did not differ significantly. Journey length had a significant effect (p < or = 0.01) on meat tenderness. The meat from rabbits subjected to LJ had higher values of maximum stress and total toughness than did the SJ rabbits (p < or = 0.05). There were similar differences (p < or = 0.05) between LJ and SJ rabbits in their stress values of compression at 20% and 40% (measures of the tenderness of raw meat). In hot weather, the position on the transport truck appeared to have a greater effect on rabbit welfare than the duration of the journey. PMID:16555485

Liste, G; María, G A; Buil, T; García-Belenguer, S; Chacón, G; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Villarroel, M

2006-02-01

206

EFFECT OF PRE-SLAUGHTER HOLDING IN ABATTOIR PEN OR TRANSPORT TRAILER ON SALMONELLA PREVALENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Before slaughter, pigs are often held for at least two hours to recover from the stress of transport and to improve meat quality. However, recent research has shown that much pre-harvest Salmonella infection occurs immediately before slaughter during this rest period in the holding pen. Therefore,...

207

Control of Thermal Meat Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

208

[Anaphylaxis due to chicken meat].  

PubMed

Acute anaphylaxis due to chicken meat is very rare; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl, with a past history of allergic urticaria due to eggs, who presented immediately after ingestion of lightly grilled chicken meat with facial edema, dysphonia, acute dyspnoea and a feeling of suffocation. A few months later, the patient developed asthma in the vicinity of poultry and after contact with chicken feathers. PMID:22240229

Cheikh Rouhou, S; Bachouch, I; Racil, H; Chaouch, N; Zarrouk, M; Salmi, L; Chabbou, A

2011-12-15

209

Prevalence of Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study aimed at describing the magnitude and distribution of gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Ethiiopian\\u000a slaughter cattle in five abattoirs (four municipal and one export) located in various cattle husbandry systems in Ethiopia\\u000a was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using detailed meat inspection procedure. Five representative abattoirs (four\\u000a municipal and one export) located

B. Demelash; F. Inangolet; J. Oloya; B. Asseged; M. Badaso; A. Yilkal; E. Skjerve

2009-01-01

210

A retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study on the prevalence of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Botswana was conducted by reviewing\\u000a meat inspection records available at the Botswana Ostrich Company Abattoir in Gaborone for the 3 year period that the abattoir\\u000a had been in operation. The most frequently condemned organs were lung (85.1%), liver (8%), intestine (3.3%), heart (2.7%)\\u000a and kidney (0.8%). The most

B. M. Dzoma; E. Pansiri; B. V. E. Segwagwe

2009-01-01

211

Bayesian hierarchical modelling to enhance the epidemiological value of abattoir surveys for bovine fasciolosis.  

PubMed

Four classes of Bayesian hierarchical models were evaluated using an historical dataset from an abattoir survey for fasciolosis conducted in Victoria, Australia. The purpose of this analysis was to identify areas of high prevalence and to explain these in terms of environmental covariates. The simplest of the Bayesian models, with a single random effect, validated the use of smoothed maps for cartographic display when the sample sizes vary. The model was then extended to partition the random effect into spatially structured and unstructured components, thus allowing for spatial autocorrelation. Rainfall, irrigation, temperature-adjusted rainfall and a remotely sensed surrogate for rainfall, the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), were then introduced into the models as explanatory variables. The variable that best explained the observed distribution was irrigation. Associations between prevalence and both rainfall and NDVI that were significant in fixed effects models were shown to be due to spatial confounding. Nevertheless, provided they are used cautiously, confounded variables may be valid predictors for the prevalence of disease. PMID:16188333

Durr, P A; Tait, N; Lawson, A B

2005-09-26

212

9 CFR 590.28 - Other inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 590.28 Section 590.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection...

2013-01-01

213

9 CFR 590.420 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...590.420 Section 590.420 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

2013-01-01

214

Healthy Housing Inspection Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Healthy Housing Inspection Manual completes the foundation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Healthy Homes Initiative. The manual reflects the ongoing commitment of both CDC and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develo...

2008-01-01

215

Module Inspection Fixture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for inspecting semiconductor module packages which includes a cylindrical base section, a truncated spherical section superimposed on the cylindrical base capable of being rotated and tilted on the cylindrical base section, and a tray section...

C. R. Houston

2005-01-01

216

Green inspection station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an effect of globalization, product parts are manufactured more and more in different places. Due to the manufacturing processes, (sub-) products are being transported back and forth and rearranged until they can finally reach the consumer. Not only the environment is increasingly burdened, but also the natural resources are wasted increasingly thoughtless. One reason is certainly because for decades the industry has had only an inflexible concept for the inspection of (sub-) products, which cannot be easily adapted to changes in product layout, for example one robot with one sensor or one rigid structure with a fixed number of sensors for one specific inspection task. This rigid approach is unsuitable for the inspection of variant products. For these reasons, a new concept for 2D and 3D metric and logical quality monitoring with a more accurate, flexible, economical and efficient inspection station has been developed and tested in IOSB.

Sung, Chen-Ko; Jacubasch, Andreas

2010-11-01

217

Egg Safety Inspections  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... intended to head off outbreaks of Salmonella Enteriditis like the one that led to a recall of more than 500 million eggs in less than three weeks. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/inspections

218

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

Zollingger, W. Thor (Martinez, GA); Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC); Park, Larry R. (Raleigh, NC)

1995-01-01

219

Apparatus for inspecting piping  

DOEpatents

An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

1995-03-21

220

Wedges for ultrasonic inspection  

DOEpatents

An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

Gavin, Donald A. (Rexford, NY)

1982-01-01

221

Infrared electrical inspection myths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared electrical inspections have been performed regularly for more than 30 years. They are now conducted in almost every country in this world. Millions, if not billions, of electrical components are inspected each and every year. Despite the level of use there is much misconceived, mistaken and outwardly false information circulating within the industry regarding how to accurately perform an electric inspection. We call these items 'myths' since a myth is a fictitious story or an unfounded belief. Of the many myths being propagated today, the four main ones that unfortunately can still be heard regarding infrared electrical inspections are: (1) Infrared inspections are not necessary because each year all the connections are tightened. (2) Infrared inspection of electrical components can accurately be made through cabinet doors and other covers. (3) It is not necessary to obtain the current flow reading of the electrical system. (4) Temperature measurement is accurate as long as you can 'see' the hot spot. These myths are reviewed one by one.

Newport, Ron

1997-04-01

222

Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

223

Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems.  

PubMed

Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high-quality meat and to meet the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in 2 replications were randomly selected from a commercial processor and subjected to 3 systems: immersion chill (IC), air chill (AC), and combi in-line air chill (CIAC). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter were determined on pre- and postchilled carcasses. Quality of the meat was evaluated by carcass yield, drip loss, cook loss, texture, moisture content, sensory qualities, and color (L*, a*, and b*) of boneless skinless breast fillets and skin-on drums. Shelf life of whole carcasses, breast fillets, and drums was also determined. The IC resulted in the most reduction of Salmonella (39.7%) and Campylobacter (43%) incidence due to the washing effect and presence of chlorine in the chilled water. There was no significant difference in shelf-life when comparing the chilling methods. The IC had the highest (P < 0.05) carcass yield (6.5%), followed by CIAC (+1.98.0%) and then AC (-1.10%). Drip loss, cook loss, and moisture content of breast fillets were not significantly different for all the chilling systems, but higher L* value was observed for breast fillets at 24 h postmortem treated with IC and CIAC. However, IC exhibited the lightest color and AC was darkest in the drum samples. Shear force of breast meat was significantly more tender for AC and CIAC. There were no differences in the sensory qualities of breast fillets and drums among the 3 chilling systems. PMID:23472036

Demirok, E; Veluz, G; Stuyvenberg, W V; Castañeda, M P; Byrd, A; Alvarado, C Z

2013-04-01

224

Aspects of meat quality: trace elements and B vitamins in raw and cooked meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on two aspects of meat quality: the concentration of trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin) in meats having the highest consumption in Italy and in some meats recently introduced in the markets and on the influence of cooking processes on the retention of these micronutrients. A number of meat cuts were

Ginevra Lombardi-Boccia; Sabina Lanzi; Altero Aguzzi

2005-01-01

225

Reconstructed Meat Technology for the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The committee reviewed areas of the technology of restructured meats of particular interest to the military such as equipment, processes, and products; additives that influence the functional properties of restructured meats; storage stability; mechanical...

1982-01-01

226

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased worldwide meat consumption; higher numbers of consumers at-risk for infection; and, increased interest, awareness and scrutiny by consumers, news media, and consumer activist groups. Issues such as bovine sponginform encephalopathy will continue to be of interest mostly as a target for eradication, while viral agents affecting food animals, such as avian influenza, will always need attention for prevention or containment. PMID:22062090

Sofos, John N

2007-07-28

227

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.  

PubMed

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

2011-08-01

228

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections  

PubMed Central

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work.

Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferte, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallee, I.

2011-01-01

229

Poultry meat trends and consumer attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of world consumption of meat and meat products is noteworthy, not only for its scale but also for its constancy. Despite several health crises it has remained stable in recent years. All the branches of this sector have benefited, including beef, but in the 1990s poultry proved to be the most attractive. In 1995 it became the meat

E. VALCESCHINI

230

Eating Meat: Evolution, Patterns, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivorousness is a part of human evolutionary heritage, but typical meat intakes were limited in virtually all preindustrial societies. Rising meat consumption has been a key marker of the universal dietary transition that has accompanied economic modernization. Meat is now the largest source of high-quality animal proteins, and in some countries its annual supply is as high as 100 kg

Vaclav Smil

2002-01-01

231

Influences on meat consumption in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health\\/nutrition\\/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others

E. Lea; A. Worsley

2001-01-01

232

Preservation of crab meat by gamma irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh crab meat from swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, Linn.) was irradiated at doses of 0.075, 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad and held at 3(sup 0)C. The storage life of non-irradiated crab meat was approximately 7 days compared with 14 days for crab meat irradiated...

P. Loaharanu C. Prompubesara K. Kraisorn K. Noochpramool

1972-01-01

233

Chapter 3. Fresh Meat Texture and Tenderness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of meat tenderness and the antemortem and postmortem strategies that can be used to influence meat tenderness. Tenderness is critical to the consumer acceptance of meat products. Numerous antemortem and postmortem factors can impact tende...

234

Advances in inspection automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

2013-01-01

235

Meat and Meat Products Report 2003-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives The qualities of meat products — composition, nutritional value, wholesomeness and consumer acceptability — are largely determined by the events and conditions encountered during growth of the animal and after slaughter. Control of these qualities, and their further enhancement, are thus dependent on a fuller understanding of the commodity at all stages of its existence — from

Jean Pierre Renou

236

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.311 Inspection frequency. (a) Routine inspections. (1)...

2010-04-01

237

Radiation image inspection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A radiation image inspection apparatus is described comprising: means for generating and directing radiation toward an article to be inspected; a screen for converting a radiation pattern of the article into a first visible light image; lens means for maintaining the intensity of a first visible light image produced on the screen; camera means having an image tube target and producing an electrical output system corresponding to the incident image on the image tube target from the lens means; and control means for controlling the operation of a camera means and the radiation generating means.

Velasquez, J.F.

1988-04-05

238

The Design of an Inspection Robot for Boiler Tubes Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climbing robot with magnetic wheels is designed for the inspection of boiler tubes in fossil power plants, which can inspect the boiler tubes automatically. The climbing robot will move on the boiler tubes. The magnetic wheels of the robot can be move on the tubes and the tubing can be inspected through the magnetic flux leakage sensor installed in

Lu Xueqin; Qiu Rongfu; Liu Gang; Huang Fuzhen

2009-01-01

239

Remote Inspection Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

Roman, Harry T.

2013-01-01

240

Machine vision metal inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure is presented to introduce machine vision into a rolling mill environment for real-time on-line metal bar and rod inspection for flaw detection and characterization. Results are presented relating machine vision metal flaw signatures to flaw type and characteristics.

Morris, John W.; Notarangelo, Joseph

1994-03-01

241

Inspecting Magic Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers neopragmatism's use-value for art educators as they inspect the magic words, images, and practices that influence curriculum and instruction. Explains that neopragmatism offers art educators three concepts (contingency, demystification, and recontextualization) as tools to interpret educational beliefs and classroom practices. (CMK)

White, John Howell

1998-01-01

242

Inspecting flexible pipe  

SciTech Connect

Principal modes of failure as well as defects which cause leakage or cross-section damage are discussed. The author explains in detail how traditional problems associated with inspecting flexible pipe, which include discriminating between pipe layers, corrosion monitoring and the use of intelligent pigs, can be related to flexible pipe's complex construction and complex behavior. Proper pig selection and operations are emphasized.

Neffgen, J.M. (Pag-O-Flex, AS (NO))

1990-12-01

243

Inspecting flexible pipe  

SciTech Connect

Construction characteristics of flexible pipe, including composite structure of alternating layers of material, polymer and gas permeation and structural prevention of explosive deformation (ED) are reviewed. The author contrasts bonded and nonbonded construction in order to relate flexible pipe's complex behavior to an inspection method.

Neffgen, J.M. (Pag-O-Flex A/S (NO))

1990-11-01

244

Army Wire Rope Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers an investigation into the Army's wire rope nondestructive inspection procedures and needs. Major Army users of wire rope were located and surveyed for information on their wire rope inspection procedures. The Navy has conducted an inves...

K. S. Chapman

1983-01-01

245

Cathodic Protection System Inspection 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If the cathodic protection system is periodically inspected and maintained to provide continuous protection the condition of the protected structure can be inferred from the cathodic protection system records without the need for physical inspection of th...

J. Jenkins

1994-01-01

246

Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

247

50 CFR 260.28 - Issuance of an inspection report in lieu of an inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.28 Issuance of an inspection report in lieu of an inspection certificate. A...

2011-10-01

248

24 CFR 3282.362 - Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs...PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Primary Inspection Agencies § 3282.362 Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies...

2010-04-01

249

24 CFR 3282.362 - Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs...PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Primary Inspection Agencies § 3282.362 Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies...

2009-04-01

250

Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL

251

Stack inspection: theory and variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stack inspection is a security mechanism implemented in runtimes such as the JVM and the CLR to accommodate components with diverse levels of trust. Although stack inspection enables the fine-grained expression of access control policies, it has rather a complex and subtle semantics. We present a formal semantics and an equational theory to explain how stack inspection affects program behaviour

Cédric Fournet; Andrew D. Gordon

2002-01-01

252

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

253

46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and annual inspection quarters, toilet and washing spaces, galleys, serving pantries, lockers, etc., are examined to determine that they are serviceable...

2011-10-01

254

46 CFR 169.255 - Sanitary inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...255 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for certification, periodic inspection, and annual inspection quarters, toilet and washing spaces, galleys, serving pantries, lockers, etc., are examined to determine that they are serviceable...

2012-10-01

255

Guide to Inspections of Grain Product Manufacturers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is divided into four sections. Section I is applicable to inspection of grain elevators; Section II applies to mill inspections; Section III is applicable to bakery inspections; and section IV is applicable to inspections of macaroni and noodle...

1998-01-01

256

Effect of a microencapsulated feed additive of lactic and formic acid on the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs arriving at the abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to investigate the potential of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (formic and lactic acid) added to the feed of fattening pigs to reduce the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella when arriving to the abattoir. Two trials were performed. In Trial 1, 24 fattening pigs received one of three diets: a control diet,

Joseane Willamil; Eva Creus; J. Francisco Pérez; Enric Mateu; Susana M. Martín-Orúe

2011-01-01

257

Anaerobic processing of slaughterhouse wastewater in a SBR. Le traitement des eaux usées d'abattoir par digestion anaérobie dans un bioréacteur à opérations séquentielles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abattoir effluents reaching rivers and streams may contribute significant levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and other nutrients, resulting in riverbed and stream pollution. At the present time, there is no economical, stable, efficient, easy- to-use and operate process to stabilize, deodorize, or recover usable energy from slaughterhouse wastewater. The Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Center is currently evaluating the

D. I. Massé; L. Masse; N. Bourgeois

258

Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. (Technological Education Institute, Larissa (Greece)); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. (Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece))

1989-05-01

259

Improving functional value of meat products.  

PubMed

In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed. PMID:20537806

Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

2010-04-29

260

Risk Assessment of the Impact of Lethality Standards on Salmonellosis from Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health regulatory agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly la...

2005-01-01

261

Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

2012-09-01

262

Streamline magnetic inspection of OCTGs  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that supply and demand imbalances in the drilling industry are allowing operators to make drilling contracts more stringent, despite reduced day rates. One typical requirement is more thorough inspection of drill string and bottomhole assemblies to ensure equipment-related failures don't increase costs. Magnetic inspection techniques for oil country tubular goods are becoming more advanced. However, common misperceptions often needlessly plague the inspection process. Today, almost all high-grade tubular goods are inspected in the plain-end state according to guidelines which are more stringent than those outlined by API inspection specification 5AX. Most tubular goods are inspected three to four times before the operator is satisfied they are suitable to run downhole. Often such inspections are conducted by different companies employing at least two techniques: magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonics (US).

Stanley, R.

1987-01-01

263

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

Bernardi, R.T.

1995-12-01

264

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05

265

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOEpatents

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13

266

INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOT’s construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the level of its in-house inspection staff and resources has either remained the same or declined. There are different strategies to deal with the need

Ali Mostafavi; Dulcy M Abraham

2012-01-01

267

Sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Belgian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence of the infection in cattle presented for slaughter in Belgium. Between November 1997 and June 1998, a total of 1164 serum samples were collected in 20 export abattoirs. Meat inspection was routinely carried out by veterinary inspectors. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen using

P Dorny; F Vercammen; J Brandt; W Vansteenkiste; D Berkvens; S Geerts

2000-01-01

268

Seroepidemiological survey of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of Kenya. Serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. Cattle origin and the presence of T. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such

Jael A. Onyango-Abuje; Joseph M. Nginyi; Moses K. Rugutt; Steven H. Wright; Patrick Lumumba; Gwenda Hughes; Leslie J. S. Harrison

1996-01-01

269

Consumer phase risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.  

PubMed

The foodborne disease risk associated with the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has been the subject of recent efforts in quantitative microbial risk assessment. Building upon one of these efforts undertaken jointly by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the purpose of this work was to expand on the consumer phase of the risk assessment to focus on handling practices in the home. One-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation was used to model variability in growth and cross-contamination of L. monocytogenes during food storage and preparation of deli meats. Simulations approximated that 0.3% of the servings were contaminated with >10(4) CFU/g of L. monocytogenes at the time of consumption. The estimated mean risk associated with the consumption of deli meats for the intermediate-age population was approximately 7 deaths per 10(11) servings. Food handling in homes increased the estimated mean mortality by 10(6)-fold. Of all the home food-handling practices modeled, inadequate storage, particularly refrigeration temperatures, provided the greatest contribution to increased risk. The impact of cross-contamination in the home was considerably less. Adherence to USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service recommendations for consumer handling of ready-to-eat foods substantially reduces the risk of listeriosis. PMID:16492183

Yang, Hong; Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta A; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

2006-02-01

270

Attitudes towards meat and meat-eating among adolescents in Norway: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore the concept of disgust in relation to meat and meat-eating. A sample of 30 high school students (aged 16 to 17 years), 10 urban females, 10 rural females, and 10 rural males, participated in the study. The participants' attitudes towards meat and meat-eating were investigated through interviews of a semi-structured nature and

Elin Kubberød; Øydis Ueland; Åsne Tronstad; Einar Risvik

2002-01-01

271

Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the health consequences of a vegetarian diet by examining the 12 year mortality of non-meat eaters and meat eating controls. DESIGN--Prospective observational study in which members of the non-meat eating cohort were asked to nominate friends or relatives as controls. SETTING--United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--6115 non-meat eaters identified through the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom and the news media (mean (SD) age 38.7 (16.8) years) and 5015 controls who were meat eaters (39.3 (15.4) years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised mortality ratios for cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and total mortality in the two cohorts and death rate ratio in the non-meat eaters compared with meat eaters after adjustment for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS--Standardised mortality ratios (taking the value among the general population as 100) for ischaemic heart disease were 51 (95% confidence interval 38 to 66) for meat eaters and 28 (20 to 38) for non-meat eaters (P < 0.01). Values for all cancers were 80 (64 to 98) and 50 (39 to 62) for meat eaters and non-meat eaters respectively. After adjustment for the effects of smoking, body mass index, and socioeconomic status death rate ratios in non-meat eaters compared with meat eaters were 0.72 (0.47 to 1.10) for ischaemic heart disease and 0.61 (0.44 to 0.84) for all cancers. CONCLUSIONS--The reduced mortality from cancer among those not eating meat is not explained by lifestyle related risk factors, which have a low prevalence among vegetarians. No firm conclusion can be made about deaths from ischaemic heart disease. These data do not justify advice to exclude meat from the diet since there are several attributes of a vegetarian diet apart from not eating meat which might reduce the risk.

Thorogood, M.; Mann, J.; Appleby, P.; McPherson, K.

1994-01-01

272

Dietary lean red meat and human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular\\u000a disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern\\u000a domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower

Neil Mann

2000-01-01

273

Preservation technologies for fresh meat – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O2), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal

G. H. Zhou; X. L. Xu; Y. Liu

2010-01-01

274

Meat Consumption and Commitments on Meat Policy: Combining Individual and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although meat consumption plays a significant role for individual and public health, there is only little empirical research on the motives of meat consumption informed by health psychology and hardly any on socio-political commitments concerning general meat production taking on a public health perspective. To fill this gap, a questionnaire study was conducted to examine the links between both disciplines.

Ralf Becker; Elisabeth Kals; Petra Fr÷hlich

2004-01-01

275

Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be one of the most efficient and advanced tools for the estimation of quality attributes in meat and meat products. This review focuses on the use of NIR spectroscopy to predict different meat properties, considering the literature published mainly in the last decade. Firstly, the potential

N. Prieto; R. Roehe; P. Lavín; G. Batten; S. Andrés

2009-01-01

276

Perception of rabbit meat quality and major factors influencing the rabbit carcass and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meat quality concept is continuously changing and, nowadays, the consumer is very interested in the healthiness of meat, hedonistic quality, sensory properties, cooking easiness and swiftness, and price. During the last two decades, rabbit meat researchers have focused their interests on how to increase live performance and carcass yield. Considerable human resources have been expended to widely study the

A Dalle Zotte

2002-01-01

277

Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior, our work builds on recent insights in motivational psychology about the ways in which people may

Joop de Boer; Jan J. Boersema; Harry Aiking

2009-01-01

278

Influences on meat consumption in Australia.  

PubMed

In a study of influences on meat consumption, over 700 South Australians answered questions on frequency of meat consumption, beliefs about meat and nutrition, perceived difficulties with and benefits of vegetarian diets, personal values, number of vegetarian significant others, use in and trust of health/nutrition/food information sources, and demography. Perceived difficulties with vegetarian diets, the number of vegetarian significant others and beliefs about meat were important predictors of meat consumption. There were differences between men and women and members of different age groups, which should be taken into account when attempts are made to influence meat consumption. For example, health promotion campaigns that focus on whether or not meat is necessary in the diet may influence meat consumption, but would be most successful if directed predominantly at older people and men. In contrast, the meat consumption of women and younger people was strongly associated with more specific concerns about lack of iron and protein in the vegetarian diet. Some of the difficulties people find with vegetarian diets will also apply to plant-based diets generally, and such diets are becoming more widely acknowledged as providing health benefits. Therefore, the findings have important implications for public health. PMID:11237348

Lea, E; Worsley, A

2001-04-01

279

Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

2012-07-29

280

A novel detection method for Alaria alata mesocercariae in meat.  

PubMed

Distomum musculorum suis (DMS), the mesocercarial stage of the trematode Alaria alata, can cause severe damages within their hosts, and since several reports about cases of human larval alariosis have been published, it became apparent that infected game animals and in particular wild boars are a potential source of infection for both humans and animals. A final statement concerning the health risks for consumers could not be given due to the lack of information about both the prevalence of DMS and the suitability of Trichinella inspection methods to detect this parasite in wild boar meat. Our studies concentrate on (1) the verification of suitability of the official digestion methods for Trichinella spp. for DMS detection in wild boars, (2) development, optimization, and validation of methods, and (3) the distribution of the parasites within their paratenic hosts. A total of 868 individual samples/digests from 48 wild boars were analyzed by the reference method for Trichinella detection in meat samples according to regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. In addition to the official protocol, a method modification with Pankreatin(c) and bile acid was applied for analysis of adipose tissue samples (n = 89). On the basis of our results, a new detection method based on a larvae migration technique was developed and used for detection of DMS in 574 single samples. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of DMS in wild boars in a total of 1377 single sample migrations/digestions from 35 positive animals were analyzed by application of all three methods. The official digestion method for Trichinella spp. in wild boars meat is inapplicable for the detection of A. alata mesocercariae as it shows shortcomings in both digestion and sampling. A direct comparison between the newly developed A. alata mesocercariae migration technique and the official digestion method for Trichinella spp. based on 574 single samples from 18 animals clearly shows that the sensitivity to detect A. alata developmental stages in tissues of wild boars of the new method is nearly 60% higher compared with the magnetic stirrer method for pooled sample digestion as laid down in regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005. Among other advantages, this method offers a simple, highly applicable, fast, and cost effective way to detect DMS in wild boars which is already applicable in routine veterinary inspection. PMID:20405145

Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Grosse, Knut; Zeitler, Lina; Lücker, Ernst

2010-04-20

281

Ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this presentation is ultrasonic inspection of reactor systems. This paper describes two current programs underway at Savannah River Site which provide state-of-the-art ultrasonic inspections of weld heat-affected zones in the primary cooling loop of the Savannah River Site reactors. It also describes the automated remote inspection equipment being developed and employed; briefly describe the procedures being used; and give you a general idea of the future direction of two major programs: Moderator Piping Inspection Program and the Reactor Tank Wall Weld Inspection Program. The objective of these programs is to provide inspection techniques to more fully determine the condition of the reactor primary system and provide data for prediction of maintenance needs and remaining service life. Detection and sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking is the focus of these programs.

Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

1989-01-01

282

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

283

Laser Safety Inspection Criteria  

SciTech Connect

A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

Barat, K

2005-06-13

284

Optical techniques for industrial inspection  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Surface inspection; Optical techniques for quality control; 3D vision; Spectroscopic techniques; and Optical techniques for process control.

Cielo, P.G.

1986-01-01

285

Bioresearch Monitoring Inspection Results - Rotarix  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... monitoring inspections of six clinical sites did not reveal problems that impact the ... _____ Anthony Hawkins Consumer Safety Officer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

286

Clinical Investigator Inspection List (CLIIL)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... addresses, and other information gathered from inspections of clinical investigators who have performed studies with investigational human drugs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/informationondrugs

287

Optimal allocation of inspection resources  

SciTech Connect

Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references.

Markin, J.T.; Chambers, W.H.; Vaccaro, H.S.

1984-01-01

288

Automotive Battery Inspection & Cleaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever entered your car, turned the key and the engine would not start? You may have heard a click coming from under the hood each time you turn the key. Your headlights and interior lights are as dim as a nightlight and your horn gives a weak low muffle that sounds like someone is growling at you as you attempt to see what might work. This usually happens when you are in a hurry, its raining, and no one is around to help. The automotive battery is a key component and the primary source of electricity of the automotive electrical system. It helps provide the electricity to run the convenient amenities that we have grown to appreciate including radios, CD and DVD players, GPS systems that help guide us to our locations, and all the neat-o gages that tell us the current condition of the vehicle. Regular battery inspection and maintenance is easy and critical to avoid situations such as described above. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Understand the definition of the automotive battery. Gain a detailed understanding of battery basics. Learn how to inspect and service an automotive battery. MATERIALS: To complete this assignment, each student will need access to a computer with internet capabilities. PROCEDURES: This instructional module is divided into four steps. It is ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

289

Coordinated procurement\\/inspection and production model under inspection errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate integrating the acquisition of input materials, material inspection and production planning, where type I and type II inspection errors are allowed, and the unit acquisition cost is dependent on the average quality level. This study aims to find an optimal purchase lot size (or here, equivalently, the fixed production rate multiplied by the production run

Chih-Hsiung Wang; Tadashi Dohi; W. C. Tsai

2010-01-01

290

Process Improvement to the Inspection Readiness Plan in Chemical Weapons Convention Challenge Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identified current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy's Inspection Readiness Plan for Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) Challenge Inspection. The CWC is an intensive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a te...

W. M. Triplett

1997-01-01

291

Technology Assessment of the Inspection Readiness Plan in Chemical Weapons Convention Challenge Inspections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identifies current Information Technology initiatives to help improve the Navy's Inspection Plan for Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge Inspections. The CWC is an intrusive inspection. The Challenge Inspection allows for a team of int...

A. R. Woodley

1998-01-01

292

The animal fat paradox and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role,

E. C. Webb; H. A. O’Neill

2008-01-01

293

Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

294

The Trouble with Meat: an Ambiguous Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human society, meat is highly prized nutritionally, but possesses a high symbolic value, involving cost and sacrifice. Humans' attitude towards meat eating is ambiguous, as witnessed by cultures that do not condone killing, cannibalism, the sacrificial rituals of slaughter and patterns of abstention, including modern vegetarianism. The \\

Igor de Garine

295

Biological treatment of meat industry wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work aimed to determine the effectiveness of the treatment of wastewater generated by the meat industry in a hybrid system combining biological methods of activated sludge (in an SBR reactor) and reverse osmosis. The tests carried out on the wastewater from the meat processing plant Uni-Lang in Wrzosowa showed that the biological treatment resulted in sufficient removal of contaminants

Ewa Sroka; Wladys?aw Kami?ski; Jolanta Bohdziewicz

2004-01-01

296

MICROWAVE AND HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES IN MEAT PRESERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the products from secondary meat processing industries is jerky, which has good market value of $250 million per annum. Jerky is one of the North American dried meat product and it has been processed in traditional methods like smoke housing or home dehydrators which takes 6-10 hr for processing. As a first attempt, application of non-emissive clean microwave

Ignaci Victoria Thiagarajan

297

Meat alternatives — market developments and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing range of food ingredients is used in the manufacture of meat alternative products reflecting technological and innovative developments and consumer demand for high quality meat alternative products. This article reviews the market size and market drivers for such products, the key technological developments to date, the nutritional value, health benefits and potential contribution to public health of such

Michele J Sadler

2004-01-01

298

19 CFR 162.8 - Preclearance inspections and examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.8 Preclearance inspections and...including inspections, examinations, searches, seizures, and arrests), as may...

2013-04-01

299

Decontamination technologies for meat products.  

PubMed

Consumers demand high quality, natural, nutritious, fresh appearance and convenient meat products with natural flavour and taste and an extended shelf-life. To match all these demands without compromising safety, in the last decades alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as HHP, irradiation, light pulses, natural biopreservatives together with active packaging have been proposed and further investigated. They are efficient to inactivate the vegetative microorganisms, most commonly related to food-borne diseases, but not spores. The combination of several non-thermal and thermal preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated in order to increase their efficiency. Quick thermal technologies such as microwave and radiofrequency tunnels or steam pasteurization bring new possibilities to the pasteurization of meat products especially in ready to eat meals. Their application after final packaging will prevent further cross-contamination during post-processing handling. The benefits of these new technologies and their limitations in an industrial application will be presented and discussed. PMID:22062101

Aymerich, T; Picouet, P A; Monfort, J M

2007-07-14

300

Fire Inspection Guide for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A functional explanation of the "School Fire Prevention Inspection Form" is provided for use by local school and fire department personnel in the Virginia School Fire Prevention Inspection Program. Many helpful suggestions are made for safeguarding occupants of public school buildings from fire hazards. Items discussed are--(1) exit doors, (2)…

Virginia State Corp. Commission, Richmond.

301

Field inspection, data interpretation detailed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-line inspection standards adopted by British Gas for metal loss features have been attained and in some cases exceeded. It has been demonstrated that metal loss defects can be accurately located and described using a technique based on magnetic flux leakage. Experience within British Gas has demonstrated on-line inspection to be practical and capable of routine application, thus achieving

G. Clevehugh; L. Jackson; R. W. E. Shannon

1983-01-01

302

Drum inspection robots: Application development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of

F. B. Hazen; R. D. Warner

1996-01-01

303

Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads  

SciTech Connect

Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

2005-04-01

304

Device for inspecting vessel surfaces  

DOEpatents

A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

305

46 CFR 160.058-4 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 160.058-4 Inspections. (a) Desalter kits specified by this subpart are not inspected at regularly scheduled factory inspections; however, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the desalter kits are manufactured may...

2011-10-01

306

46 CFR 115.818 - Sanitary inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...115.818 Sanitary inspection. At each inspection for certification and at every other vessel inspection, quarters, toilet and washing spaces, galleys, serving pantries, lockers, and similar spaces may be examined to determine that they are...

2012-10-01

307

23 CFR 650.311 - Inspection frequency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...twenty-four months. (2) Certain bridges require inspection at less...and frequency to which these bridges are inspected considering...deficiencies. (3) Certain bridges may be inspected at greater...considering such factors as construction material,...

2013-04-01

308

14 CFR 105.9 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.9 Inspections...The Administrator may inspect any parachute operation to which this part applies...inspections at the site where the parachute operation is being conducted)...

2013-01-01

309

49 CFR 213.239 - Special inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection § 213.239 Special inspections. In the event of fire, flood, severe storm, or other occurrence which might have damaged track structure, a special inspection shall be made of the track involved as...

2011-10-01

310

49 CFR 213.239 - Special inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection § 213.239 Special inspections. In the event of fire, flood, severe storm, or other occurrence which might have damaged track structure, a special inspection shall be made of the track involved as...

2012-10-01

311

15 CFR 717.2 - Challenge inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...established at the inspection site, including those for the protection of controlled environments within a facility and for personal safety. (5) Pre-inspection briefing. Upon arrival of the Inspection Team and the Host Team in the vicinity...

2013-01-01

312

Integrated Blade Inspection System (IBIS) Upgrade Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this design study was to identify ways to improve the Integrated Blade Inspection System. The Air Force requires inspection of jet engine compressor and turbine blades to locate defects and prevent engine failure. The current inspection pro...

G. J. Toussaint J. G. Snyder S. K. Saplin S. W. Perkins T. J. DeLiberato

1992-01-01

313

46 CFR 107.269 - Annual inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...107.269 Annual inspection. (a) Your mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo an annual...

2012-10-01

314

24 CFR 242.18 - Inspection fee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOSPITALS Application Procedures and Commitments § 242.18 Inspection fee. (a) The commitment may provide for the payment of an inspection...exceed $5 per thousand dollars of the commitment. The inspection fee shall be paid...

2013-04-01

315

Pump shaft inspection system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for inspecting a solid shaft for physical defects. It comprises: positioning a matrix of transducers within a predetermined range of one another to form a transducer head having an aperture for generating bulk longitudinal acoustic waves into a solid shaft; coupling each transducer to the output of a respective pulser for applying a voltage across the transducer for generating bulk longitudinal acoustic waves; coupling each the transducer to the input of a respective preamplifier for amplifying electrical signals generated across the transducer in response to the receipt of reflected acoustic waves; coupling an output of each the preamplifier to a respective input of a summing amplifier to provide the algebraic sum of the input signals at an input of each the pulser to the output of a respective pulse width modulator; and coupling a trigger pulse to the input of each pulse width modulator.

Light, G.M.; Bloom, E.A.; Liku, S.N.

1990-02-13

316

Goat meats: Description, rational use, certification, processing and technological developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of goat meat has increased during the last 20 years, due to the nutritional (low fat and cholesterol) and sensorial features (flavour, juiciness, tenderness), which distinguish meat from this species. Some studies have shown that meat from animals slaughtered at a young age is more appreciated and valued in the market than adult meat. The flavour and taste of

M. S. Madruga; M. C. Bressan

2011-01-01

317

Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking of food is hypothesized to have played a major role in human evolution partly by providing an increase in net energy gain. For meat, cooking compromises the structural integrity of the tissue by gelatinizing the collagen. Hence, cooked meat should take less effort to digest compared to raw meat. Likewise, less energy would be expended digesting ground meat

Scott M. Boback; Christian L. Cox; Brian D. Ott; Rachel Carmody; Richard W. Wrangham; Stephen M. Secor

2007-01-01

318

7 CFR 29.56 - Permissive inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

319

7 CFR 29.71 - Mandatory inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

320

7 CFR 29.109 - Inspection determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

321

7 CFR 29.404 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...404 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

322

Standardization of Retail Food Safety Inspection Personnel ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Retail Food Protection. Inspections & Quality Assurance. -. Standardization of Retail Food Safety Inspection Personnel 2009 Errata Sheets. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

323

The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.  

PubMed

This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. PMID:23793078

Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

2013-05-23

324

Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

325

Effect of Meat and Bone Meal Substitutes in Feed Mixes on Quality Indicators of Turkey Breast Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slepi?ková M., L. Vorlová: Effect of Meat and Bone Meal Substitutes in Feed Mixes on Quality Indicators of Turkey Breast Meat. Acta Vet. Brno 2008, 77: 297-304. We analyzed turkey breast meat composition in dependence on the presence of proteins of meat and bone meal origin in the feed mixes used. Farmers involved in the research with comparable zoohygienic and

M. Slepi?ková; L. Vorlová

2008-01-01

326

Microbiological contamination of cooked meats and environmental sites in premises selling both raw and cooked meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic plate counts and the detection of Escherichia coll and Enterococcus faecalis have been used to investigate microbial contamination of cooked meats and selected environmental sites in butchers’ shops. The performance of butchers who produced ready?cooked meats and those who sold only bought?in meats was compared. The microbiological acceptability of the cooked meats was assessed using the provisional guidelines produced

Grahame M. Tebbutt

1993-01-01

327

Motor Vehicle Inspection Project. (Inspection des Vehicules a Moteur).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Project has collected, compiled, compared and evaluated the knowledge and experience of many countries in the field of motor vehicle inspection. The conclusions drawn will help all those interested in improving their respective systems.

1974-01-01

328

A SYBR Green real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify pork meat in processed poultry meat products.  

PubMed

Species identification in meat products has grown in interest in recent years since these foodstuffs are susceptible targets for fraudulent labelling. In this work, a real-time PCR approach based on SYBR Green dye was proposed for the quantitative detection of pork meat in processed meat products. For the development of the method, binary meat mixtures containing known amounts of pork meat in poultry meat were used to obtain a normalised calibration model from 0.1 to 25% with high linear correlation and PCR efficiency. The method revealed high specificity by melting curve analysis, being successfully validated through its application to blind meat mixtures, which confirmed its adequacy for pork meat determination. The fully applicability of the method was further demonstrated in commercial meat products, allowing verification of labelling compliance and identification of meat species in processed foods. PMID:23403303

Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

2013-01-08

329

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus in swine livers collected at an abattoir.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2011 to March 2012 [corrected] . Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detected in the swine liver samples tested. Regarding antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates, all isolates, except 1 Campylobacter jejuni isolate, were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agent. Campylobacter spp. resistant to erythromycin and/or enrofloxacin were isolated from the liver samples of 9 (8%) pigs. These results suggest that the consuming swine liver without proper heat treatment may increase the risk of foodborne illnesses. PMID:23514917

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Haruna, Mika; Murakami, Mariko; Hayashida, Mizuho; Ito, Kazuo; Noda, Mamoru; Yamada, Yukiko

2013-01-01

330

Development and optimization of a sequencing batch reactor for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater to meet irrigation standards.  

PubMed

A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of abattoir wastewater to produce effluent with desirable nitrogen and phosphorus levels for irrigation. The SBR cycle consisted of an anaerobic phase with wastewater feeding, a relatively short aerobic period (allowing full ammonium oxidation), a second anoxic period with feeding, followed by settling and decanting. This design of operation allowed biological nitrification and denitrification via nitrite, and therefore with reduced demand for aeration and COD for nitrogen removal. The design also allowed ammonium, rather than oxidized nitrogen, being the primary nitrogen species in the effluent. Biological phosphorus removal was also achieved, with an effluent level desirable for irrigation. A high-level of nitrite accumulation (40 mg N/L) in the reactor caused inhibition to the biological P uptake. This problem was solved through process optimization. The cycle time of the SBR was reduced, with the wastewater load per cycle also reduced, while the daily hydraulic loading maintained. This modification proved to be an effective method to ensure reliable N and P removal. N(2)O accumulation was measured in two experiments simulating the anoxic phase of the SBR and using nitrite and nitrate respectively as electron donors. The estimated N(2)O emissions for both experiments were very low. PMID:20389009

Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

2010-01-01

331

National monitoring of Ascaris suum related liver pathologies in English abattoirs: a time-series analysis, 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266

Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I

2011-08-16

332

Predictors of Bovine TB Risk Behaviour amongst Meat Handlers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Guided by the Health Belief Model  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. Results Just over a quarter (28.1%) of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p?=?0.03), not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p?=?0.001), and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p?=?0.001). Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value?=?0.021). Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively). Conclusion Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM.

Hambolu, Dupe; Freeman, Jenny; Taddese, Henock B.

2013-01-01

333

Effect of long-term selection for increased leanness on meat and eating quality traits in Duroc swine.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate differences in meat and eating quality traits between purebred Duroc pigs sired by boars currently available and pigs sired by boars from the mid 1980s. Two lines were developed by randomly allocating littermate and half-sib pairs of females to matings by current time period (CTP) or old time period (OTP) boars. Matings by CTP boars were made using fresh semen, and matings by OTP boars were via frozen semen. All available barrows and randomly selected gilts were sent to a commercial abattoir and used for meat and eating quality evaluation. A total of 178 pigs from 23 CTP sires and 99 pigs from 15 OTP sires, across 2 replications and at a mean live weight of 109 kg, were slaughtered and analyzed. Chemical intramuscular fat percentage was determined by lab analysis of a slice from the LM at the 10th rib. Additional meat and eating quality traits measured on the LM were Minolta reflectance and Hunter L color (24 h); pH (24 h and 7 d); water-holding capacity; subjective visual scores for color, marbling, and firmness (48 h); Instron tenderness; cooking loss; and trained sensory panel evaluations (7 d). Time period differences were assessed by use of a mixed model that included fixed effects of sire time period, replication, sex, contemporary group, and the interaction of sex x time period. The random effect of dam and the random effect of sire nested within time period were also included. Loins from pigs sired by OTP boars had greater intramuscular fat (3.48 vs. 3.09%) and visual marbling scores (3.54 vs. 3.07), required less Instron force (5.31 vs. 5.98 kg) to compress, and had darker visual color scores (4.09 vs. 3.87) compared with loins from pigs sired by CTP boars (P < 0.05). No differences were observed between time periods for Minolta reflectance, Hunter L (24 h), water-holding capacity, pH (24 h and 7 d), or subjective firmness scores. Trained sensory evaluations revealed more pork flavor and less off-flavor (P < 0.05) for OTP-sired pigs; however, no differences in tenderness score, juiciness score, chewiness score, or cooking loss were found between lines. Long-term selection response in carcass composition has been at the expense of meat and eating quality traits. PMID:16699115

Schwab, C R; Baas, T J; Stalder, K J; Mabry, J W

2006-06-01

334

Waste inspection tomography (WIT)  

SciTech Connect

WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

Bernardi, R.T.

1996-12-31

335

50 CFR 260.12 - Where inspection service is offered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.12 Where inspection service is offered. Inspection service may be furnished...

2011-10-01

336

50 CFR 260.22 - Order of inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.22 Order of inspection service. Inspection service shall be performed, insofar as...

2011-10-01

337

50 CFR 260.13 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.13 Who may obtain inspection service. An application for inspection service may be...

2011-10-01

338

50 CFR 260.40 - Who shall perform appeal inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Appeal Inspection § 260.40 Who shall perform appeal inspection. An appeal inspection shall be performed...

2011-10-01

339

50 CFR 260.29 - Disposition of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.29 Disposition of inspection certificates. The original of any inspection...

2011-10-01

340

9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products. 590.925 Section 590.925 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

341

9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates. 590.402...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

342

Mariculture of Bivalves for Processed Meat Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research investigated the possibility of farming juvenile bivalves and harvesting them to use their meats for processed clam products. Five species were selected for trial cultivation. Mulina lateralis, Amygdalum papyrium, and cyrtopleura costata (ang...

P. Chanley

1984-01-01

343

[Meat and human health: excess and errors].  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

Lecerf, Jean-Michel

2011-11-01

344

Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.  

PubMed

In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

2013-01-29

345

Edible Coatings for Individual Frozen Meat Portions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A limited investigation was undertaken between 1 July 1975 and 1 July 1976 to develop an edible coating that would retard moisture loss and oxidative rancidity (freezer burn) in frozen meat products. A review of the literature, personal communications wit...

C. P. Shaw J. L. Secrist

1977-01-01

346

Surface Inspection Using Ftir Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a tool for surface inspection is described. Laboratory instruments and portable instruments can support remote sensing probes that can map chemical contaminants on surfaces with dete...

G. L. Powell N. R. Smyrl D. M. Williams H. M. Meyers T. E. Barber

1995-01-01

347

Update aboveground storage tank inspections  

SciTech Connect

For many aboveground storage tank owners and operators, the rules for inspection, maintenance and repair are constantly changing. In December 1995, API revised API Standard 653, ``Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction.`` This industry-developed standard addresses suitability-for-service, repair and alteration for aboveground storage tanks that were constructed to API 650 and API 12C guidelines. Since it was first issued in January 1991, tank owners, operators and inspection companies have struggled over how and why to use API 653.With the revised edition now published, an additional question arises: have the rules changed dramatically? Use this quick checklist to highlight major concerns and changes in your tank-inspection program.

Hendrix, D.E. [Hendrix Group, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

348

Tight-budget tank inspection  

SciTech Connect

To assure reliability of above ground storage tanks (ASTs), the American Petroleum Institute (API) established API Standard 653. Adherence to this provides both environmental protection and stored product protection. Implementing every aspect of API 653 at a particular storage tank isn`t easy. Periodically carrying out all three types of required inspections can be expensive. Many tank storage facilities comply by turning the inspection job over to contractors. A contractor`s rigorous adherence to what is perceived necessary to meet the standard`s requirements can be costly and time consuming. Conversely, response to API 653`s formal external inspection (FEI) requirement by briefly walking around a tank taking minor notes clearly violates the purpose of this safety standard. An easy, quick and cost-effective approach between these extremes, the expedited external inspection (EEI), has been developed. The approach is discussed.

Moore, J.A.

1997-04-01

349

Guess Who's Coming to Inspect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even after rigorous efforts by one utility to ensure its compliance with OSHA, OSHA inspections resulted in a list of twenty violations of safety regulations, three conditions requiring correction, and two special orders.

Gerald P. Haas

1977-01-01

350

HCT/P Inspection Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... See also the "ORA Field Management Directive No. ... Inspection Conclusions and District Decisions, June 7, 2007" in the Related Information box on ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

351

Inspection Errors in Link Sampling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of an investigation into the sensitivity to two types of inspection error of link sampling procedures described by Harishchandra and Srivenkataramana are reported. Relevant compound distributions are derived. Some comparisons with results obtained...

S. Kotz N. L. Johnson R. N. Rodriquez

1983-01-01

352

Application of European standards for health and quality control of game meat on game ranches in South Africa.  

PubMed

The health and quality compliance of game carcasses (n = 295) intended for the South African export market and aspiring to comply with the strict hygiene requirements of the European Union were compared with game carcasses (n = 330) available for the local market and currently not subjected to meat safety legislation. Samples were collected in similar seasons and geographical areas in South Africa from 2006 to 2009. Aerobic plate counts (APC) of the heart blood verified that both groups possessed similar ante mortem bacterial status. For health compliance APC, tests for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were performed on the carcasses. Surfaces of the local carcasses were swabbed using the European Enviro-biotrace sponge technique at 3 and 72 h post mortem. Unskinned but eviscerated export carcasses in the abattoir were skinned and sampled by incision using a corkborer 72 h post mortem. Temperature and pH readings were recorded at 3 and 72 h post mortem from the longissimus dorsi muscle and the readings at 3 h differed (P = 0.035). Temperatures at 72 h were lower for export than local carcasses (P < 0.001) because of earlier introduction and maintenance of the cold chain. The pH readings also differed between groups at 3 and 72 h (P < 0.001). APC results for the local group exceeded the maximum permissible count (< 10(5)). S. aureus results showed differences (P < 0.001), with readings from the local group being higher. The same tendency was exhibited for E. coli (P = 0.008). Imposition of hygiene guidelines for game ranchers producing meat for the local market is therefore recommended. PMID:22332302

Van der Merwe, M; Jooste, P J; Hoffman, L C

2011-09-01

353

Vitamin B12 assimilation from chicken meat\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken meat labeled in vivo with radio-B,2 was ingested by normal volunteers. The absorption, measured by the fecal excretion method, was similar to that reported for crystalline radiocyanocobalarnin and for mutton, but exceeded that from eggs. Parenteral injection of 1000 ?g of nonlabeled vitamin B,2 did not interfere with the absorption of the radio- B,2 from the meat. The urinary

A. Doscherholmen; J. McMahon; D. Ripley

354

Meat and vegetarianism beliefs among Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent trend in Australia and similar countries towards decreased red meat consumption and increased interest in vegetarian diets has implications for public health, the environment, health education, and home economics educators. A 1999 random survey conducted in South Australia found that 1.5% respondents identified as vegetarian and 7.2% as semi- vegetarian. Twenty-five per cent of respondents ate red meat

Emma Lea

2003-01-01

355

Carrageenans and their use in meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides of D?galactose and 3,6?anhydro?D?galactose extracted from red seaweeds. They have been used by the food industry for their gelling, thickening, and stabilizing properties, and more recently by the meat industry for reduced fat products. Meat is a complex system of muscle tissue, connective tissue, fat, and water; during processing, numerous interactions occur among all these

A. Trius; J. G. Sebranek; Tyre Lanier

1996-01-01

356

Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni\\/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events

Birgit Nørrung; Jens Kirk Andersen; Sava Buncic

2009-01-01

357

Turbine engine inspection without disassembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of the On-Condition Maintenance (OCM) concept for fixed cycle engine maintenance inspection procedures is creating the need for new diagnostics equipment to monitor engine health. One of the most useful diagnostic tools is the fibrescope, which permits on-the-wing inspection of from 60 to 90 percent of gas path hardware, depending on the type/model engine, in a matter of minutes. This paper describes the fibrescope, its design and development, and its current and potential applications.

McCord, R. M.

1980-06-01

358

Possible standardization of magnetographic inspection  

SciTech Connect

The authors explore the possibility of standardizing fields of defects by means of magnetic fields due to current flowing in a conductor during magnetographic inspection of unreinforced weld joints. It is shown that a defect of the required size can be simulated by selection of the current in the conductor. The nomograms given can be used to select the current in the defect simulator during magnetographic inspection.

Sharova, A.M.; Sinitsa, A.N.; Skryabina, G.I.

1994-12-01

359

1978 radioactive waste tank inspection program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1978 tank inspection program was completed with inspections through all 158 accessible annulus risers on the double-wall tanks using at least one photographic technique at each riser. No unusual conditions were noted. Inspections were begun on tanks 25 to 28 which are in the late stages of construction; they will be completed during 1979. Eleven waste tank interior inspections

R. L. Boyleston; M. A. Knowles; J. A. Baldwin; F. G. McNatt

1979-01-01

360

Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet.  

PubMed

Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet. PMID:23273468

Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar

2012-10-31

361

A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection  

SciTech Connect

The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

2010-03-12

362

Phosphorus and Potassium Content of Enhanced Meat and Poultry Products: Implications for Patients Who Receive Dialysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Uncooked meat and poultry products are commonly enhanced by food processors using phosphate salts. The addition of potassium and phosphorus to these foods has been recognized but not quantified. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We measured the phosphorus, potassium, and protein content of 36 uncooked meat and poultry products: Phosphorus using the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) official method 984.27, potassium using AOAC official method 985.01, and protein using AOAC official method 990.03. Results: Products that reported the use of additives had an average phosphate-protein ratio 28% higher than additive free products; the content ranged up to almost 100% higher. Potassium content in foods with additives varied widely; additive free products all contained <387 mg/100 g, whereas five of the 25 products with additives contained at least 692 mg/100 g (maximum 930 mg/100 g). Most but not all foods with phosphate and potassium additives reported the additives (unquantified) on the labeling; eight of 25 enhanced products did not list the additives. The results cannot be applied to other products. The composition of the food additives used by food processors may change over time. Conclusions: Uncooked meat and poultry products that are enhanced may contain additives that increase phosphorus and potassium content by as much as almost two- and three-fold, respectively; this modification may not be discernible from inspection of the food label.

Mehta, Ojas

2009-01-01

363

Nutrient composition of green crab ( Carcinus maenus) leg meat and claw meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is underway in New England to examine the potential for initiating a commercial fishery for the invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenus). Information on the nutrient composition is needed to facilitate the processing, utilization, and marketing of value-added green crab products. Green crabs were harvested and individually weighed and measured for carapace width. Claw meat and leg meat samples

Denise I. Skonberg; Brian L. Perkins

2002-01-01

364

Effects of heat on meat proteins – Implications on structure and quality of meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globular and fibrous proteins are compared with regard to structural behaviour on heating, where the former expands and the latter contracts. The meat protein composition and structure is briefly described. The behaviour of the different meat proteins on heating is discussed. Most of the sarcoplasmic proteins aggregate between 40 and 60 °C, but for some of them the coagulation can

E. Tornberg

2005-01-01

365

The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a

Jean-Pierre Garnier; Ronald Klont; Graham Plastow

2003-01-01

366

Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level  

PubMed Central

Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

2012-01-01

367

Numerical taxonomy of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria from prepacked meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-four strains of lactic acid bateria isolated from refrigerated, prepacked meat and meat products were together with 59 reference strains of Brochothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus phenotypically classfied, using 96 unit characters. Data were examined using Simple Matching (SSM) or Jaccard coefficient (SJ), and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages. Twenty-three clusters with two or more members were

Elisabeth Borch; Göran Molin

1988-01-01

368

Critical control points for meat quality in the Australian sheep meat supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sheep meat eating quality research program has identified a number of outcomes and critical control points in the supply chain from live sheep genetics to cooked meat. The critical control points, which are largely independent of each other, can be translated into quality management systems to increase average eating quality of all cuts and lower variability. The choice of

2005-01-01

369

Selenium content of game meat  

SciTech Connect

Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States) Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1991-03-11

370

Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance.  

PubMed

What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. PMID:21315123

Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Weijzen, Pascalle; Engels, Wim; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

2011-02-17

371

Serotype Distribution of Salmonella Isolates from Turkey Ground Meat and Meat Parts  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Luppo; Bilir Ormanci, Fatma Seda; Iseri Kangal, Ozlem

2013-01-01

372

Palatability of prerigor cooked boar meat.  

PubMed

Cooking reduces odor intensity in boar meat but also may induce lipid oxidation unless the meat pH is above approximately 6.0. This research was designed to determine the feasibility of cooking boar meat in the prerigor state to overcome boar odor and lipid oxidation problems. Prerigor and postrigor triceps brachii muscle samples from 40 boars (20 Duroc and 20 Yorkshire) were cooked to 60 degrees C, frozen and stored at -20 degrees C, reheated in a 60 degrees C water bath for 1 h, and then subjected to pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and sensory analyses. Boar odor intensity and skatole concentration in backfat samples were determined by olfactory test and HPLC, respectively. Cooked (initial cooking) prerigor meat was found to have higher (P < .05) pH and lower (P < .05) TBA values than comparable postrigor meat (6.44 vs 6.09 and 2.15 vs 3.23, respectively). Regression analysis indicated an inverse relationship between pH and TBA values (r = -.52; P < .01). No appreciable changes in TBA values were noted after frozen storage for 14 to 98 d, but reheating increased TBA values (P < .05) in both prerigor and postrigor samples (3.45 vs 4.32, respectively). Sensory evaluation scores indicated that prerigor cooked meat was less tender with more pronounced rancid flavor than postrigor cooked meat (P < .05), but panelists may have allowed the toughness of the prerigor samples to adversely affect their flavor scores. No difference in boar odor was detected between rigor states or breeds. Mean skatole concentration in backfat was .12 micrograms/g and no difference was detected between breeds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8463151

Chen, W; Forrest, J C; Peng, I C; Pratt, D E; Judge, M D

1993-03-01

373

Examination of the association between announced inspections and inspection scores.  

PubMed

In 2010 the Salt Lake Valley Health Department conducted a pilot of an announced inspection program utilizing a randomized assignment of restaurants to an intervention group with announced inspections and a control group that remained on the usual schedule of unannounced inspections. After adjusting for food type, visible kitchen, outside quality assurance, season, and standardized inspector, significant reductions were found in the odds ratios of personal hygiene (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] = 0.11, p = .00) and equipment cleanliness (aOR = 0.19, p = .00) violations. In the models for the control group, none of the odds ratios were statistically different from one, indicating no change in the postintervention time period as compared to the preintervention period. PMID:24073484

Waters, A Blake; VanDerslice, James; Porucznik, Christina A; Kim, Jaewhan; DeLegge, Royal; Durrant, Lynne

2013-09-01

374

Reducing sodium intake from meat products.  

PubMed

Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt content at the 2% level do not have marked effects on shelf life of the products. By using salt mixtures, usually NaCl/KCl, the intake of sodium (NaCl) can be further reduced. PMID:22063751

Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

2005-03-03

375

[PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:19152846

Morénas, J

2008-12-02

376

Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks  

SciTech Connect

Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

Choset, Howie

2003-09-11

377

Supervised autonomy for robotic inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience deploying robots for security and inspection tasks shows that often the activity of "driving" the robot interferes with the activity of observing the sensor data (often visual) collected by the robot. It has been suggested that the supervised autonomy paradigm can improve system performance. In this approach, some aspects of the robot's actions are automated, particularly motion control, freeing the operator to focus on the inspection task. In this paper we describe the laboratory-level proof-of-concept development and implementation of a semi-autonomous mode for the ODIS robot, whereby, under the direction and supervision of an operator, the robot can self-navigate in a limited structured environment while sending back video images for operator inspection. Laboratory results show the feasibility of the approach.

Moore, Kevin L.; Mollerup Larsen, Johnny; Stampe Qvistgaard, Martin

2007-05-01

378

Critical Survey of Chilling Carcass Meat within the Refrigerated Enclosures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical survey of the literature has been carried out on the chilling of carcass meat, weight loss from meat, air movement, and energy saving, resulting from the environmental conditions within the refrigerated enclosures. It shows that it is important...

M. Amaraie J. F. Missenden R. W. James

1988-01-01

379

Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Meat and Poultry Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Government began allowing food manufacturers to irradiate raw meat and meat products to control pathogenic microorganisms in February 2000. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods could affect public health because many foodborne illnesses occ...

A. Majchrowicz B. Imhoff J. C. Buzby P. D. Frenzen

2000-01-01

380

PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MEAT HOUSE, NURSERY BUILDINGS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO RIGHT AND LEFT - Greenwood Furnace, Meat House, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

381

Electron Micrograph of the Meat Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus sake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image is of the meat spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus sake. This strain was originally isolated from a vacuum-packaged meat product. To enhance its aesthetic appeal, the original black and white image was colored using Adobe Photoshop.

American Society For Microbiology;

2003-09-22

382

9 CFR 390.4 - Facilities for inspection and copying.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE...Information Act Coordinator (FOIA), Food Safety and Inspection Service,...

2013-01-01

383

7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION...Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision....

2013-01-01

384

46 CFR 107.211 - Original Certificate of Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection...Inspection and Certification of Existing Mobile Offshore Drilling Unitsâ (Appendix A). Existing...

2012-10-01

385

Evaluation of inservice inspection examinatiions  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Section 11, Division 1, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code examinations, 26 inservice inspection (ISI) summary reports from 24 facilities were reviewed. It was found that these ASME Code examinations and tests are instrumental in revealing indications and defects in welds and plant components. In addition, this study uncovered that fact that some of the Section 11 requirements are apparently not clear and are misunderstood by some of the facilities. Also, the need for more stringent requirements was evaluated and some Code changes are recommended.

Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

1990-05-01

386

Evaluation of inservice inspection examinatiions  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of Section 11, Division 1, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code examinations, 26 inservice inspection (ISI) summary reports from 24 facilities were reviewed. It was found that these ASME Code examinations and tests are instrumental in revealing indications and defects in welds and plant components. In addition, this study uncovered that fact that some of the Section 11 requirements are apparently not clear and are misunderstood by some of the facilities. Also, the need for more stringent requirements was evaluated and some Code changes are recommended.

Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

1990-05-01

387

U.S. Market Share for Poultry Meat in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines changes in U.S. market shares for poultry meat in Russia after the ruble devaluation of August 1998. In the 1990s, the U.S. captured over 90% of the Russian market for poultry meat imports. Russia accounted for a large segment of U.S. poultry meat exports, about 40%-55%, of dark meat sales in particular. The ruble devaluation drastically reduced

Bella Ablayeva; Glenn C. W. Ames; Lewell F. Gunter; Jack E. Houston

2004-01-01

388

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2009-01-01

389

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2010-01-01

390

Meat Distribution Patterns in Six Southern Metro Areas: Statistical Appendix.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increases in meat marketing costs may have been reduced because there are fewer wholesalers in the marketing chain, according to this study of six southern metro areas. Meat wholesalers still dominate the U.S. market where major meat production and consum...

A. J. Baker L. A. Duewer

1983-01-01

391

Meat Distribution Patterns in Six Southern Metro Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increases in meat marketing costs may have been reduced because there are fewer wholesalers in the marketing chain, according to this study of six southern metro areas. Meat wholesalers still dominate the U.S. market where major meat production and consum...

A. J. Baker L. A. Duewer

1983-01-01

392

Safety and storage stability of horse meat for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most horse meat is consumed by humans and\\/or animals in the region where it is produced. However, horse meat for human consumption is exported in large quantities from the Americas and in lesser quantities from Eastern Europe, to Western Europe and Japan where it is often eaten raw. Horse meat prepared to a good hygienic condition should not be prone

C. O. Gill

2005-01-01

393

Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as “new,” “emerging,” or “evolving” pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses,

John N. Sofos

2008-01-01

394

Biomarkers of meat intake and the application of nutrigenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective dietary intake markers for meat would be useful to assess meat intake in observational studies and as compliance markers in dietary intervention studies. A number of compounds are specific to meat compared with most other dietary items but there is some overlap between protein rich foods. A number of single compounds have been analysed in urine, plasma, serum or

Lars O. Dragsted

2010-01-01

395

Effect of Meat (Beef, Chicken, Bacon) on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcino- genesis in rats.

Géraldine Parnaud; Ginette Peiffer; Sylviane Taché; Denis E. Corpet

396

A genome scan for meat quality in Nelore beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meat quality traits are economically important because they impact consumers’ acceptance which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear...

397

China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.  

PubMed

From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. PMID:22608925

Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

2012-04-21

398

ORGANIC MEAT: MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview on the evolution of global market demand for organic meat and factors affecting it. Future prospects for development of organic meat consumptions and possible problems concerning trading are analysed. The price that people are willing to pay is the major determinant of the market share of organic meat. Although intent to purchase depends upon the

Michael Nelson; Ivan Artamova; Fabio Napolitano; Antonio Girolami; Ada Braghieri

399

CONSUMER USE OF NUTRITION LABELS ON PACKAGED MEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer perceptions of the importance of nutritional labeling of fresh meats and knowledge of nutritional terms have been presented in the Journal of Food Distribution Research (Piedra, et al 1995). This article presents follow up information on consumer reported uses of nutritional labels on packaged meats and the specific nutrients that the consumers check for on packaged meats. The results

Mario A. Piedra; Alvin R. Schupp; Donna E. Montgomery

1996-01-01

400

Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in

Jessica Stockburger; Britta Renner; Almut I. Weike; Alfons O. Hamm; Harald T. Schupp

2009-01-01

401

Modeling pathogen growth in meat products: future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat products are perishable foods and unless stored under proper conditions spoil quickly. In addition, if pathogens are present, meat products may become hazardous for consumers. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. can grow and cause illness by the ingestion of the bacterial cells, therefore, assurance of meat safety and quality is of utmost importance.

Eyal Shimoni; Theodore P. Labuzay

2000-01-01

402

Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Meat and Poultry Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Government began allowing food manufacturers to irradiate raw meat and meat products to control pathogenic microorganisms in February 2000. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods could affect public health because many foodborne illnesses occur when consumers handle or eat meat or poultry contaminated by microbial pathogens. However, food manufacturers have been slow to adopt irradiation, partly because of the

Paul D. Frenzen; T. Alexander Majchrowicz; Jean C. Buzby; Beth Imhoff

2000-01-01

403

Nutrient values for Australian and overseas chicken meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarise analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat and compare analysed data for Australian chicken meat with overseas data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analysed nutrient data for Australian chicken meat was compared with publicly available English language databases from overseas countries. Where similar cuts were available, ratio plots were developed to determine similarities

Yasmine Probst

2009-01-01

404

Fatty acids, antioxidants and oxidation stability of processed reindeer meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hot smoking and drying on reindeer meat (M. semimembranosus) was investigated with regard to vitamin content, fatty acids (FA), lipid oxidation and lipolysis. In smoked and dried meat, free fatty acids were found to increase (P<0.001), whereas polar lipids, cholesterol and triacylglycerols decreased. Only slight changes in FA composition of the smoked meat were found but the

S Sampels; J Pickova; E Wiklund

2004-01-01

405

NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

406

IMPROVING THE TENDERNESS OF MEAT WITH HYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The HDP process has been shown to be effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. Tenderization occurs in fractions of a millisecond. When energy, space, and labor costs are considered for aging meat ...

407

Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

Toldrá, Fidel

408

The development of aromas in ruminant meat.  

PubMed

This review provides an update on our understanding of the chemical reactions (lipid oxidation, Strecker and Maillard reactions, thiamine degradation) and a discussion of the principal aroma compounds derived from those reaction or other sources in cooked meat, mainly focused on ruminant species. This knowledge is essential in order to understand, control, and improve the quality of food products. More studies are necessary to fully understand the role of each compound in the overall cooked meat flavour and their possible effect in consumer acceptability. PMID:23749162

Resconi, Virginia C; Escudero, Ana; Campo, María M

2013-06-07

409

Determination of the causes of tendency toward red meat and meat products in the west of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Although meat constitutes an important part of many consumers’ diet, its consumption has become a quiet controversial issue. Several factors are effective on tendency to red meat consumption. The 2007's report of the world Cancer Research Fund makes the recommendation to limit the consumption of red meat to less than 500 g per week. The aim of this study is to determine meat and meat products consumption and causes of tendency to red meat among people of Khorramabad city, Iran. Methods: This cross- sectional study was carried out on 300 adults (178 women and 122 men; aged 19-70 years) of Khorramabad city, Iran. Red meat and processed meat intake (from a FFQ), demographic and causes of tendencies to red meat consumption (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated. Statistical methods included independent t- test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Consumption of red meat and meat products was 531.8 ± 543.5 g/w and 132.5 ± 251.1 g/w, respectively. The most important factors of tendencies toward red meat consumption were delectability, palatability, accessibility, cultural and traditional beliefs, and lack of food diversity in Lorestan province, animal husbandry, nomadic life, and hospitality. Red meat consumption was more common among men and lower in the income levels of $300. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that red meat consumption in adult people of the west of Iran was high. Since consumption of meat and meat products may create health concerns for people, it is necessary for policymakers to adopt effective strategies to advocate the use of fish and poultry.

Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Anbari, Khatere

2012-01-01

410

Buoy 2A Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of an engineering inspection performed on the U.S. Coast Guard large navigation buoy 2A in September 1968. The large navigation buoy was placed on station in July 1967 off Sandy Hook, N.J. The buoy has been in continuous se...

E. Joseph J. Brzychy W. Sullivan

1968-01-01

411

Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)|

Buckley, James F.

1987-01-01

412

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes

Rachel Landry

1999-01-01

413

Cathodic protection system inspection 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rectifier is the heart of an impressed current cathodic protection system. As it is subject to many adverse conditions including power surges, lightning strikes, vandalism, physical damage, and deterioration from atmospheric exposure, frequent inspections of rectifiers are vital to keeping an impressed current system operating so that it can provide nearly continuous protection of the underground, or submerged structures that are being protected.

Jenkins, Jim; Polly, Dan

1994-02-01

414

Underwater Inspection Of Naval Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive testing (NDT) performed underwater is one of the major maintenance methods to assure the efficient operation of naval structures such as piers, navigational aids, etc. Methods used for NDT of naval structures include general methods such as visual testing, ultrasonics and radiography. Visual testing, supplemented by instruments such as TV cameras and stereo-photography, offers good capability for surface inspection

H. Berger; R. Brackett; J. Mittleman

1983-01-01

415

Application of Efficient Methods for Inspection Sensitivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections play a vital role in the reliability of structural components. NDE inspections are simulated using a Probability-of-Detection curve (POD) that is obtained experimentally. In this paper a methodology using the ex...

J. Garza J. H. Millwater

2009-01-01

416

46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification...contact the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...certification, as specified in § 169.222. The...

2012-10-01

417

9 CFR 145.12 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.12 Inspections. (a) Each participating hatchery shall be audited at...

2013-01-01

418

30 CFR 903.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.842 Federal inspections. (a) Part 842 of...copies of inspection reports when requested by a designated Arizona State agency with jurisdiction over...

2013-07-01

419

30 CFR 937.842 - Federal inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each inspection report regarding inspections conducted pursuant to this subpart to the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 725.75 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.75 Inspections. EPA will conduct inspections under section 11 of the Act to...

2013-07-01

421

40 CFR 265.403 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.403 Inspections. (a) The owner...treatment facility must inspect, where present: (1) Discharge control and safety equipment (e.g., waste feed cut-off...

2013-07-01

422

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections...and Safeguards, or the NRC Region III Administrator. Heat, air conditioning, light, electrical outlets, and...

2010-01-01

423

10 CFR 76.121 - Inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Reports and Inspections § 76.121 Inspections...and Safeguards, or the NRC Region III Administrator. Heat, air conditioning, light, electrical outlets, and...

2009-01-01

424

49 CFR 195.206 - Material inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Material inspection. 195.206... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Construction § 195.206 Material inspection. No pipe...manner that could impair its strength or reduce its...

2012-10-01

425

49 CFR 195.206 - Material inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Material inspection. 195.206... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...Construction § 195.206 Material inspection. No pipe...manner that could impair its strength or reduce its...

2011-10-01

426

46 CFR 169.226 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification...contact the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...certification, as specified in § 169.222. The...

2011-10-01

427

Waste Calcining Facility remote inspection report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) remote inspections was to evaluate areas in the facility which are difficult to access due to high radiation fields. The areas inspected were the ventilation exhaust duct, waste hold cell, adsorber manifol...

M. W. Patterson W. M. Ison

1994-01-01

428

47 CFR 2.936 - FCC inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false FCC inspection. 2...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY...Authorization § 2.936 FCC inspection. Upon...the following to the Commission or shall make...

2012-10-01

429

Foreign Food Facility Inspection Program Questions & ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... the proposed inspection dates, and logistical information, including the availability of interpreter assistance; full mailing and physical address of ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/inspections

430

47 CFR 22.301 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Station inspection...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational... § 22.301 Station inspection...licensee of any station authorized in the Public Mobile Services...

2012-10-01

431

47 CFR 22.301 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Station inspection...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Operational... § 22.301 Station inspection...licensee of any station authorized in the Public Mobile Services...

2011-10-01

432

Ultrasonic Inspection of Heavy Forged Steel Cylinders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of ultrasonic inspection of two steel cylinders are presented. The equipment, procedures, and specifications used in the inspection are described. Schematics and photographs of the defects are included.

A. Sakamoto L. X. Nepomuceno M. F. Barbosa

1971-01-01

433

Regulations for the Egg Products Inspection Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Egg Products Inspection Act' provides for the mandatory inspection of egg products in intrastate, interstate, and foreign commerce; controls the disposition of certain 'restricted eggs' such as dirties, leakers, loss, checks, inedible and incubator r...

1971-01-01

434

Robotic Inspection for Vehicle-Borne Contraband.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vehicle-borne smuggling is widespread because of the availability, flexibility and capacity of the cars and trucks. Inspecting vehicles at border crossings and checkpoints are key security elements. At the present time, most vehicle security inspections a...

G. Gerhart G. Witus H. Andrusz W. Smuda

2006-01-01

435

47 CFR 95.837 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements § 95.837 Station inspection. Upon request by an authorized Commission representative, the 218-219 MHz Service system licensee must make any component CTS available for inspection. Technical...

2012-10-01

436

47 CFR 95.837 - Station inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements § 95.837 Station inspection. Upon request by an authorized Commission representative, the 218-219 MHz Service system licensee must make any component CTS available for inspection. Technical...

2011-10-01

437

46 CFR 107.270 - Periodic inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...107.270 Section 107.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.270 Periodic...

2012-10-01

438

Implementation of the Inspection Robot Controller,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes the theory and implementation of the Inspection Robot Controller (IRC) program. The controller is part of the Inspection Workstation (IWS) in the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (ARMF) at the National Bureau of Standards. ...

H. T. Moncarz B. Borchardt

1988-01-01

439

7 CFR 353.6 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Inspection. 353.6 Section 353.6 Agriculture Regulations...CERTIFICATION § 353.6 Inspection...degree in the biological sciences, and a minimum of 1 year's...by receipt of a passing grade, the Animal and...

2010-01-01

440

Climbing techniques for bridge inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California has about 24,000 publicly owned bridges that require routine structural evaluations to comply with National Bridge Inspection Standard (NBIS) mandates. Of these, about 800 are identified as possessing fatigue prone or fracture critical details requiring thorough tactile investigations. Gaining access to bridge elements to perform these investigations has become increasingly difficult and costly. The traditional uses of under bridge inspection trucks, lift equipment and rigging are economically and practically limited by bridge size, structure type, traffic demands and support costs. In some cases, bridges that have become damaged by earthquakes cannot safely support the loads of heavy personnel lift equipment. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)'s Office of Structural Materials and Office of Structure Maintenance and Investigations evaluated the use of rock climbing and mountaineering techniques as an alternative means of gaining access for bridge inspections. Under a small research grant, a bridge climbing training course was developed through a local University of California outdoor recreation group and 7 engineers and technicians were initially trained. A comprehensive Code of Safe Practices was created and standards of training, procedures and equipment required for bridge inspections were established. A successful climb investigation on a large, previously inaccessible arch bridge was completed at the end of the training that proved the techniques safe, economical and effective. Within one year, 20 bridge maintenance engineers were trained, and a formal program was established to organize, schedule, equip and certify engineers and technicians for bridge climbing. Several other offices within Caltrans as well as the California Department of Water Resources have since adopted these techniques for specialized structural inspection tasks. Climbing techniques are now used routinely in California as an alterative means of gaining access to bridges and structures, and over 100 bridges have been identified as those where climbing is the only means available to perform structural investigations.

Kaslan, Erol C.

1998-03-01

441

The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

1995-03-01

442

Electronic Meat Trading: An Alternative Exchange Mechanism for Wholesale Meat in the U.S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The traditional exchange system for wholesale meat is under attack, partly because of changes in industry structure and partly because of alleged inefficiencies and inequities in pricing. New alternatives in marketing are under consideration, including a ...

K. E. Nelson M. E. Sarhan

1981-01-01

443

Improving the deployment of inspection tools; tutorial on inspection capacity and sample planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help fabs improve their use of inspection tools a practical guide to inspection capacity and sample planning is presented. A comprehensive approach involving data collection, parameter estimation, and model based sample planning is covered. The objective is to enable yield engineers to develop basic inspection planning toolboxes in a spreadsheet and\\/or more effectively manage inspection planning projects. For parameter

Dadi Gudmundsson; J George Shanthikumar

2005-01-01

444

What Teachers and Headteachers Think about Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of 14 inspections of primary and secondary schools carried out by local inspectors in five widely separated areas during 1992 and 1993. The inspection approaches varied and in two cases followed the new OFSTED pattern. Reactions to inspection were gathered through interviews with headteachers and discussions with groups of teachers. Teachers’ reactions are described in relation

Joan Dean

1995-01-01

445

Unmanned aerial vehicle system for pipeline inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the inspection of pipeline by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The different methods of pipeline inspection, its technical and economic efficiency have been examined. The theoretical and experimental base for air monitoring on base of On Board Infrared Equipment (OBIE) have been examined. The method of pipeline inspection by means of UAV has been proposed.

SERGIY SADOVNYCHIY

446

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2011-10-01

447

44 CFR 15.4 - Inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE...into, while on or being removed from Mt. Weather or the NETC are subject to inspection...an arrest. (b) Inspection at Mt. Weather. We authorize inspection at...

2012-10-01

448

Automatic Inspection System for Printed Circuit Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this correspondence is to present problems and methods in automating visual inspection of printed circuit boards (PCB's). Vertical and diagonal illumination are useful in detecting PCB patterns correctly. An algorithm comparing local features of the patterns to be inspected with those of the pattern to be referenced is proposed. An inspection system using developed technologies is also

Yasuhiko Hara; Nobuyuki Akiyama; Koichi Karasaki

1983-01-01

449

Printed circuit board inspection using image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer vision has been widely used in the online inspection of electronic components. In this paper, the authors present a computer vision system using structured lighting, which provides them with an efficient solution for solder joint inspection. Their system uses a novel structured-lighting inspection technology to overcome some difficulties that traditional computer vision systems often experience. They developed a slant

Horng-Hai Loh; Ming-Sing Lu

1999-01-01

450

Acceptance Inspection for Audio Cassette Recorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of inspections for cassette recorders that can be performed to assure that the devices are acceptable is described. The inspections can be completed in 20 minutes and can be performed by instructional personnel. The series of inspection procedures includes tests of the intelligibility of audio, physical condition, tape speed, impulse…

Smith, Edgar A.

451

1978 Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1978 tank inspection program was completed with inspections through all 158 accessible annulus risers on the double-wall tanks using at least one photographic technique at each riser. No unusual conditions were noted. Inspections were begun on tanks 2...

R. L. Boyleston M. A. Knowles J. A. Baldwin F. G. McNatt

1979-01-01

452

Generator acceptance test and inspection report  

SciTech Connect

This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.

Johns, B.R.

1997-07-24

453

ROV-AIDED DAM INSPECTION: PRACTICAL RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) are used in a growing number of underwater missions, mostly inspections of different types of installations such as: telecommunication cables, pipes or oil extraction installations. A field where UUVs are still starting to prove their utility is dam inspection. This paper presents details our first approach in dam inspection. A set of experiments carried out

Joan Batlle; Tudor Nicosevici; Rafael Garcia; Marc Carreras

454

Hot Slab Surface Inspection by Laser Scanning Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic hot slab surface inspection system has been developed by combining an optical inspection instrument for local inspection. The optical inspection instrument is characterized by its high optical resolving power and the signal processing method ...

T. Matsubara T. Toyota A. Ogasawara S. Naito A. Fujiyama

1985-01-01

455

50 CFR 260.74 - Fee for appeal inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Fees and Charges § 260.74 Fee for appeal inspection. The fee to be charged for an appeal inspection shall...

2011-10-01

456

50 CFR 260.20 - Disposition of inspected sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery Products for Human Consumption Inspection Service § 260.20 Disposition of inspected sample. Any sample of a processed product that has been...

2011-10-01

457

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Survey and grant of inspection...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...Inspection § 381.20 Survey and grant of inspection...granted, FSIS shall survey the...

2009-01-01

458

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Survey and grant of inspection...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION...Inspection § 381.20 Survey and grant of inspection...granted, FSIS shall survey the...

2010-01-01

459

9 CFR 590.40 - Continuous inspection not provided.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 590.40 Section 590.40 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products...

2013-01-01

460

9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inspection of imported egg products. 590.925 Section...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

2009-01-01

461

9 CFR 590.915 - Foreign inspection certification required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...590.915 Section 590.915 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports §...

2013-01-01

462

77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection...Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA...has reestablished the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration...

2012-12-28

463

75 FR 81965 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection...Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA...has reestablished the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration...

2010-12-29

464

7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

2013-01-01

465

21 CFR 26.13 - Transmission of postapproval inspection reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of postapproval inspection reports. Postapproval good manufacturing...practice (GMP) inspection reports concerning products covered...days of the request. Should a new inspection be needed, the inspection report will be transmitted...

2013-04-01

466

Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved  

ScienceCinema

Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

467

Muscle fibre type and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle morphology and fibre type composition are briefly reviewed in relation to colour stability and tenderness in beef, and water holding capacity, colour and eating quality in pork. A large inter-muscle and inter-animal variation exists in meat quality, which is often related to metabolic and contractile properties as determined by their muscle fibre type distribution. Characteristics of different muscles may

R. E. Klont; L. Brocks; G. Eikelenboom

1998-01-01

468

Breeding goats for meat production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild goats, Bezoar, Markhol and Ibex, possibly, the respective predecessors of the predominant Bezoar, Savannah and Nubian types, have contributed to the development of approximately 570 goat breed populations in the world. Numerous identifiable morphological characteristics and production performance in these breeds outline the potential for the genetic improvement of the efficiency of meat goat production. The management of

J. N. B. Shrestha; M. H. Fahmy

2005-01-01

469

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cured meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with acute maternal infection acquired during or shortly before the pregnancy. The mother's infection is initiated by the ingestion of one of the life forms of the parasite but the relative importance of the different sources of toxoplasmosis are not established. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed ingestion of raw meats as a risk factor but also

Michelle R Warnekulasuriya; Julie D Johnson; Richard E Holliman

1998-01-01

470

Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.  

PubMed

Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed. PMID:20605688

Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

2010-04-29

471

Meat Processing Build-Own-Operate Ventures  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In mid 1996, Koch Supplies, Inc. was approached by Western NIS Enterprise Fund (WNISEF) to join them in the pursuit of building and becoming a joint venture equity partner in meat processing facilities in Ukraine. The U.S. Trade and Development Agency (TD...

2000-01-01

472

Capillary electrophoresis for meat species differentiation.  

PubMed

A sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polymer-filled capillary gel electrophoresis (CE-SDS) method was developed and optimized for the determination of meat proteins for species differentiation. Sarcoplasmic proteins were extracted with cold bidistilled deionized water and myofibrillar proteins with 0.6 M NaCl/0.01 M phosphate buffer with 0.5% polyphosphates at pH 6 from raw beef, turkey, and pork muscles. Samples were prepared for CE-SDS and the experimental conditions, including sample size, applied voltage, reducing agent, and its concentration, were obtained after a univariate optimization process. Separation of the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar meat proteins was achieved with the optimized conditions of the CE-SDS method developed. The coefficient of variation was less than 1.15% in migration time for all peaks and less than 8.5% in area percentage. The CE-SDS sarcoplasmic protein profiles that resulted were specific for each species both qualitatively and quantitatively and could be employed for differentiation and identification purposes. This CE-SDS method can be used by regulatory agencies for rapid analysis of meat proteins to identify meat species. Automation, fast separation, and on-line data analysis are major advantages of this technique. PMID:9627836

Cota-Rivas, M; Vallejo-Cordoba, B V

473

Irradiation effects on meat color – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color changes in irradiated fresh meat occur because of the susceptibility of the myoglobin molecule, especially the iron, to alterations in the chemical environment and to energy input. The potential for iron electrons to exist in various states makes the environment adjacent to the iron atom particularly vulnerable to the presence of electron-donating compounds and high energy inputs (irradiation). Initial

Susan Brewer

2004-01-01

474

Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)|

Litchfield, J. H.

1978-01-01

475

Meat Processor. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for meat processing occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

476

Oxidative quality and shelf life of meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is one of the primary mechanisms of quality deterioration in foods and especially in meat products. The changes in quality are manifested by adverse changes in flavor, color, texture and nutritive value, and the possible production of toxic compounds. Lipid oxidation in muscle systems is initiated at the membrane level in the intracellular phospholipid fractions. How this occurs

J. I. Gray; E. A. Gomaa; D. J. Buckley

1996-01-01

477

Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

478

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also

Peter Simko

2009-01-01

479

Automated inspection of tubular material based on magnetic particle inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic industrial surface inspection methodology based on Magnetic Particle Inspection is developed from image acquisition to defect classification. First the acquisition system is optimized, then tubular material images are acquired, reconstructed then stored. The characteristics of the crack-like defects with respect to its geometric model and curvature are used as a priori knowledge for mathematical morphology and linear filtering. After the segmentation and binarization of the image, vast amount of defect candidates exist. Finally classification is performed with decision tree learning algorithm due to its robustness and speed. The parameters for mathematical morphology, linear filtering and classification are analyzed and optimized with Design Of Experiments based on Taguchi approach. The most significant parameters obtained may be analyzed and tuned further. Experiments are performed on tubular materials and evaluated by its accuracy and robustness by comparing ground truth and processed images. The result is promising with 97 % True Positive and only 0.01 % False Positive rate on the testing set.

Mahendra, Adhiguna; Stolz, Christophe; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Petit, Sebastien; Noel, Alexandre; Degoutin, Fabien

2012-02-01

480

Detection of chicken and turkey meat in meat mixtures by using real-time PCR assays.  

PubMed

In this study, TaqMan-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques were developed for the detection of chicken and turkey meat in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures. Primers and TaqMan probe sets were designed to amplify 86 bp and 136 bp fragments for the chicken and turkey species, respectively, on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene. In the results, it was possible to detect each species at the level of 0.1 pg template DNA with the TaqMan probe technique without any cross-reactivity with nontarget species (bovine, ovine, donkey, pork, and horse) while the detection level was 1 pg template DNA using conventional PCR. The TaqMan probe assays used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.001% level of both species in the experimental meat mixtures, prepared by mixing chicken and turkey meat with beef at different levels (0.001% to 10%). In conclusion, TaqMan probe assays developed in this research are promising tools in the specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species even in the case of heat-treated meat products, and suitable for a rapid, automated, and routine analysis. PMID:22309374

Kesmen, Zulal; Yetiman, Ahmet E; Sahin, Fikrettin; Yetim, Hasan

2012-02-06

481

Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were up 5% in value to 1.7 billion with a volume of 704,138 mt. However, with increasing production also comes increasing product recalls, averaging 4,536 mt of meat and poultry every year since 1997 (Teratanavat &Hooker, 2004). For example, in September 2007, a major meat processing company recalled up to 9,843 mt (21.7 million pounds) of ground beef due E. coli O157:H7 contamination, one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history.

Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

482

Incidence of Escherichia coli in black walnut meats.  

PubMed

Examination of commercially shelled black walnut meats showed inconsistent numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli; variation occurred among different meat sizes and within each meat size. The incidence of E. coli on meats of commercially hulled black walnuts depended on the physical condition of the nuts. Apparently tightly sealed ones contained only a few or none, whereas those with visibly separated sutures and spoiled meats yielded the most. This contamination was in part correlated to a hulling operation. Large numbers of E. coli on the husk of the walnuts contaminated the hulling water, subsequently also contaminating the meats by way of separated sutures. Chlorination of the hulling wash water was ineffective. Attempts were made to decontaminate the walnut meats without subsequent deleterious changes in flavor or texture. A treatment in coconut oil at 100 C followed by removal of excess surface oil by centrifugation was best. PMID:4905608

Meyer, M T; Vaughn, R H

1969-11-01

483

[Preservation of meats in a controlled atmosphere].  

PubMed

Commercializing meat sets problems more particularly connected with its organoleptic and microbiological qualities. As these qualities, resulting from biochemical and microbial effects, develop during the storage, the conditioning must precisely help their controlling. After examining their factors, the Author analyses the processes of conditioning which he classifies in three categories according to the techniques used and the desired finality (need to store at -1 degree C + 3 degrees C). 1. Conditioning under a steam-proof and gas pervious (O2-CO2) film. Composition of the internal atmosphere permanently close to that of the normal atmosphere. No change in the bright red colouring at the surface (oxymyoglobin). Microbial growth slowed down by refrigeration. Limited storage (a few days). Comminuted meat trade. 2. Conditioning under a totally steam--and gas--proof film. Internal atmospheric air under reduced volume and pressure ("vacuum-packed" meats). Internal changes during the storage: reduced rate O2; increased rate CO2 (cellular and microbial respirations). Surface becoming darker (absence of oxymyoglobin). Growth of the germs arrested (pathogenic and spoilage). However development of microaerophilic and acidophilic germs (in particular the lactic B.). Storage possibly extended to 8 weeks. Re-apparition of the red colour after oxygenation (opened package). Wholesale meat trade. 3. Conditioning under a film with properties close to that of (2 degrees). Initial constitution of an internal "artificial" atmosphere increased in O2 and CO2 (gas injection). No change in the bright red colouring (oxymyoglobin). Growth of the germs arrested (pathogenic and spoilage). Selection of an acidophilic aerobic flora including lactic B. and microbacterium. Storage until 12-15 days. Comminuted meat trade. PMID:707932

Rosset, R

1978-01-01

484

Software Inspection Benchmarking - A Qualitative and Quantitative Comparative Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software inspections are commonly used throughout the software industry, but there are still open questions about the relationship between inspection processes and inspection effectiveness. For example, which techniques work best in various environments? Are requirements specifications inspections and code inspections different in terms of effectiveness? What is the effectiveness in inspections for different group sizes? Benchmarking provides an opportunity to

Claes Wohlin; Aybüke Aurum; Håkan Petersson; Forrest Shull; Marcus Ciolkowski

2002-01-01

485

Ultrasonic phased arrays for weld inspections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic phased arrays are well suited to weld inspections. Phased arrays can perform electronic scanning (where a scan pattern is rapidly multiplexed across a component), sectorial scanning (where the angle of inspection is varied), and combinations of these two. Electronic scanning increases inspection speed using linear scanning, while sectorial sweeping permits the beams to be precisely targeted at selected portions of the welds. The combination permits customized, high speed scans, which create high quality, tailored inspections. This paper describes some of the weld inspections using phased arrays. .

Moles, Michael

2002-05-01

486

Application of hyperspectral imaging in food safety inspection and control: a review.  

PubMed

Food safety is a great public concern, and outbreaks of food-borne illnesses can lead to disturbance to the society. Consequently, fast and nondestructive methods are required for sensing the safety situation of produce. As an emerging technology, hyperspectral imaging has been successfully employed in food safety inspection and control. After presenting the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper provides a comprehensive review on its application in determination of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food products. Additionally, other studies, including detecting meat and meat bone in feedstuffs as well as organic residue on food processing equipment, are also reported due to their close relationship with food safety control. With these applications, it can be demonstrated that miscellaneous hyperspectral imaging techniques including near-infrared hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging, and Raman hyperspectral imaging or their combinations are powerful tools for food safety surveillance. Moreover, it is envisaged that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as an alternative technique for conventional methods in realizing inspection automation, leading to the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems at the utmost. PMID:22823350

Feng, Yao-Ze; Sun, Da-Wen

2012-01-01

487

Programless visual inspection with flexible arm camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When inspection equipment based on visual recognition is installed in production sites, the recognition criterion is custom designed to satisfy the inspection specification, normally requiring constant attention and software modifications by specialty engineers. This paper proposes the Programless (Programming-free) visual recognition technology aiming at an automatic visual inspection system that has a self tuning mechanism and can also be easily tuned by factory workers. A camera system for visual inspection is mounted on a robot arm with flexible electronic components, which enables the users to perform positioning of the inspection equipment in an intuitive manner. The proposed system allows to provide a novel method of visual inspection and to reduce the technical complexity of the handling of visual inspection equipment.

Anezaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Tamao; Hatitani, Shuji; Suzuki, Kenji; Hashimoto, Shuji

2003-10-01

488

Drum inspection robots: Application development  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

Hazen, F.B. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Warner, R.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01

489

Auditory inspection time and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of intelligence to auditory inspection time (AIT) was investigated using tasks derived from the spatial-location method reported by Parker, Crawford, and Stephen (1999). Stereo tone bursts were phase-shifted to create lateralized auditory stimuli, and a high-efficiency staircase was used to systematically vary the duration of the stimulus and determine reliable identification thresholds. As reported by Parker et al.,

Timothy C. Bates

2005-01-01

490

Sanitary Inspection--A Review  

PubMed Central

In a rapid survey of the field of sanitary inspection, the author suggests shifting the emphasis by health officers from the legal and technical to the human aspects of the problem. By outlining the status of each he concludes that the technology receives more attention than do the people from many public health workers. It should be kept in mind that permanent health improvement must be predicated on the awakening of a sanitary conscience.

Wolman, Abel

1921-01-01

491

Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements  

DOEpatents

This disclosure describes an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

Kaiser, B.J.; Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

1984-12-21

492

Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Groves, Oliver J. (Seattle, WA); Kaiser, Bruce J. (Wilmington, NC)

1986-01-01

493

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products in Algiers (Algeria).  

PubMed

This study was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of raw meat and processed meat products contaminated by Salmonella in the region of Algiers, Algeria, to identify serovars and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates. Out of the total 314 samples (144 of raw red meat and meat products, 128 of raw poultry meat and poultry products, and 42 of processed meat products) collected from various retail outlets, 61 (19.43%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The most significant occurrences were recorded for the categories of red meat (23.61%, n=34) and poultry (17.97%, n=23). Among the 64 isolates recovered, 21 different serovars were identified and two strains were nontypable. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Anatum (14.6%, n=9), Salmonella Altona (12.50%, n=8), Salmonella Corvallis (7.81%, n=5), Salmonella Enteritidis (7.81%, n=5), and Salmonella Typhimurium (7.81%, n=5). Sixty-two Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 32 selected antimicrobial agents. Fifty-six (90.32%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, of which 20 (32.26%) showed multidrug resistance. Resistance to sulphonamides (87.10%, n=54) was the most common. Resistance rates were lower to nalidixic acid (16.13%, n=10), streptomycin (16.13%, n=10), and tetracycline (12.90%, n=8), while resistance to pefloxacin was estimated at 4.84% (n=3). Fourteen different resistance patterns were observed. The "ACSSuT" pentaresistance pattern was observed in three of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The obtained results show that these foodstuffs are a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections. PMID:22571639

Mezali, Lynda; Hamdi, Taha Mossadak

2012-05-09

494

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA for authentication of meats from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica), and mouflon (Ovis ammon) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

The prevention of fraudulent labeling of game meat constitutes an important part of food regulatory control and quality assurance systems. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis based on mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was developed for authentication of meats from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica), and mouflon (Ovis ammon). Amplification and restriction site analysis of a DNA fragment about 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of all analyzed species permitted the selection of Msel and Apol endonucleases for meat speciation. The 12S rRNA restriction profiles obtained allowed the unequivocal identification of chamois, pyrenean ibex, and mouflon/sheep and their differentiation from meats of domestic species such as cattle, goat, and swine. The highly variable mitochondrial D-loop gene was also targeted to attempt discrimination between mouflon and sheep meats. A D-loop region (700-1000 bp) was amplified and sequenced in all game and domestic species analyzed, and a primer set was designed for the selective amplification of a 370 bp DNA fragment from mouflon and sheep. PCR-RFLP analysis with the selected Maell enzyme generated a single electrophoretic profile characteristic for sheep, whereas 3 different fragment patterns were obtained for mouflon meats. Consequently, the PCR-RFLP technique developed can be routinely applied in inspection programs in order to verify the correct labeling of game species. PMID:17373450

Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; López-Calleja, Inés; Martin, Irene; Rojas, Maria; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

495

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2012-06-21

496

Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.  

PubMed

Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences. PMID:22593699

Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

2012-04-19

497

Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

Williams, John L.

498

Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

499

Influence of the number of days spent training in an abattoir with access to live cows on the efficiency of do-it-yourself artificial insemination.  

PubMed

Data relating to 35,389 inseminations carried out in the first three years after inseminators were trained were collected by postal questionnaire from 94 do-it-yourself (DIY) artificial inseminators in the UK. The mean calving rate from 14,528 inseminations they carried out on 92 farms in the first year after they were trained was 59.4 per cent (range 5 to 92 per cent). In the second year the mean calving rate from 11,515 inseminations by 64 inseminators was 62.3 per cent (range 33 to 88 per cent), and in the third year the mean calving rate from 9346 inseminations by 49 inseminators was 64.6 per cent (range 41 to 92 per cent). There was an increase of 5.2 per cent in the mean calving rate over the three years with an overall mean calving rate of 61.5 per cent. Each trainee carried out an average of 376 inseminations (range 20 to 800) during the three years. Thirteen instructors were responsible for the tuition and the average time the trainees spent in an abattoir with access to live cows was 2.88 days, with a range from none to five days. For the trainees who spent up to three days training in an abattoir there was an increase of 5.9 per cent in the calving rate they achieved in their first year for every day they spent training with access to live cows (P < 0.005), but there were no significant effects on the outcome of their inseminations in their second or third years. PMID:10212504

Howells, H M; Davies, D A; Dobson, H

1999-03-20

500

Slicing frozen meat with an oscillating knife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forces, and hence fracture energies, required to cut frozen meat are presented in this paper and the merits of applying vibrations to a cutting blade are considered. A knife oscillating in a slicing action was used to cut horse M. semimembranosus and loin muscle M. longissimus dorsi over a range of temperatures (?1.5°C to ?30°C) and vibration frequencies (0–1000

Marcus J. King

1999-01-01