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1

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health. PMID:20691081

2010-01-01

2

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

2012-01-01

3

Salmonella cross-contamination in swine abattoirs in Portugal: Carcasses, meat and meat handlers.  

PubMed

In this study the occurrence of Salmonella in swine, pork meat and meat handlers along with their clonal relatedness is evaluated at abattoir level. Samples from the lymph nodes, carcass surface and meat of 100 pigs and 45 meat handlers were collected in eight abattoirs (July 2007-August 2008). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the pigs tested, 42 produced at least one positive sample. A relatively high frequency of Salmonella occurrence was found in the ileoceacal lymph node samples (26.0%), followed by carcass (16.0%) and meat samples (14.0%). However, ileoceacal lymph nodes that test positive for Salmonella are not found to be a predictor of positive test results further on in the process. Besides the slaughterhouse environment, meat handlers were identified as a possible source of subsequent contamination, with 9.3% of the sample testing positive. Diverse Salmonella enterica serotypes were detected, mainly S. Typhimurium and the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:-, but also S. Derby, S. Rissen, S. Mbandaka, S. London, S. Give, S. Enteritidis and S. Sandiego, in total corresponding to 17 PFGE types. Our results demonstrate that besides a high level of Salmonella swine contamination at pre-harvest level, slaughtering, dressing, cutting and deboning operations are contributing to the occurrence of clinically relevant clones (e.g. S. Typhimurium DT104 and S. 4,[5],12:i:-) in pork products. This study also highlights the possibility of an ongoing Salmonella community being spread by abattoir workers. PMID:22607810

Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Tavares, Alcina; Themudo, Patrícia; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Gärtner, Fátima; Costa, José Manuel; Peixe, Luísa

2012-06-15

4

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Foreign Clearances § 4.72 Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection...

2014-04-01

5

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Foreign Clearances § 4.72 Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection...

2013-04-01

6

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Foreign Clearances § 4.72 Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and...Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection...

2012-04-01

7

The distribution of Staphylococci in bioaerosols from red-meat abattoirs.  

PubMed

The quality and shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs can be reduced by high concentrations in the processing environment of bioaerosols consisting of spoilage microbiota. A lack of documented literature on the distribution of such bioaerosols has, however, led to the underestimation of their impact. In the study reported here, the deboning rooms of selected South African red-meat abattoirs were investigated for airborne concentrations of staphylococci; the authors studied the distribution of Staphylococcus species in general, as well as the coagulase types of Staphylococcus aureus in particular. Average staphylococci bioaerosol concentrations varied considerably among the abattoirs investigated, with Abattoir B having the highest counts (3 x 10(2) CFUs/m3) and Abattoir A having the lowest (7.6 CFUs/m3). There was a significant link between bioaerosols and microbial loads from red meat in the same environment. The recorded levels were, however, well below the recommended maximum limits for bioaerosols suggested by various international and governmental authorities. Staphylococcus xylosus and S. saprophyticus were found to be the most abundant species in the air of the deboning rooms, while among S. aureus coagulase types, Type III and Type VIII were predominant. On the basis of the ecology of the bacterial groups, the authors suggest probable sources of staphylococcal bioaerosols and propose strategies that could be developed for red-meat abattoirs to reduce the levels of airborne pathogens. PMID:17091740

Shale, K; Lues, J E R; Venter, P; Buys, E M

2006-11-01

8

Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.  

PubMed

Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

2013-12-01

9

Wild ungulate slaughtering and meat inspection.  

PubMed

The different phases of production of farmed and hunted wild game fresh meat are described. The importance of reducing the stress resulting from handling procedures (capture, restraint, transport) before the slaughtering of animals is highlighted, due to its adverse effects on meat quality. The hygienic and animal welfare criteria to be adopted in the slaughtering of wild game are described. The importance of carcass inspection immediately after slaughtering is stated, so that meat can be destined for human consumption. Possible alterations occurring in fresh and refrigerated meat, that are capable of compromising its consumability, are presented. PMID:16244931

Casoli, C; Duranti, E; Cambiotti, F; Avellini, P

2005-08-01

10

Clinically relevant multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica in swine and meat handlers at the abattoir.  

PubMed

The presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes in slaughtered swine, carcasses, meat and meat handlers is scarcely evaluated. Recently we demonstrated that diverse Salmonella serotypes are frequently present in swine, pork meat and carcasses, and meat handlers at Portuguese abattoirs. Here we have characterized their antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes, helping elucidate the flow of MDR Salmonella in the food chain. Testing 60 Salmonella isolates from different serotypes, the highest frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (T) [70% (n=42/60), tet(A)/tet(B)/tet(G)], streptomycin (S) [63% (n=38/60), aadA2/strA/strB], sulfamethoxazole (Sul) [62% (n=37/60), sul1/sul2/sul3] and ampicillin (A) [57% (n=34/60), blaPSE-1/blaTEM]. Thirty-seven percent (n=22/60) carried class 1 integrons and multidrug resistance was frequently observed (63% n=38/60), including those serotypes common to human infections [S. Typhimurium 78% n=25/32; S. 4,[5],12:i:- 67% n=2/3; S. Rissen 75% (n=3/4); S. London 67% n=2/3; S. Derby 55%; n=6/11)]. The emergent S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were mostly characterized by ASSuT phenotype [blaTEM/strA-strB/sul2/tet(B)], typical of the European clone, while for the first time the ST phenotype [strA-strB-tet(A)-tet(B)] was also observed. Moreover, we report a first finding of a MDR phenotype in S. London [ANSSuT; blaTEM-strA-strB-sul2-tet(A)]. Our findings suggest that the abattoir environment and the slaughter operations seem not only to harbor MDR serotypes that originated in the pig reservoir, but also propagate them through cross-contamination processes, involving meat handlers. The present study suggests a probable relationship between swine and human salmonellosis throughout the food chain, which is of interest for epidemiological, animal health and public health purposes. PMID:24239169

Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Manageiro, Vera; Gärtner, Fátima; Caniça, Manuela; da Costa, José Manuel Correia; Peixe, Luísa

2014-01-10

11

77 FR 29963 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for Membership  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FSIS-2012-0025] National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Nominations for...membership on the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI). The...Attn: National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection. FOR FURTHER...

2012-05-21

12

76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction AGENCY...establishments will be eligible to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce...Inspection Programs; Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products'' (76 FR...

2011-12-28

13

Microbiological baseline study of beef and pork carcasses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

In 2006 and 2007 beef and pork carcass swabs from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada were tested to determine the levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swabs from beef and pork carcasses from 48 and 34 facilities, respectively, were analyzed. All samples tested were positive for aerobic bacteria with 99.8% of beef and 96.0% of pork samples, having total counts of ? 100 000 CFU/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 22.4% and 42.0% of beef and pork carcass samples, respectively. Generic E. coli were recovered from 14.6% of beef and 33.7% of pork carcass samples. For beef carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 0.1% of 1036 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 1.5% of 1022 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 5.4% of 1018 samples tested for STEC. For pork carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 1.6 % of 1076 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 8.8% of 1070 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 4.8% of 1067 samples tested for STEC. PMID:22467964

Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero

2011-01-01

14

Visual diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis during meat inspection: is it unequivocal?  

PubMed

A total of 267 cysts were collected from March to December 2004 from two main abattoirs in northern Germany. The cysts were classified by the usual organoleptic methods during meat inspection as Cysticercus bovis. The reported prevalence of cysticercosis in the abattoirs was 0.48 and 1.08%, respectively. The cysts were examined macroscopically for description of their morphology and constituents and classified as viable or degenerating (dead). The DNA was extracted from these cysts and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for evaluation of the detection methods used and to make certain that the cysts did indeed belong to C. bovis, as indicated at the slaughterhouses. Two sets of primers were used with different sensitivity levels. The first, HDP1, was able to detect 200 fg of Taenia saginata DNA and 100 pg of C. bovis DNA. The other primer set, HDP2, was able to detect 1 pg of T. saginata DNA and 1 ng of C. bovis DNA. No more than 52.4% of the samples tested positive for C. bovis in the PCR using both primers, while 20% of the viable cysts and 49.2% of the degenerating cysts tested negative with both primers. PMID:16583204

Abuseir, S; Epe, C; Schnieder, T; Klein, G; Kühne, M

2006-09-01

15

Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis.  

PubMed

Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat inspectors and researchers were estimated without the assumption of an available gold standard. The Se for the regular meat inspection was found to be 0.92, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.49 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Se for the researchers was found to be 0.81, 0.96, 0.91 and 0.68 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The Sp for the regular meat inspection was found to be between 0.98 and 1.00 for the four categories. The Sp for the researchers was found to be 0.83, 0.94, 0.76 and 0.99 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. The low Se of ordinary meat inspection for parasitic, intestinal and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART, respectively. PMID:20132995

Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Jan Tind

2010-05-01

16

77 FR 47028 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...provide advice to the Secretary of Agriculture concerning State and Federal programs with respect to meat, poultry, and processed egg products inspection, food safety, and other matters that fall with the scope of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)...

2012-08-07

17

Meat inspection in the Australian red-meat industries: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Postmortem inspection of carcases and offal has been a cornerstone of consumer protection in the red-meat industry for over a century. In 2011, there began strong moves to reform the traditional process of meat inspection applied to cattle, sheep and goats in Australia. A major motivation was the widespread acceptance that organoleptic inspection does little to control the most important hazards in meat products - microbial pathogens derived from gut flora. The watershed reforms in international trade provided another incentive by encouraging the application of a risk-based approach to food safety, which allows for the discontinuation of processes that do not enhance public health outcomes. As well, there was a strong imperative to ensure that resources allocated to quality assurance delivered maximum economic benefit for both consumers and processors. This review discusses how the role of meat inspection is likely to evolve into the future under the influence of these forces. It summarises how the current system was derived through repeated modification over time, mainly to satisfy the requirements of trading partners. Major developments are summarised, focusing especially on how the inclusion of particular organoleptic techniques was initially justified and the relevance of these to modern meat production. Overall, analysis of past and present practices suggests that in the future both public health and efficiency will be better served by strategically integrating the most effective elements of traditional organoleptic inspection with information from the preslaughter period and the use of modern technology for rapid and accurate detection of hazards. PMID:22928685

Webber, Jj; Dobrenov, B; Lloyd, J; Jordan, D

2012-09-01

18

75 FR 43140 - The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FSIS-2010-0021] The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection; Re-establishment...charter of the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) on June...Background The National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection provides...

2010-07-23

19

Occupational Education for Meat Inspection and Laboratory Animal Caretaker Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine educational requirements and opportunities for employment, 60 representatives of animal laboratories and meat inspection agencies were interviewed in a 30-county area in northern Illinois. The chi-square test, analysis of variance test, and Pearson product moment correlation were utilized to conclude that: (1) Substantial…

Mayer, Leon Albert

20

The generation time, lag time, and minimum temperature of growth of coliform organisms on meat, and the implications for codes of practice in abattoirs.  

PubMed Central

The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847

Smith, M. G.

1985-01-01

21

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

2013-01-01

22

Assessing animal welfare in sow herds using data on meat inspection, medication and mortality.  

PubMed

This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements. PMID:25385251

Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T; Houe, H

2015-03-01

23

19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. 4.72 Section 4.72 Customs Duties...meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall...stearin, oleo oil, or other rendered fat derived from cattle, sheep,...

2011-04-01

24

Validation of meat inspection results for Taenia saginata cysticercosis by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Infected cattle is an important food safety issue besides an economic concern. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat containing viable cysticerci. Visual meat inspection of bovines is the only public health measure implemented to control transmission to humans, but it lacks sensitivity and objectivity. It may underestimate the prevalence of the disease by a factor 3 to 10. Furthermore, the success of the method depends on the expertise of the meat inspector as well as on the stage of development of the cysticerci. The focus of this study was to develop and explore the usefulness of a PCR assay as an objective alternative to evaluate the meat inspector's visual inspection results. Hereto, a PCR was developed for the detection of T. saginata DNA in muscle lesions. Based on the laboratory classification of lesions, almost 97% of viable cysts were confirmed by PCR, while for dead cysts, the percentage was approximately 73%. Taken together, these data demonstrate the difficulties of visual meat inspection and their objective interpretation, emphasizing the need to improve current assays to strengthen the control of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17265888

Geysen, Dirk; Kanobana, Kirezi; Victor, Bjorn; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Richar; De Borchgrave, Jean; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre

2007-01-01

25

Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.  

PubMed

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

26

Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing  

PubMed Central

We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-01-01

27

VerifEYE: a real-time meat inspection system for the beef processing industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described is a real-time meat inspection system developed for the beef processing industry by eMerge Interactive. Designed to detect and localize trace amounts of contamination on cattle carcasses in the packing process, the system affords the beef industry an accurate, high speed, passive optical method of inspection. Using a method patented by United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University, the system takes advantage of fluorescing chlorophyll found in the animal's diet and therefore the digestive track to allow detection and imaging of contaminated areas that may harbor potentially dangerous microbial pathogens. Featuring real-time image processing and documentation of performance, the system can be easily integrated into a processing facility's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point quality assurance program. This paper describes the VerifEYE carcass inspection and removal verification system. Results indicating the feasibility of the method, as well as field data collected using a prototype system during four university trials conducted in 2001 are presented. Two successful demonstrations using the prototype system were held at a major U.S. meat processing facility in early 2002.

Kocak, Donna M.; Caimi, Frank M.; Flick, Rick L.; Elharti, Abdelmoula

2003-02-01

28

Patterns of condemnation rates in swine from a federally inspected abattoir in relation to disease outbreak information in Ontario (2005–2007)  

PubMed Central

Strong correlations between clinical signs on farms and the presence of lesions at slaughter have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in condemnation rates provide a data source for surveillance of disease outbreaks in pigs. The data were obtained from 1 abattoir in Ontario (2005–2007). The epidemiological relevance of the results was based on an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario in 2005. The total condemnations and condemnations due to arthritis and pneumonia patterns reflected the field infection of PCVAD in 2005 followed by the widespread use of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) vaccine in 2007. In contrast, increased rates of nephritis and enteritis suggested areas for enhanced surveillance for unexplained changes in disease patterns not identified through traditional passive surveillance. Further studies looking at the benefits of using abattoir data should compare condemnation patterns with multiple sources of swine health data. PMID:21461204

Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Martinez, Alejandro; Friendship, Robert M.

2011-01-01

29

Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in slaughter pigs and consequences for meat inspection, slaughtering, and dressing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in the lymphoid tissues and intestinal tract in pigs and the risk for contamination during the compulsory meat inspection procedures and the procedures during slaughtering and dressing. Another objective of the investigation was to compare traditional isolation methods, the use of a polymerase

Truls Nesbakken; Karl Eckner; Hilde Kristin Høidal; Ole-Johan Røtterud

2003-01-01

30

Sensitivity and optimization of artificial digestion in the inspection of meat for Trichinella spiralis.  

PubMed

In many countries, the method of choice in inspecting meat for Trichinella spiralis infection is artificial digestion. We conducted a study of the sensitivity of the artificial digestion method recommended by the International Commission on Trichinellosis for detecting T. spiralis larvae in meat and of the effect of modifications of some procedures used in the method on its sensitivity. As part of this, we evaluated the effects on larval recovery of the vessels used for larval settling, sieve sizes, and temperatures at which larvae passed through the sieves, using larvae from T. spiralis-infected mice. We observed the effects on larval recovery of digestion duration and of modified artificial digestion by using 10-g samples of infected mouse muscle alone or mixed with uninfected pork. The percentages of larvae recovered with the respective use of separatory funnels and conical cylinders were 51.20% and 98.70%. The rates of recovery of T. spiralis larvae at 4 degrees C after passage through sieves of 425-microm mesh (No. 40), 250-microm mesh (No. 60), and 180-microm mesh (No. 80) were 98.42%, 90.59%, and 81.63%, which exceeded the 97.79%, 85.10%, and 61.12% rates of recovery of motile larvae at 40 degrees C and the 95.12%, 78.60%, and 44.16% rates of recovery of dead larvae at 90 degrees C. The larval recovery rate after digestion for 2 hours (96.18%) was greater than that after 0.5 hours (88.00%). We then examined a modified digestion method in which 10-g samples of pork mixed with 300 mL of digestive solution were digested for 2 hours at 43 degrees C followed by chilling of digest solution to 4 degrees C before passing it through a 425-microm mesh (No. 40) sieve and allowing it to settle in a 1-L conical cylinder. With this procedure, the modified method detected T. spiralis in samples of pork meat weighing 10 g and containing either 1 larva per gram or 0.1 larva per gram. Further validation of digestion method incorporating these modifications is required with the use of larger samples of infected muscle from species such as swine, which are routinely tested for T. spiralis for the purpose of food safety. PMID:20524897

Li, Feng; Cui, Jing; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Peng

2010-08-01

31

9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...establishments the official inspection legend to be applied to meat and meat food products...c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations....

2014-01-01

32

9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...establishments the official inspection legend to be applied to meat and meat food products...c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations....

2013-01-01

33

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.  

PubMed

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

2011-07-01

34

Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves  

PubMed Central

A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×104 Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71.42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28.58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3.07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14.37%), head (11.21%), neck+chuck roll (8.05%), heart (7.75%) and top (inside) round (7.18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48.51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3.12%), diaphragm (1.69%) and esophagus (1.60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite. PMID:21929881

SOARES, V E; DE ANDRADE BELO, M A; REZENDE, P C B; SOCCOL, V T; FUKUDA, R T; DE OLIVEIRA, G P; DA COSTA, A J

2011-01-01

35

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...260 Section 319.260 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...Luncheon meat. “Luncheon Meat” is a cured, cooked meat food product made from comminuted meat....

2014-01-01

36

9 CFR 327.6 - Products for importation; program inspection, time and place; application for approval of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...approved official import inspection establishments will be listed in the Directory of Meat and Poultry Inspection Program...

2014-01-01

37

9 CFR 327.6 - Products for importation; program inspection, time and place; application for approval of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...approved official import inspection establishments will be listed in the Directory of Meat and Poultry Inspection Program...

2013-01-01

38

Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

39

Pathogen testing of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1990 to 1999.  

PubMed

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted microbiological testing programs for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products produced at approximately 1,800 federally inspected establishments. All samples were collected at production facilities and not at retail. We report results here for the years 1990 through 1999. Prevalence data for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or staphylococcal enterotoxins in nine different categories of RTE meat and poultry products are presented and discussed. The prevalence data have certain limitations that restrict statistical inferences, because these RTE product-testing programs are strictly regulatory in nature and not statistically designed. The cumulative 10-year Salmonella prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.31%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 0.10%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 0.07%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 0.20%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 0.22%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 0.05%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 0.22%. The cumulative 3-year Salmonella prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 1.43%. The cumulative 10-year L. monocytogenes prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.52%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 2.12%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 1.31%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 3.56%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 3.09%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 3.03%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 5.16%. The cumulative 3-year L. monocytogenes prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 3.25%. None of the RTE products tested for E. coli O157:H7 or staphylococcal enterotoxins was positive. Although FSIS and the industry have made progress in reducing pathogens in these products, additional efforts are ongoing to continually improve the safety of all RTE meat and poultry products manufactured in federally inspected establishments in the United States. PMID:11510658

Levine, P; Rose, B; Green, S; Ransom, G; Hill, W

2001-08-01

40

9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...establishments, the official inspection legend to be applied to imported meat and meat...establishments the official inspection legend to be applied to meat and meat food products...brands containing official inspection legends shall be in accordance with the...

2010-01-01

41

Bovine cysticercosis--development of a real-time PCR to enhance classification of suspect cysts identified at meat inspection.  

PubMed

Laboratory confirmation methods are important in bovine cysticerosis diagnosis as other pathologies can result in morphologically similar lesions resulting in false identifications. We developed a probe-based real-time PCR assay to identify Taenia saginata in suspect cysts encountered at meat inspection and compared its use with the traditional method of identification, histology, as well as a published nested PCR. The assay simultaneously detects T. saginata DNA and a bovine internal control using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of each species and shows specificity against parasites causing lesions morphologically similar to those of T. saginata. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect 1 fg (Ct 35.09 ± 0.95) of target DNA using serially-diluted plasmid DNA in reactions spiked with bovine DNA as well as in all viable and caseated positive control cysts. A loss in PCR sensitivity was observed with increasing cyst degeneration as seen in other molecular methods. In comparison to histology, the assay offered greater sensitivity and accuracy with 10/19 (53%) T. saginata positives detected by real-time PCR and none by histology. When the results were compared with the reference PCR, the assay was less sensitive but offered advantages of faster turnaround times and reduced contamination risk. Estimates of the assay's repeatability and reproducibility showed the assay is highly reliable with reliability coefficients greater than 0.94. PMID:23499482

Cuttell, Leigh; Owen, Helen; Lew-Tabor, Alicja E; Traub, Rebecca J

2013-05-01

42

Oxytetracycline residues in bovine carcasses slaughtered at Mansoura Abattoir, Egypt.  

PubMed

Oxytetracycline residues were examined in 600 samples (200 each of muscles, livers and kidneys) collected randomly from bovine carcasses slaughtered at Mansoura abattoir in Dakahlia Province, Egypt. A microbial inhibition test using Bacillus subtilis ATCC- 6633 was employed to screen the obtained samples for antibiotic residues in meat. The results showed that 2% of samples were positive. Oxytetracycline residues exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 1.33% of the examined samples. Thus, regulatory authorities should insure proper withdrawal period before slaughtering of the animals (28 days for oxytetracycline). Public health importance was discussed. PMID:23631152

Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; El-Atabany, Adel I; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy

2013-02-01

43

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...exotic animal meat and meat food products in an...under exotic animal inspection service must...

2011-01-01

44

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...exotic animal meat and meat food products in an...under exotic animal inspection service must...

2012-01-01

45

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...exotic animal meat and meat food products in an...under exotic animal inspection service must...

2014-01-01

46

9 CFR 352.3 - Application by official exotic animal establishment for inspection services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...exotic animal meat and meat food products in an...under exotic animal inspection service must...

2013-01-01

47

Bayesian network as an aid for Food Chain Information use for meat inspection.  

PubMed

Current ante mortem inspection involves a check of relevant Food Chain Information (FCI) transmitted by the farmer to the slaughterhouse on a regulatory FCI document. Since 2000, a farm sanitary form with FCI data has been used for all consignments of broiler chickens in France. However, the FCI needs to be standardized for the collection and interpretation of data. A study was conducted to develop an expert system, undertaken to elaborate on a simple decision support system capable of predicting whether the flocks will present a high condemnation risk, based on FCI. For this, 'optimal' (i.e. on-farm survey data) and 'worthy' (i.e. farmers' declaration on existing farm sanitary form) data quality conditions were considered to estimate the lower and upper reference bounds of the confidence that the decision-makers could have in such a tool. Chicken broiler flocks (404) were randomly selected in 15 slaughterhouses located in Western France in 2005. Condemnation proportion and farm sanitary form were collected for each selected flock. Information about health history and technical performances were also specifically collected on farm. Condemnation risk category was modelled from the on-farm collected information, using a Bayesian network and assuming this represented the optimal data quality conditions. Corresponding information declared by the farmer on the existing farm sanitary form was secondly used in the network to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty of such information on the condemnation classification obtained with the expert system. The learnt Bayesian network had 16 explanatory variables pertaining to technical characteristics and sanitary features of the flock. Using a threshold of 1% of condemned carcases to define high risk, the network sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 93%, respectively, corresponding to positive and negative predictive values of 70% and 87%. When declared existing information was used in the network, the sensitivity and specificity were 16% and 96%, respectively, corresponding to positive and negative predictive values of 57% and 80%. Results suggested that the predictive network developed may be insufficient for correctly classifying chicken flocks for targeting of management procedures, and in its current form, the expert system may be unlikely to be implemented in the field. However, it could help to improve the standardization of both form design and FCI interpretation at a national level. PMID:23044473

Lupo, C; Le Bouquin, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Péraste, J; Petetin, I; Colin, P; Jouffe, L; Chauvin, C

2013-04-01

48

A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions. Results A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung (“Rule of Tens”). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference. Conclusions The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors. PMID:24766795

2014-01-01

49

9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...products at which inspection under the Act and...the manner in which meat food products...

2014-01-01

50

9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...products at which inspection under the Act and...the manner in which meat food products...

2011-01-01

51

9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...products at which inspection under the Act and...the manner in which meat food products...

2013-01-01

52

9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...products at which inspection under the Act and...the manner in which meat food products...

2012-01-01

53

9 CFR 327.15 - Outside containers of foreign products; marking and labeling; application of official inspection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...number assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the...with the official import meat inspection mark prescribed in §...

2014-01-01

54

9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS ...shipment program; inspection by designated...

2013-01-01

55

9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS ...shipment program; inspection by designated...

2012-01-01

56

9 CFR 327.15 - Outside containers of foreign products; marking and labeling; application of official inspection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...number assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the...with the official import meat inspection mark prescribed in §...

2012-01-01

57

9 CFR 327.15 - Outside containers of foreign products; marking and labeling; application of official inspection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...number assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the...with the official import meat inspection mark prescribed in §...

2011-01-01

58

9 CFR 327.15 - Outside containers of foreign products; marking and labeling; application of official inspection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...number assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the...with the official import meat inspection mark prescribed in §...

2013-01-01

59

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Meat and Poultry Inspection Program poultry inspection...

2014-01-01

60

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Meat and Poultry Inspection Program poultry inspection...

2012-01-01

61

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Meat and Poultry Inspection Program poultry inspection...

2011-01-01

62

9 CFR 381.109 - Form of official poultry inspection certificate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Meat and Poultry Inspection Program poultry inspection...

2013-01-01

63

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2011-01-01

64

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2010-01-01

65

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

66

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2012-01-01

67

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2010-01-01

68

9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 ...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2014-01-01

69

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2011-01-01

70

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and...AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2014-01-01

71

9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...the official inspection legend to be applied to imported meat and meat food products shall be in the appropriate form 1...

2011-01-01

72

9 CFR 327.26 - Official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...the official inspection legend to be applied to imported meat and meat food products shall be in the appropriate form 1...

2012-01-01

73

9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

74

9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

75

9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

76

9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

77

9 CFR 381.115 - Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Containers of inspected and passed poultry products required to be labeled. ...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

78

Harmonising sanitary measures and resolving trade disputes through the WTO–SPS framework. Part II. a case study of the US–Australia determination of equivalence in meat inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), working together as the WTO–SPS framework, seek to prevent the arbitrary and unjustified use of sanitary measures as barriers to trade. Using a bilateral trade issue between the US and Australia regarding meat inspection, this study examines the influence of the

J. J. Kastner; R. K. Pawsey

2002-01-01

79

The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs’ Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on  Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on  Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834

Olorode, Oluwayemisi A

2012-01-01

80

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...312.8 Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates...a) The official export meat inspection mark required by part...

2014-01-01

81

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...312.8 Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates...a) The official export meat inspection mark required by part...

2012-01-01

82

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...312.8 Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates...a) The official export meat inspection mark required by part...

2011-01-01

83

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...312.8 Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates...a) The official export meat inspection mark required by part...

2010-01-01

84

Bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir, Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026

Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B

2008-01-01

85

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2012-01-01

86

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2011-01-01

87

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2010-01-01

88

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2011-01-01

89

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2014-01-01

90

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2013-01-01

91

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2013-01-01

92

9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats....

2010-01-01

93

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2012-01-01

94

9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.304 Meat...

2014-01-01

95

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2014-01-01

96

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2011-01-01

97

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2012-01-01

98

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2013-01-01

99

9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation...AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...

2010-01-01

100

Current status of bovine cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle. PMID:18551380

Kebede, Nigatu; Tilahun, Getachew; Hailu, Asrat

2009-03-01

101

The aerobic psychotrophic populations on meat and meat contact surfaces in a meat production system and on meat stored at chill temperatures.  

PubMed

At a city abattoir, a wholesaler and 10 different supermarkets, surface microbiological samples were taken of carcasses, hands and apron fronts of members of staff and equipment (mincers and saws). In addition, minced meat, packaged and displayed in chilled cabinets, was also sampled. Carcasses, personnel surfaces and equipment were monitored by a modified agar sausage technique. From each of the highest dilution psychotrophic plate counts, five colonies were selected randomly, isolated and identified (1265 in total). Microbes developing on chilled meat were also isolated from other surfaces in the production chain. On chilled meat (51%) and at the abattoir (36%) pseudomonads were the predominant organisms followed by the Gram-positive cocci on chilled meat and by Acinetobacter, Moraxella and Alcaligenes spp. at the abattoir. At the wholesaler Gram-positive cocci (32%) predominated, followed by Alcaligenes, Moraxella and Alcaligenes spp. Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Neisseriaceae and related genera, Gram-positive cocci, species from the coryneform groups of bacteria and yeasts were identified from all the surfaces monitored. Identification with the API NE20 was unsatisfactory. Enterbacteriaceae, lactobacilli and endospore-forming bacteria were identified occasionally, but their significance as contaminating organisms seems low. No Salmonella spp. were identified. PMID:2112534

Nortjé, G L; Nel, L; Jordaan, E; Badenhorst, K; Goedhart, E; Holzapfel, W H

1990-04-01

102

Meats and Meat Cookery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

103

9 CFR 317.3 - Approval of abbreviations of marks of inspection; preparation of marking devices bearing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...containing an official inspection legend shown in § 312...appropriate for horse meat food products)...

2011-01-01

104

9 CFR 317.3 - Approval of abbreviations of marks of inspection; preparation of marking devices bearing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...containing an official inspection legend shown in § 312...appropriate for horse meat food products)...

2013-01-01

105

9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations. (f)...

2013-01-01

106

9 CFR 317.3 - Approval of abbreviations of marks of inspection; preparation of marking devices bearing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...containing an official inspection legend shown in § 312...appropriate for horse meat food products)...

2012-01-01

107

9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations. (f)...

2012-01-01

108

9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations. (f)...

2014-01-01

109

9 CFR 317.3 - Approval of abbreviations of marks of inspection; preparation of marking devices bearing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...containing an official inspection legend shown in § 312...appropriate for horse meat food products)...

2014-01-01

110

9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...3(c) of the Federal meat inspection regulations. (f)...

2011-01-01

111

A rapid low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test for routine inspection of meat species.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of food frauds suggests that species identification should be part of food authentication. Current molecular-based species identification methods have their own limitations or drawbacks, such as relatively time-consuming experimental steps, expensive equipment and, in particular, these methods cannot identify mixed species in a single experiment. This project proposes an improved method involving PCR amplification of the COI gene and detection of species-specific sequences by hybridisation. Major innovative breakthrough lies in the detection of multiple species, including pork, beef, lamb, horse, cat, dog and mouse, from a mixed sample within a single experiment. The probes used are species-specific either in sole or mixed species samples. As little as 5 pg of DNA template in the PCR is detectable in the proposed method. By designing species-specific probes and adopting reverse dot blot hybridisation and flow-through hybridisation, a low-cost high-density DNA-based multi-detection test suitable for routine inspection of meat species was developed. PMID:24211550

Lin, Chun Chi; Fung, Lai Ling; Chan, Po Kwok; Lee, Cheuk Man; Chow, Kwok Fai; Cheng, Shuk Han

2014-02-01

112

Electronic Inspection of Beef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

1987-01-01

113

9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

114

9 CFR 381.14 - Inspection concerning purportedly exempted operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Inspection concerning purportedly exempted...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

115

9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

116

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

117

9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

118

9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

119

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 354.134...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

120

9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

121

9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

122

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

123

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Finished product inspection. 381.309 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

124

9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Refusal of inspection. 381.21 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

125

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

126

9 CFR 381.21 - Refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Refusal of inspection. 381.21 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

127

9 CFR 354.140 - Forms of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Forms of inspection certificates. 354.140...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

128

9 CFR 354.140 - Forms of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Forms of inspection certificates. 354.140...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

129

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

130

9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

131

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

132

9 CFR 381.38 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 381.38 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

133

9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

134

9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

135

9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Finished product inspection. 381.309 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

136

9 CFR 354.140 - Forms of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Forms of inspection certificates. 354.140...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

137

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

138

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

139

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

140

9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 381.22 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

141

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

142

9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

143

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

144

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 354.134...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

145

9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

146

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

147

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

148

9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

149

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

150

9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 381.22 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

151

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

152

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

153

9 CFR 381.38 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 381.38 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

154

9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

155

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 354.134...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

156

9 CFR 354.140 - Forms of inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Forms of inspection certificates. 354.140...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

157

9 CFR 381.14 - Inspection concerning purportedly exempted operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Inspection concerning purportedly exempted...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

158

9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

159

9 CFR 304.1 - Application for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Application for inspection. 304.1 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

160

9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

161

9 CFR 304.3 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 304.3 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

162

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 354.134...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

163

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

164

9 CFR 352.9 - Report of inspection work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Report of inspection work. 352.9 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

165

9 CFR 381.38 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 381.38 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

166

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

167

9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 381.22 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

168

9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 381.22 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

169

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

170

9 CFR 381.22 - Conditions for receiving inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Conditions for receiving inspection. 381.22 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

171

9 CFR 305.4 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Inauguration of inspection. 305.4 Section 305...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

172

9 CFR 381.6 - Establishments requiring inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Establishments requiring inspection. 381.6 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

173

9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

174

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

175

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

176

9 CFR 381.35 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 381.35 ...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

177

9 CFR 381.38 - Overtime and holiday inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Overtime and holiday inspection service. 381.38 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

178

9 CFR 354.121 - Ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection. 354.121 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

179

9 CFR 381.20 - Survey and grant of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Survey and grant of inspection. 381.20 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

180

9 CFR 354.30 - Who may obtain inspection service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Who may obtain inspection service. 354.30 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

181

9 CFR 354.134 - Appeal inspections; how made.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Appeal inspections; how made. 354.134...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

182

9 CFR 381.14 - Inspection concerning purportedly exempted operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Inspection concerning purportedly exempted...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

183

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

184

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

185

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

186

9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

187

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

188

9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2011-01-01

189

9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS...section 301(c) of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and section 5(c) of...

2014-01-01

190

9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS...section 301(c) of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and section 5(c) of...

2012-01-01

191

9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS...section 301(c) of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and section 5(c) of...

2013-01-01

192

9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...7 Section 352.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...inspected and passed exotic animal carcasses, meat or meat food products under this part shall include...

2010-01-01

193

9 CFR 352.7 - Marking inspected products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...7 Section 352.7 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...inspected and passed exotic animal carcasses, meat or meat food products under this part shall include...

2011-01-01

194

A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs.  

PubMed

The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13%) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. PMID:21247016

Spencer, B T; Veary, C M

2010-06-01

195

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2012-01-01

196

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2014-01-01

197

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2012-01-01

198

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2012-01-01

199

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2011-01-01

200

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2013-01-01

201

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2013-01-01

202

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2011-01-01

203

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2010-01-01

204

9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2010-01-01

205

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2010-01-01

206

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2013-01-01

207

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2014-01-01

208

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2011-01-01

209

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2013-01-01

210

9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2014-01-01

211

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2011-01-01

212

9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

2012-01-01

213

9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products §...

2010-01-01

214

Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854

Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

2014-09-30

215

9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

2014-01-01

216

9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. Link to an amendment...

2012-01-01

217

75 FR 51437 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Currently Approved Information Collection (Advanced Meat Recovery) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service...regulatory requirements associated with the production of meat from Advanced Meat Recovery systems because the OMB approval will...

2010-08-20

218

9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of...

2013-01-01

219

9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Identification of major cuts of meat products. 317.344 Section 317...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. Link to an amendment...

2011-01-01

220

9 CFR 332.6 - Commencement of a cooperative interstate shipment program; inspection by designated personnel and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.6 Commencement...parts of carcasses, meat, and meat food products prepared in a...

2014-01-01

221

Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

222

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

223

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

224

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2011-01-01

225

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

226

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2011-01-01

227

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2011-01-01

228

9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Refusal to grant inspection. 500.7 Section 500.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2011-01-01

229

9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Refusal to grant inspection. 500.7 Section 500.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2010-01-01

230

9 CFR 500.6 - Withdrawal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of inspection. 500.6 Section 500.6...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2012-01-01

231

9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Refusal to grant inspection. 500.7 Section 500.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2013-01-01

232

9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Refusal to grant inspection. 500.7 Section 500.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2012-01-01

233

9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Refusal to grant inspection. 500.7 Section 500.7...Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY...

2014-01-01

234

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2014-01-01

235

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2014-01-01

236

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2013-01-01

237

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2012-01-01

238

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2013-01-01

239

9 CFR 355.7 - Inauguration of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2014-01-01

240

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2013-01-01

241

9 CFR 355.3 - Plants eligible for inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2012-01-01

242

9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2012-01-01

243

9 CFR 354.107 - Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

244

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Time of inspection in an official plant. 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

245

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

246

9 CFR 381.4 - Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Inspection in accordance with methods...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

247

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

248

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

249

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

250

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

251

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

252

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of suspects on ante-mortem inspection. 354.123 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

253

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

254

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

255

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

256

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates. 354.141...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

257

9 CFR 381.123 - Official inspection mark; official establishment number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Official inspection mark; official establishment...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

258

9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

259

9 CFR 352.4 - Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field. 352...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

260

9 CFR 354.107 - Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Continuous inspection performed on a resident basis...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

261

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

262

9 CFR 381.123 - Official inspection mark; official establishment number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Official inspection mark; official establishment...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

263

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

264

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

265

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates. 354.141...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

266

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

267

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

268

9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

269

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates. 354.141...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

270

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

271

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

272

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Time of inspection in an official plant. 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

273

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of suspects on ante-mortem inspection. 354.123 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

274

9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

275

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

276

9 CFR 381.108 - Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Official poultry inspection certificates; issuance and...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

277

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

278

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

279

9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

280

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

281

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

282

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

283

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

284

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

285

9 CFR 354.76 - Time of inspection in an official plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Time of inspection in an official plant. 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

286

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

287

9 CFR 381.4 - Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Inspection in accordance with methods...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

288

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

289

9 CFR 352.4 - Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field. 352...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

290

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

291

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

292

9 CFR 381.72 - Segregation of suspects on ante mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of suspects on ante mortem inspection. 381.72 Section 381...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

293

9 CFR 381.4 - Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Inspection in accordance with methods...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

294

9 CFR 381.4 - Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Inspection in accordance with methods...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

295

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

296

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

297

9 CFR 381.123 - Official inspection mark; official establishment number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Official inspection mark; official establishment...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

298

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

299

9 CFR 381.199 - Inspection of poultry products offered for entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Inspection of poultry products offered...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

300

9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. 354.122 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

301

9 CFR 381.70 - Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Ante mortem inspection; when required; extent...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

302

9 CFR 352.4 - Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field. 352...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

303

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

304

9 CFR 327.10 - Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal of entry; marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Samples; inspection of consignments; refusal...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

305

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of suspects on ante-mortem inspection. 354.123 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

306

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates. 354.141...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

307

9 CFR 352.4 - Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Application for ante-mortem inspection service in the field. 352...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

308

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

309

9 CFR 354.123 - Segregation of suspects on ante-mortem inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of suspects on ante-mortem inspection. 354.123 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

310

9 CFR 381.4 - Inspection in accordance with methods prescribed or approved.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Inspection in accordance with methods...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

311

9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates. 354.141...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2010-01-01

312

9 CFR 304.2 - Information to be furnished; grant or refusal of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...furnished; grant or refusal of inspection. 304.2 Section 304...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

313

9 CFR 354.161 - Requirements as to manner of inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Requirements as to manner of inspection. 354.161 Section 354...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

314

9 CFR 354.110 - Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Disposition of fees for inspection made under cooperative agreement...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

315

9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

2010-01-01

316

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2014-01-01

317

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2011-01-01

318

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

2013-01-01

319

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2013-01-01

320

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306...

2012-01-01

321

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2012-01-01

322

9 CFR 318.2 - Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official establishments...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...Reinspection, retention, and disposal of meat and poultry products at official...

2010-01-01

323

Modelling lamb carcase pH and temperature decline parameters: Relationship to shear force and abattoir variation.  

PubMed

Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18°C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs. PMID:25460110

Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J

2014-10-01

324

A prospective follow-up study on transmission of campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.  

PubMed

Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

2014-09-01

325

Chemical analysis of meat products.  

PubMed

Meat, particularly muscle tissue, is basically a 3-component system of protein, moisture, and fat. Although this seems a simple analytical system in which to monitor product composition for regulatory compliance, the simplicity quickly erodes when meat is formulated into the broad variety of products commercially available today. Alternative protein sources, as well as preservatives, binders, extenders, emulsifiers, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, add to the analytes of concern and highlight the need for analytical methods suitable to support inspection and labeling requirements to ensure product compliance. Some key issues are noted which involve protein quality analysis, rapid compositional analysis, isolated soy protein analysis, and minced fish in meat products. PMID:3558282

Ellis, R L

1987-01-01

326

Conventional approach for abattoir wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Detailed physico-chemical studies on abattoir effluent using lime, alum, ferrous sulphate and an anionic polyelectrolyte were tried individually and in combination. Among the coagulants tried, lime resulted in good settling of the sludge. At 400 mg l(-1) of lime dose, the Suspended Solids (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removals were found to be 41.9%, 38.9% and 36.1%, respectively. Best results were obtained with lime and ferrous sulphate in a combination ratio of 400:100 mg l(-1), and the COD reduction of 36.1% at 400 mg l(-1) of lime, further improved to 56.8%. Lime and alum dose of 400:50 mg l(-1) resulted in an increased COD reduction of 42.6% compared to 36.1% at lime dose of 400 mg l(-1). However, the same lime dose with ferrous sulphate addition of 100 mg l(-1) resulted in an increased COD reduction of 56.8% compared to 36.1%. This is a more efficient option for abattoir wastewater treatment and also cost effective. Ferrous sulphate with anionic polyelectrolyte resulted in good removals. Though it is a costly chemical, the dose needed is just half that of lime and just 0.1 mg l(-1) of anionic polyelectrolyte resulted in good reductions in SS, BOD and COD of 54.2%, 49.6% and 43.8% respectively. Studies indicated that the lime and ferrous sulphate in the combination of 400:100 mg l(-1), and ferrous sulphate and polyelectrolyte in the combination of 100:0.1 mg l(-1) are the two feasible options. Lime in combination with alum can also be applied but resultant sludge volume would be more. PMID:15906496

Satyanarayan, S; Ramakant; Vanerkar, A P

2005-04-01

327

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

2012-01-01

328

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2012-01-01

329

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2011-01-01

330

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

2013-01-01

331

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2014-01-01

332

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2013-01-01

333

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2011-01-01

334

9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327.9 Section 327.9 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be used as a...

2010-01-01

335

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2012-01-01

336

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2010-01-01

337

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2014-01-01

338

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307 Section 319.307 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307...

2011-01-01

339

9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721 Animals...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths,...

2013-01-01

340

9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Time of inspection in the field and in an official...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

341

9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2013-01-01

342

9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Time of inspection in the field and in an official...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

343

9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2011-01-01

344

9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Time of inspection in the field and in an official...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

345

9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2012-01-01

346

9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

347

9 CFR 352.8 - Time of inspection in the field and in an official exotic animal establishment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Time of inspection in the field and in an official...Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

2014-01-01

348

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

2014-01-01

349

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with...

2012-01-01

350

9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with...

2013-01-01

351

Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. PMID:23896152

Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

2014-01-01

352

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2014-01-01

353

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2011-01-01

354

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2013-01-01

355

9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and...

2012-01-01

356

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION...

2011-01-01

357

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2010-01-01

358

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2012-01-01

359

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2014-01-01

360

9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND...

2013-01-01

361

Microbiological conditions of meats from large game animals and birds.  

PubMed

Large game animals and birds used for the commercial production of meat include deer of various species, wild boar and feral pigs, ostriches, emus and rheas, crocodiles and alligators, bison, and kangaroos. Meat from feral pigs and kangaroos is obtained from wild animals only, but much or most meat from the other game animals or birds is obtained from farmed animals. The microbiological conditions of meats from hunted animals can be compromised by poor placement of shots, the usual evisceration and sometimes further dressing of carcass in the field, and ageing of carcasses at ambient temperatures. However, the general microbiological conditions of carcasses from farmed game animals or birds slaughtered and dressed at suitable abattoirs can be comparable with or better than the microbiological conditions of carcasses from domestic animals or birds. The incidences of enteric pathogens on meat from wild or farmed game animals or birds can be less than those for meat from intensively reared domestic animals, but infection of some game meats with Trichinella or other foodborne parasites may occur. PMID:22061585

Gill, C O

2007-10-01

362

Ambivalence towards meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether differences in ambivalence between meat eaters affect their attitude towards eating meat, the belief structure underlying these attitudes, meat consumption, and intentions to reduce consumption in the future. Not surprisingly, more ambivalent meat eaters held a less positive attitude towards meat as compared to less ambivalent meat eaters. Moreover, the

Mariëtte Berndsen; Joop van der Pligt

2004-01-01

363

76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...be made available for public inspection and posted without change, including...voluntary, fee-for-service inspection and certification programs for...Farm Bill, amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) to provide...

2011-05-09

364

9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...307 Section 319.307 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with...

2014-01-01

365

9 CFR 312.8 - Official export inspection marks, devices, and certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8 Section 312.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...of Agriculture, with a certification that meat or meat food products described on the form is from animals that...

2013-01-01

366

Microbiological contamination of cattle carcasses at different stages of slaughter in two abattoirs.  

PubMed

Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539

Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger

2014-10-01

367

Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospirosis in Abattoir Workers in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord

2014-01-01

368

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2011-01-01

369

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2012-01-01

370

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2014-01-01

371

9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products...ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry...

2013-01-01

372

HACCP Training for Meat and Poultry Processors Sponsored by UNH Cooperative Extension  

E-print Network

is required for USDA inspection of meat and poultry products. This course meets US Department of AgricultureHACCP Training for Meat and Poultry Processors Sponsored by UNH Cooperative Extension Wednesday: (invited) Susan Isberg, Enforcement, Investigations and Analysis Officer, Food Safety Inspection Service

New Hampshire, University of

373

Meat Preparation  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety Fact Sheets / Meat Preparation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

374

The Meat Lab is located on the south edge of the UC Davis Loop in the Harold Cole Facility Building "C", directly south of Meyer Hall  

E-print Network

Location: The Meat Lab is located on the south edge of the UC Davis Loop in the Harold Cole Wasn't Won on Salad" The UC Davis Meat Lab is a federally inspected meat pro- cessing plant located on the UC Davis campus in the Har- old Cole Facility for the Study of Biology of Large Animals. The Meat Lab

Todd, Brian

375

Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis in Jimma municipal abattoir, South West Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 512 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93%) and 161 (31.44%) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12%) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5%), heart (33.9%), neck muscle (13.8%), tongue (10.1%), masseter muscles (1.8%) and diaphragm (0.9%). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0%) were fertile, 505 (43.1%) sterile, 49 (29.8%) calcified and 94 (8.0%) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area. PMID:21105600

Tolosa, T; Tigre, W; Teka, G; Dorny, P

2009-09-01

376

Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in abuja, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 10(6) to 5.8 × 10(5) /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 10(4) to 3.2 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(5)/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 10(4) to 1.8 × 10(4)/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 10(4) to 6.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(2)/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127

Nafarnda, W D; Ajayi, I E; Shawulu, J C; Kawe, M S; Omeiza, G K; Sani, N A; Tenuche, O Z; Dantong, D D; Tags, S Z

2012-01-01

377

MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice  

E-print Network

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, and ground meats Refreeze Discard Poultry and ground poultry Refreeze Discard Variety meats, entree, specialty items (pizza, sausage and biscuit, meat pie,convenience foods

Liskiewicz, Maciej

378

DIPTERAN FAUNA OF AN ABATTOIR AND ITS CONTIGUOUS FALLOW PLOT IN A GUINEA SAVANNA ECOSYSTEM  

E-print Network

The pitfall trap was used in the study of the dipteran populations of an abattoir and a contiguous fallow plot, in relation to their relative abundance and distribution. A total number of 140 adult species of Synydas and Stomorhina cribrata, and 400 dipteran larvae were captured at the abattoir using pitfall techniques, with correspondingly fewer species of similar dipterans trapped at the contiguous fallow plot. Significant difference existed in the trapping of the Diptera larvae with more trapped at the abattoir than the fallow plot using Student t-test. There was also a preponderance of calliphorid species at the abattoir when the sweep net was used, with these species implicated as being potential pests of medical and forensic importance. The presence of Sarcophaga sp. and Fannia canicularis in the sweep net collection at the abattoir was also traced to the presence of decaying fall-offs from carcass. Other possible implications of the collected dipteran species at the abattoir and its vicinity were also discussed.

Ewuim Sylvanus Chima

379

Research into poultry meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Research in the field of poultry meat quality has become more varied during the last 50 years. Besides meat content and microbial condition, animal welfare issues during the slaughter process, muscle morphology, physiology of meat ripening, impact of slaughter process on meat quality, sensory attributes of meat and meat processing have come into focus. 2. The present review summarizes

M. A. Grashorn

2010-01-01

380

Total Lipids of Sarda Sheep Meat that Include the Fatty Acid and Alkenyl Composition and the CLA and Trans -18:1 Isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle were analyzed from commercial adult Sarda sheep in Sardina taken from local abattoirs, and in the subsequent year\\u000a from three local farms in the Sassari region that provided some information on the amount and type of supplements fed to the\\u000a pasture-fed sheep. The complete lipid analysis of sheep meat included the fatty

Viviana Santercole; Rina Mazzette; Enrico P. L. De Santis; Sebastiano Banni; Laki Goonewardene; John K. G. Kramer

2007-01-01

381

Lipid stability in meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or

P. A. Morrissey; P. J. A. Sheehy; K. Galvin; J. P. Kerry; D. J. Buckley

1998-01-01

382

Radiographic inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This experiment has several objectives which will familiarize the students with the use of a radiographic inspection system, the method of taking a radiograph, darkroom developing procedures, and inspection of a radiograph. The equipment consists of a Faxitron model 8075 radiographic inspection system. Detailed step-by-step procedures are described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

383

Electrical stunning, hot boning, and quality of chicken breast meat.  

PubMed

The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying voltage, 20, 40, 80, and 100 V at 60 Hz, on stunning efficiency, blood loss, and carcass defects. In the second experiment, the same parameters were evaluated to determine the effects of varying frequency, 60, 200, 350, 500, and 1,000 Hz at 40 V. A control group for both experiments was not stunned. At 40V, 30 to 50 mA, 90% of the birds were unconscious, as shown by no response to comb piercing, and blood loss was maximized (55.3%). When varying the stunning frequency, maximum blood loss (73.1%), 90% of the birds were unconscious, and minimum carcass defects were observed at 1,000 Hz, 40 V. In the third experiment, birds were stunned at 40 V, 1,000 Hz and deboned immediately after defeathering (hot boning) and chilled or deboned after passing through all stages of a commercial abattoir operation (conventional boning). Control lots were unstunned and followed normal abattoir stages. Average shear value was significantly lower for stunned compared to unstunned birds (6.0 vs. 7.1 kg/g), although tenderness scores, as measured by a trained panel, were not significantly different (6.6 for stunned birds vs. 6.1 for unstunned). Scores for juiciness were also not significantly different (5.5 for stunned vs. 5.8 for unstunned). Average shear value was also significantly lower for conventionally boned birds (5.2 kg/g) than for hot boned birds (7.9 kg/g). Sensory analysis confirmed the shear value results. Conventionally boned breasts had an average tenderness score of 7.4 vs. an average of 5.3 for hot boned breast. No statistical differences were observed with respect to juiciness, although a score of 6.2 was observed for conventionally boned breast meat vs. a score of 5.1 for hot boned breast meat. PMID:11297290

Contreras, C C; Beraquet, N J

2001-04-01

384

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

385

Educational Programs for Laboratory Animal Caretakers and Meat Inspectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the findings of Dr. Mayer's Ed.D. dissertation, "Occupational Education for Meat Inspection and Animal Laboratory Caretaker Jobs, which was completed at the University of Illinois. Leon A. Mayer is Off-Campus Representative, Division of University Extension, University of Illinois, Dixon, Illinois. Lloyd J. Phipps is Chairman…

Mayer, Leon A.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

1970-01-01

386

Use of a Marker Organism To Model the Spread of Central Nervous System Tissue in Cattle and the Abattoir Environment during Commercial Stunning and Carcass Dressing  

PubMed Central

Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. PMID:11823220

Daly, D. J.; Prendergast, D. M.; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.

2002-01-01

387

Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products  

PubMed Central

A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

1965-01-01

388

Thermodynamics of meat proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the water activity of meat, being a mixture of proteins, salts and water, by the Free-Volume-Flory–Huggins (FVFH) theory augmented with the equation. Earlier, the FVFH theory is successfully applied to describe the thermodynamics to glucose homopolymers like starch, dextrans and maltodextrins. We have estimated parameter values from sorption isotherms of unsalted, lean meat products and model proteins like

R. G. M. van der Sman

389

Meat Science Made Practical  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

Groves, Marjorie P.

1973-01-01

390

Meat Quality During Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of growth and development of any food animal such as poultry needs to consider the effects of the muscle changes on the use of the muscle as meat. If a treatment could increase muscle growth but the increased meat was of poor quality, then the increase in production would be of little value. Muscle is of particular concern

A. R. SAMS

391

Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When

Aubrey F. Egan

1983-01-01

392

Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

2014-01-01

393

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306 Spaghetti with meatballs...

2011-01-01

394

9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306 Spaghetti with meatballs...

2014-01-01

395

Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on shelf-stable meat snacks.  

E-print Network

??The United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service require that processors of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products implement post- processing intervention… (more)

Uppal, Kamaldeep Kaur

2010-01-01

396

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness is reviewed, where the meat structural origin of variation in meat tenderness is tried to be elucidated. Processes, such as rigor development and ageing, known to influence the properties of the structural components, is covered, and variables that influence those processes, such as chilling, electrical stimulation and stress ante-mortem, are discussed. Meat tenderness can be

E. Tornberg

1996-01-01

397

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 18 of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, as...following: (i) Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended...the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, and the... (ii) Federal Water Pollution Prevention...development agreements with industry, universities,...

2010-01-01

398

7 CFR 2.80 - Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 18 of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, as...following: (i) Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended...the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, and the... (ii) Federal Water Pollution Prevention...development agreements with industry, universities,...

2011-01-01

399

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

400

Chemical safety of meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability. PMID:20510527

Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

2010-09-01

401

Meat quality during processing.  

PubMed

The study of growth and development of any food animal such as poultry needs to consider the effects of the muscle changes on the use of the muscle as meat. If a treatment could increase muscle growth but the increased meat was of poor quality, then the increase in production would be of little value. Muscle is of particular concern because not only is it the tissue of greatest value for food, but it also is an excitable tissue and responsive to its environment. Many of these responses can be quite deleterious to meat quality. The basis for the response of muscle to its environment is in postmortem metabolism and the simultaneous development of rigor mortis. Although the animal may die in a matter of minutes following the neck cut, its muscle cells continue to metabolize and respond for hours after respiratory cessation and brain death. During these hours, the muscle has energy that fuels the responses to the environment, most commonly in terms of color and texture. Heat, transportation, and handling all contribute to the preslaughter stress that can alter color, texture, and related protein functionality. Stunning is another preslaughter factor that has a large effect on postmortem metabolism and meat quality. After death, chilling can toughen meat while it adds juiciness, and aging prevents the meat from toughening in response to deboning. Electrical stimulation is a recent beneficial innovation that reduces the need for aging by accelerating postmortem energy depletion and reducing the muscle's ability to toughen during deboning. This paper reviews the responsiveness of the muscle and gives examples of how these responses can hurt or help meat quality. PMID:10228979

Sams, A R

1999-05-01

402

Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. PMID:22718334

Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E

2012-01-01

403

Prevalence of hepatitis E virus in swine under different breeding environment and abattoir in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV in pig herds under different breeding environment and in abattoirs located in Beijing, China. In total 638 sera samples and 114 liver samples were collected for a serological survey and a RT-PCR assay, respectively. The average prevalence rate of HEV in pig herds in Beijing suburb were 47.5–100%. Seropositive rate was

Wengui Li; Ruiping She; Haitao Wei; Jingyi Zhao; Yinghua Wang; Quan Sun; Yanmei Zhang; Decheng Wang; Ruiwen Li

2009-01-01

404

Ratio between carcass-and skin-microflora as an abattoir process hygiene indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two abattoirs, each slaughtering both cattle and pigs, 100 cattle and 100 pigs were randomly selected and sampled. From each animal, two samples were taken: a) immediately after sticking of bovines or stunning of pigs, approximately 2000cm2 hide (cattle) or 1500cm2 skin (pigs) areas were sponge-swabbed; and b) at the end of slaughter line but before chilling, the same

B. Blagojevic; D. Antic; M. Ducic; S. Buncic

2011-01-01

405

Antimicrobial resistance in pig faecal samples from the Netherlands (five abattoirs) and Sweden.  

PubMed

The prevalence and degree of antibiotic resistance of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enteroccoci, were determined in 1321 faecal samples collected from pigs at five abattoirs in The Netherlands and in 100 samples from Swedish pigs. In the Dutch samples a high prevalence of resistance was observed in E. coli for three commonly used antibiotics in pig medicine, amoxycillin (70-94%), oxytetracycline (78-98%) and trimethoprim (62-96%). Also, the prevalence for chloramphenicol (55-67%) and neomycin (38-67%) was relatively high. For the other compounds tested the prevalence was less than 10%. The percentage of samples with a high degree of resistant E. coli showed the same tendency in all Dutch abattoirs although significant differences between the abattoirs were observed. The percentage of Swedish samples with a high degree of resistant E. coli was significantly lower for all antibiotics except nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, flumequin and ciprofloxacin. All enterococci were susceptible to amoxycillin and high-level resistance to gentamicin was observed in 4-6% of the Dutch samples. A high prevalence of resistance and a high degree of resistance was found for erythromycin and oxytetracycline. The prevalence of resistance to dalfopristin-quinupristin ranged from 6 to 8% and for vancomycin from 24 to 46%. Significant differences between the abattoirs were found for all compounds tested except amoxycillin. In the Swedish population both the prevalence and degree of resistance in enterococci were significantly lower except for amoxycillin and gentamicin. This point prevalence study showed that the prevalence and degree of antibiotic resistance in indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, in faecal samples from pigs differed between two countries and reflected differences in antibiotic usage in pigs. To analyse the differences observed between the slaughterhouses, additional information about the farms of origin and antibiotic consumption is necessary. PMID:10797090

van Den Bogaard, A E; London, N; Stobberingh, E E

2000-05-01

406

Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081

Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku

2014-01-01

407

An intelligent perception system for food quality inspection using color analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern manufacturing systems call for full-rate automated inspection of produced samples. A vision-based intelligent perception system (IPS) is presented making automated inspection of chicken meat feasible. The IPS analyzes RGB images framing the chickens after the slaughtering and plucking process and detects defects such as burns, hematomas and blisters, along with other relevant features. The vision module, which is the

Mauro Barni; A. W. Mussa; Alessandro Mecocci; Vito Cappellini; Tariq S. Durrani

1995-01-01

408

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS 8135008 January 2004  

E-print Network

United States Department of Agriculture · Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service PEST ALERT.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confiscated more than arriving international travelers who may consume the snails as meat or folk medicine, or wish to keep them

Watson, Craig A.

409

Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

2014-09-01

410

Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.  

PubMed

The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

2014-01-01

411

Effect of electrical and mechanical stunning on bleeding, instrumental properties and sensory meat quality in rabbits.  

PubMed

Different voltage and frequency (T-1=49V, 250Hz; T-2=130V, 172Hz; T-3=22V, 833Hz) combinations of electrical stunning and cervical dislocation (T-4) were studied in 101 commercial rabbits in an industrial abattoir. Electrical stunning accelerated the early muscular acidification, providing lower pH-45 and pH-2h values on Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris and higher pH-24h on Biceps femoris than cervical dislocation (P<0.02). Furthermore, meat from rabbits stunned with electrical methods showed more redness (a* with mean values 1.17-1.30 vs. 0.66, P<0.02), although this cannot be associated to low exsanguination levels because electrical methods tend to produce even higher bleeding percentage than mechanical stunning (P=0.063). Haematin content in muscle, water-holding capacity and cooking losses were similar in all treatments. Shear force did not change because of the stunning methods, but the members of experienced panel found the meat coming from electrical stunning T-1 (with intermediate voltages and frequencies) tougher and less juicy than the meat obtained with other electrical applications or with cervical dislocation (P<0.05). PMID:24973775

Lafuente, R; López, M

2014-10-01

412

*Corresponding author: Email: korokorogozion@yahoo.fr; British Microbiology Research Journal  

E-print Network

of Study: Sampling was made during routine meat inspection, in the Yaoundé and Douala abattoirs located of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala. 4 Department of Veterinary Inspection, Ministry inspected for tuberculosis during this study. Among them 9,127 and 7,189 were slaughtered in Yaoundé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

International red meat trade.  

PubMed

The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a trade restriction, which could ultimately impact future US red meat exports. Conversely, some countries may view such labeling requirements as an opportunity to brand high-quality products. The US lamb meat industry has experienced declining real prices, domestic production, and demand. The cessation of wool incentive payments, increased environmental regulations, and competition by imports have significantly affected the industry. Import suppliers have capitalized on product quality in this niche market. Trade restrictions initially imposed in 1999 by the US Government were ruled illegal by the WTO. The US Government responded by providing financial assistance to lamb producers. Product quality improvements and promotion aimed at the domestic market, however, will be critical factors in shaping the economic viability of the US lamb meat industry. PMID:12951744

Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

2003-07-01

414

Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products.The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated beef and pork, are Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens. The

Elisabeth Borch; Marie-Louise Kant-Muermans; Ylva Blixt

1996-01-01

415

Consumer expectations and perceptions of meat and meat product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the determinants of perceived quality viewed by different authors. Then, it sets the factors of quality from purchase to consumption and some mechanisms of change over time. After this general presentation, the distinctive features of food and the particular place of meat and meat products among foods are underlined. Important credence and experience attributes as well as

S. Issanchou

1996-01-01

416

Cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from various municipal abattoirs in Oman.  

PubMed

A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. PMID:25096054

Al-Kitani, Fadya; Baqir, Senan; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Roberts, Derek

2014-12-01

417

Pathological manifestations observed in dead-on-arrival broilers at a Danish abattoir.  

PubMed

1. The mortality of broilers during pre-slaughter handling, including harvesting and transport, is an issue of increasing public concern which has led to the adoption of Council Directive EC/43/2007 implementing abattoir surveillance regarding the number of dead-on-arrival (DOA) broilers. 2. Pathological lesions and causes of death of DOA broilers at a Danish abattoir were investigated in a cross-sectional study comprising 300 DOA broilers (25 broilers from each of 12 randomly selected flocks). Major pathological manifestations of DOA broilers included severe pulmonary congestion (51.5%), lung congestion in combination with trauma (12.5%), trauma (10.2%), nephropathy accompanied by dehydration and/or discolouration (8.8%), morbus cordis (2.0%), septicaemia (1.7%) and suspected septicaemia (1.0%). Lung congestion accompanied by circulatory disturbances in other tissues was suggested to be due to suffocation. 3. Analyses of pathological diagnoses revealed that DOA broilers can be divided into two main categories, lung congestion and trauma, based on the chronicity of the lesions, both of which are primarily related to management and handling procedures. Most DOA broilers examined (74.2%) were estimated to have died as a consequence of events during pre-slaughter handling underlining the importance of increased focus on handling-related factors to reduce DOA rate. PMID:23906216

Lund, V P; Kyvsgaard, N C; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M

2013-01-01

418

Determination of microbial transglutaminase in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase is an enzyme that can be used to cross-link pieces of meat, fish or meat products. The resulting product gives the optical impression of an intact chunk of meat. The usage of transglutaminase as a food additive is permitted in some countries. However, its utilisation has to be declared to ensure transparency for consumers. This paper describes two orthogonal analytical methods suited for the detection of technological relevant transglutaminase concentrations (around 25 mg pure enzyme in 1 kg of product) in meat and meat products. The mass spectrometry-based approach relies on a previous digestion with Achromobacter lyticus protease and LC-MS/MS separation and detection. Sufficient selectivity was obtained by monitoring four different peptides. The orthogonal (complementary and independent), ELISA-based approach relies on two commercially available bacterial transglutaminase-specific antibodies, combined to a sandwich ELISA. The two methods were tested by analysing some 60 samples obtained from the market. PMID:22747363

Kaufmann, A; Köppel, R; Widmer, M

2012-01-01

419

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

420

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official...carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food...

2014-01-01

421

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official...carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food...

2011-01-01

422

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official...carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food...

2013-01-01

423

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official...carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food...

2010-01-01

424

9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section...inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official...carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food...

2012-01-01

425

Inspection and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I explore the emotional impact of inspection on the staff of a school in the two years between Ofsted inspections. Using data from one school undergoing inspection, I argue that the negative emotional impact of inspection of teachers goes beyond the oft-reported issues of stress and overwork. Teachers experience a loss of power and…

Perryman, Jane

2007-01-01

426

Pig welfare and carcase quality: a comparison of the influence of slaughter handling systems at two abattoirs.  

PubMed

Pigs from four farms (two producing 'easy' and two 'difficult to handle' pigs) were slaughtered at two abattoirs, each with two slaughter handling systems, so that 25 pigs of each behavioural type were slaughtered by all four handling systems on each day; there were 16 replicates (3200 pigs) in total. The pigs at abattoir X were electrically stunned, either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a race-restrainer. At abattoir Y the pigs were stunned either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a dip-lift carbon dioxide stunner. The following measurements were made: hot carcase weight and backfat thickness at P2, degree of rigor mortis 35 minutes post mortem, skin blemish, pH and muscle reflectance in the m longissimus dorsi at 60 minutes and 18 hours post mortem, and pH and muscle reflectance in the m adductor at 18 hours post mortem. At abattoir X, the pigs slaughtered in the race-restrainer had heavier carcases (74.0 kg vs 73.0 kg, P < 0.05), developed rigor mortis more rapidly (8.1 mm vs 7.3 mm, P < 0.01), had more skin blemish (2.8 vs 2.7, P < 0.01), paler m longissimus dorsi muscles after one hour (15.7 vs 13.9, P < 0.01) and 18 hours (27.8 vs 26.6, P < 0.05), and paler m adductor muscles (24.5 vs 22.7, P < 0.001) after 18 hours. At abattoir Y, the pigs handled through the floor pen system had more skin blemish (2.7 vs 2.6, P < 0.05) and a tendency to develop rigor mortis more quickly (6.11 vs 5.32, P = 0.089).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7846833

Hunter, E J; Weeding, C M; Guise, H J; Abbott, T A; Penny, R H

1994-10-29

427

Professor of Animal Science Meat Science  

E-print Network

Professor of Animal Science Meat Science B.S., Animal Science, Oklahoma State University - Livestock, Meat & Wool Evaluation Animal Science 363 - Meat Technology Animal Science 351G - Agricultural Animals of the World State Meat Specialist Microbiology of Confined Animal Feeding Operations along

Johnson, Eric E.

428

Review article Lipids in monogastric animal meat  

E-print Network

Review article Lipids in monogastric animal meat Jacques MOUROTa*, Dominique HERMIERb a Unité Mixte; accepted 9 February 2001) Abstract -- Meat from monogastric animals, essentially pigs and poultry, is from afar the most consumed of all meats. Meat products from every species have their own characteristics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Salmonellae in sewage sludge and abattoir effluent in south-east Scotland.  

PubMed Central

A survey into the prevalence of salmonella organisms in sewage in the Borders Region of South-east Scotland is described. A total of 317 isolates representing 34 different serotypes were made, of which only 5 serotypes appeared in animals, supporting the view that the spreading of sewage sludge on to pastureland presents little risk to livestock provided the recommended guidelines are followed. Nevertheless, Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12, identified in sewage, was also recovered from animals in incidents on 11 farms, including 4 which had received sludge from this source. A further 48 isolates (13 serotypes) were obtained from the parallel monitoring of abattoir effluents, indicating that the background level of salmonella infection in the animal population appears to be low in comparison to that in humans. PMID:3891848

Linklater, K. A.; Graham, M. M.; Sharp, J. C.

1985-01-01

430

Incidence of Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses examined at an Irish abattoir.  

PubMed

The intestinal tracts of 363 horses were examined after slaughter at a horse abattoir. The presence or absence of Anoplocephala perfoliata and the sites of attachment were recorded. A total of 51 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction and/or to the caecal mucosa; 5 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached only to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction, 24 per cent had A perfoliata attached only to the caecal mucosa and 22 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached at both sites. The degree of infestation did not appear to be influenced by the season or by the age, breed or source of origin of the horses. The lesions at the sites of attachment included congestion, oedema, ulceration, diphtheresis, mucosal thickening, eosinophil infiltration and fibroplasia. The severity of the lesions was exacerbated by increasing numbers of worms. PMID:8085308

Fogarty, U; del Piero, F; Purnell, R E; Mosurski, K R

1994-05-14

431

4-H Meat Project Helper's Guide Congratulations! You have been asked to be a 4-H Meat Project Helper by a young person interested in understanding  

E-print Network

Meat #12;4-H Meat Project Helper's Guide Congratulations! You have been asked to be a 4-H Meat Project Helper by a young person interested in understanding meat. The Marvelous Meat curriculum helps young people explore meat usage, meat's value as food, how meat is produced, the meat industry, and meat

Liskiewicz, Maciej

432

High Pressure Processing of Meat, Meat Products and Seafood  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure processing (HPP) allows the decontamination of foods with minimal impact on their nutritional and sensory features.\\u000a The use of HPP to reduce microbial loads has shown great potential in the meat, poultry and seafood industry. HPP has proven\\u000a to be a promising technology, and industrial HPP applications have grown rapidly, especially in the stabilization of ready-to-eat\\u000a meats and

Marco Campus

2010-01-01

433

Effects of hygienic treatments during slaughtering on microbial dynamics and contamination of sheep meat.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to investigate bacterial dynamics in the sheep meat chain, from fleece to meat trimmings, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, and to study the effects on microbial load associated with the hygienic interventions of: i) shearing sheep immediately before slaughter, ii) manual steam vacuum pasteurisation, iii) hot water pasteurisation of carcasses, followed by iv) chilling. A further aim was to provide evidence to determine whether or not unshorn sheep should be handled in a processing line separate from that of shorn sheep in Norwegian abattoirs. A total of 176 surface swab samples were collected from three sites along the value chain: i) on fleeces, ii) on carcasses at the end of the slaughter line, and iii) on carcasses after chilling for 24h, and 32 samples were collected from meat trimmings. The results showed that Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) were lower for the shorn group compared to the unshorn group, both on carcasses before chilling and after chilling (difference of 0.8 and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively) and in meat trimmings (difference of 0.5logCFU/g (p?0.05)). Hygienic treatments were used on carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, and steam vacuum treatment reduced Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC before chilling by 1.2, 1.0, and 0.6logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively, and hot water pasteurisation, in addition to chilling, reduced E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and APC by 0.7, 1.0, and 0.9logCFU/1000cm(2) (p?0.05), respectively, compared with untreated carcasses. The effect of chilling was shown by the significant reduction of number of carcasses where E. coli were detected; from 65% (13/20) of the shorn group before chilling to 35% (7/20) after chilling, and from 90% (36/40) to 45% (9/20) of the unshorn group. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene derived from 316 colonies of Enterobacteriaceae showed a tendency for the relative proportion of the genus Escherichia/Shigella, compared with other genera within Enterobacteriaceae, to be greater for unshorn, untreated sheep than from the other groups at the sampling locations along the meat chain. The study showed that steam vacuum and hot water pasteurisation reduced the contamination of carcasses derived from unshorn sheep, down to the level of the shorn group, and thus can replace the separate processing line for unshorn sheep. Indeed, the low microbial contamination in meat trimmings for all groups indicates that the separate processing line is unnecessary. PMID:25461602

Omer, Mohamed K; Hauge, Sigrun J; Østensvik, Øyvin; Moen, Birgitte; Alvseike, Ole; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Prieto, Miguel; Dommersnes, Sissel; Nesteng, Ole H; Nesbakken, Truls

2015-02-01

434

Control of Thermal Meat Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

435

Usual Intake of Cured meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cured meat Table A25. Cured meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.04) 0.2 (0.04) 0.3

436

Software Formal Inspections Guidebook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.

1993-01-01

437

Randomization of inspections  

SciTech Connect

As the numbers and complexity of nuclear facilities increase, limitations on resources for international safeguards may restrict attainment of safeguards goals. One option for improving the efficiency of limited resources is to expand the current inspection regime to include random allocation of the amount and frequency of inspection effort to material strata or to facilities. This paper identifies the changes in safeguards policy, administrative procedures, and operational procedures that would be necessary to accommodate randomized inspections and identifies those situations where randomization can improve inspection efficiency and those situations where the current nonrandom inspections should be maintained. 9 refs., 1 tab.

Markin, J.T.

1989-01-01

438

Software Formal Inspections Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

1993-01-01

439

Original article Sources of shared variability in meat weight  

E-print Network

Original article Sources of shared variability in meat weight distribution and conformation, deduce the factors that describe meat distribution and conformation and predict total carcass meat from orthogonal meatiness and conformation traits. Meat weight distribution and conformation appeared

Boyer, Edmond

440

Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

441

Cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora export Abattoir, northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross sectional and retrospective studies were conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir in northern Ethiopia. Out of the 308 cattle examined for the presence of hydatid cysts, 63 (20.5 %) of them were found harboring hydatid cysts in one or more of their internal organs. Results of the study showed higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in adult (22.4 %; 49/219) than in young (15.7 %; 14/89) cattle. Lowest prevalence of hydatid cysts was observed in cattle from Debark (7.7 %; 2/26) whereas highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in cattle from Fogera (28.2 %; 11/39). The lungs (69.3 %; 61/88) were the most affected organs followed by the livers (28.4 %; 25/88). A total of 230 hydatid cysts from different internal organs of 63 infected cattle were differentiated into 60.4 % calcified, 30 % fertile and 9.6 % sterile cysts. Likewise, a total of 13 % (30/230) small, 15.6 % (36/230) medium, and 10.9 % (25/230) large hydatid cysts were recorded. Lung harbored the highest overall count (76.9 %; 177/230) and greatest proportion of large size cysts (13.5 %; 103/177) than all the other organs. Liver harbored the highest proportion of calcified cysts (68 %; 34/50). An overall proportion of 30 % (69/230) fertile cysts were recorded. The greatest proportion of fertile cysts (33.3 %; 59/177) was recorded in lungs followed by the livers (20 %; 10/50). A retrospective data of 5 years (2004/5-2009/10) revealed an overall prevalence of 30.4 % (9,106/29,951) and highest overall prevalence of 65.5 % hydatid cysts in the lungs followed by livers (33.5 %) and least in spleen (0.04 %). In conclusion the findings reported herein show that cystic echinococcosis is widespread in cattle slaughtered in Gondar export Abattoir and suggests that the lung is the most important source of hydatid cysts for definitive hosts in the area. PMID:25320493

Abebe, Abebaw; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa

2014-12-01

442

Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:25011474

2014-01-01

443

Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidified sodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.  

PubMed

A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry. PMID:21083814

Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A

2010-11-01

444

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Meat, poultry, and eggs Table B13. Meat, poultry, and eggs: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation

445

CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY Boar taint and possible utilization of boar meat  

E-print Network

1. - CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY Boar taint and possible utilization of boar meat M. BONNEAU B'Hermitage Rearing young entire male pigs for meat production provides well-known advantages. The purpose, rating scale, fatty tissue or piece of meat as well as way of heating or cooking must be standardized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems.  

PubMed

Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high-quality meat and to meet the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in 2 replications were randomly selected from a commercial processor and subjected to 3 systems: immersion chill (IC), air chill (AC), and combi in-line air chill (CIAC). Incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter were determined on pre- and postchilled carcasses. Quality of the meat was evaluated by carcass yield, drip loss, cook loss, texture, moisture content, sensory qualities, and color (L*, a*, and b*) of boneless skinless breast fillets and skin-on drums. Shelf life of whole carcasses, breast fillets, and drums was also determined. The IC resulted in the most reduction of Salmonella (39.7%) and Campylobacter (43%) incidence due to the washing effect and presence of chlorine in the chilled water. There was no significant difference in shelf-life when comparing the chilling methods. The IC had the highest (P < 0.05) carcass yield (6.5%), followed by CIAC (+1.98.0%) and then AC (-1.10%). Drip loss, cook loss, and moisture content of breast fillets were not significantly different for all the chilling systems, but higher L* value was observed for breast fillets at 24 h postmortem treated with IC and CIAC. However, IC exhibited the lightest color and AC was darkest in the drum samples. Shear force of breast meat was significantly more tender for AC and CIAC. There were no differences in the sensory qualities of breast fillets and drums among the 3 chilling systems. PMID:23472036

Demirok, E; Veluz, G; Stuyvenberg, W V; Castañeda, M P; Byrd, A; Alvarado, C Z

2013-04-01

447

Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets  

E-print Network

Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets: A Survey of Shoppers at Four Markets in Oregon Lauren, and if so, how. To answer these questions, we conducted research on the meat and poultry buying habits follow-up interviews with some participants to learn more about concerns about buying meat and poultry

Tullos, Desiree

448

MFR PAPER 992 Oeboned meat from fish  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 992 Oeboned meat from fish frames, mixed with ground choice beef and flavoring, makes... Beefish Patties FREDERICK J. KING and GEORGE J. FLICK ABSTRACT At present, grollnd meat can of grounu or min ed tlesh. In recent year. se\\ eral group~ ha\\ e become interested in L1 ' ing meat

449

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

450

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOEpatents

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05

451

Lavoisier and meat stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier published his results on ‘meat stock’ preparation in 1783. Measuring density, he stated that ‘food principles’ were better extracted using a large quantity of water. This result was checked. To cite this article: H. This et al., C. R. Chimie 9 (2006).

Hervé This; Robert Méric; Anne Cazor

2006-01-01

452

Computer vision barrel inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Department of Energy's (DOE) ongoing tasks is the storage and inspection of a large number of waste barrels containing a variety of hazardous substances. Martin Marietta is currently contracted to develop a robotic system -- the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) -- for the automatic monitoring and inspection of these barrels. The IMSS is a mobile robot

William J. Wolfe; James Gunderson; Matthew E. Walworth

1994-01-01

453

Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli in healthy, pasture-raised sheep on farms and at the abattoir in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985

Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

2014-02-21

454

Stemware inspection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the system is inspection of individual pieces of stemware for geometry defects and glass imperfections. Cameras view stemware from multiple angles to increase surface coverage. The inspection images are acquired at three stations. The first inspects internal glass quality, detecting defects such as chemical residue and waviness. The second inspects the rim, geometry of the stemware body and stem, and internal defects such as cracks. The third station inspects the stemware base for geometrical and internal defects. Glass defects are optically enhanced through the use of striped pattern back lighting combined with morphological processing. Geometry inspection is enhanced through the use of converging illumination at the second station, while the third station utilizes large field true telecentric imaging. Progressive scan cameras and frame grabbers capable of simultaneous image capture are used at each station. The system software comprises six modules: system manager, I/O manager, inspection module for each station, and stemware sorting and logging module. Each module is run as a separate application. Applications communicate with each other through TCP/IP sockets, and can be run in a multi-computer or single-computer setup. Currently two Windows NT workstations are used to host the system.

Sacha, Jaroslaw P.; Luster, Spencer D.; Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Sena, Murat

1999-08-01

455

Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Terms / Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

456

Color of Meat and Poultry  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

457

Meat consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

In 1960 the meat-consumption habits of 25,153 California Seventh-Day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980 ischemic heart disease deaths were identified. Meat consumption was positively associated with fatal ischemic heart disease in both men and women. This association was apparently not due to confounding by eggs, dairy products, obesity, marital status, or cigarette smoking. The positive association between meat consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease was stronger in men than in women and, overall, strongest in young men. For 45- to 64-year-old men, there was approximately a threefold difference in risk between men who ate meat daily and those who did not eat meat. This is the first study to clearly show a dose-response relationship between meat consumption and ischemic heart disease risk. PMID:6527990

Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L; Fraser, G E

1984-09-01

458

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2013-01-01

459

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2010-01-01

460

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2014-01-01

461

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2012-01-01

462

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2011-01-01

463

Manipulating meat quality and composition.  

PubMed

Meat quality describes the attractiveness of meat to consumers. The present paper focuses on two major aspects of meat quality, tenderness and flavour. Both aspects of quality can be influenced by nutrition, principally through its effects on the amount and type of fat in meat. In several countries, high levels of intramuscular fat (marbling fat), i.e. above 30 g/kg muscle weight in longissimus, are deemed necessary for optimum tenderness, although poor relationships between fat content and tenderness have generally been found in European studies, where fat levels are often very low, e.g. below 10 g/kg in UK pigs. Muscle lipid may be a marker for red oxidative (type 1) muscle fibres which are found at higher concentrations in tender muscles and carcasses. Nutritional treatment can be used to manipulate the fatty acid content of muscle to improve nutritional balance, i.e. increase the polyunsaturated (PUFA): saturated fatty acid value and reduce the n-6:n-3 PUFA value. Increasing PUFA levels may also change flavour because of their greater susceptibility to oxidative breakdown and the generation of abnormal volatile compounds during cooking. This situation particularly applies to the n-3 PUFA which are the most unsaturated meat lipids. In pigs, a concentration of 3 mg alpha-linolenic acid (18:3)/100 mg in muscle and fat tissue fatty acids can easily be achieved by including whole linseed in the diet. This level has led to abnormal odours and flavours in some studies, but not in others. In cattle and sheep, feeding whole linseed raised 18:3 concentrations in muscle fatty acids from about 0.7 mg/100 mg to > 1 mg/100 mg. As with pigs, this diet also increased levels of long-chain n-3 PUFA formed from 18:3, including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5). Although this increase led to greater oxidative breakdown of lipids during storage and the generation of large quantities of lipid-derived volatile compounds during cooking, there were no deleterious effects on odour or flavour. When 18:3 levels are raised in lamb and beef because of grass feeding, the intensity of the flavours increases in comparison with grain-fed animals which consume and deposit relatively more linoleic acid (18:2). In ruminants, very high levels of 18:2 produced by feeding protected oil supplements cause the cooked beef to be described as oily, bland or pork-like. PMID:10466178

Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Sheard, P R

1999-05-01

464

Dietary lean red meat and human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Scientific evidence is accumulating that meat itself is not a risk factor for Western lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular\\u000a disease, but rather the risk stems from the excessive fat and particularly saturated fat associated with the meat of modern\\u000a domesticated animals. In our own studies, we have shown evidence that diets high in lean red meat can actually lower

Neil Mann

2000-01-01

465

Guidelines for software inspections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

1983-01-01

466

Remote surface inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on an on-going research and development effort in remote surface inspection of space platforms such as the Space Station Freedom (SSF). It describes the space environment and identifies the types of damage for which to search. This paper provides an overview of the Remote Surface Inspection System that was developed to conduct proof-of-concept demonstrations and to perform experiments in a laboratory environment. Specifically, the paper describes three technology areas: (1) manipulator control for sensor placement; (2) automated non-contact inspection to detect and classify flaws; and (3) an operator interface to command the system interactively and receive raw or processed sensor data. Initial findings for the automated and human visual inspection tests are reported.

Hayati, S.; Balaram, J.; Seraji, H.; Kim, W. S.; Tso, K.; Prasad, V.

1993-01-01

467

New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections.  

PubMed

The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars' carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite's resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

Portier, J; Jouet, D; Ferté, H; Gibout, O; Heckmann, A; Boireau, P; Vallée, I

2011-08-01

468

Meat consumption and meat avoidance among young people : An 11-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of an 11-year longitudinal study of the food preferences of first-year social science undergraduates at a UK university. Argues that this predominantly young and female response group constitutes a “critical case” that can be used to assess broader trends in meat consumption and meat avoidance. Relatively high levels of meat avoidance (in terms of reduced

Alan Beardsworth; Alan Bryman

2004-01-01

469

Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Samples Collected at an Abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at Different Points in the Surrounding Environment.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse's effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145

Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano

2015-01-01

470

Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Samples Collected at an Abattoir in Zaria, Nigeria and at Different Points in the Surrounding Environment  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse’s effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145

Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano

2015-01-01

471

Prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in Germany.  

PubMed

Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (?10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p?

Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate

2013-01-01

472

Frequency of detection of immunoglobulins of Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins, suggestive of acute or chronic infections, in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad, and to relate to risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 394 consenting livestock/farm workers and 99 abattoir workers across the island of Trinidad. Serological status was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T. gondii IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins. Of 394 apparently healthy livestock/farm workers sampled, 150 (38.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii IgM immunoglobulins, compared with 44 (44.4%) of 99 abattoir workers (p > .05; ?(2) test). Five (1.3%) of 371 and 1 (1.0%) of 99 livestock/farm and abattoir workers respectively were positive for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins. All samples from livestock/farm workers and abattoir workers were negative for B. abortus immunoglobulins. None of the risk factors investigated was statistically significantly (p > .05; ?(2) test) associated with T. gondii and Leptospira spp. infections. PMID:21728871

Adesiyun, Abiodun; Campbell, Mervyn; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Dookeran, Shakti; Gittens-St Hilaire, Marquita

2011-01-01

473

Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

1976-01-01

474

Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

475

Molecular epidemiology and heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products and meat-processing plants and listeriosis in Latvia.  

E-print Network

??The prevalence, contamination and heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in meat products and meat-processing plants. Moreover, trends of human listeriosis in Latvia were… (more)

Berzins, Aivars

2010-01-01

476

Risk scoring for setting priorities in a monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in meat and meat products.  

PubMed

Meat and meat products can be contaminated with different species of bacteria resistant to various antimicrobials. The human health risk of a type of meat or meat product carry by emerging antimicrobial resistance depends on (i) the prevalence of contamination with resistant bacteria, (ii) the human health consequences of an infection with a specific bacterium resistant to a specific antimicrobial and (iii) the consumption volume of a specific product. The objective of this study was to compare the risk for consumers arising from their exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria from meat of four different types (chicken, pork, beef and veal), distributed in four different product categories (fresh meat, frozen meat, dried raw meat products and heat-treated meat products). A semi-quantitative risk assessment model, evaluating each food chain step, was built in order to get an estimated score for the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in each product category. To assess human health impact, nine combinations of bacterial species and antimicrobial agents were considered based on a published risk profile. The combination of the prevalence at retail, the human health impact and the amount of meat or product consumed, provided the relative proportion of total risk attributed to each category of product, resulting in a high, medium or low human health risk. According to the results of the model, chicken (mostly fresh and frozen meat) contributed 6.7% of the overall risk in the highest category and pork (mostly fresh meat and dried raw meat products) contributed 4.0%. The contribution of beef and veal was of 0.4% and 0.1% respectively. The results were tested and discussed for single parameter changes of the model. This risk assessment was a useful tool for targeting antimicrobial resistance monitoring to those meat product categories where the expected risk for public health was greater. PMID:19168250

Presi, Patrick; Stärk, Katharina D C; Stephan, Roger; Breidenbach, Eric; Frey, Joachim; Regula, Gertraud

2009-03-31

477

Piping inspection round robin  

SciTech Connect

The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-04-01

478

Brazilian foot and mouth disease status and meat exportation to the European Union.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to define the differences between the Brazilian states that export and do not export meat to the European Union (EU) and to identify the variables that are important to meet the export requirements. Infrastructure and computerization of the control of animal transit in Brazil that impact on regional health status were evaluated and linked to other variables such as status for foot and mouth disease (FMD) and qualification to export meat to EU. Variables related to transit control of bovines implemented by the state agencies of animal health and inspection in each Brazilian state were evaluated. Using a discriminant analysis, four variables were selected that explained the variation between Brazilian states that were "free" and "not free" of FMD while another four were selected to explain the variation between the zones "approved" and "not approved" to export meat to the EU, including number of official veterinarians, total transit of bovines and buffaloes, total number of animal transit certificates issued for bovine and buffaloes at the state or zone level, and total number of municipalities in the state or zone. It was possible to correctly discriminate between "free" and "not free" FMD states or zones. Variables related to animal transit are important in assessing the state for the classification of animal health situation and for EU approval for the exportation of meat. PMID:24338447

Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Seixas, Luiza; McManus, Concepta

2014-03-01

479

Exposure assessment of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases/AmpC beta-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli in meat in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Introduction Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) are of concern for veterinary and public health because of their ability to cause treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. The main objective was to assess the relative contribution (RC) of different types of meat to the exposure of consumers to ESBL/AmpC and their potential importance for human infections in Denmark. Material and methods The prevalence of each genotype of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in imported and nationally produced broiler meat, pork and beef was weighted by the meat consumption patterns. Data originated from the Danish surveillance program for antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance (DANMAP) from 2009 to 2011. DANMAP also provided data about human ESBL/AmpC cases in 2011, which were used to assess a possible genotype overlap. Uncertainty about the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in meat was assessed by inspecting beta distributions given the available data of the genotypes in each type of meat. Results and discussion Broiler meat represented the largest part (83.8%) of the estimated ESBL/AmpC-contaminated pool of meat compared to pork (12.5%) and beef (3.7%). CMY-2 was the genotype with the highest RC to human exposure (58.3%). However, this genotype is rarely found in human infections in Denmark. Conclusion The overlap between ESBL/AmpC genotypes in meat and human E. coli infections was limited. This suggests that meat might constitute a less important source of ESBL/AmpC exposure to humans in Denmark than previously thought – maybe because the use of cephalosporins is restricted in cattle and banned in poultry and pigs. Nonetheless, more detailed surveillance data are required to determine the contribution of meat compared to other sources, such as travelling, pets, water resources, community and hospitals in the pursuit of a full source attribution model. PMID:24511370

Carmo, Luís P.; Nielsen, Liza R.; da Costa, Paulo M.; Alban, Lis

2014-01-01

480

Broiler stunning and meat quality.  

PubMed

The effects of electrical and concussion stunning on meat and carcass quality of broilers were compared. Broiler chickens (n = 165) were subjected to treatments: 1) electrical stunning with no fibrillation, 2) electrical stunning with fibrillation, 3) concussion stunning with restraint, or 4) concussion stunning with no restraint. Electrical stunning (100 V, 80 mA, 50 Hz sinusoidal waveform alternating current) was applied for 3 s. Concussion was applied using a nonpenetrative captive bolt gun with or without restraint. We assessed broken bones, hemorrhages, meat quality defects, blood loss, pH at 10 min and 24 h, and texture from breasts filleted 3 h and 24 h postmortem. Electrically stunned birds showed a significantly higher incidence of broken bones (P < 0.0001), coracoid and furculum bone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001), and nonbone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001) than birds stunned by concussion. However, the incidence of red wing tips (P < 0.005) and shoulder hemorrhages was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in concussion-stunned birds than electrically stunned birds. Electrically stunned and nonfibrillated birds had the fastest blood loss rate. The pH value at 10 min was the lowest in concussion-stunned and unrestrained birds. Breast muscles from concussion-stunned birds that were filleted at 3 h postmortem were more tender than those from birds stunned electrically (P < 0.05). We concluded that concussion stunning could be advantageous for early filleting. PMID:10626658

Göksoy, E O; McKinstry, L J; Wilkins, L J; Parkman, I; Phillips, A; Richardson, R I; Anil, M H

1999-12-01

481

Risk of carcase contamination with Campylobacter in sheep sent for slaughter into an abattoir in Scotland.  

PubMed

Campylobacter species have been identified as the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis in the UK. However, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that the role of sheep in the epidemiology of Campylobacter has been underestimated. The objective of the present study was to assess the infection risk of Campylobacter in sheep meat as a potential risk for human campylobacteriosis and to establish any possible associations between the epidemiological factors considered in the study and the presence of Campylobacter on lamb carcases. The prevalence of Campylobacter obtained from faecal samples and swabs from fleeces and carcases was presented in a previous paper. Epidemiological data was collected through questionnaires in order to identify risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter on the carcases and to make recommendations, based on the results obtained, to prevent human campylobacteriosis. PMID:20381181

Garcia, A B; Steele, W B; Reid, S W J; Taylor, D J

2010-06-01

482

Magnetic particle inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. This method will most clearly show defects that are perpendicular to the magnetic field. The Magnaglo method uses a liquid which is sprayed on the workpiece to be inspected, and the part is magnetized at the same time. The workpiece is then viewed under a black light, and the presence of discontinuity is shown by the formation of a bright indication formed by the magnetic particles over the discontinuity. The equipment and experimental procedures are described.

Sastri, Sankar

1990-01-01

483

Lighted, Folding Inspection Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, inexpensive tool used in place of expensive borescopes. Shortens inspection/photographing process. Includes two small metal or glass mirrors hinged together. Two 3-V light bulbs attached along edges of one mirror and connected to battery of two cells. Inserted into narrow opening of clevis or tand, and surface viewed and photographed in opposite mirror. Useful in assembly of segments of solid rocket motors as well as in postflight assessment, engineering evaluation, and refurbishment. Also applied in general to inspection and photographing of inner sealing surfaces to which access difficult.

Roepe, Brian E.

1991-01-01

484

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

2011-01-01

485

A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences. PMID:23569835

Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

2012-01-01

486

Original article Influence of increasing breast meat yield  

E-print Network

Original article Influence of increasing breast meat yield on muscle histology and meat quality chickens from two lines (ten birds from each line) diver- gently selected for breast meat yield were compared. Moreover, some quality parameters (ie, drip loss, ultimate pH value and meat colour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Meat consumption and mortality -results from  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Background: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

A recursive Meat-axe algorithm Stephen P. Glasby  

E-print Network

A recursive Meat-axe algorithm Stephen P. Glasby Central Washington University November 2009 S. P. Glasby (CWU) A recursive Meat-axe algorithm 1 / 17 #12;Overview 1 Four Meat-axe problems: Invar, Cent, Iso, Subfield 2 Non-recursive Meat-axe algorithm 3 Changing field: scaling up F E; scaling down E F 4

Glasby, Stephen

489

Capacitive variations study of fish, cow and pig meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat serves as fabulous source of high quality proteins for human bodies. However, it may be harmful if precautions are not taken to preserve the meat hygienically. One of the important factors relates the health of meat is the amount of residual blood following animal death. Eating properly slaughtered meat(less blood) is safe and less harmful for humans. Currently, there

A. A. S. Rabih; M. B. K. Rawther; T. bin Ibrahim

2010-01-01

490

Implementation of automatic inspection system  

E-print Network

Inspection is the formal examination of a product manufactured by any manufacturing process. Inspection process is critical to all the industries as it ensures that a good quality product reach at the end customers. In ...

Chawla, Yugank

2014-01-01

491

Maintenance team inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good maintenance is a key factor in achieving and maintaining a high level of safety in plant operations throughout the life of a nuclear power plant. Thus, maintenance was chosen as the special area of emphasis in the Mandatory Team Inspection Program. This emphasis will continue throughout 1990 due to the increased interest in maintenance and the proposed rulemaking being

A. T. Gody; E. McKenna; K. R. Hart

1990-01-01

492

Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

Gaddy, Darrell

2014-01-01

493

Automatic Inspection During Machining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

Ransom, Clyde L.

1988-01-01

494

9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...broilers and cornish game hens; the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System, which...

2012-01-01

495

9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...broilers and cornish game hens; the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System, which...

2014-01-01

496

9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...broilers and cornish game hens; the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System, which...

2011-01-01

497

9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...broilers and cornish game hens; the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System, which...

2013-01-01

498

9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection...broilers and cornish game hens; the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System, which...

2010-01-01

499

Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

500

Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This article contains an overview on automated ultrasonic w eld inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable t est equipment (e.g. pipe end test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specif ications must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the further pipe usage determine if ND T

Wolfram A. Karl; Peter SCHULTE; Michael JOSWIG; Rainer KATTWINKEL